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12. Personality Disorders and Impulse-Control Disorders Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Rigid, inflexible, and maladaptive patterns of behavior or ways of relating to others, which ultimately become self-defeating because of their rigidity, are called ______ disorders. A. adjustment B. psychotic C. personality D. neurotic Answer: C 2. The close relationships between compulsive gambling and addictive disorders led to its reclassification as a type of _________ in DSM-5 that is called gambling disorder. A. mood disorder B. adjustment disorder C. personality disorder D. addictive disorder Answer: D 3. Personality disorders are ______. A. very treatable by psychotherapy B. very treatable by psychiatric medication C. very treatable by group therapy D. very resistant to change Answer: D 4. The traits involved in personality disorders usually become evident in ______. A. childhood B. adolescence C. middle adulthood D. late adulthood Answer: B 5. Which of the following are behavior characteristics that have been observed in children who were, as adults, diagnosed with a personality disorder? A. athleticism and popularity B. a history of learning disability C. disturbed conduct and immaturity D. divorced parents Answer: C 6. Which of the following is true about personality disorders? A. People with personality disorders often fail to see how their own behaviors are seriously disrupting their lives. B. People with personality disorders accept responsibility for the problems they have C. Personality disorders usually develop in late adulthood D. Personality disorders affect close to 50% of the population. Answer: A 7. Which of the following is true of people with personality disorders? A. They experience a good deal of personal discomfort as a result of their concerns and readily seek professional help on their own. B. Their behavior patterns are amenable to change. C. They do not generally perceive a need to change their behaviors. D. They generally relate well to others and are concerned about the impact of their behavior on others. Answer: C 8. People who have personality disorders tend to perceive their disturbed behavior or traits as ______. A. superfluous B. egocentric C. ego syntonic D. ego dystonic Answer: C 9. The term that refers to personality traits that are perceived as a natural part of oneself is ______. A. integral B. egocentric C. ego syntonic D. ego dystonic Answer: C 10. People who have anxiety or mood disorders tend to perceive their disturbed behaviors as ______. A. integral B. egocentric C. ego syntonic D. ego dystonic Answer: D 11. The term that refers to personality traits that are perceived as being separate or outside one's self-identity is ______. A. superfluous B. egocentric C. ego syntonic D. ego dystonic Answer: D 12. Using _________ terms, the DSM notes that people with personality disorders tend to perceive their traits as ego syntonic. A. cognitive B. sociological C. biological D. psychodynamic Answer: D 13. The DSM-5 groups personality disorders into ______ clusters. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: B 14. Which of the following is true? A. People with personality disorders often have other diagnosable psychological disorders. B. There are over 50 different kinds of personality disorders. C. People with personality disorder often have great insight into their problems. D. There are five clusters of personality disorders. Answer: A 15. The DSM lists ______ individual personality disorders. A. two B. six C. ten D. fourteen Answer: C 16. In the DSM listing of personality disorder clusters, people who are perceived as odd or eccentric would be listed under cluster ______. A. A B. B C. C D. D Answer: A 17. Which of the following is a DSM cluster A personality disorder? A. paranoid B. borderline C. antisocial D. avoidant Answer: A 18. In the DSM listing of personality disorder clusters, people whose behavior is overly dramatic, emotional, or erratic would be listed under cluster ______. A. A B. B C. C D. D Answer: B 19. Which of the following is a DSM cluster B personality disorder? A. avoidant B. dependent C. schizoid D. antisocial Answer: D 20. Which of the following diagnoses is assigned to people whose behavior is characterized as overly dramatic, emotional, or erratic? A. schizoid B. passive-aggressive C. sociophobic D. narcissistic Answer: D 21. In the DSM listing of personality disorder clusters, people who often appear anxious or fearful in their behavior are listed under cluster ______. A. A B. B C. C D. D Answer: C 22. Which of the following is a DSM cluster C personality disorder? A. schizotypal B. avoidant C. histrionic D. antisocial Answer: B 23. Which of the following diagnoses would be given to an individual who appears anxious or fearful? A. dependent B. borderline C. antisocial D. paranoid Answer: A 24. The defining trait of ______ personality disorder is pervasive suspiciousness. A. antisocial B. paranoid C. schizoid D. avoidant Answer: B 25. The text presented a case of an 85-year-old retired businessman who had a paranoid personality disorder. He would confide in ______. A. no one B. his doctor C. his wife D. his minister Answer: C 26. People who hold grudges, have few friends, suspect their spouses of infidelity (without evidence to back up their suspicions) and are unlikely to confide in others have characteristics of a(n) ______ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. antisocial C. schizoid D. paranoid Answer: D 27. Mary is overly sensitive to criticism. She takes offense at the most trivial real or imagined slight. She does not trust others, is easily angered, and holds grudges. She has few friends and is extremely jealous and possessive of her one boyfriend, whom she is always accusing of "playing around" on her. She is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. paranoid C. histrionic D. avoidant Answer: B 28. Although suspicious of co-workers, people with _________ personality disorder can _________. A. paranoid; generally maintain employment B. dependent; work in a sheltered setting C. paranoid; have trouble with co-workers and thus have difficulty remaining employed D. obsessive-compulsive; generally work in isolation in highly technical jobs Answer: A 29. People with paranoid personality disorder are ______ to seek treatment for themselves and are more often ______. A. unlikely, men than women B. likely, men than women C. unlikely, women than men D. likely, women than men Answer: A 30. Social isolation and a lack of social interest in others characterizes ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. schizotypal C. narcissistic D. avoidant Answer: A 31. Sheila is a "loner." She has little interest in social relationships and appears distant and aloof. She rarely shows any emotional expression and seems indifferent to praise and criticism. She is usually wrapped up in abstract ideas and has little time for, or interest in, people. She is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. schizotypal B. schizoid C. narcissistic D. avoidant Answer: B 32. People with schizoid personality disorders tend to be socially ______. A. anxious B. aloof C. paranoid D. active Answer: B 33. Men with schizoid personality disorder rarely ______. A. drink alcohol B. date or marry C. attending sports events D. like animals Answer: B 34. Alan puts on a superficial display of social aloofness, but deep inside he harbors deep curiosities about other people, and exquisite sensitivity. He wishes for love that he cannot openly express, and often expresses his sensitivity in deep feelings and affection for animals rather than people. He is typical of someone with ______ personality disorder. A. schizotypal B. dependent C. borderline D. schizoid Answer: D 35. A person who lacks interest in social relationships and rarely experiences strong emotions has some of the characteristics of a ______ personality disorder. A. borderline B. schizoid C. narcissistic D. histrionic Answer: B 36. Akhtar theorizes that although people with schizoid personality disorder are aloof and show little appetite for sex, they may be attracted to ______. A. gambling B. visiting prostitutes C pornography D. stalking celebrities Answer: C 37. People whose behaviors and mannerisms are particularly odd, but not severe enough to merit a diagnosis of schizophrenia, may be suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. schizotypal C. schizoaffective D. histrionic Answer: B 38. Schizotypal personality is believed to affect about ______ percent of the general population. A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 7 Answer: B 39. People with schizotypal personality disorders tend to be socially ______. A. anxious B. aloof C. paranoid D. active Answer: A 40. Katie is a little "different" than others. She often feels as if deceased relatives are in the room with her. She believes she possesses a "sixth sense" by which she can read people's minds and foretell the future. She talks to herself frequently and often speaks to others in a meandering, vague, although not incoherent manner. She is often unkempt, believes people are talking about her, and tends to be socially aloof. She is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. avoidant C. histrionic D. schizotypal Answer: D 41. Which of the following people is most likely to have schizotypal personality disorder? A. an Anglo American male B. an Anglo American female C. an African American male D. a Hispanic American female Answer: C 42. Which of the following is true about people with schizotypal personality? A. They have great interest in others. B. Their faces usually show great emotion. C. They experience unusual perceptions or illusions. D. Use of language is comprehensible. Answer: C 43. Ideas of reference and “magical thinking” characterize the thought processes of people with ______ personality disorder. A. paranoid B. schizotypal C. schizoid D. narcissistic Answer: B 44. Schizotypal personality disorder shares a common genetic basis with ______. A. paranoia B. major affective disorder C. schizophrenia D. an adjustment disorder Answer: C 45. ______ people diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder go on to develop schizophrenia. A. Relatively few B. About half C. A great majority D. Virtually all Answer: A 46. Cindy has been suspicious of her coworkers lately and suspects that they are talking about her (although there is no evidence to support her suspicions). Cindy is convinced her suspicions are true because she has a "sixth sense" about this. Cindy's behavior is characteristic of a(n) ______ personality disorder. A. schizotypal B. schizoid C. avoidant D. narcissistic Answer: A 47. Brain abnormalities found in people with schizotypal personality disorder are similar to those found in people with ______. A. bipolar disorder B. posttraumatic stress disorder C. generalized anxiety disorder D. schizophrenia Answer: D 48. Cosmo Kramer, a popular character on the Seinfeld television show, displayed unusual mannerisms, had a very strange haircut, and engaged in weird behaviors like bathing in butter and pretending to host a television talk show in his apartment. These eccentricities could be common for someone with a ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. schizotypal C. obsessive-compulsive D. borderline Answer: B 49. People with ______ personality disorder persistently disregard the rights and feelings of others and feel little or no remorse for their actions. A. paranoid B. borderline C. narcissistic D. antisocial Answer: D 50. To people who know her casually, Charlotte is very charming; but underneath her superficial charm is a monster. She is impulsive, self-centered, insensitive to others, irresponsible, has little anxiety, and feels no guilt or remorse when she hurts someone else. She blames others for her problems and rarely learns from her mistakes. She sees others as tools to be used to meet her own needs. While she can appear to be the nicest person in the world, if you get in her way, watch out! Charlotte is most likely manifesting ______ personality disorder. A. paranoid B. narcissistic C. sadistic D. antisocial Answer: D 51. People with antisocial personality disorder show ______ levels of anxiety when faced with threatening situations and punishment has ______ effect on their behavior. A. low, little B. low, a powerful C. high, little D. high, a powerful Answer: A 52. The terms “guiltless,” “irresponsible” and “impulsive” best describe someone with ______ personality disorder. A. narcissistic B. antisocial C. obsessive-compulsive D. histrionic Answer: B 53. About ______ percent of men in the United States could be classified as having met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder at some point in their lives. A. 2 B. 6 C. 9 D. 20 Answer: B 54. About ______ percent of women in the United States could be classified as having met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder at some point in their lives. A. 1 B. 3 C. 6 D. 9 Answer: A 55. Men are ______ likely than women to have antisocial personality disorder. A. less B. equally as C. three to six times as D. seven to ten times as Answer: C 56. To receive a diagnosis of "antisocial personality disorder," a person must be at least ______ years of age. A. 12 B. 15 C. 18 D. 21 Answer: C 57. Children under the age of 18 years who exhibit antisocial behavior patterns may be suffering from ______ disorder. A. psychopathic B. conduct C. attention-deficit D. maturity Answer: B 58. The terms psychopath and sociopath refer to ______ personality disorder. A. sadistic B. paranoid C. antisocial D. schizotypal Answer: C 59. Ted Bundy, a serial killer, is a classic example of someone with a(n) ______ personality disorder. A. narcissistic B. paranoid C. antisocial D. schizotypal Answer: C 60. For an individual with antisocial personality disorder, the antisocial and criminal behavior, but not the personality traits, often disappears by the time the person reaches age ______. A. 25 B. 40 C. 55 D. 70 Answer: B 61. The antisocial and criminal behaviors associated with antisocial personality disorder ______. A. tend to disappear by the time the person reaches age 40 B. tend to disappear and reappear at different ages throughout the person's life C. tend to remain stable until the person reaches age 60, then they gradually disappear D. tend to remain stable throughout life, often even increasing with age Answer: A 62. The underlying personality traits associated with antisocial personality disorder tend to ______. A. disappear by the time the person reaches age 40 B. disappear and reappear at different ages throughout the person's life C. remain stable until the person reaches age 60, then they gradually disappear D. remain stable throughout life, often even increasing with age Answer: D 63. The personality disorder that has been most extensively studied by scholars and researchers is ______ personality disorder. A. narcissistic B. paranoid C. antisocial D. borderline Answer: C 64. Antisocial personality is ______ socioeconomic classes. A. found in similar frequencies among all B. most commonly found in the lower C. most commonly found in the middle D. most commonly found in the upper Answer: B 65. Researchers now believe psychopathic personality is composed of ______ somewhat independent dimensions. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: A 66. A personality dimension and a behavioral dimension are the two components of ______ personality disorder. A. narcissistic B. Histrionic C. borderline D. antisocial Answer: D 67. A cardinal feature of ______ personality disorder is lack of remorse. A. antisocial B. borderline C. narcissistic D. paranoid Answer: A 68. About ______ of prison inmates could be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. A. 25 percent B. 50 percent C. 75 percent D. 100 percent Answer: B 69. Which of the following is one of the psychological features of antisocial personality disorder listed in Cleckley’s clinical profile? A. self-centeredness B. curiosity C. delusional thinking D. ambition Answer: A 70. In 1941, ______ described the characteristics of today’s antisocial personality disorder. A. Theodore Reik B. Lawrence Kubler C. David Elkind D. Hervey Cleckley Answer: D 71. Neumann & Hare (2008) identified four basic factors or dimensions for measuring psychopathic traits. Which of the following traits identified by these researchers is characterized by superficiality, grandiosity, and deceitfulness? A. the narcissism factor B. the antisocial factor C. the interpersonal factor D. the lifestyle factor Answer: C 72. Instability in self-image, relationships, mood, and a lack of control over impulses are the hallmark features of ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. schizotypal C. antisocial D. borderline Answer: D 73. Liz is uncertain about her goals, values, loyalties, career, and friends. Sometimes she is not even certain if she is heterosexual or a lesbian. She feels bored, empty, and is terrified of being alone. She clings desperately to her friends because of her fear of abandonment. However, her clinging behavior and her oversensitivity to any sign of rejection often pushes away those friends. Liz is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. borderline C. histrionic D. dependent Answer: B 74. A study comparing psychopathic criminal offenders with non-psychopathic offenders found hat psychopathic offenders _______. A. were no different than non-psychopathic offenders in the types of crimes they committed B. committed far more cold-blooded murders than non-psychopathic offenders C. committed far more “crimes of passion” than non-psychopathic offenders D. committed far more impulsive murders than non-psychopathic offenders Answer: B 75. The Canadian researchers, Woodworth and Porter (2002), suggest that psychopathic offenders do not necessarily act-out impulsively but instead may engage in ___________ by constraining their impulses to perform such an extreme act as murder. A. calculated impulsivity B. organized aggression C. selective impulsivity D. selective aggression Answer: C 76. Researchers have found that about ______ percent of the homicides committed by non-psychopathic murderers were “cold-blooded” murders. A. 28 B. 48 C. 68 D. 88 Answer: B 77. Researchers have found that the majority of murders committed by psychopathic murderers were ______. A. crimes of passion B. impulsive and not well-planned or thought out ahead of time C. accidental, and not intentional D. cold-blooded Answer: D 78. Murders that are not cold-blooded and are committed more by non-psychopathic criminals have been labelled ______. A. “gun for hire” B. “crimes of passion” C. “revenge crimes” D. “drugs or money” Answer: B 79. The cold-blooded murder style has been labelled ______. A. “crime of passion” B. “selective impulsivity” C. “winner takes all” D. “who gives a damn” Answer: B 80. Marilyn Monroe and Lawrence of Arabia are two people with personality characteristics similar to those of ______ personality disorder. A. avoidant B. dependent C. borderline D. narcissistic Answer: C 81. Borderline personality disorder is estimated to occur in about ______ percent of the population. A. 5 to 1 B. 2 to 6 C. 6 to 10 D. 12 to 16 Answer: B 82. Based on the demographic listed below, which of the following individuals would have a higher probably of being diagnosed with borderline personality disorder? A. a female Caucasian American B. a female African American C. a female Latino American D. a male Caucasian American Answer: C 83. Which of the following characteristics would someone with borderline personality disorder be likely to exhibit? A. cannot tolerate being alone B. enjoys solitary time C. consistent in their feelings toward other individuals D. very little intensity in their feelings toward others or in their feelings about others Answer: A 84. Which of the following is least likely to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder? A. a White American male B. a Hispanic American male C. an African American female D. a White American female Answer: A 85. The term "borderline personality" was originally used to refer to individuals whose behavior appeared to be on the border between ______. A. introverted and extroverted B. heterosexual and homosexual C. passive and aggressive D. neurotic and psychotic Answer: D 86. Sally cannot tolerate being alone. In an effort to avoid feelings of abandonment, she clings to her friends and becomes demanding, which results in her friends pulling away. Sally then feels rejected and becomes enraged which strains her friendships even further. This is a common pattern for people who have ______ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. borderline C. narcissistic D. histrionic Answer: B 87. Alternating between extremes of adulation (when their needs are met) and loathing (when they feel scorned) is characteristic of people who are diagnosed with ______ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. narcissistic C. borderline D. antisocial Answer: C 88. Spending sprees, gambling, drug abuse, engaging in unsafe sexual activity, reckless driving, and impulsive acts of self-mutilation are self-destructive behaviors that are characteristic of ______ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. narcissistic C. antisocial D. borderline Answer: D 89. Which of the following emotions is MOST characteristic of a person diagnosed with borderline personality disorder? A. shallow B. angry C. callous D. jovial Answer: B 90. The impulsivity in people with borderline personality disorder often ______ as they age. A. changes from self-mutilation to gambling and spending sprees B. increases C. decreases B. switches from self-mutilation to harming others Answer: C 91. Self-inflicted cutting is a characteristic of people with ______ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. narcissistic C. borderline D. antisocial Answer: C 92. People with ______ personality disorder have difficulty controlling anger and are prone to fights or smashing things. A. histrionic B. narcissistic C. borderline D. antisocial Answer: C 93. Impulsive and unpredictable behavior that is self-destructive is a feature of ______ personality disorder. A. borderline B. narcissistic C. histrionic D. antisocial Answer: A 94. A person with borderline personality disorder may have all but which one of the following behaviors? A. unsafe sexual activity B. binge eating C. reckless driving D. lack of remorse Answer: D 95. Emotional instability is a central characteristic of ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. paranoid C. borderline D. obsessive-compulsive Answer: C 96. A therapist would be likely to find a background of childhood troubles, including parental neglect , harsh punishment, and witnessing of violence in people with ______ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. narcissistic C. borderline D. antisocial Answer: C 97. People who show excessive emotionality, have excessive needs for praise, reassurance, and approval, and who constantly need to be the center of attention are most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. histrionic C. borderline D. narcissistic Answer: B 98. Molly is a born actress. She is always the center of attention. She is highly dramatic, overemotional, self-centered, spoiled, and inconsiderate of her friends. While she can appear charming, and is often flirtatious and seductive, she has no deep feelings toward anyone and has never had a truly intimate relationship. She has poor self-esteem and tries to impress others as a means of improving her own self-worth. She is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. histrionic B. dependent C. narcissistic D. antisocial Answer: A 99. Females are more likely than males to be diagnosed with ______ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. paranoid C. narcissistic D. histrionic Answer: D 100. Alan puts on a front of being very flirtatious and seductive, and he typically draws attention to himself by dressing in an overly "macho" manner. He hopes to someday be a male model or an actor, but he is plagued by inner doubts and insecurities himself, despite his successful image, and he constantly feels the need to impress others to boost his own ego and self-image. His behavior is typical of someone with ______ personality disorder. A. narcissistic B. histrionic C. borderline D. schizotypal Answer: B 101. Rachel never enters a room, she “arrives.” She dresses in a provocative manner and has such an overblown, melodramatic way of reacting to everything that she is impossible to ignore. She is self-centred and demands instant gratification. She bores easily and is constantly drawn to the newest style or fad. Her behavior is typical of someone with ______ personality disorder. A. narcissistic B. histrionic C. borderline D. schizotypal Answer: B 102. An appropriate college major for someone with histrionic personality disorder would be ______. A. psychology B. physics C. architecture D. theatre Answer: D 103. The central feature of ______ personality disorder is an inflated or grandiose sense of oneself. A. dependent B. histrionic C. narcissistic D. borderline Answer: C 104. Maya loves to brag about her accomplishments. While she is not overly dramatic or flirtatious, she enjoys being the center of attention. She is self-absorbed and lacks empathy for others. She is successful in her career and very proud of her accomplishments. Maya just wishes that others would show more appreciation of how wonderful she is. She is preoccupied with fantasies of future success, power, and recognition. Maya is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. histrionic C. narcissistic D. borderline Answer: C 105. Compared to people with histrionic personality disorder, those with narcissistic personality disorder have a ______ grandiose view of themselves and are ______ melodramatic. A. less, less B. more, less C. less, more D. more, more Answer: B 106. People with narcissistic personality disorder tend to have _______ relationships than people with borderline personality disorder. A. more stable B. less stable C. more romantic D. fewer close family Answer: A 107. More than half of people diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder are ______. A. women B. men C. late adolescents or young adults D. unsuccessful Answer: B 108. Joe is a “workaholic” primarily because of the success that accompanies working hard. He is not much interested in the sense of pride or accomplishment in a job “well-done,” nor the money. His only concern is the attention and adulation he receives. His behavior is most ypical of someone with ______ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. histrionic C. narcissistic D. borderline Answer: C 109. Which of the following is true of narcissistic personalities? A. They are rarely envious of others. B. They are driven by the desire to accumulate wealth rather than by the praise or adulation that comes with success. C. They are caring and deep feeling and often sacrifice their own needs to that of others. D. They are extremely sensitive to criticism. Answer: D 110. As in the text’s case of Bill, an emotional factor that underlies narcissistic personality disorder is ______. A. grandiosity B. confidence C. depression D. inadequacy Answer: D 111. People who are so terrified of criticism or rejection that they are generally unwilling to enter relationships are suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. paranoid C. antisocial D. avoidant Answer: D 112. How many people out of the general population are estimated to have avoidant personality disorder? A. 0.5 percent B. 2.4 percent C. 6.4 percent D. 8.4 percent Answer: A 113. Avoidant personality disorder is ______ as common in men as in women. A. one-quarter B. one-half C. equally D. twice Answer: C 114. Alexis wants to be involved with people. In fact, she truly loves people and has strong needs for affection and acceptance. But, her fears of rejection and public embarrassment prevent her from reaching out to those around her. Instead, she sticks to her routine and refuses to take any risks or try anything new. Alexis is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. avoidant C. borderline D. histrionic Answer: B 115. Although schizoid and avoidant personality disorders both display social withdrawal, those with avoidant personality disorder, unlike those with schizoid personality disorder, ______. A. are angry all of the time, thus keeping people at a distance B. feel warmth to other people C. enjoy performing in public D. do not mind working in groups or teams Answer: B 116. There is a good deal of overlap between social anxiety disorder and ______ personality disorder. A. schizoid B. dependent C. antisocial D. avoidant Answer: D 117. Avoidant personality disorder is often comorbid (co-occurring) with _________. A. posttraumatic stress disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. social anxiety disorder D. antisocial personality Answer: C 118. People who are overly reliant on others to give them advice or make decisions for them are suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. avoidant C. schizotypal D. histrionic Answer: A 119. Kay is a thoughtful and considerate person but has a difficult time making decisions on her own. She relies on her one best friend, someone she has known since childhood, to give her advice on virtually every decision she makes. Sometimes Kay even asks the friend to make the decision for her. At work, she holds a position far below her potential and has refused several promotion opportunities. She is most likely suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. avoidant C. schizotypal D. histrionic Answer: A 120. A dependent man might prefer to marry a(n) ______ wife. A. submissive B. exhibitionistic C. dominant D. quiet Answer: C 121. ______ personality disorder is diagnosed more in women than in men. A. Narcissistic B. Avoidant C. Schizoid D. Dependent Answer: D 122. Dependent personality disorder has been linked to which of the following? A. schizophrenia B. ulcers C. panic disorder D. obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: B 123. Dependent personality disorder has been linked to which of the following physical disorders? A. asthma B. migraine headaches C. ulcers and colitis D. epilepsy Answer: C 124. There appears to be a link between dependent personality disorder and ______ behavior problems. A. phallic B. anal C. oral D. genital Answer: C 125. Which of the following is true of people suffering from dependent personality disorder? A. Dependent personality disorder is diagnosed more frequently in men than in women. B. Dependent personality disorder is linked to what psychodynamic theorists call "anal" behavior problems. C. Dependent personality disorder is linked to physiological problems such as asthma and migraine headache. D. Dependent personalities often attribute their problems to physical, rather than emotional, causes and seek advice from medical experts. Answer: D 126. The defining features of ______ personality disorder are traits such as perfectionism, rigidity, being overly meticulous, and having difficulties coping with ambiguity. A. histrionic B. paranoid C. obsessive-compulsive D. avoidant Answer: C 127. Meg is a perfectionist. She is so preoccupied with perfection she almost never gets things done on time. She procrastinates and focuses so closely on trivial details that she often fails to see how the details fit into the bigger picture. Socially, she rarely goes out because she is too busy working. She often won't make choices because she fears making the wrong choice. Meg's life is dominated by rigid expectations and goals. Meg is suffering from ______ personality disorder. A. schizotypal B. avoidant C. obsessive-compulsive D. histrionic Answer: C 128. What type of work habits would be expected with someone with obsessive-compulsive disorder? A. disorganized and punctual B. perfectionistic and orderly C. punctual and orderly D. comfortable dealing with ambiguity Answer: B 129. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is ______ as common in men as in women. A. one-quarter B. one-half C. equally D. twice Answer: D 130. A person who manifests features of an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder but who also has obsessions and compulsions would be diagnosed with ______ via the DSM-5. A. only a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder B. only a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder C. a diagnosis of both obsessive-compulsive anxiety and personality disorder D. a diagnosis of cyclothymia Answer: C 131. People with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and no anxiety disorder usually would ______. A. not experience outright obsessions or compulsions B. experience outright obsessions but not display compulsions C. experience both outright obsessions and compulsions D. also have a diagnosis of major depressive disorder Answer: A 132. Failing to “see the forest for the tress” is typical of someone with ______ personality disorder. A. antisocial B. obsessive-compulsive C. avoidant D. borderline Answer: B 133. The phrase “a place for everything, and everything in its place” best characterizes people with ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. borderline C. histrionic D. obsessive-compulsive Answer: D 134. The DSM adopts a ____________ model for classifying abnormal behavior patterns into specific diagnostic categories based on particular diagnostic criteria. A. dimensional B. categorical C. multidimensional D. spectrum Answer: B 135. The _____________ model depicts personality disorders as maladaptive and extreme variations of personality dimensions found within the general population. A. dimensional B. categorical C. dichotomous D. all-or-none Answer: A 136. Which of the following is one of the five basic traits of personality as defined by the Five-Factor Model of personality? A. Inhibition B. Psychoticism C. Expressiveness D. Agreeableness Answer: D 137. Which of the following best describes the change that developers of the DSM are considering to diagnose personality disorders? A. a hybrid dimensional-categorical model B. a categorical model C. a completely dimensional model D. complete elimination of personality disorders from the DSM Answer: A 138. One limitation of the dimensional model is that it ________ to determine just how extreme a trait needs to be for it to be deemed clinically meaningful. A. lacks clear guidelines for setting cut-off scores B. does not use personality scales C. does not utilize a quantitative D. does not rely on the views of experts Answer: A 139. Which of the following is a problem with the current system for the classification of personality disorders? A. There is difficulty in distinguishing between normal and abnormal behaviors. B. There is not enough overlap among the various categories of personality disorders. C. The present classification system makes a clear distinction between normal and abnormal variations in personality. D. Some of the categories of personality disorders have little scientific data to support them. Answer: A 140. The confusion of labels with explanations in diagnosing people with personality disorders often results in _______. A. cessation of research to find the causes of various disorders B. more widespread reliance on inductive reasoning in diagnosis C. circular reasoning D. more widespread reliance on deductive reasoning in diagnosis Answer: C 141. Which of the following statements is true? A. Personality disorders are convenient labels for identifying common patterns of ineffective and ultimately self-defeating behavior. B. The labels used to identify personality disorders have been useful in helping to explain their causes. C. Clinicians do not appear to have a gender bias in diagnosing some personality disorders now that there is a dimensional component to diagnoses. D. Many of the traits used to describe personality disorders cannot be consistently observed. Answer: A 142. There are personality disorders for ______. A. neither stereotypically masculine nor stereotypically feminine behavior B. stereotypically masculine but not stereotypically feminine behavior C. stereotypically feminine but not stereotypically masculine behavior D. both stereotypically masculine and stereotypically feminine behavior Answer: C 143. The concept of ______ personality seems to be a caricature of the traditional stereotype of the feminine personality. A. narcissistic B. dependent C. borderline D. histrionic Answer: D 144. Along with histrionic personality disorder, ______ personality disorder may be over diagnosed in women because the associated pattern of behavior is generally more common in women than in men. A. narcissistic B. dependent C. borderline D. schizotypal Answer: B 145. Clinicians show bias in diagnosing men with ______ personality disorder and women with histrionic personality disorder. A. paranoid B. antisocial C. obsessive-compulsive D. schizoid Answer: B 146. A research study showed gender bias among clinicians in tending to identify a case description of a(n) personality disorder as female. A. avoidant B. narcissistic C. obsessive-compulsive D. borderline Answer: D 147. Freud believed that most personality disorders have their roots in the ______. A. collective unconscious B. the Oedipus complex C. anal stage of development D. development of the id Answer: B 148. According to Freud, proper resolution of the Oedipus complex is represented by the development of the ______. A. id B. ego C. superego D. persona Answer: C 149. Freud has been criticized for failing to account for the ______. A. emotional development of both males and females B. moral development of males C. moral development of females D. moral development of both males and females Answer: C 150. Recent (post-Freudian) psychodynamic theories have focused on the age period of ______ as he time period when most personality disorders begin. A. birth to 18 months B. 18 months to 3 years C. 3 to 5 years D. 5 to 9 years Answer: B 151. Recent advances in psychodynamic theory focus on the development of ______. A. the superego B. the id C. the collective unconscious D. the sense of self Answer: D 152. Hans Kohut's views on the development of personality are labelled ______ psychology. A. personal B. self C. individual D. client-centred Answer: B 153. Kohut believed that ______ lay beneath the inflated veneers of narcissistic personalities. A. a self-image that had never been seriously challenged B. an overpowering ego combined with a weak superego C. a self-image riddled with feelings of inadequacy D. an overpowering id combined with a weak superego Answer: C 154. According to Kohut, childhood narcissism ______. A. is normal and sets the stage for healthy development when combined with parental empathy B. is normal and sets the stage for healthy development when confronted with strict discipline from parents C. is pathological and must be dealt with early and forcefully D. is pathological if it involves the belief that "the world revolves around me" Answer: A 155. According to Kohut, lack of ______ may set the stage for pathological narcissism in adulthood. A. a structured environment B. consistent discipline during toilet training C. parental empathy and support D. idealistic parental behavior Answer: C 156. According to Kohut, lack of parental empathy and support may set the stage for pathological ______ in adulthood. A. paranoia B. insecurity C. compulsiveness D. narcissism Answer: D 157. Albert suffers from narcissistic personality disorder. His therapist says that his problem is due to a lack of parental empathy and support during his normal childhood narcissism. This conceptualization of Albert's problem is most like that of ______. A. Kohut B. Kernberg C. Mahler D. Millon Answer: A 158. The idea that borderline personality disorder stems from a pre-Oedipal failure to develop a sense of constancy and unity in one's image of the self and other was proposed by ______. A. Kohut B. Kernberg C. Mahler D. Millon Answer: B 159. The concept "splitting" is central to ______ psychodynamic theory of borderline personality. A. Kohut's B. Kernberg's C. Mahler’s D. Millon's Answer: B 160. Kernberg used the concept of "splitting" to explain ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. avoidant C. histrionic D. borderline Answer: D 161. According to Kernberg, children who fail to synthesize contradictory images of good and bad in themselves and others are likely to have tendencies toward ______. A. reactivity B. splitting C. individuation D. schizotypal traits Answer: B 162. Jason suffers from borderline personality disorder. His therapist says that his problems are due to a failure to develop a consistent self-image and splitting. This conceptualization of Jason's problem is most like that of ______. A. Kohut B. Kernberg C. Mahler D. Millon Answer: B 163. According to Mahler, infants develop a(n) ______ attachment to their mothers. A. reciprocal B. ego-syntonic C. symbiotic D. ego-dystonic Answer: C 164. A state of "oneness" in which a child's identity is fused with that of the mother is called ______. A. symbiosis B. synthesis C. identity diffusion D. reciprocation Answer: A 165. The concept of separation-individuation was developed by ______. A. Kohut B. Kernberg C. Mahler D. Millon Answer: C 166. Mahler used the concept of separation-individuation to explain ______ personality disorder. A. dependent B. avoidant C. histrionic D. borderline Answer: D 167. Reginald suffers from borderline personality disorder. His therapist tells him that his problem stems from a failure of separation-individuation while he was growing up. His therapist's conceptualization of the problem is most like that of ______. A. Kohut B. Kernberg C. Mahler D. Millon Answer: C 168. Which of the following is true? A. Psychodynamic theory has focused too much on direct observations of children in its explanations of personality disorders. B. Permissive parenting during the individual’s childhood is linked to the later development of personality disorders. C. Failure for the parents to be critical of small imperfections of the child during childhood plays a critical role in the development of personality disorders. D. The ambivalences that characterize adult borderline personality may bear only a superficial relationship to those of children’s during separation-individuation. Answer: D 169. According to Millon, excessive parental discipline may lead to ______ behaviors. A. paranoid B. histrionic C. obsessive-compulsive D. avoidant Answer: C 170. Nathan suffers from dependent personality disorder. If learning theorists are correct, his problem arises from ______ when he was a child. A. too much parental attention and reinforcement attached to his physical appearance B. excessive parental control and discipline C. lack of reward or encouragement, or even discouragement, for exploratory behavior D. sibling rivalry combined with attention-seeking, emotional parents Answer: C 171. Nicholas suffers from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. If learning theorists are correct, his problem arises from _______ when he was a child. A. too much parental attention and reinforcement attached to his physical appearance B. excessive parental control and discipline C. lack of reward or encouragement for exploratory behavior D. sibling rivalry combined with attention-seeking, emotional parents Answer: B 172. Ryan suffers from histrionic personality disorder. If learning theorists are correct, his problem arises from ______ when he was a child. A. consistently attentive parents B. excessive parental control and discipline C. lack of reward or encouragement for exploratory behavior D. sibling rivalry combined with parents who are dramatic and attention-seeking Answer: D 173. Adam suffers from antisocial personality disorder. If social-learning theorists are correct, his problem arises from _______ when he was a child. A. a complete lack of discipline and punishment B. excessive parental control and discipline C. lack of reward or encouragement for exploratory behavior D. lack of consistency and predictability in his learning experiences Answer: D 174. The number of people with antisocial personalities who attain executive positions in business is ______. A. so small that it is virtually immeasurable B. much smaller than the number in prison or in society at large C. about the same as the number in prison and in society at large D. much greater than the number in prison or in society at large Answer: D 175. Identify the social-cognitive theorist who asserted that children learn aggressive behavior by observing the aggressive behavior of others, including aggression displayed on television. A. Theodore Millon B. Albert Bandura C. Leonard Ullmann D. Paul Meehl Answer: B 176. Which of the following is true of people and aggressive behaviors? A. Children and adults display aggressive behaviors in a mechanical way. B. Children tend to develop aggressive behaviors spontaneously, indicating that aggressive endencies are genetically inherited. C. People will imitate aggressive behaviors when they are provoked, even if they know they will be punished for it. D. People will imitate aggressive behaviors when they are provoked and believe they are more likely to be rewarded than punished for it. Answer: D 177. Which of the following is true? A. Antisocial individuals rarely have difficulty reading emotions in other people’s faces. B. Antisocial adolescents incorrectly interpret other people’s behavior as threatening when it is not. C. Antisocial individuals often lash out in anger because they place too much value in what others expect and resent people expecting so much from them. D. Antisocial individuals have no particular difficulty recognizing the emotion of fear in other people’s speech or vocal expression. Answer: B 178. In comparing psychodynamic and learning theories about personality disorders, ______. A. they are both grounded in theory rather than direct observations of family interactions hat presaged the development of personality disorders B. psychodynamic theory is grounded in theory but learning theories are grounded in direct observation C. learning theories are grounded in theory but psychodynamic theory is grounded in direct observation D. they are both grounded in direct observations of family interactions that presaged the development of personality disorders Answer: A 179. Researchers have found that people with borderline personality disorder remember their parents as significantly more _______. A. affectionate and smothering B. controlling and less caring C. permissive and inconsistent D. confused and inconsistent Answer: B 180. When borderline personalities recall their earliest memories, they are more likely to paint significant others as _______. A. evil B. affectionate C. distant D. strict Answer: A 181. Recent research has uncovered a link between borderline personality disorder and ______. A. a family history of schizophrenia B. being adopted at or near birth C. childhood abuse or neglect D. social rejection in adolescence Answer: C 182. Family factors such as ______ have been implicated in the development of dependent personality disorder. A. a weak or absent parent B. lack of emotional bonding between parents and children C. overprotectiveness and authoritarianism by parents D. permissiveness and neglectful parenting Answer: C 183. Researchers believe that ______ personality disorder often emerges within a strongly moralistic and rigid family environment, which does not permit even minor deviations from expected roles or behaviors. A. avoidant B. antisocial C. borderline D. obsessive-compulsive Answer: D 184. Which of the following people is most likely to have experienced parental neglect or rejection? A. a person with avoidant personality disorder B. a person with antisocial personality disorder C. a person with schizotypal personality disorder D. a person with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Answer: B 185. The McCords have conducted research relating early childhood ______ and subsequent delinquency. A. fear experiences B. parental rejection C. failure experiences D. sexual experiences Answer: B 186. According to the family perspective, the key factor(s) in the development of antisocial personality is (are) ______. A. parental rejection, parental neglect, and failure of the parents to show love to the child B. extreme strictness in parental rules of conduct combined with unduly harsh punishments C. parental overprotectiveness and "smothering" leading to rejection of parental values by the child D. spoiling the child and excessive permissiveness by the parents in their enforcement of conduct rules Answer: A 187. In which of the following personality disorders does research suggest genetic factors appear to play a role? A. schizoid B. paranoid C. schizotypal D. dependent Answer: C 188. In which of the following personality disorders does research suggest genetic factors appear to play a role? A. narcissistic B. antisocial C. histrionic D. avoidant Answer: B 189. In addition to genetic contributions to personality traits, your text mentions which of the following factors as also playing a strong contributing role to the development of these traits? A. nutrition B. family dysfunction C. bicultural environment D. having working class parents Answer: B 190. Of the following personality disorders, which one appears to run in families? A. avoidant B. borderline C. obsessive-compulsive D. dependent Answer: A 191. According to the textbook, research suggests that _________ of people with personality disorders, such as antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline types, are more likely to be diagnosed with these disorders themselves than are members of the general population. A. parents and siblings B. co-workers C. friends D. roommates Answer: A 192. Which of the following statements is true? A. Research shows that genetics alone strongly influences the risk of a person developing an antisocial personality disorder. B. Research shows that both genetics and environmental factors strongly influence the risk of a person developing an antisocial personality disorder. C. Research shows that environmental factors alone strongly influence the risk of a person developing an antisocial personality disorder. D. Research shows that the factors leading to the development of an antisocial personality disorder are unknown. Answer: B 193. Threats of punishment fail to deter antisocial personalities because of ______. A. high participatory anxiety B. high levels of projected anger C. low anticipatory anxiety D. low levels of self-awareness Answer: C 194. Hare and other subsequent researchers have found that people with ______ personality disorder have lower galvanic skin responses when expecting pain than normal. A. antisocial B. borderline C. avoidant D. schizoid Answer: A 195. Many researchers believe that people with antisocial personalities suffer from an ______. A. under responsive central nervous system B. overresponsive central nervous system C. under responsive autonomic nervous system D. overresponsive autonomic nervous system Answer: C 196. Evidence supports the notion that people with antisocial personality disorder have ______ threshold of stimulation. A. no B. a lower-than-normal C. a normal D. a higher-than-normal Answer: D 197. People with antisocial or psychopathic personalities appear to have ________ cravings for stimulation compared to others. A. no B. decreased C. equivalent D. exaggerated Answer: D 198. Brain imaging links borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality to dysfunctions in the __________. A. prefrontal cortex B. temporal lobe C. occipital lobe D. parietal lobe Answer: A 199. Brain imaging links borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder to dysfunctions in parts of the brain involved in ____________. A. regulating emotions and restraining impulsive behaviours B. regulating hunger and thirst C. specific aspects of sleep and dreaming D. learning and memorizing new material Answer: A 200. Areas of the brain most directly implicated in borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder are the prefrontal cortex and deeper brain structures in the ________. A. limbic system B. corpus callosum C. cerebellum D. occipital lobe Answer: A 201. Abnormalities in brain circuitry that connects the amygdala with the prefrontal cortex may help explain difficulties with ____ that we see in many people with borderline personality and antisocial personality disorders. A. impulse control problems B. memory problems C. increased need for sleep D. weight gain Answer: A 202. Martin Zuckerman uses the term sensation seeker to describe people with a(n) __________. A. strong need to use stimulating substances such as caffeine or nicotine B. high need for conflict and novelty in their relationships with others C. inability to remain in a monogamous relationship D. high need for arousal and constant stimulation Answer: D 203. Which personality disorders were the most frequently diagnosed in international populations through the International Personality Disorder Examination? A. antisocial and schizotypal B. dependent and histrionic C. borderline and avoidant D. obsessive compulsive and schizoid Answer: C 204. Which of the following statements is true regarding personality disorders? A. People with personality disorders view their self-defeating behaviours as natural parts of themselves. B. People with personality disorders condemn themselves for their problems. C. People with personality disorders tend to remain in long term therapy. D. People with personality disorders take responsibility for their own behavior. Answer: A 205. Which of the following is true regarding personality disorders? A. People with personality disorders believe others, not themselves, need to change. B. People with personality disorders are usually motivated to seek treatment on their own. C. People with personality disorders, though challenging in therapy, make great improvements and are invested in personal change the therapist. D. People with personality disorders have not been shown to be helped by any of the major herapy approaches. Answer: A 206. People with ______ personality disorders tend to have turbulent relationships with their therapists. They will idealize their therapists at times and denounce them as uncaring at other times. A. narcissistic B. borderline C. histrionic D. antisocial Answer: B 207. Evidence ______ the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and ______ the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy in treating personality disorders. A. does not support, does not support B. supports, does not support C. does not support, supports D. supports, supports Answer: D 208. A therapist helps her client look at his self-defeating behavior patterns and develop more adaptive methods of relating to others. This therapist is probably a ______ therapist. A. psychodynamic B. behavioral C. cognitive D. humanistic Answer: C 209. A therapeutic technique that combines cognitive-behavior therapy and mindfulness techniques for the treatment of borderline personality disorder is ______. A. self-psychology B. Gestalt psychology C. attachment therapy D. dialectical behavior therapy Answer: D 210. Dialectical behavior therapy was developed by ______. A. Aaron Beck B. Albert Bandura C. Marsha Linehan D. Elizabeth Loftus Answer: C 211. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is specifically designed to treat which of the following? A. borderline personality disorder B. schizotypal personality disorder C. dissociative disorder D. dependent personality disorder Answer: A 212. John has been diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder. The psychologist recommends a type of therapy specifically designed for the treatment of this disorder. What type of therapy is most likely to be recommended? A. Rational-emotive therapy B. Psychodynamic therapy C. Token economy therapy D. Dialectical behavior therapy Answer: D 213. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) combines cognitive-behavioral therapy and _________. A. a diet high in protein B. a rigorous exercise schedule C. Buddhist mindfulness meditation D. a period of fasting Answer: C 214. The word dialectic is drawn from classical philosophy and applies to a form of reasoning in which you consider __________. A. both sides of an argument B. the biological basis of a behavior C. a deductive perspective D. only the first perspective offered Answer: A 215. A technique for treating antisocial personality disorder in which prosocial behaviors are rewarded with chips or tokens that can be exchanged for privileges is called ______. A. a token economy B. systematic desensitization C. response cost D. cue-controlled socialization Answer: A 216. Researchers suspect that the impulsive aggressive behaviors typical of some personality disorders may be related to deficiencies in ______. A. epinephrine B. acetylcholine C. serotonin D. dopamine Answer: C 217. Studies indicate that the drug ______ may reduce the aggressive behavior and irritability in impulsive and aggressive individuals with personality disorders. A. Ritalin B. Reserpine C. Valium D. Prozac Answer: D 218. Atypical antipsychotics may have benefits in controlling ______________ in people with ________ but the effects are modest. A. feelings of emptiness and self-mutilation; schizotypal personality disorder B. lethargy and inertia; histrionic personality disorder C. aggressive and self-destructive behavior; borderline personality disorder D. obsessive thinking; paranoid personality disorder Answer: C 219. A psychological disorder characterized by failure to control impulses, temptations, or drives, resulting in harm to oneself or others are ______ disorders. A. personality B. impulse control C. affective D. adjustment Answer: B 220. Which of the following is characteristic of behaviors associated with an impulse control disorder? A. concern with hand washing B. lack of ability to stop stealing C. inability to diet or engage in an exercise program D. difficulty resisting the urge to touch cracks in sidewalks Answer: B 221. A type of impulse control disorder characterized by compulsive stealing is ______. A. kleptomania B. pyromania C. trichotillomania D. klismomania Answer: A 222. Which of the following is true of kleptomania? A. The stolen objects are typically of little value or use to the person. B. Most people with kleptomania cannot easily afford the items they steal. C. The thefts are usually motivated by anger or vengeance. D. The crimes are impulsive and poorly planned. Answer: D 223. Shoplifting is ______ and kleptomania is ______. A. rare, rare B. common, rare C. rare, common D. common, common Answer: B 224. Kleptomania shares many common features with ______. A. generalized anxiety disorders B. schizoaffective disorder C. dissociative disorders D. obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: D 225. Psychodynamic theorists view kleptomania as ______. A. unconsciously motivated aggression against people who are perceived to have more than they deserve B. a defense against unconscious penis envy in women and castration anxiety in men C. the ego being overwhelmed by urges for instant gratification by the id D. fixation in the anal stage of development Answer: B 226. When he sees something on sale at the store, Juan has great difficulty not purchasing it despite the fact that he is heavily in debt. Based on his inability to control this drive, one might say that one has which of the following? A. Impulse control disorder B. Antisocial personality disorder C. Dissociative disorder D. Avoidant personality disorder Answer: A 227. Which of the following is a type of impulse-control disorder characterized by repeated episodes of impulsive, uncontrollable aggression in which people strike out at others or destroy property? A. Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) B. Obsessive compulsive disorder C. Antisocial personality disorder D. Aggressive tendency disorder Answer: A 228. The core feature of IED is _______. A. impulsive aggressiveness B. excessive happiness C. uncontrollable depression D. controlled and calculated anger Answer: A 229. Thomas just received a phone call letting him know he received a late charge for not paying his credit card on time. He throws his cell phone out the window and smashes the TV next to him. Friends say that Thomas does this often. Thomas most likely can be diagnosed as having which of the following? A. Intermittent explosive disorder B. Narcissistic personality disorder C. Histrionic personality disorder D. Avoidant personality disorder Answer: A 230. People with intermittent explosive disorder typically experience _____ before their violent outbursts and a sense of relief afterwards. A. visual hallucinations B. great depression C. auditory hallucinations D. a state of tension Answer: D 231. Evidence that treatment with _________ has shown promise in treating impulsive aggression associated with IED. A. antidepressant drugs that boost serotonin availability B. antipsychotic drugs that reduce dopamine activity C. antipsychotic drugs that increase dopamine activity D. testosterone replacement Answer: A 232. A type of impulse control disorder characterized by compulsive fire setting is ______. A. kleptomania B. pyromania C. trichotillomania D. klismomania Answer: B 233. People with impulse control disorders are most likely to also have ______ disorders. A. psychotic B. obsessive-compulsive C. mood D. somatoform Answer: C True-False Questions 234. Personality disorders are excessively rigid patterns of behaviors or ways of relating to others. Answer: True 235. People with personality disorders tend to perceive their traits as ego dystonic—as not being natural parts of themselves. Answer: False 236. DSM-5 personality disorders in Cluster C includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. Answer: False 237. Clinicians need to weigh cultural and sociopolitical factors when arriving at a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. Answer: True 238. The person with a schizoid personality has a deep interest in maintaining social relationships. Answer: False 239. Individuals with avoidant personality disorder seem indifferent to criticism or praise and appear to be wrapped up in abstract ideas rather than in thoughts about people. Answer: False 240. The emotions of people with schizoid personalities are as shallow or blunted as hose of people with schizophrenia. Answer: False 241. The apparent social distance and aloofness of people with schizoid personalities may be somewhat superficial. Answer: True 242. People with schizotypal personality disorder may develop ideas of reference, such as believing that others are talking about them behind their backs. Answer: True 243. Social isolation is the cardinal feature of schizoid personality disorder. Answer: True 244. People with schizotypal personality disorder often have other co-occurring emotional disorders, such as major depression and anxiety disorders. Answer: True 245. Some people with schizoid personality disorder may engage in magical thinking, such as believing they possess a “sixth sense.” Answer: False 246. Investigators find higher rates of schizotypal disorder among African Americans than among Caucasians or Hispanic Americans. Answer: True 247. There is evidence that schizotypal personality and schizophrenia share a common genetic basis. Answer: True 248. Most people with schizotypal personality disorder go on to develop schizophrenia or some other psychotic disorder. Answer: False 249. Not all criminals have antisocial personalities, nor do all people with antisocial personality disorder become criminals. Answer: True 250. "Psychopath" and "sociopath" refer to antisocial personality disorder. Answer: True 251. People we call psychopaths are psychotic. Answer: False 252. People with psychopathic personalities inevitably run afoul of the law. Answer: False 253. Some people can intentionally injure others without experiencing feelings of guilt or remorse. Answer: True 254. Lack of remorse, which is a cardinal feature of antisocial personality disorder, characterizes all criminals. Answer: False 255. Recent research findings support the popular image of psychopathic murderers as “cold-blooded” killers. Answer: True 256. Many notable figures in history, including Lawrence of Arabia, Adolf Hitler, and Marilyn Monroe, have been depicted as borderline personalities. Answer: True 257. People with borderline personalities usually make good psychotherapy clients and tend to have high "cure" rates. Answer: False 258. People with borderline personalities shift back and forth between viewing people as all good or all bad, rather than as partly good and partly bad. Answer: True 259. Histrionic personality disorder is diagnosed more frequently in men than in women. Answer: False 260. People with histrionic personality disorder are often attracted to professions like modelling or acting. Answer: True 261. People with narcissistic personality are most likely to be women. Answer: False 262. A certain amount of narcissism can represent a healthy adjustment to insecurity. Answer: True 263. People with narcissistic personalities seek the company of those that will admire them. Answer: True 264. Avoidant personality disorder is more common in men than in women. Answer: False 265. Unlike people with schizoid personalities, people with avoidant personalities have little or no interest in or feelings of warmth toward other people. Answer: False 266. People with avoidant personalities tend to avoid only specific situations which make them anxious, such as public speaking or large parties. Answer: False 267. Dependent personality is diagnosed more frequently in women than in men. Answer: True 268. People with dependent personality disorder have such difficulty making independent decisions that in some cases they allow their parents to decide who they will or will not marry. Answer: True 269. People with dependent personalities often attribute their problems to emotional rather than physical problems. Answer: False 270. Persons with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are preoccupied with perfection. Answer: True 271. There is a high degree of overlap among the personality disorders. Answer: True 272. Co-occurrence (called comorbidity) of different personality disorders is not common. Answer: False 273. It is often difficult to draw the line between normal variations in behavior and personality disorders. Answer: True 274. A problem with the diagnosis of personality disorders is that they involve personality traits, which, in lesser degrees, describe the behavior of most normal individuals. Answer: True 275. Freud has been criticized for failing to account for the moral development of females. Answer: True 276. According to Mahler, the mother may disrupt normal separation-individuation by refusing to let go of the child or by too quickly pushing the child toward independence. Answer: True 277. A strength of psychodynamic theory is that it is based largely on inferences drawn from behavior and retrospective accounts of adults rather than on observations of children. Answer: False 278. Millon suggests that histrionic personality disorder may be rooted in childhood experiences in which social reinforcers, such as parental attention, are connected to the child’s appearance and willingness to perform for others. Answer: True 279. Social-cognitive theories emphasize the role of the unconscious in explaining the origins of antisocial behavior. Answer: False 280. There are far more psychopathic personalities in executive positions in business than in prison. Answer: True 281. Childhood abuse, parental neglect, or lack of parental nurturing have not proven to be important risk factors in the development of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Answer: False 282. People with antisocial personality tend to remain unduly calm in the face of impending pain. Answer: True 283. The central nervous systems of people with antisocial personality disorder appear to be under responsive to stressful stimuli. Answer: True 284. Antisocial personality disorder is most common among members of the upper class. Answer: False 285. Little information is available about the rates of personality disorders in other cultures. Answer: True 286. Promising results are reported using structured forms of psycho dynamically-oriented therapies in treating personality disorders. Answer: True 287. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is specifically designed to treat schizotypal personality disorder. Answer: False 288. Typically, people with IED attempt to justify their behavior, but they also feel genuine remorse or regret because of the harm their behavior causes. Answer: True 289. Some clinicians argue that anger disorders should be included in the DSM. Answer: True 290. Some theorists express the concern that diagnosing anger disorders might undermine efforts to reduce intimate partner violence. Answer: True 291. Intentional fire-setting also occurs among some youths with autism spectrum disorder. Answer: False Essay Questions 292. Define "personality disorder." List and describe each of the three personality clusters used to categorize personality disorders with the DSM. Answer: Definition of "Personality Disorder" and the Three Personality Clusters Definition: A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder characterized by enduring patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience that deviate markedly from the expectations of an individual's culture. These patterns are pervasive, inflexible, and stable over time, leading to distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. The Three Personality Clusters in the DSM: Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric Disorders 1. Paranoid Personality Disorder: Characterized by pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others, interpreting their motives as malevolent. 2. Schizoid Personality Disorder: Marked by a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression. 3. Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Involves acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentric behavior. Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Disorders 1. Antisocial Personality Disorder: Characterized by a disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others, lack of empathy, and often deceitful or manipulative behavior. 2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Involves instability in relationships, self-image, and affects, along with marked impulsivity. 3. Histrionic Personality Disorder: Marked by excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior. 4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Characterized by grandiosity, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others. Cluster C: Anxious or Fearful Disorders 1. Avoidant Personality Disorder: Characterized by social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. 2. Dependent Personality Disorder: Marked by an excessive need to be taken care of, leading to submissive and clinging behavior. 3. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Involves a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control at the expense of flexibility and efficiency. 293. Provide a description of each of the Cluster A personality disorders. What are the common features shared by this cluster? Answer: Description of Cluster A Personality Disorders and Common Features Paranoid Personality Disorder: • Description: Individuals with paranoid personality disorder have a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. They often believe that others are out to harm or deceive them, and they are reluctant to confide in others due to unwarranted fear that the information will be used against them. Schizoid Personality Disorder: • Description: Individuals with schizoid personality disorder exhibit a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a limited range of emotional expression. They typically prefer solitary activities, show little interest in forming close relationships, and appear indifferent to praise or criticism from others. Schizotypal Personality Disorder: • Description: Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder display acute discomfort in close relationships, as well as cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentric behavior. They may have odd beliefs or magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and exhibit odd speech or behavior. Common Features of Cluster A: • These disorders are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior. • Individuals may have difficulties in forming and maintaining relationships. • There is often a pervasive sense of distrust and suspiciousness of others. • Cognitive or perceptual distortions are common, especially in schizotypal personality disorder. 294. Provide a description of each of the Cluster B personality disorders. What are the common features shared by this cluster? Answer: Description of Cluster B Personality Disorders and Common Features Antisocial Personality Disorder: • Description: Individuals with antisocial personality disorder demonstrate a disregard for the rights of others, often engaging in deceitful, manipulative, or criminal behavior. They may exhibit impulsivity, irritability, and a lack of remorse for their actions. Borderline Personality Disorder: • Description: Characterized by instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions. Individuals may experience intense episodes of anger, depression, and anxiety, and they often have a fear of abandonment. Impulsive behaviors, such as substance abuse or self-harm, are common. Histrionic Personality Disorder: • Description: Individuals with histrionic personality disorder exhibit excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior. They may be uncomfortable when they are not the center of attention, and they often use physical appearance to draw attention to themselves. Narcissistic Personality Disorder: • Description: Marked by grandiosity, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others. Individuals often have an inflated sense of their own importance and may exploit others to achieve their goals. They typically require excessive admiration and are sensitive to criticism. Common Features of Cluster B: • These disorders are characterized by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior. • There is often a pattern of unstable relationships and self-image. • Impulsivity and a lack of regard for others are common traits. • Emotional regulation issues are frequently observed. 295. Describe the features of paranoid personality disorder. How does the paranoia of a person with paranoid personality disorder differ from that experienced by someone with schizophrenia? Answer: Features of Paranoid Personality Disorder and Differences in Paranoia with Schizophrenia Paranoid Personality Disorder: • Features: Paranoid personality disorder is marked by pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. Individuals with this disorder often suspect that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them, even without substantial evidence. They may hold grudges, perceive attacks on their character that are not apparent to others, and be reluctant to confide in others due to an unwarranted fear that the information will be used against them. Differences in Paranoia between Paranoid Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia: • Paranoid Personality Disorder: The paranoia is more chronic and less intense than in schizophrenia. Individuals with paranoid personality disorder are generally more functional and do not experience the severe psychotic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, disorganized speech) seen in schizophrenia. Their paranoia is often more plausible and does not reach the level of delusional intensity typically observed in paranoid schizophrenia. • Schizophrenia: Paranoia in schizophrenia can involve delusions, which are false beliefs that are firmly held despite contradictory evidence. These delusions are often bizarre and not grounded in reality. Individuals with schizophrenia may also experience other psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and significant impairment in functioning, which are not typical of paranoid personality disorder. 296. Why is it important to weigh in the impact of cultural and sociopolitical factors when arriving at a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder? Answer: Diagnosing paranoid personality disorder (PPD) requires careful consideration of cultural and sociopolitical factors to avoid misdiagnosis and ensure accurate understanding of the individual's behavior within their specific context. Cultural and sociopolitical environments significantly influence how individuals perceive and interact with the world, which can mimic or exacerbate symptoms of PPD. Cultural Norms and Beliefs: Cultural norms shape what is considered acceptable or typical behavior. In some cultures, suspicion and mistrust of others might be more prevalent due to historical or ongoing social injustices, such as systemic racism, colonization, or political oppression. For instance, individuals from marginalized communities may develop heightened wariness and defensive behaviors as protective mechanisms, which could be misinterpreted as pathological paranoia. Sociopolitical Context: The sociopolitical environment, including factors like government surveillance, political instability, and discrimination, can foster a climate of distrust. People living in such contexts may exhibit behaviors consistent with PPD, such as hypervigilance and suspicion of others’ motives. Understanding the individual's background can clarify whether these behaviors are reasonable responses to their environment rather than indicative of a personality disorder. Avoiding Misdiagnosis: Without considering cultural and sociopolitical factors, clinicians risk misdiagnosing individuals from diverse backgrounds. For example, an immigrant from a war-torn country may exhibit heightened suspicion due to past trauma rather than a personality disorder. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment plans and stigmatization, exacerbating the individual's distress. Holistic Understanding: Incorporating cultural and sociopolitical factors into the diagnostic process promotes a holistic understanding of the individual. This approach acknowledges the complex interplay between an individual's environment and their mental health, facilitating more accurate diagnoses and culturally sensitive interventions. In conclusion, weighing the impact of cultural and sociopolitical factors is crucial in diagnosing paranoid personality disorder to ensure accuracy, avoid misdiagnosis, and develop effective, culturally competent treatment plans. 297. Discuss the emotional features of the individual with schizoid personality disorder. Integrate what is known about the inner emotional lives of individuals with this diagnosis (for example, having curiosity about other people). Answer: Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression in interpersonal settings. Despite these outward features, the inner emotional life of individuals with SPD is complex and often misunderstood. Emotional Detachment: Individuals with SPD typically display emotional coldness and lack of interest in social interactions. They appear indifferent to praise or criticism and may seem aloof or disengaged. This detachment is often interpreted as a lack of emotion, but it may mask a rich inner world where emotions are experienced differently. Inner Emotional Life: Contrary to outward appearances, people with SPD can have a deep, albeit hidden, emotional life. They may experience feelings of loneliness and longing for connection but are often overwhelmed by the complexities and demands of social interactions. This internal conflict between the desire for companionship and the fear or discomfort associated with socializing can lead to significant emotional distress. Curiosity about Others: Individuals with SPD may exhibit a quiet curiosity about others, observing social interactions from a distance. This curiosity does not necessarily translate into a desire to engage but reflects an intellectual or detached interest in understanding social dynamics. They might find solace in solitary activities that allow them to explore these interests without direct social involvement. Emotional Expression: The restricted emotional expression seen in SPD can stem from early experiences where emotional expression was discouraged or punished. As a defense mechanism, individuals with SPD may learn to suppress their emotions, leading to a flattened affect. However, in private, they might experience a wider range of emotions, including sadness, frustration, and even moments of joy. Interpersonal Relationships: While individuals with SPD often avoid close relationships, they are not entirely devoid of social connections. They may form limited but meaningful bonds with a select few individuals, such as family members or long-term acquaintances. These relationships, though sparse, can provide a sense of stability and connection. In summary, the emotional features of individuals with schizoid personality disorder include a surface-level detachment and restricted emotional expression, coupled with a potentially rich and conflicted inner emotional life. Their curiosity about others and intellectual interest in social dynamics highlight the complexity of their emotional world, which is often hidden behind a facade of indifference. 298. Describe the unusual perceptions experienced by the person with schizotypal personality disorder. Answer: Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) is marked by acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentric behavior. One of the key features of STPD is unusual perceptual experiences, which can range from mild distortions to quasi-hallucinations. Ideas of Reference: Individuals with STPD often experience ideas of reference, where they believe that insignificant or unrelated events hold special personal significance. For example, they might think that a casual comment by a stranger is directed at them or that a particular song on the radio is playing specifically for them. These ideas are not as firmly held as delusions but can influence their perceptions and interactions with the world. Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking: STPD is characterized by odd beliefs or magical thinking, such as believing in telepathy, clairvoyance, or other supernatural phenomena. These beliefs can lead to unusual interpretations of everyday occurrences, such as attributing a coincidence to fate or seeing hidden meanings in ordinary events. Perceptual Distortions: People with STPD may experience perceptual distortions, such as feeling that their surroundings are unreal or that time is moving differently. These distortions can affect their sense of reality and make it challenging to distinguish between what is real and what is imagined. They might also experience a heightened sensitivity to sensory input, leading to overstimulation and discomfort in busy or noisy environments. Bodily Illusions: Bodily illusions, such as feeling that a part of their body is not their own or that their limbs are distorted, are another form of unusual perception in STPD. These sensations can be distressing and contribute to the individual’s overall sense of alienation from their own body and the external world. Quasi-Hallucinations: Quasi-hallucinations, which are perceptual experiences that occur without an external stimulus but are recognized by the individual as not real, can also be present in STPD. For instance, they might hear a voice calling their name when no one is there, but they understand that it is not a real voice. Eccentric Behavior: The unusual perceptual experiences in STPD often lead to eccentric behavior and speech. Individuals may speak in a tangential or overly elaborate manner, reflecting their unconventional thought processes. Their behavior might seem odd or peculiar to others, further isolating them socially. In conclusion, the unusual perceptions experienced by individuals with schizotypal personality disorder include ideas of reference, odd beliefs or magical thinking, perceptual distortions, bodily illusions, and quasi-hallucinations. These perceptual experiences contribute to the overall eccentricity and social difficulties characteristic of the disorder. 299. Discuss the relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. Describe the biological commonalities between the two diagnoses. Answer: Relationship between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia: Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) and Schizophrenia share some similarities but are distinct clinical entities. SPD is characterized by eccentric behavior, unusual beliefs, and social deficits, often without the severe psychotic symptoms seen in schizophrenia. However, both disorders fall within the spectrum of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Biological commonalities between SPD and schizophrenia include: 1. Genetic Factors: Both disorders have a genetic component, suggesting shared susceptibility genes or genetic vulnerabilities. 2. Neurotransmitter Dysregulation: Dopamine dysregulation, particularly in the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways, is implicated in both disorders, though the extent and specific mechanisms may differ. 3. Structural Brain Abnormalities: Both disorders show abnormalities in brain structure, such as enlarged ventricles or reduced gray matter volume, although these are generally more pronounced in schizophrenia. 4. Neurodevelopmental Factors: Early neurodevelopmental insults or disruptions may contribute to the development of both disorders, influencing brain development and functional outcomes. Overall, while SPD and schizophrenia share biological underpinnings, schizophrenia typically involves more severe psychotic symptoms and functional impairment. 300. Discuss the two dimensions of antisocial personality disorder. Answer: Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, often starting in childhood or adolescence and continuing into adulthood. The disorder is typically assessed along two main dimensions: 1. Behavioral Dimension: • Impulsivity and Irresponsibility: Individuals with ASPD often engage in impulsive behaviors without considering long-term consequences. They may have difficulty maintaining consistent work or academic performance and can be reckless in their personal and financial affairs. • Aggressiveness: This dimension includes a pattern of physical fights or assaults, as well as intimidation of others. 2. Interpersonal Dimension: • Deceitfulness and Manipulation: People with ASPD are often deceitful and manipulative, using lies or cunning to achieve personal goals. • Callousness and Lack of Empathy: There is a profound lack of empathy and remorse for their actions, leading to exploitation of others for personal gain. These dimensions capture the core features of ASPD, reflecting both overt behavioral patterns and interpersonal traits that contribute to the disorder's diagnosis and impact on individuals and society. 301. Discuss the difficulties with emotional regulation exhibited by individuals with borderline personality disorder. What purpose might maladaptive behaviors serve for the person with borderline personality disorder? Answer: Difficulties with Emotional Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder often struggle with intense and unstable emotions, which can lead to difficulties in regulating their feelings. Some key difficulties include: • Emotional Intensity: Emotions are often experienced more intensely and can change rapidly, leading to emotional dysregulation. • Difficulty in Emotional Boundaries: Individuals with BPD may have trouble distinguishing their own emotions from those of others, leading to emotional instability and interpersonal conflicts. • Impulsivity: Emotional dysregulation can lead to impulsive behaviors such as self-harm, substance abuse, or risky sexual behavior as ways to cope with overwhelming emotions. Maladaptive behaviors in BPD, such as self-harm or substance abuse, may serve several purposes for the individual: • Emotional Regulation: These behaviors can temporarily alleviate intense emotional pain or distress, providing a short-term relief from overwhelming feelings. • Expression of Inner Turmoil: Actions like self-harm may serve as a visible expression of internal emotional turmoil when words fail to convey the depth of their distress. • Self-Punishment: Some individuals may engage in self-destructive behaviors as a form of self-punishment, feeling they deserve to suffer due to guilt or shame associated with their emotions or actions. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for effective treatment and support for individuals with BPD, focusing on developing healthier coping strategies for emotional regulation. 302. What is purpose of self-mutilation with the person with borderline personality disorder? Answer: Purpose of Self-Mutilation in Borderline Personality Disorder: Self-mutilation or self-harm, such as cutting or burning, is unfortunately common among individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder. The purposes it might serve include: • Emotional Relief: Self-harm can temporarily alleviate emotional distress or numbness by focusing attention on physical pain rather than emotional pain. • Expression of Inner Turmoil: For some, self-mutilation serves as a visible expression of deep emotional pain or internal conflict that is otherwise difficult to articulate or manage. • Feelings of Control: Engaging in self-harm may provide a sense of control over overwhelming emotions or situations that feel uncontrollable. • Communication of Need: In some cases, self-harm serves as a way to communicate distress or to elicit care and attention from others. Effective treatment for BPD involves addressing the underlying emotional dysregulation and developing healthier coping mechanisms to replace self-destructive behaviors. 303. What is meant by a “narcissistic injury”? How might this contribute to the strain often present in the relationships of individuals with narcissistic personality disorder? Answer: Narcissistic Injury and its Impact on Relationships in Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD): A "narcissistic injury" refers to a perceived threat to a person's self-esteem or self-worth, often when their grandiose self-image is challenged or undermined. This can lead to intense emotional reactions and defensive behaviors. In individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), narcissistic injuries often contribute to strain in relationships by: • Heightened Sensitivity to Criticism: Individuals with NPD may react strongly to perceived criticism or rejection, viewing it as an attack on their self-image of superiority or specialness. • Defensive Behaviors: To protect their fragile self-esteem, they may respond with defensiveness, anger, or contempt towards those they perceive as threatening their self-perception. • Interpersonal Conflict: Narcissistic individuals may struggle with maintaining stable and satisfying relationships due to their need for admiration and validation, coupled with difficulty empathizing with others' perspectives. These dynamics can lead to a cycle of conflict and instability in relationships, as others may feel invalidated or dismissed, exacerbating the strain. Understanding narcissistic injuries is crucial in therapeutic approaches to NPD, focusing on building self-awareness, empathy, and healthier relationship dynamics. 304. What disorder does avoidant personality disorder overlap? What does this overlap suggest about the relationship between the two disorders? Answer: Overlap Between Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Avoidant Personality Disorder overlaps significantly with Social Anxiety Disorder. This overlap suggests a close relationship between the two disorders, as both involve intense fear and avoidance of social situations. • Symptomatic Similarities: Both AvPD and SAD feature fear of rejection, criticism, or embarrassment in social interactions, leading to avoidance behaviors. • Differential Focus: AvPD tends to emphasize broader interpersonal avoidance and feelings of inadequacy, while SAD focuses more narrowly on fear of negative evaluation in social contexts. The relationship between AvPD and SAD suggests that they may share similar underlying mechanisms, such as heightened sensitivity to social threat or perceived negative evaluation. However, AvPD typically involves more pervasive and enduring patterns of avoidance and social inhibition across various life domains, whereas SAD may be more circumscribed to specific social situations. 305. Why should dependency needs be examined through the lens of culture when determining if this characteristic is diagnosable as a psychological disorder? Answer: Cultural Considerations in Dependency Needs and Psychological Disorder Diagnosis: Examining dependency needs through a cultural lens is crucial when determining if this characteristic should be considered a psychological disorder. Cultural factors influence: • Definition of Dependency: Dependency needs vary across cultures in terms of what is considered normative versus pathological. • Social Expectations: Cultures differ in their expectations regarding interdependence, familial roles, and individual autonomy, which can impact perceptions of dependency as adaptive or maladaptive. • Cultural Values: Some cultures may prioritize communalism and interdependence, where dependency needs are expected and supported, whereas others emphasize independence and self-reliance. Without cultural context, there is a risk of pathologizing normative behaviors or failing to recognize genuine psychological distress that manifests differently across cultures. Therefore, cultural competence is essential in assessing and diagnosing dependency-related issues to ensure accurate and respectful treatment. 306. Describe the including a hybrid dimensional-categorical model (part categorical and part dimensional) currently being considered for the next revision of the DSM-5. How are the “big five” used in this model? What are some of the concerns with the use of such a model? Answer: Hybrid Dimensional-Categorical Model in the Next DSM Revision: The next revision of the DSM is considering a hybrid dimensional-categorical model, blending categorical diagnoses with dimensional assessments of symptom severity. • Incorporation of the Big Five: The Big Five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism) are used in this model to provide a dimensional framework for understanding personality disorders. Instead of rigid categories, disorders are assessed based on the severity of maladaptive personality traits across these dimensions. • Advantages: This approach allows for a more nuanced understanding of personality pathology, capturing variations in symptom severity and functional impairment beyond categorical boundaries. • Concerns: Some concerns include the complexity of implementation, potential overlap between disorders due to dimensional assessment, and the challenge of ensuring reliability and validity across different cultural contexts and clinical settings. Despite these concerns, the hybrid model aims to improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning by integrating dimensional assessments with categorical diagnoses, reflecting a more comprehensive understanding of personality disorders. 307. How does the overlap among descriptions of personality disorders with other disorders and within themselves create problems in diagnosis? Answer: Overlap Among Descriptions of Personality Disorders and Problems in Diagnosis: The overlap among descriptions of personality disorders with other disorders and within themselves creates several problems in diagnosis: • Diagnostic Ambiguity: Personality disorders often share symptoms with other psychiatric disorders, leading to diagnostic confusion and overlap. • Comorbidity: Individuals may meet criteria for multiple personality disorders simultaneously or have symptoms that overlap with mood disorders or anxiety disorders, complicating accurate diagnosis. • Subjectivity in Assessment: Diagnostic criteria for personality disorders rely heavily on subjective judgment and clinical interpretation, which can vary among clinicians and lead to inconsistent diagnoses. • Treatment Implications: Overlapping symptoms may result in inappropriate or ineffective treatment strategies if the underlying disorder is misdiagnosed. Addressing these challenges requires careful consideration of the unique patterns of maladaptive behavior, cognition, and affect that characterize each personality disorder, along with thorough clinical assessment to differentiate them from other psychiatric conditions 308. Explain the problem of confusing diagnostic labels with explanation. How might this blurring fall into the trap of circular reasoning? Answer: Confusing Diagnostic Labels with Explanation and Circular Reasoning: The problem of confusing diagnostic labels with explanation occurs when diagnostic labels are used to explain the disorder itself, rather than describing observable symptoms or behaviors. This can lead to circular reasoning: • Circular Reasoning: Using the diagnostic label to explain symptoms without considering underlying causes or mechanisms can create a circular argument. For example, labeling someone as having a personality disorder because they exhibit certain behaviors, without investigating why those behaviors occur, does not provide a deeper understanding. • Blurring of Understanding: This blurring can obscure the distinction between descriptive diagnosis (what is observed) and explanatory diagnosis (why it occurs), hindering efforts to understand the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors contributing to the disorder. To avoid this trap, clinicians and researchers should focus on comprehensive assessment of symptoms, functional impairments, and contextual factors to provide a more nuanced understanding of the disorder beyond mere diagnostic labels. 309. Explain how the construction of certain personality disorders may have sexist underpinnings. Does the diagnosis of dependent personality disorder unfairly stigmatize women who have been socialized into dependent roles by attaching to them a label of a personality disorder? Explain. Answer: Sexist Underpinnings in the Construction of Certain Personality Disorders and Stigma: The construction of certain personality disorders, such as Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD), may reflect sexist biases and unfairly stigmatize individuals, particularly women who have been socialized into dependent roles: • Sexist Assumptions: Traditional gender roles often prescribe women to be nurturing, submissive, and dependent, which may influence diagnostic criteria for DPD. • Stigmatization: Diagnosing DPD based on traits associated with traditional femininity can perpetuate stereotypes and stigmatize women who exhibit these traits. • Cultural Context: In some cultures, dependency may be valued as a relational or familial virtue rather than a pathology, highlighting cultural biases in diagnostic frameworks. However, it's important to recognize that dependency can manifest in individuals of any gender and may reflect adaptive responses to interpersonal contexts rather than pathological traits universally. Addressing these issues involves critically examining diagnostic criteria to ensure they are free from gender bias and considering how cultural context shapes the perception and assessment of personality traits. 310. Describe in detail how social conditions may contribute to the development of personality disorders. Answer: Social conditions can significantly contribute to the development of personality disorders through various mechanisms: • Early Socialization: Childhood experiences within family dynamics, such as inconsistent parenting, neglect, abuse, or overprotection, can shape core beliefs and interpersonal behaviors that predispose individuals to personality disorders. • Peer Relationships: Social interactions during formative years, including bullying, social rejection, or difficulties in forming stable relationships, may contribute to maladaptive interpersonal patterns characteristic of personality disorders. • Cultural Norms: Sociocultural factors, such as cultural expectations regarding gender roles, individualism versus collectivism, and stigma around mental health, influence the expression and interpretation of personality traits. • Life Events: Traumatic experiences, loss, or chronic stressors in adulthood can exacerbate existing vulnerabilities or trigger the onset of personality disorders. Understanding these social conditions helps contextualize the development of personality disorders and underscores the importance of psychosocial interventions alongside biological and psychological treatments. 311. Your text emphasizes a multifactorial model of abnormal behavior, the view that psychological disorders result from a complex web of psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Apply this model in understanding personality disorders. Answer: Multifactorial Model of Abnormal Behavior and Personality Disorders: The multifactorial model posits that personality disorders, like other psychological disorders, result from a complex interplay of psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors: • Psychological Factors: Individual differences in temperament, coping mechanisms, and cognitive styles contribute to the development and maintenance of maladaptive personality traits. • Sociocultural Factors: Cultural norms, societal expectations, family dynamics, and interpersonal relationships shape the expression and perception of personality traits, influencing diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches. • Biological Factors: Genetic predispositions, neurobiological abnormalities (e.g., neurotransmitter dysregulation), and early neurodevelopmental influences contribute to vulnerability to personality disorders. Applying this model involves considering the interaction of these factors in understanding the etiology, course, and treatment of personality disorders, emphasizing holistic and integrated approaches to assessment and intervention. 312. What is the aim of a psychodynamic approach to treatment of a personality disorder? Discuss the promising results being noted in using structured forms of psychodynamic therapies in treating personality disorders. Answer: Psychodynamic Approach to Treatment of Personality Disorders: The psychodynamic approach aims to uncover unconscious conflicts, defenses, and unresolved childhood experiences that contribute to personality disorders: • Goal: The primary aim is to increase self-awareness and insight into unconscious patterns of behavior and relationships that perpetuate maladaptive personality traits. • Techniques: Techniques such as free association, interpretation of transference and countertransference, and exploration of defense mechanisms are used to facilitate insight and promote emotional growth. • Promising Results: Structured forms of psychodynamic therapy, such as Mentalization-Based Therapy (MBT) and Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP), have shown promise in treating personality disorders by focusing on specific symptoms, improving interpersonal functioning, and reducing reliance on maladaptive coping strategies. These structured approaches provide a supportive framework for individuals with personality disorders to explore and modify their internal representations of self and others, leading to more adaptive functioning and improved quality of life. 313. Describe Marsha Linehan’s Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). What is meant by dialectic? What techniques are incorporated in this approach to treatment? Answer: Marsha Linehan’s Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), developed by Marsha Linehan, integrates cognitive-behavioral techniques with principles of dialectics, emphasizing acceptance and change: • Dialectic: In DBT, dialectic refers to the balance between acceptance and change, recognizing that individuals can simultaneously accept their current situation while striving for change and improvement. • Techniques: DBT incorporates four modules: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. These modules teach skills to manage emotions, tolerate distress, improve relationships, and regulate behavior effectively. • Treatment Approach: DBT employs a structured and collaborative therapeutic approach, combining individual therapy, skills training groups, phone coaching, and therapist consultation teams to support comprehensive treatment. DBT has been particularly effective in treating Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and other personality disorders characterized by emotional dysregulation and interpersonal difficulties, offering clients practical skills to cope with intense emotions and improve their quality of life. 314. Explain what impulse control disorders are, and briefly describe at least five types of impulse control disorders. Answer: Impulse Control Disorders: Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric disorders characterized by difficulty in resisting urges or impulses that lead to behaviors that are harmful to oneself or others. Some common types include: 1. Kleptomania: Recurrent failure to resist the urge to steal items that are not needed for personal use or monetary value. 2. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): Recurrent episodes of aggressive outbursts that are out of proportion to the provocation or stressors. 3. Pyromania: Deliberate and purposeful fire-setting behavior, often out of fascination or emotional relief. 4. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder): Recurrent pulling out of one's own hair, resulting in noticeable hair loss. 5. Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder: Recurrent skin-picking resulting in skin lesions, often to relieve tension or anxiety. These disorders involve impaired impulse control, leading to repetitive behaviors that may cause distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. 315. Describe the prevalence, features, and characteristics of kleptomania. How is it similar to, or different from, obsessive-compulsive disorder? Answer: Kleptomania: Kleptomania is characterized by recurrent episodes of stealing objects that are not needed for personal use or for their monetary value. Key features include: • Prevalence: Estimated prevalence is low, affecting less than 1% of the general population. • Features: Individuals with kleptomania experience tension before committing theft, followed by relief or gratification during the act. Guilt or remorse typically follows the theft. • Characteristics: Kleptomania differs from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in that the stealing behavior is typically driven by an impulse rather than obsessions and compulsions related to specific thoughts or rituals seen in OCD. • Similarities to OCD: Both disorders involve repetitive behaviors; however, in kleptomania, the behavior is typically not motivated by a desire for the items stolen or by specific obsessions or fears. Treatment for kleptomania often involves psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and sometimes medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) to address underlying impulsivity and mood regulation. 316. Should the DSM include a diagnostic category for anger disorder? Why or why not? Include Jerry Deffenbacher’s position in your argument. Answer: Diagnostic Category for Anger Disorder in the DSM: The inclusion of a diagnostic category for "Anger Disorder" in the DSM is debated: • Arguments for Inclusion: Proponents argue that chronic anger and aggression can significantly impair functioning and lead to interpersonal difficulties, legal problems, and health issues. Standardizing diagnostic criteria could improve recognition, treatment, and research efforts. • Jerry Deffenbacher's Position: Deffenbacher advocates for including Anger Disorder in the DSM, arguing that chronic anger can be a primary issue deserving clinical attention. He emphasizes the need for diagnostic criteria to distinguish pathological anger from normative emotional responses. • Arguments Against Inclusion: Critics argue that anger is a symptom that can manifest across various psychiatric disorders (e.g., PTSD, Intermittent Explosive Disorder) rather than a standalone disorder. Over-diagnosis and pathologizing normal emotional responses are concerns. Ultimately, the decision to include Anger Disorder in the DSM should consider empirical evidence, clinical utility, and potential implications for treatment and stigma. 317. Describe the features and characteristics of pyromania. What do individuals who set fires find reinforcing about the act? Answer: Pyromania: Pyromania is characterized by deliberate and purposeful fire-setting behavior. Key features include: • Features: Individuals with pyromania experience tension or arousal before setting fires, followed by relief or pleasure during the act. There is often fascination with fire and its effects. • Characteristics: Unlike arson motivated by revenge or financial gain, pyromania involves fire-setting as a means of emotional release or gratification. • Reinforcement: Individuals find setting fires reinforcing due to the excitement, relief of tension, or a sense of control over their environment. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) to address underlying impulses and teach alternative coping strategies. Pharmacotherapy may also be considered in some cases to manage associated symptoms like impulsivity. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene 9780205965014, 9780135821688, 9780134458311, 9780205961719, 9780130052162

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