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Chapter 21—From 1900 to the Present Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which artist, who painted Houses at L’Estaque, worked with Picasso to promote the style called Cubism? a) Henri Matisse. b) Wassily Kandinsky. c) Georges Braque. d) Marcel Duchamp. Answer: c 2. Wassily Kandinsky’s Sketch I for Composition VII is an example of a) German Expressionism. b) French Surrealism. c) Fauvism. d) Italian Futurism. Answer: a 3. The paintings of Giacomo Balla capture the fascination with movement characteristic of artists of which movement? a) Dada b) Futurism c) Surrealism d) Abstract Expressionist Answer: b 4. Showing irreverence for tradition and rationality, Marcel Duchamp’s Mona Lisa [L.H.O.O.Q.] exemplifies which movement? a) Futurist b) Surrealist c) Dada d) Automatic Answer: c 5. Pablo Picasso’s Guernica represents an event in the a) Spanish Civil War. b) American Civil War. c) Korean War. d) Vietnam War. Answer: a 6. Using her work to struggle with the question of identity, this photographer’s images are self-portraits. a) Barbara Kruger b) Cindy Sherman c) Anne Truitt d) Frida Kahlo Answer: b 7. Which of these pieces is a Cubist painting? a) Georges Braque’s Violin and Palette b) Henri Matisse’s The Green Stripe c) Marcel Duchamp’s The Fountain d) Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory Answer: a 8. Cubism can best be described as: a) work based in irony and absurdity, in reaction to the horrors of World War I. b) art that is largely based on form. c) work that is based on the subconscious, non-rational self. d) work that attempts to depict objects/images from multiple perspectives simultaneously. Answer: b 9. Which of these is an example of Dada art? a) Georges Braque’s Violin and Palette b) Henri Matisse’s The Green Stripe c) Marcel Duchamp’s The Fountain d) Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory Answer: c 10. Which of these paintings is considered an Abstract Expressionist painting? a) Georges Braque’s Violin and Palette b) Henri Matisse’s The Green Stripe c) Marcel Duchamp’s The Fountain d) Willem de Kooning’s Woman and Bicycle Answer: d 11. The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali illustrates how he looked to his subconscious (dreams, hypnosis, psychoanalysis) for his subject matter. What artistic movement is he associated with? a) Surrealism b) American Regionalism c) Pop Art d) Abstract Expressionism e) Impressionism Answer: a 12. Chéri Samba’s Problème d’eau. Où trouver l’eau? is an ironic comment on a) the Tibetan crisis. b) development aid. c) the Cuban missile crisis. d) the Vietnam war. Answer: b 13. Which twentieth-century painting movement is most often associated with Henri Matisse? a) Postmodernism. b) Dada. c) Cubism. d) Fauvism. Answer: d 14. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque helped pioneer Cubist landscapes. What earlier painter of landscapes inspired them? a) Henri Matisse b) Paul Gauguin c) Paul Cézanne d) Jackson Pollock Answer: c 15. “Postmodernism” has been defined, in part, as a) the presence of diverse traditions in a single work. b) a reassessment of our urban environment. c) Neo-Gothic style for the 1990s. d) the new streamlining. Answer: a 16. The artist André Breton issued a manifesto that described the point of “resolution between these two states, dream and reality.” What was this movement? a) Dada b) Surrealism c) Modernish d) Suprematism Answer: b 17. In what aspect of the twentieth century were Umberto Boccioni and other Futurist artists most interested? a) photographic innovations b) movement and speed c) absolute rule d) acrylic paints Answer: b 18. The two major art movements of the 1960s were a) Pop Art and Fauvism. b) Expressionism and Combine Painting. c) Minimalism and Pop Art. d) Futurism and Op Art. Answer: c 19. The Cubists freed painting from the necessity of representing the world in order to dwell on a) form. b) texture c) content. d) emotion. Answer: a 20. Marianne Nicholson’s cliffside pictograph represents a Northwest Native American tradition that had been suppressed through most of the 20th century, called a) the potlatch. b) the Ghost Dance. c) buffalo hunts. d) vision quests. Answer: a 21. Henri Matisse was a leader of early 20th century artists who felt free to use color “arbitrarily” and were labeled, derogatorily, “Fauves”, which translates as a) false b) “Wild Beasts” c) fake d) crazy Answer: b Short Answer and Essay Questions 22. Wassily Kandinsky believed that the greatest device to express emotion was what? Answer: Wassily Kandinsky believed that the greatest device to express emotion was color. 23. In 1909, an Italian poet named Filippo Marinetti published a manifesto announcing the beginning of which movement? Answer: In 1909, an Italian poet named Filippo Marinetti published a manifesto announcing the beginning of the Futurist movement. 24. What was the name of the anti-art movement founded in Zurich, Berlin, Paris, and New York during World War I? Answer: The name of the anti-art movement founded in Zurich, Berlin, Paris, and New York during World War I was Dadaism. 25. Our perceptions of reality are dependent upon our senses. How might Surrealism, with its fantastic and sometimes disturbing dream-based imagery, be evidence of a more direct “reality”? Answer: Surrealism, with its fantastic and sometimes disturbing dream-based imagery, might be evidence of a more direct "reality" by tapping into the subconscious mind and revealing hidden truths and desires. By bypassing conventional rational thought processes, Surrealism seeks to access deeper layers of human experience and understanding, offering insights into the complexities of the human psyche and the nature of reality itself. 26. Discuss the significance of Marcel Duchamp’s 1917 work titled The Fountain. How has this work and others like it influenced modern art? Answer: Marcel Duchamp's 1917 work titled The Fountain, which was a urinal signed "R. Mutt," challenged traditional notions of art by questioning the concept of authorship, originality, and the role of the artist. This work, along with others like it, introduced the idea of the readymade or found object as art, thereby expanding the definition of art and paving the way for conceptual art and art movements such as Pop Art and Minimalism. Duchamp's radical gesture revolutionized the art world by emphasizing ideas over craftsmanship and opening up new avenues for artistic expression. 27. Explain the revolutionary aspects of the Cubist movement. Answer: The Cubist movement was revolutionary in its rejection of traditional perspective and representation, opting instead for fragmented forms, multiple viewpoints, and geometric abstraction. By deconstructing objects and figures into basic geometric shapes and rearranging them in a fractured manner, Cubist artists sought to depict the multidimensional nature of reality and convey a more dynamic and subjective experience of space and time. This innovative approach to form and composition revolutionized Western art and laid the foundation for abstraction and modern art movements. 28. Using examples from the chapter, discuss the directions taken by artists in the 1970s and 1980s. Answer: In the 1970s and 1980s, artists explored diverse directions and movements, including Conceptual Art, Minimalism, Performance Art, Neo-Expressionism, and Graffiti Art. For example, artists like Sol LeWitt and Joseph Kosuth embraced Conceptual Art, focusing on the idea or concept behind the artwork rather than its physical form. Minimalist artists such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin stripped art down to its essential elements, using simple geometric forms and industrial materials. In contrast, Neo-Expressionist painters like Jean-Michel Basquiat and Julian Schnabel reintroduced emotion and figuration into art, reacting against the formalism of Minimalism. Graffiti artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat utilized the streets as their canvas, addressing social and political issues through their bold and energetic visual language. These diverse movements reflected the experimentation, diversity, and social consciousness of the era. Test Bank for A World of Art Henry M. Sayre 9780205901340, 9780205887576, 9780134082349, 9780134081809, 9780205898879

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