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Chapter 18—The Age of Faith Multiple Choice Questions 1. Built by Justinian in the first half of the sixth century, what church was probably conceived as a political and religious statement? a) St. Apollinaire b) Santa Costanza c) San Vitale d) Hagia Sophia Answer: c 2. The medium for Theodora and her Attendants is a) fresco. b) encaustic. c) tempera. d) mosaic. Answer: d 3. Designed to capture the rhythms of the cosmos, Kandariya Mahadeva remains a a) major Hindu temple. b) shrine to Buddha. c) shrine to Shiva. d) major Islamic mosque. Answer: a 4. What is the church whose name means “Holy Wisdom?” a) Hagia Sophia b) Compostela c) Pisa Cordoba d) Pisano Vedas Answer: a 5. The Hinged clasp from the Sutton Hoo burial ship illustrates a distinguishing characteristic of the art of migrating peoples of the Middle Ages, most notably its a) focus on religious subject matter. b) focus on animal style. c) use of metal. d) craft tradition. Answer: b 6. The Head of a King (Oni) comes from a) the Olmec culture in Mesoamerica. b) the Ife culture in present-day Nigeria. c) the Harappan culture of India. d) the Hopewell culture of North America. Answer: b 7. Djingareyber and Córdoba, while very different in style and building materials, are both typical of what kind of architecture? a) Christian b) Islamic c) Buddhist d) Taoist Answer: b 8. Muslim architecture, like the Mosque at Córdoba, uses what to create a strong visual impression? a) light through stained-glass b) soaring interior spaces lit by high clerestory windows c) repetition and rhythm d) proportions based on the golden section Answer: c a) Carolingian art. b) Gothic art. c) Islamic art. d) Hindu art. Answer: a 10. The first Christian churches were patterned after basilicas used by the Romans as a) temples. b) baths. c) palaces. d) public buildings. Answer: d 11. The art of sculpture popular during ancient Roman times, reemerged during what period? a) Romanesque b) Egyptian c) Carolingian d) Greek Answer: a 12. One feature distinguishing Gothic architecture from Romanesque is the extensive use of a) stained glass. b) barrel vaulting. c) curved arches. d) domes. Answer: a 13. By the year 500 CE, most of the western empire had been overrun by barbarian tribes from the north. What emperor attempted to restore the lost empire? a) Constantine b) Charlemagne c) Justinian d) Theodora Answer: c 14. The tremendous dome of Hagia Sophia is supported by a) brick walls. b) four lintels. c) a wooden framework. d) four pendentives. Answer: d 15. In Romanesque architecture, flat ceilings were replaced with a) a new truss system. b) flying buttresses. c) pendentive arch ceilings. d) vaulted ceilings. Answer: d 16. The architecture of the Gothic church was able to reach an extraordinary height through what development? a) wooden trusses b) flying buttresses c) tympanum d) tesserae Answer: b 17. Constantine took power in Rome in 312 C.E. and signed the Edict of Milan in 313 C.E. How did this change the trajectory of western culture for the next 1000 years? a) it legalized Christianity, which became the dominant cultural force in Europe b) it outlawed Christianity, which forced it to go underground c) it reaffirmed pantheism, which led to the fall of Rome d) it declared war on the East, which led to the Crusades Answer: a 18. Just as Christianity affected culture in the West after antiquity, what affected culture in the East, effectively spreading from India, across all of Asia, to Japan? a) Islam b) Hinduism c) Taoism d) Buddhism Answer: d 19. What was the main intention of Byzantine mosaic artists? a) to create naturalistic images b) to create a symbolic, mystical art c) to glorify political leaders d) to make aesthetically-pleasing images Answer: b 20. How would you characterize Byzantine architectural exteriors? a) They were incredibly ornate. b) They utilized mosaic murals to relate stories from the Bible. c) Complex in elevation, they were plain and unadorned. d) They were soaring structures which utilized flying buttresses for support. Answer: c 21. When was Islam founded? a) In the 7th century CE b) In the 2nd century BCE c) In the 6th century CE d) In the 5th century BCE Answer: a 22. Compared to Romanesque sculpture, Gothic sculpture was a) much bigger b) much more naturalistic c) proportionally less accurate d) sculpted out of stone Answer: b 23. The Kandarya Temple, modeled on a mountain landscape and covered in sculpture and mosaics, inside and out, is an example of a) Hindu architecture. b) Buddhist architecture. c) Islamic architecture. d) Christian architecture. Answer: a Short Answer and Essay Questions 24. What was the major architectural form of Islam? Answer: The major architectural form of Islam was the mosque. 25. What was the Edict of Milan and when was it signed? Answer: The Edict of Milan was a decree issued by Emperor Constantine and co-emperor Licinius in 313 AD. It granted religious tolerance to Christians within the Roman Empire, effectively legalizing Christianity. 26. Mosaics are constructed from small pieces of stone called what? Answer: Mosaics are constructed from small pieces of stone called "tesserae." 27. What architectural form was favored during the Tang dynasty in China? Answer: The architectural form favored during the Tang dynasty in China was the pagoda. 28. What was the major religion practiced in Japan until the sixth century? Answer: The major religion practiced in Japan until the sixth century was Shintoism. 29. Discuss the characteristics of Santa Costanza. Why is this structure significant? Answer: Santa Costanza is a fourth-century church in Rome, known for its centralized plan with a domed rotunda. It features richly decorated mosaics depicting Christian symbols and scenes. Santa Costanza is significant as one of the earliest examples of a centrally planned Christian church, influencing later church architecture in the Byzantine and Romanesque periods. 30. Discuss the mosaics in San Vitale with regard to church and state. Answer: The mosaics in San Vitale, located in Ravenna, Italy, depict religious and secular themes, reflecting the close relationship between church and state during the Byzantine Empire. The mosaics portray religious figures such as Christ, the Virgin Mary, and saints, alongside Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora, emphasizing the emperor's role as both a political and religious leader. 31. Choose two examples from the chapter and compare and contrast the Romanesque style and the Gothic style. Answer: Two examples are the Romanesque Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe in France and the Gothic Chartres Cathedral in France. The Romanesque style is characterized by thick walls, rounded arches, and small windows, while the Gothic style features pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and large stained glass windows. Additionally, Romanesque churches tend to have a horizontal emphasis and solid massing, while Gothic cathedrals emphasize verticality and lightness. 32. Identify the architectural elements of the Islamic mosque and discuss their significance. Answer: The architectural elements of an Islamic mosque include the mihrab (prayer niche), minaret (tower), dome, and courtyard. The mihrab indicates the direction of Mecca and the qibla, while the minaret is used for the call to prayer. The dome symbolizes the celestial realm and serves as a visual focal point. The courtyard provides space for communal prayer and social gatherings. These elements reflect the functional and spiritual aspects of Islamic worship and architecture. Test Bank for A World of Art Henry M. Sayre 9780205901340, 9780205887576, 9780134082349, 9780134081809, 9780205898879

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