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2. Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior Multiple-Choice Questions 1. In the case study of “Jessica’s Little Secret,” Jessica’s bulimia nervosa is maladaptive in the sense that it can lead to A. extreme loss of weight. B. social problems. C. minor health problems. D. unwanted social attention from others that is commonly associated with maintaining an ideal body type. Answer: B 2. In contemporary times, the understanding of abnormal behavior has been largely approached from _______________. A. spiritual perspectives B. mathematical models C. natural and social science theoretical models D. historical perspectives Answer: C 3. Many scholars today believe that abnormal behavior patterns are ______________. A. best explained with biological models B. complex phenomena that are best understood by taking into account multiple perspectives C. adaptations to difficult-to-understand modern social structures D. the result of the alienation associated with large, rapidly changing cultures Answer: B 4. The medical model represents a ______ perspective on abnormal behavior. A. phenomenological B. behavioral C. biological D. cognitive Answer: C 5. Our understanding of the biological underpinnings of abnormal behavior has ______ in recent years. A. been eliminated B. declined C. remained unchanged D. grown Answer: D 6. The nervous system is made up of cells called ______. A. somas B. neurons C. axons D. synapses Answer: B 7. Neurons are ______ cells. A. glial B. connective C. adipose D. nerve Answer: D 8. The part of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called the ______. A. nucleus B. axon C. dendrite D. soma Answer: C 9. The part of the neuron that transmits messages to other neurons is called the ______. A. nucleus B. axon C. dendrite D. soma Answer: B 10. Axons can extend as long as several __________. A. millimetres B. inches C. feet D. meters Answer: C 11. Terminals are located at the end of ______. A. nuclei B. axons C. dendrites D. somas Answer: B 12. Neurons transmit messages to other neurons by means of chemical substances known as ______. A. precursors B. hormones C. neurotransmitters D. peptides Answer: C 13. Neurotransmitters induce ______ in receiving neurons. A. dendrites B. somas C. chemical changes D. structural changes Answer: C 14. The junction between a transmitting neuron and a receiving neuron is called the ______. A. sheath B. synapse C. hillock D. knob Answer: B 15. The proper sequence of structures a neural message passes through as it moves from one neuron to the next is ______. A. dendrite, cell body, axon B. dendrite, axon, cell body C. axon, cell body, dendrite D. cell body, dendrite, axon Answer: A 16. Receptor sites are located on the ______. A. endocrine system B. axons C. dendrites D. cell body Answer: C 17. The part of a dendrite on a receiving neuron that is structured to receive a neurotransmitter is the ______. A. terminal B. receptor site C. myelin sheath D. hillock Answer: B 18. Each kind of neurotransmitter ______. A. is unique and will fit into only one type of receptor site B. will fit into several types, but not most types of receptor sites C. will fit into most, but not all types of receptor sites D. will fit into every type of receptor site Answer: A 19. The process of neurotransmitters being reabsorbed by the axon terminal is called ______. A. diffusion B. recycling C. reuptake D. regurgitation Answer: C 20. Anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, and eating disorders have been linked to imbalances of _______. A. acetylcholine B. dopamine C. serotonin D. epinephrine Answer: C 21. Two popular antidepressants, Prozac and Zoloft, increase the availability of _______ in the brain. A. acetylcholine B. dopamine C. serotonin D. cortisol Answer: C 22. Alzheimer's disease has been associated with deficiencies of _______. A. acetylcholine B. dopamine C. norepinephrine D. serotonin Answer: A 23. Schizophrenia has been linked to overutilization of _______. A. acetylcholine B. dopamine C. norepinephrine D. serotonin Answer: B 24. A neurotransmitter linked to anxiety disorders and depression is ______. A. thyroxin B. acetylcholine C. dopamine D. serotonin Answer: D 25. The two major parts of the nervous system are the _______. A. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems B. central and peripheral nervous systems C. brain and spinal cord D. autonomic and somatic nervous systems Answer: B 26. The brain and spinal cord make up the ______ nervous system. A. central B. somatic C. sympathetic D. parasympathetic Answer: A 27. The ______ nervous system is made up of nerves that receive and transmit sensory messages to the brain. A. central B. peripheral C. reticular D. limbic Answer: B 28. The hindbrain consists of _____________. A. the pons, thalamus, and reticular activating system B. the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus C. the medulla, pons, and cerebellum D. the cerebellum, reticular activating system, and hippocampus Answer: C 29. The medulla, pons, and cerebellum are all parts of the ______. A. forebrain B. prebrain C. midbrain D. hindbrain Answer: D 30. The ______ plays a role in vital functions like heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. A. pons B. reticular activating system C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: C 31. The ______ transmits information about body movement and is involved in functions related to attention, sleep, and respiration. A. pons B. thalamus C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: A 32. The ______ is located behind the pons and is involved in balance and motor behavior. A. cerebrum B. reticular activating system C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: D 33. Celia is having difficulty maintaining her balance and coordinating her muscle movements. Assuming her problems result from a brain injury, one would first examine her _______. A. pons B. thalamus C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: D 34. The ______ lies just above the hindbrain and contains neural pathways linking the hindbrain to the upper regions of the brain. A. forebrain B. prebrain C. midbrain D. underbrain Answer: C 35. The ______ extends from the hindbrain to the lower part of the forebrain and is involved in regulating states of arousal. A. pons B. medulla C. reticular activating system D. cerebellum Answer: C 36. The ______ plays vital roles in regulating sleep, attention, and arousal. A. limbic system B. reticular activating system C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: B 37. Depressant drugs, such as alcohol, lower activity in the ______. A. reticular activating system B. amygdala C. cochlea D. optic chiasm Answer: A 38. The reticular activating system is part of the ______. A. parietal region B. prebrain C. midbrain D. occipital lobe Answer: C 39. The part of the brain involved with states of arousal is A. cerebellum. B. hippocampus. C. reticular activating system. D. basal ganglia. Answer: C 40. The ______ relays sensory information from the sense organs (i.e., the eyes and ears) to higher regions of the brain. A. thalamus B. hypothalamus C. basal ganglia D. cerebellum Answer: A 41. The ______, in coordination with the reticular activating system, is involved in such functions as sleep and attention. A. cingulate nucleus B. thalamus C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: B 42. The ______ is a tiny structure located under the thalamus. A. cingulate gyrus B. cerebellum C. hippocampus D. hypothalamus Answer: D 43. The ______ is vital in regulating body temperature, fluid concentrations, and motivation and emotional states. A. thalamus B. hypothalamus C. basal ganglia D. cerebellum Answer: B 44. The ______ is involved in a range of motivational drives and behaviors, including hunger, thirst, sex, parenting behaviors, and aggression. A. thalamus B. hypothalamus C. basal ganglia D. cerebellum Answer: B 45. The hypothalamus is part of the ______. A. limbic system B. endocrine system C. basal ganglia D. hindbrain Answer: A 46. The ______ plays a role in emotional processing and memory and in regulating basic drives involving hunger, thirst, and aggression. A. basal ganglia B. cerebellum C. reticular activating system D. limbic system Answer: D 47. The ______ regulate(s) postural movements and coordination. A. basal ganglia B. thalamus C. pons D. limbic system Answer: A 48. The ______ is the brain’s “crowning glory,” and is responsible for most thinking processes. A. cerebellum B. cerebrum C. corpus callosum D. limbic system Answer: B 49. The cerebral cortex makes up the surface of the ______. A. cerebrum B. cerebellum C. corpus callosum D. limbic system Answer: A 50. The deterioration of the basal ganglia is associated with ______. A. Alzheimer’s disease B. Schizophrenia C. Huntington’s disease D. Autism Answer: C 51. The ______ has been implicated in certain types of sleep disorders. A. medulla B. amygdala C. hippocampus D. hypothalamus Answer: D 52. The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _______ nervous systems. A. sympathetic and somatic B. sympathetic and central C. autonomic and somatic D. sympathetic and parasympathetic Answer: C 53. The ______ nervous system transmits visual messages, auditory messages, and information such as body position and temperature to the brain. A. somatic B. autonomic C. sympathetic D. parasympathetic Answer: A 54. The somatic nervous system is associated with processing ____________. A. emotions B. complex thought C. information from glands and involuntary bodily processes D. messages from sense organs Answer: D 55. Messages from the brain to the ______ nervous system regulate intentional body movements like raising an arm and walking. A. somatic B. central C. sympathetic D. parasympathetic Answer: A 56. The ______ nervous system regulates the glands and involuntary activities such as heart rate, digestion, and pupil dilation. A. somatic B. autonomic C. central D. limbic Answer: B 57. The ______ nervous system is also known as the “automatic” nervous system. A. central B. somatic C. autonomic D. endocrine Answer: C 58. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are part of the ______ nervous system. A. central B. somatic C. autonomic D. endocrine Answer: C 59. The autonomic nervous system has two branches, the _________. A. central and peripheral B. somatic and peripheral C. somatic and sympathetic D. sympathetic and parasympathetic Answer: D 60. Allen is in his house alone late at night when he hears a loud, frightening noise. His heart begins pounding, his senses sharpen, and his muscles tense up. Allen's reaction is due to the activity of his ______ nervous system. A. sympathetic B. parasympathetic C. somatic D. central Answer: A 61. Len sits down to relax in his easy chair after a long, hard day at work. As he sits reading his paper, he grows more relaxed. His breathing and heart rate slow down, and his muscles loosen. Len's relaxation is due to the activity of his ______ nervous system. A. sympathetic B. parasympathetic C. somatic D. central Answer: B 62. When we relax, the ______ decelerates the heart rate. A. pons B. cerebellum C. parasympathetic nervous system D. right hemisphere Answer: C 63. During processes that replenish energy reserves, such as digestion, ______. A. neither the sympathetic nor the parasympathetic divisions are active B. the sympathetic division is most active C. the parasympathetic division is most active D. both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are equally active Answer: C 64. When we are anxious or fearful, ______. A. neither the sympathetic nor the parasympathetic divisions are active B. the sympathetic division is most active C. the parasympathetic division is most active D. both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are equally active Answer: B 65. Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into ______ lobes. A. two B. four C. six D. eight Answer: B 66. The visual processing area of the cortex lies in the ______ lobe. A. frontal B. parietal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: D 67. The occipital lobe is primarily involved in processing ______. A. sensations of touch and pain B. muscle control C. auditory stimuli D. visual stimuli Answer: D 68. Susan was in a serious car accident and lost her vision as a result of the injuries she sustained. Susan may have suffered damage to her ______. A. amygdala B. prefrontal cortex C. occipital lobe D. temporal lobe Answer: C 69. The auditory area of the cortex lies in the ______ lobe. A. frontal B. parietal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: C 70. Maria accidentally collided with a tree while she was skiing and subsequently lost some of her ability to hear. Maria’s accident most likely resulted in damage to her ______. A. temporal lobe B. occipital lobe C. parietal lobe D. frontal lobe Answer: A 71. The area of the cortex involved in skin sensation is the ______ lobe. A. frontal B. parietal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: B 72. The parietal lobe is involved in processing ______. A. visual stimuli B. auditory stimuli C. muscle control D. sensations of touch, temperature and pain Answer: D 73. The sensory area of the ______ lobe receives messages from skin sensors all over the body. A. parietal B. temporal C. frontal D. occipital Answer: A 74. Ever since John had a stroke, he must be careful when cooking on the stove because he cannot feel hot temperatures and he could burn himself. Most likely John has suffered damage to his ______. A. prefrontal cortex B. frontal lobe C. parietal lobe D. temporal lobe Answer: C 75. The area of the cortex most involved in memory, speech, language, and the controlling of voluntary muscle response is the ______ lobe. A. frontal B. parietal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: A 76. The prefrontal cortex lies in front of the ______. A. occipital lobe B. parietal lobe C. motor cortex D. cerebellum Answer: C 77. The ______ is involved in higher mental functions like use of language, problem solving, and thought. A. limbic system B. parasympathetic nervous system C. cerebellum D. prefrontal cortex Answer: D 78. The motor cortex is part of the ______ lobe. A. frontal B. parietal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: A 79. Unlike many psychological disorders, Alzheimer’s disease ______. A. involves only one area of the brain B. requires an interaction between biological processes and environment C. does not involve personality changes D. is caused chiefly by biological processes Answer: D 80. The field of epigenetics focuses on how _________. A. environmental factors influence genetic expression B. genetic factors influence unconscious motives C. learning theories affect environmental factors D. humanistic theories determine DNA Answer: A 81. According to the principles of epigenetics, early life experiences, such as stress, diet, sexual or physical abuse, and exposure to toxic chemicals, may determine ___________. A. whether new neurons develop in the brain B. whether certain genes become switched on or remain dormant later in life C. if repressed issues manifest themselves later in adulthood D. if DNA is passed on to the next generation Answer: B 82. Using their new genetic knowledge, scientists aspire to successfully treat mental disorders by ______. A. blocking the effects of harmful or defective genes B. developing patches to deliver medication C. cloning newborns D. finding compatible tissue donors Answer: A 83. As the debate on epigenetics continues, the authors of your textbook offer a few key points to consider. Which of the following is one of those key points? A. Genes dictate behavioral outcomes. B. Genetic factors make it a certainty that certain behaviors or disorders will develop. C. Multigenetic determinism affects psychological disorders. D. Genetic factors and environmental influence do not interact with each other in determining our vulnerability to a range of psychological disorders. Answer: C 84. The debate of heredity versus environment is also known as ______. A. genes versus means B. Mendel versus Darwin C. body versus soul D. nature versus nurture Answer: D 85. For monozygotic (identical) twins, if one twin develops schizophrenia, the odds that the other twin will also develop schizophrenia are about ______ percent. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 100 Answer: B 86. The contemporary view of the nature-nurture debate is best expressed in terms of ______. A. neither nature nor nurture B. nature, not nurture C. nurture, not nature D. nature and nurture acting together Answer: D 87. According to Freud, unconscious motives and conflicts revolve around ______. A. a drive for self-actualization B. primitive sexual and aggressive instincts C. learned motives D. irrational thinking Answer: B 88. According to Freud, abnormal behavior patterns represent symptoms ________ A. indicating that the individual is overwhelmed by negative environmental stimuli B. resulting from a physiological breakdown in the neural pathways of the cerebral cortex C. indicating that the sufferers consciously use illness to manipulate others into paying attention to them D. of dynamic struggles taking place within the unconscious mind Answer: D 89. Which of the following is one of the three structures of the mind described by Freud? A. the conscious B. the post conscious C. the superego D. the libido Answer: A 90. A region of the mind that corresponds to one’s present awareness is called ______. A. conscious B. superconscious C. superego D. hypothalamus Answer: A 91. Freud postulated that that awareness of our basic urges would result in ______. A. insight B. depression C. anxiety D. catharsis Answer: C 92. According to Freud, the part of the mind that is largely hidden and can only be brought into awareness with great difficulty, if at all, is the ______. A. conscious B. superconscious C. preconscious D. unconscious Answer: D 93. Freud’s structural hypothesis proposes that the personality is divided into ______ mental entities. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: B 94. Freudian theory states that the only psychic structure present at birth is the ______. A. id B. superego C. ego D. persona Answer: A 95. According to Freud, the ______ follows the pleasure principle. A. id B. superego C. ego D. persona Answer: A 96. An infant demands instant gratification of its needs without consideration of social customs or the needs of others. The infant is responding to the ______ principle. A. survival B. reality C. Oedipal D. pleasure Answer: D 97. In Freudian terms, the ______ is the part of the mind where we can find memories that we are not aware of, but can be brought into our awareness by focusing on them. A. conscious B. latent conscious C. subconscious D. unconscious Answer: C 98. Moral standards and values of a child's parents and other important people in his or her life become internalized during ______. A. adolescence B. late childhood C. middle childhood D. early childhood Answer: C 99. Freud proposed that a child's moral standards become internalized through the formation of the ______. A. id B. ego C. superego D. alter-ego Answer: C 100. Which Freudian construct endeavors to satisfy cravings without offending moral standards? A. ego B. superego C. id D. fixation Answer: A 101. Rachel’s boyfriend is pressing her to have sex; her parents have brought her up to believe that premarital sex is wrong. As she weighs out her decision, Rachel frequently thinks of what her parents have taught her. Based on Rachel’s thoughts, which Freudian psychic structure appears to be influencing her decision ? A. id B. ego C. superego D. persona Answer: C 102. Freud believed we protect ourselves from allowing socially unacceptable wishes or impulses that would be inconsistent with our moral values or social responsibilities from rising into conscious awareness through the use of ______. A. response sets B. defense mechanisms C. secondary process thinking D. primary process thinking Answer: B 103. The ego uses defense mechanisms to ______. A. prevent socially unacceptable desires from reaching the unconscious parts of the mind B. prevent socially unacceptable desires from rising into consciousness C. mobilize the body to fight off or run away from an external threat D. prevent the superego from thwarting id desires Answer: B 104. The most basic defense mechanism is ______. A. regression B. repression C. denial D. rationalization Answer: B 105. Defense mechanisms involve a dynamic struggle between the ______. A. ego and the conscience B. ego and the superego C. id and the pleasure principle D. id and the ego Answer: D 106. People can remain outwardly calm and controlled while they inwardly harbor murderous or lustful impulses of which they are unaware through Freudian defense mechanism known as ______. A. regression B. projection C. identification D. repression Answer: D 107. Freud noted that slips of the tongue and ordinary forgetfulness can represent hidden motives that are kept out of consciousness by ______. A. repression B. displacement C. denial D. sublimation Answer: A 108. The use of justifications, or excuses, for unacceptable behavior is a form of self-deception that is called ______. A. projection B. sublimation C. reaction formation D. rationalization Answer: D 109. A man explains his cheating on his income taxes by saying, “Everyone does it, and besides the government steals from me every week” is using the defense mechanism of ______. A. rationalization B. projection C. reaction formation D. identification Answer: A 110. A woman who has been reprimanded at work by her boss and quietly accepts his criticism. She later yells at her children without provocation from them. The defense mechanism she is using is ______. A. projection B. displacement C. sublimation D. regression Answer: B 111. The defense mechanism where one imposes one's own unacceptable impulses or wishes onto another person is ______. A. projection B. displacement C. sublimation D. reaction formation Answer: A 112. A sexually frustrated woman interprets innocent glances from others as sexual advances. Her defense mechanism is ______. A. rationalization B. reaction formation C. displacement D. projection Answer: D 113. Adopting public behaviors that are the extreme opposite of one's genuine desires in order to keep those desires repressed is called ______. A. displacement B. sublimation C. reaction formation D. denial Answer: C 114. A conservative man who cannot accept his own sexual desires begins a highly publicized crusade to stamp out pornography. His defense mechanism is ______. A. repression B. reaction formation C. projection D. displacement Answer: B 115. A college student with a "D-" average tells her parents that school is going well and refuses to admit to herself that she might fail. Her defense mechanism is ______. A. denial B. repression C. sublimation D. reaction formation Answer: A 116. The channeling of unacceptable impulses into positive, constructive pursuits is called ______. A. sublimation B. displacement C. reaction formation D. projection Answer: A 117. Freud argued that ______ are the dominant factors in the development of personality, even among children. A. security needs B. self-actualizing tendencies C. sexual drives D. cognitive styles Answer: C 118. The word ______ is probably closest in present-day meaning to what Freud meant by sexuality. A. lust B. infatuation C. sensuality D. stimulation Answer: C 119. According to Freud, the basic drive to preserve and perpetuate life is called ______. A. libido B. Eros C. thanatos D. self-actualization Answer: B 120. Freud believed that sexual energy is expressed through sexual pleasure in different body parts called ______ zones. A. subduction B. transference C. Oedipal D. erogenous Answer: D 121. Freud proposed several stages of ______ development. A. cognitive B. moral C. psychosexual D. psychosocial Answer: C 122. For Freud, the stages of human development are ______ in nature. A. familial B. psychosexual C. regressive D. creative Answer: B 123. The correct chronological order of Freud's stages of development is ______. A. anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital B. anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital C. oral, anal, genital, latency, phallic D. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital Answer: D 124. The Freudian stages of human development correspond to the transfer of ______ from one ______ to another. A. libidinal energy; erogenous zone B. eros; libido C. anxiety; psychic structure D. knowledge; area of the mind Answer: A 125. Mary is a baby and likes to put everything she touches into her mouth to suck on it or bite on it. According to Freud, she is in the ______ stage. A. anal B. oral C. latency D. phallic Answer: B 126. The phallic stage generally begins during the ______ year of life. A. second B. third C. fourth D. fifth Answer: B 127. The conflict hypothesized by Freud in which little boys sexually desire their mothers and wish to eliminate their fathers is called the ______. A. Electra complex B. Odysseus complex C. Oedipus complex D. Thanatos complex Answer: C 128. The conflict hypothesized by Freud in which little girls sexually desire their fathers and wish to eliminate their mothers is called the ______. A. Electra complex B. Odysseus complex C. Oedipus complex D. Thanatos complex Answer: A 129. According to Freud, sexual drives diminish and children’s interests become more directed toward school and play activities during the ______ stage. A. oral B. latency C. phallic D. genital Answer: B 130. In Freud’s theory , mature sexuality emerges only during the ______ stage. A. oral B. latency C. genital D. phallic Answer: C 131. According to Freud, too little or too much gratification at any stage can lead to ______. A. resistance B. fixation C. counter-transference D. transference Answer: B 132. Sean is a 38-year-old man who suffers from alcoholism, smokes, overeats, and bites his nails. Freud would most likely say that Sean is fixated in the ______ stage of development. A. anal B. oral C. latency D. phallic Answer: B 133. Orally fixated adults, according to Freud, may tend to become socially ______. A. isolated B. dependent C. gregarious D. angry Answer: B 134. In general, contemporary psychodynamic theorists believe that one’s behavior is a reflection of ______. A. conscious motivation B. unresolved longings for the opposite sex parent C. defensive responses to anxiety D. basic instincts such as sex and aggression Answer: C 135. To Jung, the accumulated experiences of humankind are passed down genetically through the generations in the ______. A. personal unconscious B. anima C. animus D. collective unconscious Answer: D 136. The idea of a “collective unconscious” is most closely linked to the thinking of ______. A. Carl Jung B. Erik Erikson C. Alfred Adler D. Karen Horney Answer: A 137. According to Jung, the collective unconscious contains primitive images, or ______, reflects upon the history of our species. A. ancestral schemas B. personal constructs C. archetypes D. social constructs Answer: C 138. Mythical images such as the all-powerful God, the young hero, the nurturing mother, the wise old man, and the evil demon are examples of what Jung called ______. A. ancestral schemas B. personal constructs C. archetypes D. social constructs Answer: C 139. The theorist credited with developing analytical psychology was ______. A. Eric Erikson B. Alfred Adler C. Karen Horney D. Carl Jung Answer: D 140. Alfred Adler believed that people were basically driven by ______. A. the sexual instinct B. an inferiority complex C. basic anxiety D. psychosocial motives Answer: B 141. According to Adler, feelings of inferiority due to physical deficits can lead to the development of a powerful ______. A. need for security B. set of defense mechanisms C. identity crisis D. drive for superiority Answer: D 142. According to Adler, the self-aware aspect of our personality that strives to overcome obstacles and develop our individual potential is called ______. A. the self-actualizing tendency B. the persona C. the ego ideal D. the creative self Answer: D 143. Adler shifted the emphasis of psychodynamic theory from the ______. A. ego to the id B. ego to the superego C. id to the superego D. id to the ego Answer: -D 144. Adler's psychological theory has been termed ______. A. analytical psychology B. ego psychology C. individual psychology D. client-centred psychology Answer: C 145. Which of the following terms is most closely associated with the thinking of Karen Horney? A. the collective unconscious B. basic anxiety C. an inferiority complex D. ego identity Answer: B 146. Karen Horney stressed the importance of ______ in the development of emotional problems. A. psychosocial development B. psychosexual development C. parent-child relationships D. an inferiority complex Answer: C 147. Heinz Hartmann was one of the originators of ______. A. analytical psychology B. individual psychology C. ego psychology D. client-centred psychology Answer: C 148. Unlike Freud, Hartmann would not attribute a choice of a career in art to ______. A. sublimation B. repression C. reaction formation D. displacement Answer: A 149. A noted psychologist argues that the ego is the dominant part of personality and its cognitive functions can be free of conflict. It is capable of making growth-oriented choices such as seeking an education, dedicating oneself to art or poetry, or furthering the good of humanity, and these choices are more than simply defensive forms of sublimation. This psychologist's views are MOST similar to those of ______. A. Heinz Hartmann B. Carl Jung C. Sigmund Freud D. E. L. Thorndike Answer: A 150. Erik Erikson attributed more importance to children's _____ than to unconscious processes. A. social relationships B. moral maturity C. cognitive development D. sexual maturity Answer: A 151. Erikson's theory of development differs from Freud's in that it claims that mental development ______. A. is complete by age six B. is complete by puberty C. is complete by young adulthood D. continues throughout life Answer: D 152. According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is the development of ______. A. physical maturity B. genital sexuality C. ego identity D. self-actualization Answer: C 153. The psychodynamic theory which focuses on how children come to develop symbolic representations of important others in their lives, especially their parents, is called ______. A. psychoanalysis B. object-relations theory C. ego psychology D. Gestalt theory Answer: B 154. For Margaret Mahler, the key to personality development is ______. A. social relationships with peers B. cognitive development C. separation from the mother D. someone’s style of coping with guilt Answer: C 155. Margaret Mahler is most closely associated with ______ theory. A. psychoanalysis B. object-relations theory C. individual psychology D. Gestalt theory Answer: B 156. Which of the following theorists is most closely associated with object-relations theory? A. Heinz Hartman B. Margaret Mahler C. Harry Stack Sullivan D. Karen Horney Answer: B 157. The process of introjection was most crucial to the theory of ______. A. Erik Erickson B. Alfred Adler C. Carl Jung D. Margaret Mahler Answer: D 158. Freud believed that the underlying conflicts in psychological disorders ______. A. had childhood origins B. had adolescent origins C. were learned in adulthood D. disappeared by adulthood Answer: A 159. According to Freud, when the id breaks completely through to consciousness and the ego is no longer able to keep a lid on its urges, ______ results. A. compulsiveness B. neurosis C. psychosis D. psychopathic behavior Answer: C 160. A severe form of disturbed behavior characterized by impaired ability to interpret reality and difficulty meeting the demands of daily life is ______. A. neurosis B. symbiosis C. catharsis D. psychosis Answer: D 161. Harlan suffers from bizarre hallucinations and delusions of persecution in which he believes demons are tormenting him. He often babbles aimlessly and contorts his body into grotesque positions, claiming the demons are doing it to him. Freud would argue that Harlan has ______. A. a neurosis B. a personality disorder C. a psychosis D. an excess of free association Answer: C 162. For Freud, psychological health was related to ______. A. the abilities to love and work B. differentiation of the self C. compensation for feelings of inferiority D. positive outcomes of resolving life crises Answer: A 163. For both Jung and Adler, psychological health was related to ______. A. the abilities to love and work B. differentiation of the self C. compensation for feelings of inferiority D. positive outcomes of resolving life crises Answer: B 164. Adler, but not Jung, felt that psychological health was related to ______. A. the abilities to love and work B. differentiation of the self C. compensation for feelings of inferiority D. positive outcomes of resolving life crises Answer: C 165. Maureen is feeling increasingly anxious. Her therapist suggests to Maureen that she has not psychologically separated herself from her mother. Maureen’s therapist most likely agrees with the theories of ______. A. Erik Erickson B. Karen Horney C. Carl Jung D. Margaret Mahler Answer: D 166. Which of the following is true of psychodynamic theory? A. Psychodynamic theory fails to adequately account for the effects of sexual and aggressive impulses. B. The impact of psychodynamic theory was limited to the late 19th century and contributed little to modern views of psychological disorders. C. Freud’s ideas of childhood sexuality were both illuminating and controversial. D. Freud’s theory increased awareness that people may be motivated by an innate drive for self-actualization. Answer: C 167. Which of the following is a criticism of Freud's theory? A. Many of Freud’s concepts cannot be scientifically proved or disproved. B. Freud underemphasized the importance of unconscious processes on behavior. C. Freud overemphasized the role of social relationships in shaping personality. D. Freud placed too much emphasis on early childhood experiences in the development of personality. Answer: A 168. The first major psychological theories of abnormal behavior were ______. A. phenomenological theories B. behavioral theories C. organic theories D. psychodynamic theories Answer: D 169. The American psychologist who is known as the "father of behaviourism" is ______. A. John B. Watson B. B. F. Skinner C. William James D. Carl Rogers Answer: A 170. The behavioral perspective views abnormal behavior as ______. A. symptomatic of underlying psychological problems B. symptomatic of underlying biological problems C. the incurable result of a person's genetically inherited traits D. learned in much the same way as normal behavior Answer: D 171. Which of the following would a behavior therapist attribute abnormal behavior to? A. failure to resolve feelings of inferiority B. failure to establish a distinctive and individual identity C. neglectful or abusive parents D. conflicts between the id and superego Answer: C 172. Which of the following scientists is associated with behaviorism? A. John B. Watson B. Abraham Maslow C. Alfred Adler D. Carl Rogers Answer: A 173. According to Freud, psychological health is equated with ___________. A. being able to obtain appropriate reinforcement from the environment B. emotional differentiation from the mother C. having the ability to love and work D. being able to forgive and forget Answer: B 174. The learning perspective views abnormal behavior as __________________. A. being symptomatic of underlying biological problems B. developing from unresolved unconscious conflict C. the problem itself D. stemming from societal problems Answer: C 175. In ______ conditioning, conditioned and unconditioned responses are elicited by stimuli. A. operant B. classical C. introjective D. reactive Answer: B 176. A scientist rings a bell just prior to presenting meat to the dogs in his laboratory. After several pairings, the dogs begin salivating when the bell is rung, even when no meat is presented. In this study, the meat is the ______. A. unconditioned stimulus B. unconditioned response C. conditioned stimulus D. conditioned response Answer: A 177. A scientist rings a bell just prior to presenting meat to the dogs in his laboratory. After several pairings, the dogs begin salivating when the bell is rung, even when no meat is presented. In this study, the bell is the ______. A. unconditioned stimulus B. unconditioned response C. conditioned stimulus D. conditioned response Answer: C 178. A little boy is allowed to play with a laboratory rat and shows no fear of it. Then, a scientist makes a scary noise by banging an iron bar whenever the little boy reaches for the rat. Soon, the boy begins crying whenever the rat comes near him. In this study, the scary noise is the ______. A. unconditioned stimulus B. unconditioned response C. conditioned stimulus D. conditioned response Answer: A 179. A little boy is allowed to play with a laboratory rat and shows no fear of it. Then, a scientist makes a scary noise by banging an iron bar whenever the little boy reaches for the rat. Soon, the boy begins crying whenever the rat comes near him. In this study, the boy's fear of the rat is the ______. A. unconditioned stimulus B. unconditioned response C. conditioned stimulus D. conditioned response Answer: D 180. Flinching at the sound of the dentist's drill as you are sitting in the dental office waiting room is an example of ______. A. classical conditioning B. operant conditioning C. cue-controlled desensitization D. negative reinforcement Answer: A 181. Ashley is riding on an elevator when the lights suddenly go off and the elevator stops, trapping her inside. After an hour, electricity is restored and Ashley is able to safely exit the elevator. Ashley subsequently refuses to ride on an elevator because she is “afraid.” Ashley’s fear is the result of ______. A. psychodynamic conditioning B. negative reinforcement C. classical conditioning D. aversive conditioning Answer: C 182. An example of a disorder that may be acquired through classical conditioning is ______. A. bipolar disorder B. hysteria C. obsessive compulsive anxiety disorder D. phobia Answer: D 183. The “Little Albert” study was important because it demonstrated that a fear response in ______. A. animals could be classically conditioned B. animals could be operantly conditioned C. humans could be classically conditioned D. humans could be operantly conditioned Answer: C 184. In the “Little Albert” study, an 11-month-old boy was taught to fear a rat through ______. A. observational learning B. classical conditioning C. cognitive retraining D. operant conditioning Answer: B 185. In ______ conditioning, organisms learn to emit behaviors because of the behavior's consequences. A. operant B. classical C. aversive D. reactive Answer: A 186. The person most closely associated with operant conditioning is ______. A. Watson B. Skinner C. Pavlov D. Bandura Answer: B 187. Changes in the environment that increase the frequency of the preceding behavior are called ______. A. operants B. stimuli C. reinforcers D. fixations Answer: C 188. A stimulus or event that increases the frequency of the response that it follows is called ______. A. an unconditioned response B. punishment C. an unconditioned stimulus D. positive reinforcement Answer: D 189. A scientist gives a rat a food pellet every time it presses a bar. This is an example of ______. A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. classical conditioning D. aversive conditioning Answer: A 190. Reinforcers that, when introduced, increase the frequency of the preceding behavior, are called ______ reinforcers. A. manifest B. positive C. negative D. latent Answer: B 191. A mother repeatedly comes to her son’s room and nags him about cleaning his room. When the boy cleans his room, the mother stops nagging. This is an example of _______________. A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. punishment D. aversive conditioning Answer: B 192. The terms “positive reinforcement” and ______ are used interchangeably. A. “response” B. “negative reinforcement” C. “reward” D. “improvement” Answer: C 193. Stimuli that increase the frequency of a behavior when they are removed are called ______. A. positive reinforcers B. negative reinforcers C. punishers D. aversive conditioners Answer: B 194. Fred sleeps soundly. His alarm makes a loud beeping noise every morning at 7:00AM. Fred’s getting out of bed and turning off the alarm is an example of ____________. A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. punishment D. aversive conditioning Answer: B 195. Painful or aversive stimuli that decrease or suppress the frequency of the preceding behavior are known as ______. A. positive reinforcers B. negative reinforcers C. extinguishers D. punishments Answer: D 196. According to your text, which of the following statements regarding punishment is true? A. Punishment encourages the individual to be more attentive in most learning situations. B. Punishment may generate anger and hostility rather than constructive learning. C. Punishment eliminates undesirable behavior rather than suppressing it. D. Punishment reinforces the individual’s ability to understand and willingness to engage in appropriate behavior. Answer: B 197. According to the behaviorists, “normal” or adaptive behavior involves learning behaviors that allow us to _______ positive reinforcers and to ______ negative reinforcers. A. obtain; obtain B. obtain ; avoid C. seek out ; negotiate D. value; disregard Answer: B 198. Which of the following persons has contributed to the development of social-cognitive theory? A. Albert Bandura B. Carl Rogers C. Heinz Hartmann D. Harry Stack Sullivan Answer: A 199. Social-cognitive theorists expanded the traditional learning theory by introducing the concept of _________. A. negative reinforcement B. modelling C. attention D. positive reinforcement Answer: B 200. Social-cognitive theorists emphasize the role of ______ and modelling in shaping personality. A. biological influences B. self-actualization C. classical conditioning D. thinking Answer: D 201. The process of acquiring new behaviors and knowledge by imitating others is called ______. A. conditioning B. abreaction C. modelling D. implementing Answer: C 202. A learning-based theory that emphasizes observational learning and incorporates roles for cognitive variables in determining behavior is ______. A. Gestalt theory B. humanistic theory C. social-cognitive theory D. sociocultural theory Answer: C 203. Which of the following concepts would be important to a social-cognitive theorist? A. self-actualization B. unconscious conflicts C. expectancies D. inherited traits Answer: C 204. Personal beliefs about outcomes of engaging in particular behaviors are called ______. A. expectancies B. competencies C. encoding strategies D. antecedents Answer: A 205. Frank’s father was a criminal and spent considerable time showing Frank how to break into different kinds of locks and doors as a child. Later in life, Frank also becomes a criminal. Whose theory of learning would best explain Frank’s behavior? A. Pavlov B. Skinner C. Watson D. Bandura Answer: D 206. Gloria goes to a therapist for treatment of her test anxiety. Her therapist says that her test anxiety is a learned reaction to the extreme demands for achievement placed on her by her parents while she was growing up. The therapist says that Gloria can learn to correct her test anxiety by learning to relax in test-taking situations. Gloria's therapist is using the ______ model of treatment. A. psychoanalytic B. humanistic C. behavioral D. sociocultural Answer: C 207. Behavior therapy is also referred to as A. behavior modification B. expectancy awareness. C. cognitive therapy. D. classical conditioning. Answer: A 208. Which if the following is a therapeutic approach that has evolved from the learning perspective? A. behavior modification B. catharsis C. active listening D. learning styles teaching Answer: A 209. Which of the following is a criticism of learning models of behavior? A. Learning models have not put enough emphasis on measuring observable behaviors. B. Behaviorism cannot explain the richness of human experience. C. Learning theorists do not apply scientific principles in their understanding of behavior. D. Learning models do not pay adequate attention to the influence available reinforcement in the individual’s environment. Answer: B 210. Which model of psychology emphasizes the personal freedoms people have in making conscious choices? A. psychodynamic model B. behavioral model C. cognitive model D. humanistic model Answer: D 211. Humanistic psychology emerged as a major force in psychology in the ______ century. A. late 19th B. early 20th C. mid-20th D. late 20th Answer: C 212. A leader of the humanistic movement in American psychology was ______. A. Albert Ellis B. Carl Rogers C. B. F. Skinner D. Albert Bandura Answer: B 213. According to the humanists, if an individual is able to recognize his feeling and needs while being true to himself, he is living ________. A. free of neuroses B. a life rich with reinforcement C. an ego-integrated life D. authentically Answer: D 214. According to humanistic psychologists, the tendency to strive to become all that we are capable of becoming is called ______. A. self-potentiation B. transcendental reformation C. self-actualization D. catharsis Answer: C 215. Mary goes to a therapist for treatment of her test anxiety. The therapist helps Mary find her own explanation of her anxiety and focuses on how various events in her life, such as her test anxiety, have kept her from becoming self-actualized. Mary's therapist’s approach to treatment is most likely to have been influenced by the theories of ______. A. Sigmund Freud B. Albert Ellis C. Harry Stack Sullivan D. Abraham Maslow Answer: D 216. Humanistic psychologists attempt to understand abnormal behavior by ________ A. evaluating the positive reinforcement available to people in the world B. attempting to understand the individual’s subjective experience and his experiences of being “in the world” C. analyses of unconscious drives and motives that people possess D. evaluating the interaction of biological inheritance and environmental rewards Answer: B 217. For Rogers, a child’s distorted self-concept can come from parents’ ______. A. unconditional positive regard B. favouritism of one sibling over another C. conditional positive regard D. qualified negative regard Answer: C 218. When parents only accept children if they behave in an approved manner, they are showing their children ______. A. unconditional positive regard B. conditional positive regard C. low self-esteem D. unrealistic self-ideals Answer: B 219. Children who see themselves as worthwhile only when they behave in certain approved ways have developed ______, according to Rogers. A. negative self-efficacy B. reactive depression C. unconditional positive regard D. conditions of worth Answer: D 220. According to Rogers, parents help children develop self-esteem and self-actualize when they show them ______. A. unconditional positive regard B. conditional positive regard C. conditions of worth D. strict rules and discipline Answer: A 221. According to Rogers, when parents accept children as having intrinsic worth regardless of their behavior at a particular moment in time, they are showing them ______. A. unconditional positive regard B. conditional positive regard C. perceived self-efficacy D. unrealistic self-ideals Answer: A 222. Paul visits a therapist for treatment of his depression. His therapist helps Paul recognize that his depression arises from his failure to meet various conditions of worth internalized from his interactions with his parents during childhood. Throughout the therapy process, Paul discovers and develops his own unique potential. Paul's therapist most resembles ______ in his therapeutic approach. A. Beck B. Rogers C. Hartmann D. Horney Answer: B 223. Rogers’s method of psychotherapy is called ______. A. person-centred therapy B. logotherapy C. rational-emotive behavior therapy D. Gestalt therapy Answer: A 224. According to the text, the humanistic model’s primary strength and possibly its primary weakness is its ______. A. naiveté B. focus on conscious experience C. ignoring of defense mechanisms D. failure to develop a specific therapeutic methodology Answer: B 225. Which of the following is a strength or contribution of humanistic psychology? A. Humanism developed evidence-based therapy methods to help people self-actualize. B. Humanism focuses on unconscious repressed impulses. C. Humanism brought the concepts of free choice, inherent goodness, responsibility, and authenticity to the attention of modern psychology. D. The Humanist movement resulted in the formulation of valid and testable concepts and theories. Answer: C 226. A cognition is most similar to ______. A. an emotion B. a thought C. an urge D. an experience Answer: B 227. Theorists who focus on abnormal thought patterns, attitudes, and expectations associated with abnormal behavior are ______ theorists. A. psychodynamic B. humanistic C. Gestalt D. cognitive Answer: D 228. Which scientific field do cognitive psychologists borrow concepts from in explaining how human process information and how the processes may break down? A. neurobiology B. chemistry C. computer science D. physics Answer: C 229. According to cognitive psychology, information ______ is based on the individual’s sensory and perceptual processes. A. input B. storage C. manipulation D. retrieval Answer: A 230. According to cognitive psychology, “manipulation” refers to the way in which information is ______. A. perceived B. stored C. interpreted or processed D. retrieved Answer: C 231. According to cognitive psychology, the process by which information is interpreted or processed is referred to as ______. A. output B. manipulation C. storage D. retrieval Answer: B 232. Cognitive theory defines placing information in memory as ______. A. input B. repression C. storage D. awareness Answer: C 233. Maggie suffers from depression. She appears to focus on things that are not going well and often cites how events in her life are proof that she is a failure. For example, she considered a “B” on a recent calculus exam to be a “failure” and feels the grade supports her belief that she will never be successful. Maggie’s interpretation and manipulation of events would be described as a(n) _________ by a cognitive therapist. A. input error B. cognitive distortion C. condition of worth D. retrieval problem Answer: B 234. If a person has difficulty remembering information they once knew, a cognitive psychologist would say the difficulty was due to a problem with ______. A. retrieval B. output C. input D. manipulation Answer: A 235. Cognitive psychologists define accessing information from memory as ______. A. manipulation B. storage C. retrieval D. input Answer: C 236. Cognitive theory defines acting on information as ______. A. input B. output C. manipulation D. retrieval Answer: B 237. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck are most closely associated with ______ psychology. A. sociocultural B. psychodynamic C. humanistic D. cognitive Answer: D 238. The view that abnormality results from faulty storage, input, or retrieval of information is central to ______ psychology. A. eclectic B. cognitive C. Skinnerian D. humanistic Answer: B 239. Cognitive psychologists view psychological disorders as disturbances in which of the following processes? A. interpreting or transforming information B. repression of traumatic experiences C. psychosexual development D. neurotransmitter reuptake Answer: A 240. According to cognitive therapists, errors in thinking are known as ______. A. cognitive manipulations B. cognitive encoding C. cognitive distortions D. cognitive catharsis Answer: C 241. Social-cognitive theorists, who share many ideas with cognitive psychologists, focus on ______. A. behaviors in general B. the ways in which social information is elicited C. the ways in which social information is encoded D. the ways in which behaviors are demonstrated Answer: C 242. Jack was recently passed over for a promotion at work. He tells his wife that he is not appreciated at work and his hard work goes unnoticed. Several weeks later, Jack’s boss notices that Jack has been coming to work late and leaving early. According to Ellis’ ABC approach, which of the following would be the “A” of Ellis’ “A-B-C” paradigm? A. Jack being passed over for a promotion. B. Jack’s feeling that he is not appreciated at work. C. Jack’s late arrivals and early departures from work. D. Jack’s wife listening to his concerns. Answer: A 243. Jack was recently passed over for a promotion at work. He tells his wife that he is not appreciated at work and his hard work goes unnoticed. Several weeks later, Jack’s boss notices that Jack has been coming to work late and leaving early. According to Ellis’ ABC approach, which of the following would be the “B” of Ellis. “A-B-C” paradigm? A. Jack being passed over for a promotion. B. Jack’s feeling that he is not appreciated at work. C. Jack’s late arrivals and early departures from work. D. Jack’s wife listening to his concerns. Answer: B 244. Albert Ellis uses a(n) ______ approach to explain abnormal behavior. A. personal construct B. self-actualization C. ABC approach D. behavioral Answer: C 245. In Ellis’s ABC approach, A stands for ______. A. analyzing the relevant experience B. acuteness of the situation C. actuality of the circumstance D. activating event Answer: D 246. In Ellis’s ABC approach, B stands for ______. A. beliefs B. borrowed feelings C. behavioral cues D. blockages Answer: A 247. Jack was recently passed over for a promotion at work. He tells his wife that he is not appreciated at work and his hard work goes unnoticed. Several weeks later, Jack’s boss notices that Jack has been coming to work late and leaving early. According to Ellis’ ABC approach, which of the following would be the “C” of Ellis’ “A-B-C” paradigm? A. Jack being passed over for a promotion. B. Jack’s wife listening to his concerns. C. Jack’s late arrivals and early departures from work. D. Jack’s feeling that he is not appreciated at work. Answer: C 248. For Ellis, the key factor in abnormal behavior is a person's ______. A. early childhood B. conditions of worth C. genetic history D. beliefs Answer: D 249. Ellis believes that adoption of irrational beliefs can lead people to ____________ their disappointments, which can then lead to profound distress and states of depression. A. sensitize B. rationalize C. catastrophize D. introject Answer: C 250. ______________ developed rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT). A. Beck B. Kelly C. Ellis D. Bandura Answer: C 251. Phil visits a therapist for treatment of his depression. The therapist tells him that his problems arise from a series of irrational beliefs about himself and about life which he has developed over the years. She says that to overcome the depression, Phil must replace his irrational beliefs with rational self-talk. Phil's therapist is most similar to ______ in the way she conceptualizes his problem. A. Ellis B. Sullivan C. Skinner D. Kelly Answer: A 252. Rachel goes to a therapist for treatment of her test anxiety. Her therapist tells her that her test anxiety results from self-defeating attitudes, irrational self-talk, and judging herself entirely on the basis of her flaws rather than her strengths. Rachel's therapist is using the ______ treatment model. A. psychoanalytic B. cognitive C. humanistic D. sociocultural Answer: B 253. Monica goes to a therapist for treatment of her test anxiety. Her therapist tells her that her test anxiety results from self-defeating attitudes, irrational self-talk, and faulty cognitions. Monica's therapist has a treatment approach most like ______. A. Albert Ellis B. Abraham Maslow C. Carl Jung D. Carl Rogers Answer: A 254. Which of the following theorists developed the concept of four basic cognitive distortions that create emotional distress ? A. Karen Horney B. Albert Ellis C. Aaron Beck D. Alfred Adler Answer: C 255. Raul visits a therapist for treatment of his depression. The therapist tells him his problem stems from a series of cognitive errors and distortions in which he minimizes his successes and pessimistically assumes the worst about his future. Raul's therapist is most similar to ______ in the way she conceptualizes his problem. A. Skinner B. Beck C. Bandura D. Maslow Answer: B 256. According to Beck, an individual who views the world in black-and-white terms would be engaging in _________? A. selective abstraction B. overgeneralization C. magnification D. absolutist thinking Answer: D 257. Beck believes that depression may result from ___________. A. neurotransmitter dysregulation B. conditions of worth C. errors in thinking D. lack of positive reinforcement Answer: C 258. If a student focuses on one mediocre grade and ignores all of her other grades which are higher, a cognitive therapist would assert that her emotional distress is due to ______. A. selective abstraction B. overgeneralization C. magnification D. absolutist thinking Answer: A 259. Mark is distressed because he received a “C” in his English class. Although he has “A’s” in all of his other subjects, Mark continues to focus on his one average grade and he is making himself miserable. According to Beck, Mark’s emotional distress is due to ______. A. overgeneralization B. magnification C. selective abstraction D. absolutist thinking Answer: C 260. Darnell is depressed. He sees his future as hopeless because he has been turned down for one job. Beck would suggest that Darnell’s emotional distress is due to ______. A. magnification B. overgeneralization C. selective abstraction D. absolutist thinking Answer: B 261. If someone overemphasizes and exaggerates the importance of an unfortunate event, a cognitive psychologist would contribute their emotional distress to ______. A. absolutist thinking B. overgeneralization C. selective abstraction D. magnification Answer: D 262. Michael views the world in clearly defined terms. For example, behaviors are either right or wrong, one wins or loses. He is unable to entertain a middle ground in any of his beliefs. Beck would consider Michael to be engaging in the cognitive distortion of ______________. A. absolutist thinking B. selective abstraction C. magnification D. overgeneralization Answer: A 263. Amy sees her rejection from one job interview as proof that she will never be successful. According to Beck, which cognitive error is Amy making? A. selective abstraction B. magnification C. absolutist thinking D. overgeneralization Answer: D 264. A major issue in terms of the application of cognitive perspective is ___________. A. the fact that because these therapy methods focus on thought processes, the treatment may worsen psychological disorders characterized by disordered thinking B. the treatment methods are time consuming and expensive C. the methods have so far been limited in the range of disorders that they have been used to treat D. training in using the methods effectively is difficult for therapists to obtain Answer: C 265. Cognitive therapists have largely focused on ______. A. treatment of depression and anxiety B. development of treatment approaches C. development of conceptual models D. treatment of schizophrenia Answer: A 266. Sociocultural theorists seek to understand causes of abnormal behavior that may be accounted for by factors such as ____________. A. ethnicity, gender, and social class B. the limited reinforcement available for individuals in modern societies C. cognitive distortions D. psychosocial stages of development Answer: A 267. According to radical psychosocial theorists like Thomas Szasz, ______. A. psychological disorders or mental illness do not exist B. mental illness is a result of the hardships that people encounter in society C. mental illness is due to the stress of living in a fast paced society D. mental illness is purely a biological phenomenon Answer: A 268. Why is it important to take income level or socioeconomic status into account when comparing differences in rates of particular disorders across ethnic groups? A. Ethnic minority groups tend to be disproportionally represented among lower socioeconomic status levels, and people with household incomes below the poverty line stand an increased risk of developing various psychological disorders. B. Ethnic minority groups tend to have higher socioeconomic levels that are associated with higher risk of developing psychological disorders. C. Only people from certain ethnic groups with a high level of socioeconomic status develop certain disorders, such as depression and anxiety. D. Schizophrenia occurs only among certain ethnic groups who tend to have household incomes near the poverty line. Answer: A 269. In the United States and Canada, the most impoverished ethnic group is ______. A. African Americans B. Native Americans C. Hispanic Americans D. Asian Americans Answer: B 270. Compared to other ethnic groups in the United States, the suicide rate is about four times higher among ______. A. male African American adolescents and young adults B. female Hispanic American adolescents C. elderly Caucasian males D. Native American adolescents and young adults Answer: D 271. According to sociocultural theorists, the linkage between low socioeconomic status and severe behavior problems may be explained by the ______. A. diathesis-stress model B. theory of self-actualization C. downward drift hypothesis D. selective abstraction theory Answer: C 272. The psychological model which argues that abnormal behaviors are often caused by a combination of genetically inherited vulnerabilities and various life stresses is the ______ model. A. diathesis-stress B. perceived self-efficacy C. downward drift hypothesis D. stress amplification Answer: A 273. The diathesis-stress model was originally developed as an explanatory framework for understanding the development of ______. A. personality disorders B. dissociative amnesia C. paranoia D. schizophrenia Answer: D 274. ___________ are helping professionals who hold a doctoral degree and have completed graduate training that prepares them for careers in college counseling and mental health centers. They typically serve people with a milder range of psychological difficulties. A. Clinical psychologists B. Psychiatrists C. Clinical social workers D. Counseling psychologists Answer: D 275. Which of the following helping professionals has earned a medical degree? A. Clinical psychologist B. Psychiatrist C. Counsellor D. Clinical social worker Answer: B 276. Bonnie is seeing a therapist who, in addition to talking with her, writes a prescription for an antidepressant for Bonnie to use. Bonnie’s therapist is a _____________. A. Psychiatrist B. Clinical psychologist C. Counseling psychologist D. Clinical social worker Answer: D 277. Patrick’s therapist recently administered a series of psychological tests to Patrick as he feels it will help better identify Patrick’s issues. What type of therapist is Patrick seeing? A. Clinical social worker B. Counsellor C. Clinical psychologist D. psychiatrist Answer: C 278. Psychoanalysts are typically ____________ and _______________. A. Psychiatric nurses; undergone psychoanalysis themselves B. Clinical social workers or licensed professional counsellors; have undergone psychoanalysis themselves C. Psychiatrists or psychologists; have undergone psychoanalysis themselves D. Psychiatric nurses; undergone psychoanalysis themselves Answer: C 279. The first model of psychotherapy, developed and named by Freud, was called ______. A. psychodynamic therapy B. reality therapy C. psychoanalysis B. behavioral analysis Answer: C 280. _________ are registered nurses (R.N.s) who have completed a master’s program in psychiatric nursing. A. Nurse practitioners B. Psychiatric nurses C. Mental health nurses D. Physician’s associates Answer: A 281. Shantel, a client of Dr. Smith, entered therapy to deal with the depression she experiences secondary to childhood abuse. After discussing the memories and pain associated with her abuse, Shantel, who is typically well-organized and punctual, recently “forgot” her therapy appointment. If Dr. Smith used a Freudian model in his treatment, he might assume that Shantel is exhibiting ____________. A. resistance B. catharsis C. transference D. unconscious dislike for her therapist Answer: A 282. Psychodynamic therapy is a form of psychotherapy based on the Freudian tradition that seeks to help people gain insight into, and resolve: A. faulty thinking patterns. B. irrational beliefs. C. conflicts between forces within the unconscious mind. D. problems with acquiring positive reinforcement from the environment. Answer: C 283. Freud felt that the use of the technique of _____________ in therapy would allow the client to __________. A. catharsis; come to terms with psychosexual urges B. free association; break down defense that blocked awareness of unconscious processes C. free association; recognize faulty thinking patterns D. catharsis; break down defense that blocked awareness of unconscious processes Answer: B 284. George has been seeing a Freudian therapist for his troubles with anxiety. He reports that his therapist begins each session by saying “Tell me whatever comes to mind.” George’s therapist is using the Freudian technique of ____________. A. dream analysis B. cognitive restructuring C. free association D. anxiety reduction Answer: C 285. Freudian psychotherapists feel that ______________, a situation where clients may react to the analyst with the same feelings of anger, love, or jealousy they felt toward their own parents, is essential to the therapeutic process. A. dream interpretation B. transference C. free association D. countertransference Answer: B 286. Dr. Wong, a psychoanalyst, is troubled by his feelings toward his client, Trudy. Trudy is a reliable client and works hard in therapy. However, Dr. Wong feels intense rage when he meets with Trudy for her therapy session. Trudy reminds Dr. Wong of his mother, an individual that he harbors a lot of resentment toward. In Freudian analysis, the occurrence of Dr. Wong’s feelings about Trudy are not considered unusual and are called _______________. A. transference B. countertransference C. libidinal introjection D. introspection Answer: B 287. Unlike traditional psychoanalysis, modern psychodynamic therapies focus more on clients’ ____________. A. present relationships and less on sexual issues B. dreams and past relationships with one’s parents C. outward appropriate expression of childhood longing D. current sexual issues and past grief Answer: A 288. In modern psychodynamic therapy, therapist and client sit __________ and have more frequent __________. A. out of view of each other; periods of silence B. face-to-face; verbal give-and-take C. face-to-face; periods of silence D. out of view of each other; verbal give-and-take Answer: B 289. Some modern psychoanalysts, such as Margaret Mahler, ____________ approaches to psychodynamic therapy. A. rely more on cognitive B. are identified with object-relations C. focus on the interpretation of dreams in their D. place greater emphasis on the authenticity of the client in their Answer: B 290. A behavioral technique called _________ involves a therapeutic program of exposure of the client (in imagination or by means of pictures or slides) to progressively more fearful stimuli while he or she remains deeply relaxed. A. cognitive thought stopping B. behavioral analysis C. systematic desensitization D. gradual exposure Answer: B 291. Jenny is working in therapy on her fear of flying. Jenny’s therapist instructed Jenny to create a series of images about flying (pictures of planes, security check-in, ticket counter, etc. ) and to rank them form least fear-producing to most fear-producing. The images Jenny has ranked are, in the parlance of Systematic desensitization, called __________. A. a hierarchy of needs B. a controlled image hierarchy C. a fear-stimulus hierarchy. D. a fear image gallery Answer: C 292. With _________ procedures, people seeking to overcome phobias put themselves in situations in which they engage fearful stimuli in real-life encounters. A. gradual exposure B. modelling C. systematic desensitization D. flooding Answer: A 293. At the Willow Ranch Treatment Centre, therapists seek to increase adaptive behavior by rewarding residents with poker chips for performing appropriate behaviors such as self-grooming and making their beds. The residents are able to exchange the chips for various privileges ; for example, a trip to the movie theatre. In behavior therapy, this poker chip system would be called _____________. A. a token economy B. a task exchange C. a behavioral hierarchy D. a reinforcement economy Answer: A 294. _________ is a behavioral method used in the treatment of substance abuse problems such as smoking and alcoholism. A. Modeling B. Aversive conditioning C. Flooding D. Graduated skills training Answer: B 295. During therapy, Humanistic therapists often use ________ the restating or paraphrasing of the client’s expressed feelings without interpreting them or passing judgment on them. A. interpretation B. mirroring C. cognitive restructuring D. reflection Answer: D 296. Which of the following groups represents the four basic qualities or attributes that an effective person-centred therapist would possess? A. reflection, regard, empathy, and acceptance B. integrity regard, patience, and empathy C. unconditional positive regard, empathy, genuineness, and congruence D. unconditional positive regard, empathy, genuineness, and integrity. Answer: C 297. In Humanistic psychotherapy, congruence refers to _____________. A. the ability of the therapist to track the client’s conversation B. how like-minded the therapist and client are in their belief systems C. the honesty of the client D. the coherence or fit among one’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Answer: C 298. ________ believed that negative emotions such as anxiety and depression are caused by the irrational ways in which we interpret or judge negative events, not by the negative events themselves. A. Carl Rogers B. Abraham Maslow C. Karen Horney D. Albert Ellis Answer: D 299. In which of the following therapies does the therapists actively dispute the clients’ irrational beliefs and the premises on which they are based in order to help clients develop alternative, adaptive beliefs in their place? A. rational emotive behavior therapy B. client-centered therapy C. psychodynamic therapy D. mindfulness-based therapy Answer: A 300. Cognitive therapists label errors in thinking as ____________. A. distorted interpretation B. cognitive distortions C. cognitive errors D. distorted reality Answer: B 301. Cognitive therapists frequently assign behavioral homework for their clients to do outside of the therapy session. One assignment, called reality testing, has the client ________ A. write a list of cognitive distortions that he or she is aware of using B. interview various individuals about their personal cognitive distortions C. to test their negative beliefs in light of reality. D. write down a list of alternative thoughts to focus on instead of the negative beliefs Answer: C 302. Patricia is a depressed woman who feels unwanted by everyone. Her therapist has asked her to call two friends on the phone to gather data about the friends’ reactions to the calls and to report on the assignment: “Did they immediately hang up the phone, or did they seem pleased you called? Does the evidence support the conclusion that no one has any interest in you?” This type of behavioral homework is called ___________. A. behavioral contracting B. reality testing C. testing the distortion D. playing the belief Answer: B 303. ____________ are used by therapists to incorporate principles and techniques from different therapeutic orientations that they believe will produce the greatest benefit in treating a particular client. A. Biopsychosocial therapies B. Eclectic therapies C. Existential therapies D. Cognitive therapies Answer: B 304. Therapists who practice _________ draw on techniques from different schools of therapy without necessarily adopting the theoretical positions that spawned those techniques. A. technical eclecticism B. rational emotive behavior therapy C. integrative eclecticism. D. person-centered therapy Answer: A 305. In family therapy, participants ________ A. learn ways in which a family can have fun together B. resolve their conflicts and problems so the family functions better as a unit C. identify the family member that is creating the most disruption to the family D. practice social skills that can be transferred to interactions outside of the family Answer: B 306. Therapists evaluate the effectiveness of therapy by averaging the results of a large number of studies to determine an overall level of effectiveness. This method of investigating treatment effectiveness is called ________. A. naturalistic assessment B. microanalysis C. meta-analysis D. quasi-experimental analysis Answer: C 307. A report of 375 controlled studies, each comparing psychotherapy (of different types, including psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic) against control groups revealed that ___________. A. the average client receiving psychotherapy was no better off than 75% of clients who remained untreated B. the average client receiving psychotherapy was better off than 75% of clients who remained untreated C. clients receiving psychotherapy were not better off than 25% those not receiving therapy D. the average client receiving psychotherapy was better off than 40% of clients who remained untreated Answer: B 308. __________ studies speak to the issue of whether particular treatments work better than control procedures under tightly controlled conditions in a research lab setting. A. Efficacy B. Effectiveness C. Response-rate D. Evidence-based Answer: A 309. Empirically supported treatments are also referred to as ______________. A. efficacy studies B. eclectic practice C. evidence-based practices D. efficiency practices Answer: C 310. Sue (2010) argues that subtle forms of discrimination can be even more damaging to minority clients because __________. A. these discriminations reinvigorate earlier experiences with discrimination and thus re-traumatize the client. B. clients may fear confronting the discrimination out of fear of retribution from the offender C. they leave the victim with a sense of uncertainty about how to respond D. they leave the victim with a sense of powerlessness Answer: C 311. Asian cultures ___________ which may ________Asian clients from expressing their feelings in therapy. A. value individual competence; inhibit B. discourage public expression of emotion; inhibit C. value authenticity and warmth; encourage D. value emotional expression; encourage Answer: B 312. Clinicians note that Asian clients often express psychological complaints such as anxiety through __________. A. the development of physical symptoms such as tightness in the chest or a racing heart B. withdrawal and sullenness C. the development of headaches and fatigue D. overeating Answer: A 313. Most Hispanic American subcultures share certain cultural values and beliefs, such as ______________. A. hard work and personal strength B. family and kinship ties, as well as respect and dignity C. independence and achievement D. self-reliance and individualism Answer: B 314. Psychologists recognize the importance of ___________ mental health programs for Native Americans. A. medical support for physical illnesses in B. increasing client awareness of psychological disorders in C. bringing elements of tribal culture into D. excluding tribal and traditional beliefs from Answer: C 315. Latinos may not make use of mental health services because they _____________. A. lack knowledge of mental disorders and how to treat them B. fear being stigmatized within their own culture C. are better educated than most cultures on the management of psychological disorders D. typically prefer to turn to religious beliefs and prayer for assistance with psychological difficulties Answer: A 316. People who regularly use antianxiety drugs report that anxiety or insomnia returns in a more severe form once they discontinue the drugs. This phenomenon is called _____________. A. reactive anxiety B. central nervous system crossfire C. rebound anxiety D. nervous system overload Answer: C 317. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors impact serotonin levels in the brain by _____________. A. stimulating the nucleus accumbens B. mimicking serotonin molecules C. causing synaptic vesicles in the axon to release large amount of serotonin D. increasing the availability of serotonin by interfering with reuptake by transmitting neurons Answer: D 318. Which of the following drugs helps treat manic symptoms and stabilize mood swings in people with bipolar disorder? A. Effexor B. Lithium carbonate C. Mellaril D. Fluoxetine Answer: B 319. Two concerns are presented in your text about the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). These concerns are ________. A. patient memory loss following ECT and high patient symptom relapse B. suicidal patient behavior following ECT; patient fear of ECT C. risk of heart attack during ECT and patient memory loss following ECT D. patient symptom relapse rate and risk of patient developing psychosis following treatment Answer: A 320. ____________ was a surgical procedure used to treat psychological disorders by surgically severing nerve pathways linking the thalamus to the prefrontal lobes of the brain. A. Prefrontal lobotomy B. Cingulotomy C. Electroconvulsive therapy D. Capsulotomy Answer: A 321. Which of the following psychological disorders has been successfully treated with Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)? A. Autism spectrum B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder C. Gender Dysphoria D. Schizophrenia Answer: B True-False Questions 322. Every neuron has a cell body. Answer: True 323. Neural axons can extend several feet. Answer: True 324. “Loose” neurotransmitters may be broken down in the synapse by enzymes, or be reabsorbed by the axon terminal through a process termed reuptake. Answer: True 325. Psychiatric drugs, including drugs used to treat anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia, work by affecting the availability of hormones in the brain. Answer: False 326. Neural messages electrically jump across the synaptic cleft like a spark. Answer: False 327. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with reductions in the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Answer: False 328. Acetylcholine is involved in the control of muscle contractions and formation of memories. Answer: True 329. The cerebellum contains the cerebral cortex. Answer: False 330. Auditory stimuli are processed in the temporal lobes. Answer: True 331. Genetic factors create a certainty that certain behaviors or disorders will develop. Answer: False 332. Freud's psychoanalytic theory represents a cognitive model of mental functioning. Answer: False 333. Freud likened the mind to an immense iceberg, with only the tip rising into conscious awareness. Answer: True 334. The ego is the only psychic structure at birth. Answer: False 335. The superego serves as the moral guardian of personality. Answer: True 336. Adler and Jung both believed that self-awareness plays a major role in the development of personality. Answer: True 337. Adler believed that we all encounter feelings of inferiority to some degree due to our small size during childhood. Answer: True 338. Whereas Freud's stages of development end with early adolescence, Erikson's stages explain development throughout adulthood and old age. Answer: True 339. According to psychoanalytic theory, neuroses develop when the id breaks through into consciousness and takes over personality. Answer: False 340. Freud equated psychological health with abilities to love and work. Answer: True 341. Both Adler and Jung equated psychological health with successfully compensating for feelings of inferiority. Answer: False 342. The learning perspectives of Watson and Skinner were the first major psychological theories of abnormal behavior. Answer: False 343. From the behavioral perspective, abnormal behavior is symptomatic of underlying biological or psychological problems. Answer: False 344. Behaviorists see us as products of environmental influences that shape and manipulate our behavior. Answer: True 345. Classical conditioning was discovered by accident. Answer: True 346. Punishment may suppress, but does not eliminate undesirable behavior. Answer: True 347. Rewarding desirable behavior is generally preferable to punishing misbehavior. Answer: True 348. Social-cognitive theory is an expansion of psychodynamic theory. Answer: False 349. One of the principle contributions of learning models is their emphasis on observable behavior. Answer: True 350. The Humanists define self-actualization as the need for a person to strive to become all they are capable of being. Answer: True 351. Rogers believed that parents help children become more secure in their sense of self when they show them conditional positive regard. Answer: False 352. Unlike the behavioral perspective, the humanistic perspective emphasizes that people have little or no free will. Answer: False 353. According to Rogers, children may acquire a distorted self-concept that mirrors what others expect them to be which, in turn, helps them to live authentically. Answer: False 354. The strength of humanistic models lies in their focus on unconscious psychological material. Answer: False 355. Many cognitive theorists are influenced by the concepts of computer science. Answer: True 356. According to leading cognitive theorists, emotional distress is caused by the beliefs people hold about negative life experiences, not by the experiences themselves. Answer: True 357. “How do a person’s emotional problems reflect a distorted self-image?” is an example of the type of question a researcher who investigates the sociocultural perspective would ask. Answer: False 358. A diathesis or predisposition is usually genetic in nature, such as having a particular genetic variant that increases the risk of developing a particular disorder. Answer: True 359. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of emotional disorders. Answer: True 360. In Freudian concepts, the manifest content of a dream is the unconscious material the dream symbolizes or represents. Answer: False 361. With Object-Relations Therapy, the therapist focuses on helping people blend their own ideas and feelings with elements of significant others they have incorporated or introjected onto themselves. Answer: False 362. The behavioral concept of modelling asserts that individuals learn desired behaviors by observing others performing them. Answer: True 363. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique which averages the results of a large number of studies to determine an overall level of effectiveness. Answer: True 364. Efficacy studies examine the effects of treatment when it is delivered by therapists in real-world practice settings with the kinds of clients therapists normally see in their practices. Answer: False 365. Mindfulness meditation is a widely practiced Buddhist form of meditation used with some therapies. Answer: False 366. Although adequately funded by the Indian Health Service designated to serve their population, Native Americans remained underserved in regional mental health programs. Answer: False 367. Financial burdens are often a major barrier to use of mental health services by ethnic minorities. Answer: True 368. Antipsychotic drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics. Answer: True 369. Lithium carbonate has proven to be effective in managing the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Answer: True 370. Although many new psychosurgery techniques appear promising, the safety and effectiveness of these procedures remains to be demonstrated. Therefore, it is best to classify them as experimental treatments Answer: True Essay Questions 371. Describe the structure and functions of the neuron and explain how neurons communicate with each other. Answer: Neuron structure and communication: • Structure: Neurons consist of a cell body (soma), dendrites (which receive signals from other neurons), and an axon (which transmits signals away from the cell body). Axons are often insulated by myelin sheaths, which speed up signal transmission. At the axon terminal, neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft. • Function: Neurons transmit electrical signals (action potentials) along their axons. Communication between neurons occurs at synapses, where neurotransmitters released from the axon terminals of one neuron bind to receptors on dendrites of another neuron, thereby transmitting the signal. 372. Briefly describe the various parts of the nervous system, explaining what each does. Answer: Parts of the nervous system: • Central Nervous System (CNS): Composed of the brain and spinal cord. The brain processes information and initiates responses, while the spinal cord serves as a pathway for information to and from the brain. • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Includes nerves outside the CNS. Divided into the somatic nervous system (voluntary movements and sensory information) and autonomic nervous system (involuntary functions like heartbeat and digestion). 373. Describe the structures of the brain and their functions. Answer: Brain structures and functions: • Cerebrum: Largest part, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, and sensory perception. • Cerebellum: Coordinates movement, balance, and posture. • Brainstem: Connects the brain to the spinal cord and regulates basic bodily functions like breathing and heart rate. • Hypothalamus: Regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and other homeostatic processes. • Thalamus: Relays sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. 374. Summarize research findings on the role of genetics and environment in the development of psychological disorders. Answer: Role of genetics and environment in psychological disorders: • Genetics: Research indicates that genetic factors play a significant role in the development of many psychological disorders. Family and twin studies suggest that disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder have a genetic component. Specific genes or gene variants can predispose individuals to certain disorders, although the inheritance pattern is often complex. • Environment: Environmental factors also contribute to the onset and course of psychological disorders. Adverse childhood experiences, trauma, stress, socioeconomic status, and interpersonal relationships can significantly impact mental health. Gene-environment interactions are crucial, where genetic vulnerabilities may interact with environmental stressors to increase the risk of developing a disorder. 375. Describe the basic tenets of Freud's psychodynamic theory. Answer: Basic tenets of Freud's psychodynamic theory: • Unconscious mind: Freud proposed that much of our behavior is determined by unconscious thoughts, desires, and memories. • Psychosexual stages: Developmental stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. • Structural model of the psyche: Freud divided the mind into three parts: the id (unconscious, primitive desires), ego (conscious, rational), and superego (internalized moral standards). • Defense mechanisms: Unconscious strategies (like repression, denial) that the ego uses to defend against anxiety arising from conflicts between the id, ego, and superego. 376. Describe Freud’s views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed. Answer: Freud’s views on personality structure and functions: • Id: Operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of basic drives (such as hunger, thirst, sex). • Ego: Operates on the reality principle, mediates between the id's impulses and the external world, ensuring socially acceptable behavior. • Superego: Develops around age 5-6, internalizes societal rules and moral values (conscience), striving for perfection. 377. Explain what defense mechanisms are and for what they are used. Also, identify and give an example of at least five of the defense mechanisms proposed by Freud. Answer: Defense mechanisms: Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that individuals use to cope with anxiety and protect themselves from distressing thoughts or feelings. They function to distort reality or prevent conscious awareness of threatening impulses or desires. Five defense mechanisms proposed by Freud: 1. Repression: Unconsciously pushing threatening or unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or memories out of awareness. Example: Forgetting about a traumatic event from childhood. 2. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge aspects of reality that are emotionally threatening. Example: A person diagnosed with a terminal illness insisting they are not ill. 3. Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to others. Example: A person who is jealous accuses their partner of being jealous. 4. Displacement: Redirecting an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer or more acceptable target. Example: Being angry at your boss but taking it out on your spouse. 5. Regression: Reverting to an earlier stage of development in the face of stress. Example: An adult throwing a temper tantrum when they don’t get their way. 378. Identify and briefly explain each of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. Answer: Freud’s stages of psychosexual development: 1. Oral stage (0-1 year): Focuses on the mouth; pleasure from sucking, biting, etc. 2. Anal stage (1-3 years): Focuses on bowel and bladder control; pleasure from expelling or retaining feces. 3. Phallic stage (3-6 years): Focuses on the genitals; pleasure from self-stimulation (masturbation). 4. Latency stage (6-puberty): Sexual impulses are dormant; focus is on developing social and cognitive skills. 5. Genital stage (puberty onwards): Maturation of sexual interests; focus on establishing intimate relationships. 379. Describe psychodynamic theories of Erikson, Jung, and Mahler. How are these theorists similar to Freud and where do they depart from Freud’s ideas? Answer: Psychodynamic theories of Erikson, Jung, and Mahler: • Erik Erikson: Extended Freud's theory by emphasizing the importance of social relationships and cultural influences throughout the lifespan. He proposed eight psychosocial stages of development, each characterized by a crisis that must be successfully resolved for healthy development. • Carl Jung: Developed analytical psychology, emphasizing the collective unconscious (shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history) and archetypes (universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, and dreams). • Margaret Mahler: Known for her work on object relations theory, focusing on the early relationship between infants and their primary caregivers (object relations). She described stages of infant development, including differentiation and individuation processes necessary for healthy psychological development. 380. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of modern psychodynamic theory. Answer: Strengths and weaknesses of modern psychodynamic theory: Strengths: • Depth of understanding: Emphasizes unconscious processes, childhood experiences, and the impact of early relationships on personality and behavior. • Holistic approach: Considers the whole person, including emotions, motivations, and interpersonal relationships. • Clinical utility: Provides insights and techniques for therapeutic intervention, such as exploring unconscious conflicts and relational dynamics. Weaknesses: • Limited empirical support: Difficulty in testing and validating concepts scientifically. • Overemphasis on past experiences: May overlook current environmental factors influencing behavior. • Complexity and subjectivity: Interpretations can vary among therapists, leading to potential inconsistencies in treatment approaches. 381. Create a scenario using the elements of classical conditioning and discuss examples of classical conditioning in everyday life. Answer: Scenario using classical conditioning: Scenario: Sarah, a dog owner, notices that every time she picks up her car keys (CS), her dog Max starts wagging his tail and gets excited because he associates the sound of keys with going for a walk (UCS). Examples of classical conditioning in everyday life: • Pavlov's dogs: Associating the sound of a bell (CS) with food (UCS), causing dogs to salivate (CR). • Advertising: Pairing products with positive emotions or attractive images to evoke favorable responses. • Phobias: Fear responses (CR) to previously neutral stimuli (CS) due to traumatic experiences. 382. Explain the principles of operant conditioning, clarifying the differences among positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, and punishments, and primary and secondary reinforcers. Answer: Principles of operant conditioning: Positive reinforcers: Increase the likelihood of a behavior by presenting a desirable stimulus after the behavior (e.g., praise for completing homework). Negative reinforcers: Increase the likelihood of a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus after the behavior (e.g., taking painkillers to relieve headache). Punishments: Decrease the likelihood of a behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus (positive punishment, e.g., scolding) or removing a desirable stimulus (negative punishment, e.g., taking away privileges). Primary reinforcers: Innately satisfying stimuli (e.g., food, water) that fulfill biological needs. Secondary reinforcers: Acquire their value through association with primary reinforcers or learned associations (e.g., money, tokens). 383. How does social-cognitive theory differ from the behavioral theories? What role do expectancies have on behavior? Answer: Social-cognitive theory vs. behavioral theories: Differences: • Behavioral theories: Focus primarily on observable behaviors and the environmental factors that shape them (stimulus-response associations). • Social-cognitive theory: Incorporates cognitive processes (such as thoughts, beliefs, and expectations) alongside observational learning and environmental influences in shaping behavior. Role of expectancies on behavior: Expectancies in social-cognitive theory refer to beliefs about the likelihood of outcomes resulting from specific behaviors. These expectancies influence behavior by affecting motivation and decision-making. For example, if someone expects that studying hard will lead to good grades (positive outcome expectancy), they are more likely to study diligently. 384. Review the pitfalls of the use of punishment in working with others. Why is reinforcement considered a better option for behavior change? Answer: Pitfalls of punishment and why reinforcement is preferred: Pitfalls of punishment: • Emotional and behavioral side effects: Punishment can lead to fear, anxiety, and aggression. It may also suppress behaviors temporarily without addressing the underlying causes. • Learned helplessness: Persistent punishment can lead to a belief that one has no control over outcomes, reducing motivation to improve behavior. • Modeling aggression: Using punishment can model aggressive behavior as a solution to problems. Why reinforcement is considered better: • Positive reinforcement: Increases desired behaviors by providing rewards or incentives, which strengthens the desired behavior. • Negative reinforcement: Increases desired behaviors by removing aversive stimuli, promoting a sense of control and motivation. • Less harmful: Reinforcement focuses on promoting positive behaviors rather than punishing negative ones, fostering a more positive learning environment. 385. List and describe the major criticisms of learning models. Answer: Criticisms of learning models: 1. Reductionism: Criticized for oversimplifying complex human behavior by focusing primarily on observable stimuli and responses. 2. Ignorance of cognition: Traditional behaviorism ignores cognitive processes such as thoughts, beliefs, and expectations that influence behavior. 3. Ethical concerns: The use of behaviorist principles in controlling or manipulating behavior raises ethical questions regarding autonomy and human dignity. 4. Limited predictive power: Behaviorist models may not adequately explain all aspects of human behavior or accurately predict behavior in complex, real-world situations. 386. Describe Rogers’ perspective on how abnormal behavior develops. Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the humanistic model. Answer: Rogers’ perspective on abnormal behavior and strengths/weaknesses of the humanistic model: Rogers’ perspective: • Rogers believed that abnormal behavior develops when individuals experience incongruence between their true selves and their self-concept (the way they perceive themselves). This incongruence arises when people receive conditional positive regard (approval only when meeting certain conditions) instead of unconditional positive regard (acceptance regardless of conditions). Strengths of the humanistic model: • Holistic approach: Considers subjective experiences, personal growth, and self-actualization. • Positive focus: Emphasizes human potential and the importance of personal agency in overcoming challenges. • Therapeutic benefits: Person-centered therapy has been effective for enhancing self-awareness and promoting psychological well-being. Weaknesses of the humanistic model: • Lack of empirical support: The humanistic approach is criticized for its limited empirical validation and reliance on subjective interpretations. • Overemphasis on subjective experiences: Can be seen as overly optimistic and ignoring the role of biological and environmental factors in shaping behavior. • Limited applicability: Not all psychological disorders may be effectively addressed solely through humanistic approaches, especially severe conditions requiring more structured interventions. 387. Discuss the elements of Ellis’ A-B-C approach to explaining psychological problems. Create an example to illustrate this concept using and identifying all three elements (A-B-C) in your illustration. Answer: Ellis’ A-B-C approach to explaining psychological problems: Elements of Ellis' A-B-C approach: • A (Activating event): The event or situation that triggers the emotional or behavioral response. • B (Beliefs): Beliefs or interpretations about the activating event. These can be rational (adaptive) or irrational (maladaptive). • C (Consequences): Emotional and behavioral consequences resulting from the beliefs about the activating event. Example illustrating A-B-C: • A (Activating event): Jane's friend didn't respond to her text message. • B (Beliefs): Jane thinks, "She must be mad at me because I said something wrong." • C (Consequences): Jane feels anxious and starts avoiding social situations. 388. Describe the diathesis-stress model. Discuss the role each plays in the development of a psychological disorder. Answer: Diathesis-stress model: Description: • The diathesis-stress model suggests that psychological disorders develop from a combination of predisposing factors (diathesis) and stressful life experiences (stress). The diathesis can be biological, psychological, or social vulnerabilities that increase the likelihood of developing a disorder when exposed to stress. Role of diathesis and stress: • Diathesis: Represents predispositions such as genetic factors, personality traits, or early life experiences that make an individual more vulnerable to developing a disorder. • Stress: External events or circumstances that trigger or exacerbate symptoms of a disorder in individuals with a predisposition. 389. Describe what is meant by the term “eclectic” therapy. What has been learned about this therapy and its use among therapists. Answer: Eclectic therapy: Eclectic therapy refers to an approach where therapists integrate techniques and insights from various therapeutic frameworks and theories to tailor treatment to the specific needs of each client. It allows therapists to draw upon different therapeutic approaches (such as cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, etc.) based on the individual's unique circumstances and preferences. What has been learned about eclectic therapy: • Flexibility: Eclectic therapy offers flexibility in treatment, allowing therapists to adapt to the complexity of clients' issues. • Effectiveness: Research suggests that matching therapeutic techniques to individual client needs can enhance treatment outcomes. • Challenges: Eclectic therapists must have extensive training and experience in multiple therapeutic approaches to effectively integrate them without diluting their effectiveness. 390. Review studies evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Summarize the concept of meta-analysis. Answer: Effectiveness of psychotherapy and meta-analysis: Psychotherapy effectiveness: • Research indicates that psychotherapy is generally effective in treating a wide range of psychological disorders and improving overall mental health. • Factors such as therapist-client rapport, specific techniques used, and client motivation contribute to therapy outcomes. Meta-analysis: • Meta-analysis is a statistical method used to synthesize the results of multiple studies on a particular topic to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of psychotherapy. • It combines data from individual studies to estimate overall treatment effects and examine potential moderators of treatment outcomes. • Helps identify which psychotherapeutic approaches are most effective for specific disorders or populations based on aggregated findings. 391. Discuss the need for clinicians to be sensitive to multicultural differences and identify issues specific to the following cultures: African American, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American. Answer: Sensitivity to multicultural differences and cultural issues: African American: • Issues: Historical trauma, racial discrimination, mistrust of mental health systems, cultural values emphasizing strength and resilience. • Considerations: Importance of cultural competence, awareness of historical context, and addressing stigma. Asian: • Issues: Stigma around mental health, family and interpersonal dynamics, acculturation stress, cultural norms emphasizing collectivism and harmony. • Considerations: Respect for family roles, indirect communication styles, incorporating cultural values in treatment. Hispanic: • Issues: Language barriers, immigration-related stressors, family centrality, cultural values such as familismo (family loyalty) and personalismo (warm, personal relationships). • Considerations: Bilingual therapists, understanding acculturation levels, respecting family dynamics and spirituality. Native American: • Issues: Historical trauma, loss of cultural identity, mistrust of mainstream services, importance of community and spiritual connections. • Considerations: Culturally sensitive approaches, involvement of tribal elders or healers, recognizing cultural resilience and traditional healing practices. 392. Discuss the six barriers to mental health treatment experienced by ethnic minorities. Answer: Barriers to mental health treatment for ethnic minorities: 1. Stigma: Cultural beliefs that mental illness reflects personal weakness or spiritual issues. 2. Access barriers: Limited availability of culturally competent providers, language barriers, and financial constraints. 3. Mistrust: Historical mistreatment and discrimination by mental health systems. 4. Cultural insensitivity: Therapists' lack of understanding of cultural values, beliefs, and practices. 5. Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis: Cultural differences in symptom expression and interpretation. 6. Treatment matching: Challenges in matching clients with therapists who understand their cultural background and needs. Understanding and addressing these barriers is crucial for providing effective and culturally competent mental health care to ethnic minority populations. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene 9780205965014, 9780135821688, 9780134458311, 9780205961719, 9780130052162

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