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Chapter 14: Understanding Human Personality 1) Some personality theorists rely on the concept of personality types. When developing these types, what is the basic rule? A) There must be a large number of personality categories to address the diversity of personality across individuals. B) Individuals may be categorized as belonging to one or more personality types. C) The categories must not overlap. D) The personality categories must be able to accommodate different degrees of personality traits. Answer: C Rationale: If a person is assigned to one type, he/she cannot also belong to another type within the same system. 2) A child's theory of personality is based on the loudness of people’s voices. For example, the child says that people who speak softly are warm and honest, whereas people who talk loudly cannot be trusted. Which theory includes this use of voice quality as the basis for determining personality? A) trait B) social-learning C) type D) self Answer: C Rationale: We often use categories of types in everyday life to simplify the complex process of understanding other people. 3) According to Galen, what was the source of cheerful and active traits? A) bodily fluids. B) genetic factors. C) birth order. D) the unconscious. Answer: A Rationale: Galen suggested that an individual’s personality depended on which humour was predominant in his or her body. 4) Which individual developed a personality theory that included endomorphic, mesomorphic, and ectomorphic body types? A) William Sheldon. B) Galen. C) Frank Sulloway. D) Hans Eysenck. Answer: A Rationale: Sheldon created a theory of personality that correlated physique to temperament. He assigned people to three categories: 1) endomorphs are relaxed, fond of eating, and sociable; 2) mesomorphs are filled with energy, assertiveness, and courage; and 3) ectomorphs are brainy, artistic, and introverted. 5) When Frank Sulloway studied people’s support for innovative theories in science, what did he discover? A) "only children" were consistently supportive of these theories, more so than other groups B) 100 percent of the laterborns he studied supported these theories. C) the majority of those who supported these theories were firstborns. D) laterborns were more likely to support these theories than were firstborns. Answer: D Rationale: Sulloway found that laterborns were more likely to support the innovative theory than were firstborns. 6) When traits allow researchers to relate sets of stimuli and responses that might seem at first glance unrelated, how are the traits functioning? A) as critical variables. B) as scientific predisposers. C) as idiographic variables. D) as intervening variables. Answer: D Rationale: Traits connect and unify our reactions to a variety of stimuli, providing our behaviours with coherence. Intervening variables connect stimuli with responses that may not seem related. For example, shyness is a trait that may act as an intervening variable between the stimulus situation, “meeting strangers” and the response, “awkward gestures”. Shyness helps explain how meeting strangers and awkward gestures are related. 7) According to Gordon Allport, which traits represent the overarching elements of personality? A) central B) cardinal C) primary D) secondary Answer: B Rationale: According to Allport, cardinal traits are traits around which a person organizes their life. Secondary traits are specific personal features that help predict an individual’s behaviour but are less useful for understanding an individual’s personality. Central traits are traits that represent major characteristics of a person. 8) Toni describes her close friend as warm, happy, optimistic, funny, and high achieving. According to Gordon Allport's approach, what type of traits has Toni described? A) primary B) central C) secondary D) cardinal Answer: B Rationale: These are the traits by which this individual is known over time and situations. They are those traits that can be considered her major characteristics. 9) A six-year-old says that she loves watching Barney, can't stand fast food, and thinks that people who are bald are funny. According to Gordon Allport's approach, which traits are being described? A) central B) primary C) secondary D) cardinal Answer: C Rationale: These are traits that describe her in specific situations; they are specific personal features of her behaviour. 10) When Gordon Allport said, "The same fire that melts the butter hardens the egg," what point was he trying to make? A) the same stimuli can have different effects on different people. B) an individual's behaviour is influenced primarily by environmental conditions. C) a person's behaviour is rarely consistent in different settings. D) most personality theorists are in agreement. Answer: A Rationale: Allport was interested in discovering the unique combinations of cardinal, central, and secondary traits that make each person unique. These combinations also make each person’s reactions to situations unique, even though the stimuli are the same for everyone. 11) Which list of traits could create a description of a person generated by the five-factor model of personality? A) reserved, energetic, assertive, quiet, shy B) talkative, sympathetic, organized, stable, creative C) anxious, unstable, temperamental, contented, calm D) cold, quarrelsome, cruel, sympathetic, affectionate Answer: B Rationale: The dimensions of the five-factor model are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Each of the specific traits in this question falls along the continuum of one of the factors. 12) A person is described by others as organized, responsible, and cautious. Which factor of the five-factor model of personality is being described? A) extraversion B) agreeableness C) conscientiousness D) neuroticism Answer: C Rationale: Conscientiousness refers to putting in a good effort. A description of this dimension of the five-factor model includes being organized, responsible, and cautious on one end of the continuum, and frivolous and irresponsible on the other end. 13) According to most current personality theorists, how many factors best characterize personality structure? A) three B) five C) seven D) sixteen Answer: B Rationale: In recent years, a consensus has emerged that five factors, with overlap imperfectly with Eysenck’s two dimensions, best characterize personality structure. 14) Paul is very extraverted and somewhat unstable. According to Eysenck’s personality circle, how else is Paul likely to be described? A) impulsive B) sober C) thoughtful D) even-tempered Answer: A Rationale: Eysenck’s two major dimensions of extraversion-introversion and stable-unstable can be combined, like primary colours, to form many different personality traits. With high extraversion and moderate unstability, a person would be described as impulsive. 15) As discussed in the textbook, which area of the brain was highly activated when extraverted individuals were presented with happy faces? A) Right amygdala B) Left amygdala C) Right frontal lobe D) Left frontal lobe Answer: B Rationale: For happy faces, the highly extraverted individuals showed abundant activity in their left amygdala. 16) Two children have different biological parents, but both were adopted in infancy by the same family. Which statement supports the idea that heredity determines personality? A) The personalities of the children are more similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents than to their biological parents. B) The personalities of the children are similar to the personality of the biological daughter of their adoptive parents. C) The personalities of the children are more similar to each other than they are to their own biological siblings. D) The personalities of the children are less similar to their adoptive siblings than they are to their own biological siblings. Answer: D Rationale: To determine the effects of genetics on personality, personality traits of family members who have grown up in the same household and different households are studied and compared. If a trait is passed on genetically, it should correlate more highly with those who share a genetic heritage (those who are biologically related). 17) What do heritability studies of personality indicate? A) very few personality traits are influenced by genetic factors. B) almost all personality traits are influenced by genetic factors. C) only broad traits, such as extraversion or neuroticism, are influenced by genetic factors. D) only specific traits, such as self-control or sociability, are influenced by genetic factors. Answer: B Rationale: Heritability studies show that almost all personality traits are influenced by genetic factors. 18) What would be the most effective way to differentiate genetic and environmental effects on personality? A) Study twin pairs, some of whom were raised together and some of whom were raised apart. B) Study monozygotic twins who were raised in the same family and who have never been apart. C) Study dizygotic twins who were raised in the same family and who have never been apart. D) Study non-twin siblings who were raised together, sharing the same family environment. Answer: A Rationale: To determine the effects of genetics on personality, researchers study the personality traits of family members who share different proportions of genes and who have grown up in the same or different households. Heritability studies show that almost all personality characteristics are influenced by genetic factors. Correlations have been shown to be higher between identical twins than between fraternal twins, whether or not they were raised in the same household. 19) Gilles considers himself to be a very honest person. According to the psychological research on the consistency of behaviour across situations, what other behaviour can be expected of Gilles? A) He will be honest in all situations. B) He may be honest in some, but not all, situations. C) He will actually be dishonest in many situations. D) He may not be very conscious of his actual level of honesty. Answer: B Rationale: Research evidence suggests that behaviour is not consistent across all possible situations. It is likely that your friend is more honest in some situations than in others. 20) Which situation is analogous to what is called the "consistency paradox" in the study of personality? A) A businessman is kind and affectionate with his family, but is authoritarian and demanding with his employees. B) A woman rates herself as calm and stable, and she rarely loses her temper. C) A man's family and friends rate him as organized and responsible, but he occasionally acts carelessly and irresponsibly. D) A teacher rates herself as introverted most recently, but last year she rated herself as extraverted. Answer: C Rationale: The consistency paradox is the observation that personality ratings across time and among different observers are consistent, while behaviour ratings are not consistent. If people’s behaviour changes in different situations, why do we perceive our own and others’ personalities to be relatively stable? This paradox fades away when theorists can provide an appropriate account of the psychological features of a situation. 21) According to most experts on personality theory, why did the "appearance" of behavioural inconsistency arise? A) because of failures to take into account the psychological features of situations. B) because most measures of personality lack reliability and validity. C) because the observers of the people in the situations were not adequately trained to make accurate observations. D) because individuals are, in fact, inconsistent in their behaviour patterns. Answer: A Rationale: Situations were categorized in the wrong way. For example, not all "parties" have the same features and not all "classes" are the same. So, while people may seem to change across situations, it may be that different traits are elicited in what, on the surface, appear to be similar situations. 22) Why have type and trait theories of personality been criticized? A) They do not allow researchers to give concise descriptions of differing individual personalities. B) They do not identify characteristics that are correlated with behavior. C) They do not generally explain how personality develops. D) They emphasize conflicting forces within the individual. Answer: C Rationale: These theories identify and describe characteristics that are correlated with behaviour, based on a static view of personality structure. 23) A psychologist identifies herself as a psychodynamic personality theorist. What belief is she most likely to hold? A) one's personality is an expression of one's past reinforcement history. B) inner forces shape personality and motivate behaviour. C) understanding the self-concept is crucial to understanding personality. D) individuals are constantly striving to realize their potential. Answer: B Rationale: Psychodynamic theories evolved from the work of Sigmund Freud, who attempted to explain the origin and development of personality, the nature of the mind, aspects of abnormal personality, and ways that personality can be changed through therapy. 24) When Theresa overhears a woman say that her husband has a lot of "libido," what does the woman likely mean? A) He is extraverted. B) He is aggressive. C) He has a strong sex drive. D) His superego is repressed. Answer: C Rationale: Freud used the term "libido" to identify the source of psychic energy that drives individuals toward sexual pleasure. 25) In public, an acquaintance seems to be full of jokes and acts like the life of the party, but in private he confesses that he is not really sure if people like him. Which term best characterizes this individual? A) shy extravert. B) introvert. C) outgoing introvert. D) extravert. Answer: A Rationale: Shy extraverts are people who enjoy social activities and have the social skills to engage in them effectively, but doubt that others really like or respect them. 26) According to Freud, what is the major task of the latency stage? A) resolution of the Oedipus complex B) weaning C) toilet training D) development of defense mechanisms Answer: D Rationale: The latency stage encompasses ages 6 through 12. Defense mechanisms develop during this stage as mental strategies the ego uses to defend itself in the daily conflict between id impulses that seek expression and the superego’s demand to deny them. In psychoanalytic theory, these mechanisms are considered vital to an individual’s coping with inner conflicts. Defense mechanisms give people the ability to maintain a favourable self-image and an acceptable social image. 27) A little boy has started to imitate everything that his father does and act like him as much as he can. Within the context of Freud's theory, what can be inferred about the boy? A) His ego is in full control. B) He has resolved the Oedipus complex. C) He realizes that as a boy it is important to identify with his father. D) He expects rewards from his father if he attempts to be like him. Answer: B Rationale: The young boy cannot displace his father in his mother's affections. Therefore, the rivalry the young boy feels toward his father is resolved and he begins to identify with the characteristics of his father. 28) Lyle is best described as a slob. He smells because he doesn't bathe, he leaves every dish he owns sitting in his kitchen sink, and he just throws his garbage into the yard. The Board of Health is contemplating condemning his house. How would Freud explain Lyle’s behaviour? A) an unresolved Oedipal complex. B) fixation in the anal stage of development. C) an under-developed superego. D) an over-developed id. Answer: B Rationale: Freud's psychoanalytic theory suggests that personality development occurs in stages, and fixation at a particular stage can lead to characteristic behaviors later in life. In the anal stage (ages 1 to 3), the focus of pleasure and conflict is on bowel and bladder control. If a child experiences issues during this stage, such as harsh toilet training or overindulgence, they may become fixated and develop personality traits associated with this stage, such as being messy, disorganized, or excessively neat. Lyle's behavior, characterized by poor hygiene, irresponsibility with household chores, and disregard for cleanliness, aligns with traits associated with fixation in the anal stage. Therefore, option B, fixation in the anal stage of development, provides a Freudian explanation for Lyle's behavior. 29) Louis is extremely orderly and neat. According to Freud, what stage of fixation is being characterized? A) oral stage B) anal stage C) phallic stage D) latency stage Answer: B Rationale: According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, personality development occurs in stages, and fixation at a particular stage can lead to characteristic behaviors later in life. In the anal stage (ages 1 to 3), the focus of pleasure and conflict is on bowel and bladder control. If a child experiences excessive strictness or leniency during toilet training, they may become fixated and develop personality traits associated with this stage. Individuals who develop fixation in the anal stage may exhibit characteristics such as extreme orderliness, neatness, and a preoccupation with cleanliness later in life. Louis's behavior of being extremely orderly and neat suggests fixation in the anal stage. Therefore, option B, anal stage, is the correct characterization of Louis's behavior according to Freudian theory. 30) A professor acknowledges that he is not a proponent of Freud's theory of personality. One day he begins the lecture by saying, "Today we will be discussing the weaknesses in Fraud's theory of personality." What does the professor's error illustrate? A) the collective unconscious. B) the consistency paradox. C) a fixation. D) a Freudian slip. Answer: D Rationale: This occurs when an unconscious desire slips into speech or behaviour. Thus, "Freud" became "Fraud." 31) What concept is Freud’s most important contribution to the science of psychology? A) unconscious processes. B) the manifest content of behaviour. C) Freudian slips. D) inferiority. Answer: A Rationale: According to Freud, behaviour can be motivated by drives of which we are unaware; these drives are a part of the unconscious determinants of human thought, behaviour, and feelings. 32) In Freud's view, there was a continuing battle between two antagonistic parts of the personality which were moderated by a third aspect of the self. Which term refers to the moderator? A) conscience B) id C) ego D) superego Answer: C Rationale: The id wants what it wants right now. The superego corresponds to the conscience. The ego is reality based, moderating the conflict between id impulses and superego demands. 33) In Freud's theory of personality, which is the correct matching of part and principle? A) id—reality B) superego—reality C) superego—pleasure D) id—pleasure Answer: D Rationale: the id operates according to the pleasure principle. 34) In Freud's theory of personality, which aspect of the self corresponds roughly to the common notion of conscience? A) id B) ego C) libido D) superego Answer: D Rationale: The superego is the voice that tells us what we should be and ought to do. 35) To illustrate Freud's structures of personality in a theatrical fashion, a psychology professor asks for volunteers to play the "roles" of the psyche. One student jumps up and starts shouting "Pick me, pick me!". Which role should he be assigned? A) ego. B) id. C) superego. D) ego and superego. Answer: B Rationale: The id wants what it wants right now, without thought of consequences. It operates on the pleasure principle. 36) Mario is playing the role of the ego in Freud's theory of personality. What would be Mario’s major function? A) search for immediate sexual gratification without concern for consequences. B) mediate between the id impulses and the superego demands. C) satisfy the inner voice of "oughts" and "should nots" at any cost. D) work toward achieving the ego ideal. Answer: B Rationale: The ego is the reality-based aspect of our unconscious. It is governed by the reality principle, which puts reasonable choices before demands for pleasure. 37) A boy thinks about stealing a candy bar from the store because he is hungry. He is prevented from doing so because of the possible consequences of getting caught, so he decides to go home and eat instead. In Freud's view, which aspect of the personality is fully in control? A) id B) ego C) superego D) libido Answer: B Rationale: The ego arbitrates between the id, which wants the candy, and the superego, which knows it is wrong to steal, and then comes to a realistic conclusion that going home is the most reasonable choice. 38) According to Freud, which psychological process protects an individual from experiencing extreme anxiety by pushing ideas out of conscious awareness and into the unconscious? A) repression B) regression C) reaction formation D) rationalization Answer: A Rationale: Repression is the most basic of the defense mechanisms; repression causes the ego to be unaware of the content of the material that is repressed. 39) In Freud's theory of personality, to defend itself against the demands of the id and the superego, what will the ego institute? A) the pleasure principle. B) the reality principle. C) problem-focused coping strategies. D) defense mechanisms. Answer: D Rationale: Ego defense mechanisms are mental strategies the ego uses to defend itself in the daily conflict between id impulses that seek expression and the superego’s demands to deny them. 40) The district attorney never stops his campaign to rid the city of pornography. He gets extremely agitated when speaking against the evils of "adult" magazines and he quotes scripture endlessly to back up his tirades. How would Freud most likely explain the underlying cause of this behaviour? A) reaction formation. B) repression. C) regression. D) rationalization. Answer: A Rationale: Reaction formation transforms an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. In this case, the unacceptable impulse that the district attorney may have is to view pornography himself. 41) A man has had a particularly frustrating day at work and because of some errors by others he won't make his sales goals. When he arrives home a bicycle blocks his way into the garage, so he picks it up and throws it across the yard into some bushes. Which defense mechanism is being characterized? A) denial. B) regression. C) reaction formation. D) displacement. Answer: D Rationale: This is a way of discharging feelings onto objects or people that are less threatening than those that originally caused the emotions. 42) What is a major criticism of Freud's theory? A) It is overly dependent upon the concept of the unconscious. B) It is difficult to evaluate scientifically. C) It suggests the existence of defense mechanisms. D) It is not comprehensive enough to explain behavioural diversity. Answer: B Rationale: Psychoanalytic concepts are vague and not operationally defined. This makes much of the theory difficult to evaluate scientifically. 43) As described in the textbook, researchers explored the conditions under which girls aged 9-11 years were most likely to use defense mechanisms. What did the researchers discover? A) the unpopular girls used more defense mechanisms than the popular girls after an episode of peer rejection. B) the popular girls used more defense mechanisms than the unpopular girls, regardless of peer rejection C) the popular girls used rationalization more often than the unpopular girls. D) the popular girls used denial more often than the unpopular girls. Answer: A Rationale: The researchers reasoned that the unpopular girls experienced more anxiety after rejection because they had experienced it in the past. 44) Which statement best characterizes the consensus on the status of Freud's theory of personality? A) His theory is generally correct, with minor exceptions. B) His theory has a female-centred bias which makes his concepts less generalizable. C) Some of his ideas have been widely accepted and others have been abandoned. D) It has been impossible to evalaute any of Freud's ideas through empirical scrutiny. Answer: C Rationale: Freud's theory is complex, comprehensive, and compelling. However, many who studied personality with him or after him have modified aspects of the theory that did not withstand scientific scrutiny. 45) What is the focus of Alfred Adler's theory of personality? A) libidinal pleasures. B) feelings of inferiority. C) attempts to self-actualize. D) the ego and its defenses. Answer: B Rationale: According to Alder, personality is structured around striving to become superior or competent. Lifestyles are based on this striving, which has as its goal being adequate in one's particular environment. 46) In what way did Karen Horney’s beliefs differ from those of orthodox Freudian supporters? A) She suggested that "womb envy" leads men to devalue women. B) She suggested that less emphasis should be placed on cultural factors. C) She suggested that more emphasis should be placed on infantile sexuality. D) She suggested that Freud focused too much on present character structure. Answer: A Rationale: Men overcompensate for this weakness through unconscious impulses toward creative work. 47) Which individual is affiliated with the terms, "collective unconscious," "archetypes," and "analytic psychology"? A) Carl Rogers. B) Carl Jung. C) Alfred Adler. D) Abraham Maslow. Answer: B Rationale: Jung thought that the unconscious was not limited to a person’s unique life but also contained fundamental psychological truths shared by the whole human race. Jung called this the collective unconscious. He also suggested many archetypes, primitive symbolic representations of particular experiences or objects that give rise to myths and symbols. He believed that the healthy personality is a constellation of internal forces in dynamic balance. This view of personality is called analytic psychology. 48) The university is going to sponsor a lecture by a humanistic personality theorist. What will the speaker most likely express with respect to humans? A) They are very similar in their tendencies. B) They are primarily motivated by the libido. C) They are striving toward self-actualization. D) They are generally negative in their view of the world. Answer: C Rationale: This concept refers to the constant striving to reach our potential, to fully develop our capacities and talents, and to become whole individuals. 49) Imagine that Carl Rogers is on a talk show handling questions about child-rearing practices. A parent calls in and asks how he should handle his son, who deliberately pushed another child off a bicycle. What approach would Carl Rogers most likely suggest to the parent? A) give the child a time out from one of his favourite activities. B) tell the child, "Go to your room without supper." C) promote the benefits of humanistic counselling. D) tell the child, "Trying to hurt another child is a bad thing to do." Answer: D Rationale: According to Rogers, children should feel that they are always loved, despite their misbehaviour; when correcting a child, adults should emphasize the behaviour that needs to change. This approach promotes unconditional positive regard and positive self-regard. 50) Which humanistic theorist suggested that basic anxiety causes people to move toward, against, and away from others, thereby causing them to live by a "tyranny of shoulds"? A) Carl Rogers B) Karen Horney C) Walter Mischel D) Abraham Maslow Answer: B Rationale: According to Horney, anxiety produces particular ways of dealing with others (moving away, toward, or against them). “Shoulds” lead to tyranny when, instead of acting as motivations, they act as self-imposed obligations. 51) Humanistic psychologists would be interested in people's responses to questions such as, "How did you feel when she said that?" or "Why do you think she treats you that way?" Which term best characterizes the nature of these types of questions? A) dispositional B) existential C) phenomenological D) holistic Answer: C Rationale: Humanistic theories strive to understand the individual's unique and subjective point of view. 52) A psychologist is engaged in a contemporary type of research that is related to the humanist tradition but can be traced back to Freud's analysis of Leonardo da Vinci. He is using published materials to develop a coherent and illuminating story of the life of a famous author. Which technique is he using? A) behavioural analysis B) psychobiography C) self-verification D) personal construction Answer: B Rationale: Psychobiography is defined as the systematic use of psychological (especially personality) theory to transform a life into a coherent and illuminating story. 53) “Personality is the sum of the overt and covert responses that can be reliably elicited by an individual's reinforcement history." Which approach to personality is being described? A) humanistic B) psychodynamic C) evolutionary D) learning theory Answer: D Rationale: Psychologists who look at personality through learning theory point to environmental circumstances that control behaviour. 54) How do contemporary social-learning and cognitive theories differ from the early learning theory approaches? A) They hold that environmental contingencies are less important. B) They suggest that organisms react passively to their environments. C) They emphasize cognitive processes as well as behavioural ones. D) They minimize the importance of mental processes. Answer: C Rationale: Learning theory emphasizes environmental circumstances that control behaviour. Sociallearning and cognitive theories propose that there are important individual differences in the ways in which people think about and define situations. These theories suggest that we are active in choosing the situations in which we act and in which others act upon us. 55) Written on the whiteboard is a list of five items: encodings, expectancies and beliefs, affects, goals and values, and competencies and self-regulatory plans. Which theory encompasses these five items? A) the five-factor theory of personality. B) Walter Mischel's cognitive-affective personality theory. C) Albert Bandura's cognitive social-learning theory. D) Nancy Cantor's social intelligence theory. Answer: B Rationale: According to this theory, each of the five variables on the board affects the way in which an individual would potentially behave in particular situations. 56) A boy has once again forced himself to ask a girl out on a date, although deep down he doubts that she will say yes. According to Julian Rotter, how can the boy's doubts be best understood? A) in terms of encodings. B) in terms of expectancies and beliefs. C) in terms of affects. D) in terms of competencies and self-regulatory plans. Answer: B Rationale: These are beliefs that the individual has about the social world ("I should ask her out") and expected outcomes if he acts in certain ways ("she will refuse to go out with me"). 57) As described in the textbook, researchers focused on how children at summer camp reacted to different psychological situations. What did the data collected from the camp counsellors indicate? A) different situations bring out different behaviours in people. B) the best measures of personality are those that focus on average behaviours C) people are remarkably consistent in their behaviour across different situations. D) males are more resilient than females. Answer: A Rationale: Mischel's personality theory focuses on interactions among several different types of variables. In this study, variables included verbal intelligence, delay of gratification, selfregulation, aggression, and motivation. 58) The fitness center is usually a relaxed place until the manager arrives. She is always tense and spends much of her time yelling at the workers. Soon everyone seems to be angry and on edge. Which term best characterizes this scenario? A) self-efficacy B) self-verification C) defensive pessimism D) reciprocal determinism Answer: D Rationale: What she does has an effect on the environment, because aspects of employees’ personalities are affected by her behaviours. In turn, others' behaviours affect her and affect the environment. 59) According to the theory of Albert Bandura, what is the definition of self-efficacy? A) a willingness to conform to the feelings of the majority. B) the belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation. C) a system of moral values and a strong sense of right and wrong. D) the need to achieve one's potential or to be the best that one can be. Answer: B Rationale: Self-efficacy is the belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation. 60) A child reads his sister a children's story about a little locomotive that reaches the top of a hill because it thinks it can. Which one of Bandura’s concepts is being highlighted? A) self-efficacy. B) reciprocal determinism. C) observational learning. D) optimism. Answer: A Rationale: This is the belief that we can perform adequately in a particular situation. Self-efficacy affects perception, motivation, and performance in many ways. 61) Beyond actual accomplishments, there are three other sources of information for selfefficacy judgments. What are these sources? A) person, places, and behaviours. B) reciprocal determinism, attitude, and behaviour. C) vicarious experience, persuasion, and monitoring of emotional arousal. D) past experience, reinforcement history, and present expectation for success. Answer: C Rationale: Self-efficacy is influenced by vicarious experience, persuasion, and monitoring of emotional arousal. 62) A study was conducted on the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on college performance. What was the outcome? A) students who had higher self-efficacy did better than their peers. B) The degree of self-efficacy did not have an impact on college performance. C) higher self-efficacy only mattered for those who did less well in high school than their peers. D) though there was an initial relationship between self-efficacy and college performance, the correlation disappeared over time. Answer: A Rationale: The study found that students who had higher self-efficacy did better than their peers with equal past performance but lower self-efficacy. 63) Although Leeza is certain that she will succeed as an actress, she does not believe that her parents will support this career choice. In the context of Bandura’s work, which term best characterizes Leeza’s beliefs about her future? A) conditions of worth. B) an outcome-based expectation. C) self-handicapping. D) learned helplessness. Answer: B Rationale: Expectations of failure or success, and the decision to persevere or not, may be based on others' supportiveness or lack of supportiveness, in addition to beliefs about one's own adequacy. 64) A new father decides that spending more time at home with the family is more important than working overtime and making more money. According to Nancy Cantor's view of personality, on what basis did this man decide to refuse overtime work? A) choice of life goals. B) knowledge of social interactions. C) strategies for implementing goals. D) interpersonal intelligence. Answer: A Rationale: People differ regarding which life goals are most important to them. These goals may change over time and circumstance. 65) A student spends much time socializing with friends instead of studying for an important exam because he is afraid to find out whether he has what it takes to pass the exam. Which term best characterizes this scenario? A) the consistency paradox. B) self-handicapping behaviour. C) self-efficacy. D) fixation. Answer: B Rationale: The purpose of this behaviour is to have a ready-made excuse for failure that does not imply lack of ability. 66) Which of the following is most likely an example of self-handicapping behaviour? A) A student is not happy unless he gets higher grades, runs faster, and has a nicer car than his friends. B) A student likes others to think that she makes "A's" without studying and wins diving competitions without practicing. C) A young musician smashes his favourite violin bow on the ground the day before he is to play in a recital. D) A woman tells her husband that she could have been a great actress if she hadn't married him and had children. Answer: C Rationale: If he does not do well in his recital, it will not be because he lacks ability, it will be because he lacks the correct bow. 67) The textbook describes a study on the relationship between self-handicapping and gender in college students. What did the researchers discover about the tendency toward selfhandicapping? A) It was found in males only. B) It was found in females only. C) It was found in both males and females. D) It was found when participants were led to believe that they had done better than expected. Answer: A Rationale: Women seemed to put too much value on effort to engage in self-handicapping. Men who were told that "practice matters" practiced least of all. 68) A man believes that one’s behaviour should be based on the needs and approval of the community at large. According to Markus and Kitayama, which type of culture does this man likely represent? A) an individualistic culture. B) an independent culture. C) a collectivist culture. D) an altruistic culture. Answer: C Rationale: Collectivist cultures encourage interdependent construals of self, where one views oneself as part of an encompassing social relationship. 69) Cross-cultural research on the self has sometimes used a measurement device called the Twenty Statements Test, in which participants are asked to give 20 differentanswers to the question "Who am I?" When comparing the responses of students from various countries, what did one group of researchers discover? A) in keeping with their interdependent sense of self, American students were least likely to give self-evaluations. B) the differences in the responses of men and women were typically very large. C) cultural differences mattered more than gender differences. D) most of the students defined themselves in terms of their ideological beliefs. Answer: C Rationale: Culture had an impact on the categories that are most likely for people’s responses. Furthermore, differences between men and women overall were rather small, and culture mattered more. 70) A study looked at e-mail addresses and personality self-reports from 599 individuals. The researchers then asked an independent group of students to make judgments about personality based only on the e-mail addresses. What did the study reveal? A) there was a positive correlation between raters' assessments and e-mail users' self-reports. B) there was no agreement between raters and e-mail users in personality assessments. C) the students reported that there was insufficient information to make accurate personality assessments. D) there is a strong relationship between self-report of personality characteristics and gender. Answer: A Rationale: The raters were able to make reasonable personality judgments based only on e-mail addresses. Personality ratings were fairly consistent among student raters as well as between e-mail users and raters. 71) Which personality theory most strongly emphasizes situational determinants of behaviour? A) trait B) psychodynamic C) humanistic D) social-learning Answer: D Rationale: Social-learning theories emphasize situational factors, while traits play up dispositional factors. 72) With respect to contributions made by various major theories of personality to the understanding of human nature, what point of view does the textbook express? A) social-cognitive theory makes the most comprehensive contribution. B) Freudian theory provides little value to the understanding of human nature. C) each type of theory makes different contributions. D) social intelligence theory has the highest validity and reliability ratings. Answer: C Rationale: Each type of theory makes different contributions to the understanding of human personality. 73) A researcher wants to develop a test of personality that will follow well-defined rules and will be simple to administer and score. Which term best reflects this type of test? A) objective B) empirical C) rational D) projective Answer: A Rationale: Objective tests of personality are those in which scoring and administration are relatively simple and follow well-defined rules. 74) Todd has signed up for a research study in which he will be completing a personality inventory. What should Todd expect? A) to undergo a systematic interview by a trained clinical psychologist. B) to read a series of statements and indicate whether each is true of himself. C) to report what he sees in a series of ambiguous pictures. D) to be tested for his potential for acquiring various skills. Answer: B Rationale: A person taking a personality inventory such as the MMPI reads a series of statements and gives a simple response such as “true,” “false,” or “cannot say.” People choose from predetermined responses theanswers that best fit them. 75) Raj wanted to develop a test that could predict success in selling real estate. If Raj used the empirical strategy of test construction that was developed for the original MMPI, what would Raj do? A) analyze the skills needed to sell real estate. B) test potential items on successful and unsuccessful real estate salespeople. C) ask buyers of real estate what they liked and did not like about their salesperson. D) observe successful real estate salespeople "in action." Answer: B Rationale: Items are included on this type of test only if they clearly differentiate between the two groups. That is, the items would have to clearly show a difference between successful and unsuccessful salespeople in real estate. 76) At the end of her job interview, a woman is given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. To make a good impression, when she sees items such as "I am sometimes bothered by things that shouldn't upset me," and "I don't always tell the truth," sheanswers that these statements are not true. What will the person scoring the test most likely do? A) ask the woman to clarify her responses. B) question the validity of the test. C) deduct one mark for each of these responses. D) add one mark for each of these responses. Answer: B Rationale: Validity scales detect response patterns that suggest dishonesty, carelessness, defensiveness, or evasiveness. These scales are checked first in order to ascertain whether the whole test is valid. 77) A woman is described by others as having many obsessive-compulsive behaviours and fears, and is definitely prone to indecisiveness. If she were to take the MMPI-2, on which clinical scale would she likely obtain a high score? A) psychasthenia B) schizophrenia C) hypomania D) generalized anxiety Answer: A Rationale: Psychasthenia is related to behaviours that are anxious, worried, or high-strung. 78) A researcher is looking for a test that has an extensive archival record of more than fifty years that also has standardized items that he can analyze to test hypotheses about selfefficacy, a psychological construct that did not exist when the test was first developed. Which test should the researcher be encouraged to use? A) Woodworth Personal Data Sheet. B) NEO Personality Inventory. C) Big Five Questionnaire. D) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Answer: D Rationale: The MMPI was first developed in the 1930s, has been widely studied and applied since then, and underwent a major revision in the 1980s. 79) A psychologist uses a personality inventory that assesses thirty separate traits that are organized within the major factors of the five-factor model of personality. Which test is the psychologist most likely using? A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. B) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. C) Thematic Apperception Test. D) NEO Personality Inventory. Answer: D 80) A psychologist uses a personality inventory that assesses thirty separate traits that are organized within the major factors of the five-factor model of personality. Which test is the psychologist most likely using? A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. B) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. C) Thematic Apperception Test. D) NEO Personality Inventory. Answer: D Rationale: The NEO-PI was designed to assess personality characteristics in nonclinical adult populations. 81) A psychologist, who is a firm supporter of the five-factor model of personality would like to conduct research using personality inventories. Which assessment tool is the psychologist most likely to use? A) MMPI-2. B) Rorschach. C) TAT. D) NEO-PI. Answer: D Rationale: When you receive your scores from the NEO-PI, you get a profile sheet that shows standardized scores relative to the norms on the five factors—neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. 82) Which description best characterizes a projective test? A) 550 questions to which the patient must respond either "true" or "false." B) a staged social interaction in which the patient is observed without her knowledge. C) ambiguous material to which the patient must respond. D) a series of questions designed to measure divergent production. Answer: C Rationale: The material is purposefully ambiguous; responses to the material are partly determined by the person's feelings, motives, and conflicts from prior life experiences. 83) Why were projective tests first used by psychoanalysts? A) They believed that reliability and validity could be achieved. B) They believed that the tests would reveal unconscious personality dynamics. C) They believed that individuals would be better at rating others than they were at rating themselves. D) They believed that high inter-rater reliability could be established. Answer: B Rationale: Projective tests were first used by psychoanalysts, who hoped that such tests would reveal their patients’ unconscious personality dynamics. 84) A psychoanalyst shows his patient a series of symmetrical inkblots. For each, the patient is asked, "What might this be?" Which test is being described? A) Rorschach. B) Picture Completion Test. C) Thematic Apperception Test. D) Big Five Questionnaire. Answer: A Rationale: The Rorschach test uses ambiguous stimuli that are symmetrical inkblots, and respondents are asked to identify what they see in the inkblot. 85) Normand tells Sue that he knows the Thematic Apperception Test is classified as a personality test, but he can't remember what it requires a person to do. How should Sue respond? A) You must fill in the blanks for incomplete sentences. B) You must generate stories about ambiguous scenes. C) You must free associate to a series of words. D) You must predict how people will respond in various social situations. Answer: B Rationale: The test taker is asked to tell a story about each card, describing what the people are doing, what led up to the event, and how each situation will end. 86) Which personality test would require respondents to generate stories about pictures of ambiguous scenes? A) The TAT B) The Picture Completion Test C) The Rorschach Test D) The NEO-PI Answer: A Rationale: The TAT requires respondents to generate stories about pictures of ambiguous scenes. 87) Personality type theories are all-or-none phenomena, not matters of degree. So a person assigned to one type could not belong to any other type within that system. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: This statement is consistent with the nature of personality type theories such as those proposed by Carl Jung or the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). In these theories, individuals are typically classified into distinct types based on their preferences and characteristics. For example, in the MBTI, individuals are assigned one of 16 possible types, each with its own set of preferences for perceiving and judging the world. Once assigned to a particular type, individuals are not considered to belong to any other type within that system, thus making it an all-or-none phenomenon. 88) Endomorphic, mesomorphic, and ectomorphic are categories of a personality type theory based on body builds. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: Endomorphic, mesomorphic, and ectomorphic are indeed categories of a personality type theory based on body builds known as Sheldon's somatotype theory. Sheldon proposed that individuals could be classified into these three body types based on their predominant physical characteristics. Endomorphic individuals are characterized by a rounder, softer physique, mesomorphic individuals have a more muscular and athletic build, and ectomorphic individuals tend to be lean and slender. 89) Your preference for certain types of films or restaurants would be an example of a central trait in the approach of Gordon Allport. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Gordon Allport's theory of personality focuses on both central and secondary traits. Central traits are those that are generalized and fundamental to an individual's personality, influencing various aspects of behavior. Preferences for certain types of films or restaurants would not typically be considered central traits in Allport's approach, as these preferences are more specific and situational rather than representing broad and consistent characteristics. 90) The research of Raymond Cattell led him to the conclusion that there are five source traits that make up personality. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Raymond Cattell's research actually led him to propose the existence of 16 primary factors, which he called source traits, that underlie human personality. Later, through the process of factor analysis, he narrowed down these traits into 16 fundamental factors, which he believed to be the building blocks of personality. These factors include traits such as warmth, reasoning, emotional stability, dominance, and more. So, the statement that Cattell concluded there are only five source traits is incorrect. 91) Personality theorist Hans Eysenck suggested three personality dimensions—introversion, extraversion, and neuroticism. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Hans Eysenck actually proposed three major dimensions of personality: extraversionintroversion, neuroticism-emotional stability, and psychoticism. So, the statement is false because it omits the dimension of psychoticism. 92) Agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are three of the bipolar dimensions that make up the five-factor model of personality. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: The five-factor model of personality, also known as the Big Five, includes five broad dimensions: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are indeed three of these dimensions, and they are considered bipolar, meaning they represent opposite poles of each dimension. 93) Research on shyness in adults has found that the person who considers himself or herself to be "not shy" is rare. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: Research on shyness has consistently found that individuals tend to rate themselves as less shy than observers would rate them. This phenomenon, known as the "shy self-bias," suggests that individuals are often unaware of their own shyness or underreport it compared to how others perceive them. 94) In Freud's theory, the id is governed by the reality principle. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the id is governed by the pleasure principle, not the reality principle. The id operates based on the primitive, unconscious desire for immediate gratification of basic needs and urges, without concern for consequences or reality constraints. 95) A man doesn't remember fleeing a burning building when he was a child. In Freud's theory, this would be an example of the defense mechanism called regression. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, regression refers to the defense mechanism by which an individual retreats to an earlier stage of development when faced with anxiety or stress. Forgetting a traumatic event from childhood would likely be an example of repression, where memories are pushed into the unconscious mind to protect the individual from experiencing anxiety or distress associated with those memories. 96) One criticism of Freud's theory is that it uses a male model as the norm without trying to determine how females might be different. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: One of the criticisms directed at Freud's psychoanalytic theory is its inherent bias toward a male model of development and functioning. Freud primarily based his theories on observations of male patients and often generalized these findings to all individuals, without adequately considering potential differences between males and females. 97) Karen Horney's theory of personality is most closely associated with the idea that people overcompensate for their feelings of inferiority by attempting to become superior. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Karen Horney's theory of personality, influenced by psychoanalysis and Neo-Freudian thought, focuses on the concept of neurotic needs and coping strategies rather than simple overcompensation for feelings of inferiority. Horney proposed that individuals develop coping mechanisms to deal with basic anxiety, and these strategies can involve moving toward, against, or away from others, rather than a singular focus on superiority. 98) Humanistic theories of personality have been described as being holistic, dispositional, and phenomenological. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: Humanistic theories, such as those proposed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, emphasize the holistic nature of personality, focusing on the entirety of the individual's experiences and subjective perceptions. These theories are dispositional in that they emphasize the inherent potential for growth and self-actualization within individuals. Additionally, they are phenomenological in that they prioritize subjective experiences and the individual's unique perception of reality. 99) Psychologists with a learning theory orientation look to the environmental circumstances that control behaviour and see personality as the sum of responses that are elicited by an individual's reinforcement history. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: Psychologists with a learning theory orientation, such as behaviorists, emphasize the role of environmental factors in shaping behavior and personality. They view personality as the result of conditioning processes, where individuals learn to respond in certain ways based on their reinforcement history. This perspective focuses on observable behaviors and the environmental stimuli that influence them. 100) If you believe that you can perform adequately in a particular situation, Albert Bandura would say that you have a sense of self-efficacy. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: Albert Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy, which refers to an individual's belief in their ability to successfully execute a particular behavior or achieve a desired outcome in a specific situation. It goes beyond mere confidence or self-esteem by specifically addressing one's belief in their capacity to perform tasks effectively. Therefore, if you believe you can perform adequately in a particular situation, you are demonstrating a sense of self-efficacy according to Bandura's theory. 101) You have a strong sense of self-efficacy and your friend has a low sense of self-efficacy. You have the same GPA in school. Your friend is therefore more likely to do better than you in school in the future. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: A strong sense of self-efficacy can lead to greater motivation, perseverance, and resilience in pursuing goals, even if individuals face challenges or setbacks. While self-efficacy is a significant factor in academic performance, other variables such as study habits, access to resources, and external support systems also play crucial roles. Therefore, it's not accurate to conclude that a friend with a lower sense of self-efficacy would necessarily perform better in school in the future solely based on having the same current GPA. 102) According to the social intelligence theory of Nancy Cantor, people differ with respect to their choice of life goals, relevant knowledge, and strategies for implementing goals. A) True B) False Answer: True Rationale: Nancy Cantor's social intelligence theory emphasizes that individuals differ not only in their intellectual abilities but also in their social knowledge and skills. This includes their choice of life goals, the relevant knowledge they possess, and the strategies they employ to pursue and achieve these goals. Cantor's theory underscores the importance of understanding individuals' social contexts and their ability to navigate social situations effectively. 103) One criticism that is leveled against social-learning and cognitive theories is that they place too much emphasis on emotions like anxiety as important components of personality. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Social-learning and cognitive theories of personality do acknowledge the role of emotions, including anxiety, in shaping behavior and personality. These theories often emphasize the interaction between cognitive processes, environmental influences, and emotional experiences in determining behavior. While they may not prioritize emotions to the same extent as some other theories (such as psychoanalytic theories), they do recognize the significance of emotions in understanding human behavior and personality. 104) Collectivist cultures emphasize individuals' needs and encourage independent construals of self. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Collectivist cultures prioritize the needs and goals of the group or community over individual desires. In collectivist cultures, individuals are encouraged to construe the self in relation to social groups such as family, community, or society, rather than focusing primarily on independent self-construals. Therefore, collectivist cultures typically promote interdependence and emphasize harmonious social relationships rather than individual autonomy. 105) In general, trait theories of personality emphasize situational factors and social-learning theories emphasize dispositional factors. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: Trait theories of personality focus on individual differences in stable patterns of behavior, cognition, and emotion, which are considered dispositional factors. These theories seek to identify and describe enduring traits that influence behavior across various situations. On the other hand, social-learning theories emphasize the influence of environmental factors, including reinforcement, modeling, and observational learning, on behavior. While sociallearning theories do consider situational factors, they primarily emphasize how these factors interact with individuals' internal cognitive processes and learned behaviors. 106) You have just taken a personality inventory that measures the five-factor model of personality and received a profile sheet that shows your standardized scores relative to a large normative sample on each of the five major dimensions. The test you have taken is probably the MMPI-2. A) True B) False Answer: False Rationale: The MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) is not a test that measures the five-factor model of personality. Instead, it is a widely used psychological assessment tool designed to assess psychopathology, personality disorders, and other mental health conditions. The five-factor model of personality is typically assessed using instruments such as the NEO Personality Inventory or the Big Five Inventory. Therefore, if you received a profile sheet with standardized scores on the five major dimensions, it is unlikely that you took the MMPI-2. 107) In modern times, William Sheldon originated a type theory of personality based on __________ and Frank Sulloway proposed a type theory based on __________. Answer: physique; birth order Rationale: William Sheldon's theory, known as constitutional psychology, suggested that an individual's physique or body type (endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph) is linked to certain personality traits. On the other hand, Frank Sulloway's theory proposed that birth order, or the order in which individuals are born within a family, influences personality development, with firstborns, middle-borns, and last-borns exhibiting different traits. 108) Personality theorists define __________ as enduring qualities or attributes that predispose individuals to behave consistently across situations. Answer: traits Rationale: Traits are stable and enduring characteristics that shape an individual's behavior across various situations. These qualities predispose individuals to act in consistent ways over time, regardless of the specific circumstances they encounter. 109) The observation that personality ratings across time and among different observers are consistent, while behavior ratings of a person across situations are not consistent, is called the __________. Answer: consistency paradox Rationale: The consistency paradox refers to the phenomenon where personality traits, as assessed through self-report or observer ratings, tend to remain stable over time and across different raters. However, actual behaviors exhibited by individuals in different situations may vary widely, leading to inconsistencies between observed behaviors and perceived personality traits. 110) __________ are people who are publicly outgoing but privately shy. They have good __________ but doubt that others really like or respect them. Answer: Shy extraverts; social skills Rationale: Shy extraverts are individuals who exhibit extroverted behavior in social settings but experience inner feelings of shyness or insecurity. They possess strong social skills, enabling them to interact confidently in public, yet they may harbor doubts about how they are truly perceived by others, questioning whether they are genuinely liked or respected. 111) In Freud's theory, the __________ is the aspect of personality that represents the internalization of society's values, standards, and morals. Answer: superego Rationale: According to Freudian theory, the superego operates at the moral level of consciousness, incorporating societal norms, values, and moral standards. It emerges as a result of the individual's internalization of cultural and social expectations, serving as a regulatory mechanism that guides behavior and enforces moral principles. 112) In the theory of Carl Jung, the __________ unconscious is a part of an individual's unconscious that is inherited, evolutionarily developed, and common to all members of the species. Answer: collective Rationale: Carl Jung's concept of the collective unconscious refers to the deepest layer of the unconscious mind, containing inherited, universal symbols and archetypes shared by all human beings. It represents the reservoir of collective human experience and evolutionary wisdom, transcending individual experiences. 113) Carl Rogers stressed the importance of __________ in raising children. By this, he meant that children should feel they will always be loved and approved of, in spite of their mistakes and misbehavior. Answer: unconditional positive regard Rationale: Unconditional positive regard, as emphasized by Carl Rogers in his person-centered approach, involves providing acceptance, warmth, and support to individuals regardless of their actions or behaviors. It fosters an environment where individuals feel valued, respected, and free to explore their true selves without fear of judgment or rejection. 114) __________ is a concept of Albert Bandura's social-learning theory that refers to the notion that a complex interaction exists between the individual, his or her behavior, and environmental stimuli, and that each of these components affects the others. Answer: Reciprocal determinism Rationale: Reciprocal determinism, proposed by Albert Bandura, suggests that behavior is influenced by the interaction between individual factors (such as cognition and personality), behavior itself, and environmental factors (such as social context and reinforcement). These elements continuously interact and influence each other in a dynamic, reciprocal manner. 115) When people engage in __________ behavior, they develop, in anticipation of failure, behavioral reactions and explanations that minimize ability deficits as possible attributions for the failure. Answer: self-handicapping Rationale: Self-handicapping involves the adoption of behaviors or strategies that create obstacles to success, often in anticipation of failure. By preemptively creating excuses or obstacles, individuals protect their self-esteem and attribute potential failure to external factors rather than to their own abilities or efforts. 116) A woman believes that a person's behavior should be based on the needs and approval of the community at large. According to Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama, the woman most likely comes from a(n) __________ culture which supports __________ construals of self. Answer: collectivist; collectivist Rationale: In collectivist cultures, such as those found in many Asian societies, individuals prioritize the needs and goals of the group or community over personal desires. The self is defined in relation to social roles and relationships, emphasizing interdependence and collective harmony rather than individual autonomy or uniqueness. 117) Situational determinants of behavior are most strongly emphasized by __________ theories of personality, while dispositional factors are most strongly emphasized by __________ theories. Answer: social-learning; trait Rationale: Social-learning theories of personality, such as those proposed by Bandura, emphasize the influence of situational factors and environmental stimuli on behavior, highlighting the role of learning and social context. In contrast, trait theories, such as those associated with the Big Five model, focus on dispositional factors and inherent personality characteristics that shape behavior across different situations. 118) A researcher wants to develop a test of personality that will follow well-defined rules and will be simple to administer and score. Psychologists call this type of test a(n) __________ test of personality. Answer: objective Rationale: Objective tests of personality, such as self-report questionnaires or rating scales, involve standardized procedures with clear instructions and predetermined response options. These tests are designed to measure specific personality traits or dimensions in a systematic and quantifiable manner, facilitating easy administration, scoring, and interpretation. 119) In personality assessment, __________ follow well-defined rules and are relatively simple to administer and score, while __________ have purposely ambiguous stimuli that can be interpreted in many ways. Answer: objective tests; projective tests Rationale: Objective tests in personality assessment involve clear, unambiguous questions or statements with predetermined response options, allowing for straightforward administration and scoring. In contrast, projective tests present ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or pictures, to elicit responses that reflect unconscious aspects of an individual's personality. Interpretation of responses in projective tests tends to be more subjective and open to multiple interpretations. 120) The Thematic Apperception Test was developed by __________, and over the years it has proven to be a valid measure of __________. Answer: Henry Murray; need for achievement Rationale: The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was developed by Henry Murray and his colleagues as a projective measure of personality. It involves presenting individuals with ambiguous pictures and asking them to create stories about what is happening in the scenes. The responses are then interpreted to reveal underlying motives, conflicts, and personality traits, including the need for achievement, which is one of the dimensions assessed by the TAT. 121) The earliest personality theories were based on "types." Give some examples of type theories, then explain how trait theories differ from type theories. Which trait theories have received the most interest, and why? Answer: Type theories are based on separate, discontinuous categories, whereas trait theories are based on continuous dimensions. Type theorists include Hippocrates, Galen, Sheldon, and Sulloway, and theories include those based on bodily fluids and body builds. Traits theorists include Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck, and theories include intervening variables, categories of traits (cardinal, central, and secondary), 16 source traits, and the five-factor theory. 122) Name and define the five dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Give an example of each dimension. Answer: The five dimensions are as follows: 1) Extraversion—introversion (example: talkative—quiet) 2) agreeableness—antagonism (example: good-natured—irritable); 3) conscientiousness—undirectedness (example: reliable —undependable); 4) neuroticism— stability (example: worried—calm); and 5) openness to experience—not open (example: creative—conforming). 123) How do psychologists study the degree to which personality traits and behaviour patterns are inherited, and what have they found? Answer: Heritability of personality traits are studied by looking at family members who share different proportions of genes who have grown up in the same or different households. Heritability studies show that almost all personality characteristics are influenced by genetic factors. 124) How well do traits predict behaviours? How does the situation influence consistency for traits? Answer: Discuss the consistency paradox, and how psychological features of the situation can overcome this paradox. 125) It seems that everywhere you go you run into terms that were originally proposed by Sigmund Freud. On television they are talking about Freudian slips, your professor mentions the pleasure principle, and a friend claims that you are always using defense mechanisms. Briefly describe the major elements of Freudian psychoanalysis—the drives that motivate behaviour, the stages of psychosexual development, the structure of personality, and the defense mechanisms. Answer: Include a brief discussion of drives and the five stages of psychosexual development. Include a brief discussion of fixation. Describe the structure of personality, including id, ego, and superego. Define defense mechanisms and explain their importance. Discuss repression, and give other examples of defense mechanisms. 126) Humanistic, social-learning, and cognitive theories differ dramatically from the psychodynamic approach. Give capsule summaries of the theories of Carl Rogers, Walter Mischel, Albert Bandura, and Nancy Cantor. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each theory? Answer: Carl Rogers is a humanist. Include a brief description of humanism, positive regard, and self-actualization. Humanist theories are sometimes considered difficult to explore scientifically. The theories of Mischel and Bandura exemplify the cognitive-affective and cognitive social-learning approaches. Cantor developed a social intelligence approach to personality theory. Discuss whether emotion is addressed or overlooked in these theories, and whether development of personality is addressed thoroughly enough. 127) There is no unified theory of personality. Discuss basic differences that appear repeatedly among various comparisons of personality theory. One of these differences is heredity versus environment. Briefly discuss this difference and four others. Answer: Five of the most important differences in assumptions are as follows: 1) heredity versus environment; 2) learning processes versus innate laws; 3) emphasis on past, present, or future; 4) consciousness versus unconsciousness; and 5) inner disposition versus outer situation. 128) In what different ways can personality be assessed? Discuss objective and projective methods of assessing personality and the benefits of each. What criticisms have been directed toward each type of assessment? Answer: Objective tests are relatively easy to give and score, because they follow welldefined rules. Gives examples of objective tests. Projective tests contain stimuli that are purposely ambiguous. Give examples of projective tests. Discuss applications and benefits of each (e.g., projective tests are less sensitive to language variation) and mention possible problems (e.g., projective tests may be used in situations in which they are not valid). 1) An individual’s personality, as well as situational variables, will determine that person’s _______. A) behaviour B) predispositions C) uniqueness D) all of the above Answer: A Rationale: Personality influences how individuals behave in various situations. While personality traits predispose individuals to certain behaviors, situational factors also play a significant role in determining behavior, resulting in a complex interplay between personality and situations. 2) The pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and situations and distinguishes one person from another is called ___________. A) a trait. B) an emotional profile. C) personality. D) the primary process. Answer: C Rationale: Personality refers to enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are relatively consistent across different situations and over time, distinguishing one individual from another. It encompasses a wide range of characteristics that contribute to an individual's uniqueness. 3) The pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and situations and distinguishes one person from another is called ______________. A) a trait B) a habit C) personality D) learning Answer: C Rationale: Personality encompasses the enduring and consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that differentiate one individual from another across various situations and over time. 4) _______ is a unique set of behaviors and enduring qualities that influence the way a person adapts to her/his environment. A) Instinct B) Personality C) Trait D) Motivation Answer: B Rationale: Personality refers to an individual's unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that shape how they interact with and adapt to their environment over time. 5) Behavior is influenced by: A) personality. B) situational characteristics. C) individual interpretations of unique situations. D) all of the above Answer: D Rationale: Behavior is influenced by a combination of personality traits, situational factors, and individual interpretations of specific situations. All these factors interact to shape how individuals behave in different contexts. 6) According to the Highlight article, Freud asserted that ________ lay at the core of his patients’ neurotic behavior. A) low self-esteem B) casual attitudes toward sex C) repressed sexual desires D) cultural bias Answer: C Rationale: Freud proposed that repressed sexual desires and unresolved conflicts related to sexuality were central to the development of neurotic behavior in his patients, as outlined in his psychoanalytic theory. 7) Which aspect of the mind held the greatest fascination for Freud? A) the preconscious mind B) the conscious area C) suppressions D) the unconscious Answer: D Rationale: Freud was particularly fascinated by the unconscious mind, believing that it housed repressed memories, desires, and conflicts that exerted a powerful influence on behavior and psychological functioning. 8) Sally has a desire to eat a steak with a baked potato smothered with butter and sour cream. One component of her personality tells her that, because she is overweight, instead of eating the meal she should fast and direct her efforts to ending world hunger. Another component suggests that it would be better to eat a salad and a bran muffin, then run 3 kilometers. The fasting suggestion most likely was made by which component of personality? A) id B) ego C) superego D) oral Answer: C Rationale: The suggestion to fast due to feelings of guilt or obligation to a moral standard (such as avoiding gluttony) aligns with the function of the superego, which represents internalized societal and parental standards and strives for moral perfection. 9) According to Bill’s psychoanalyst, he was traumatized during the anal stage of his psychosexual development, which accounts for Bill’s tightwad habits. Which of the following would be Freud’s term for Bill’s behavior? A) anal retentive B) anal expulsive C) parsimonious D) serendipitous Answer: A Rationale: Freudian theory suggests that unresolved conflicts or traumatic experiences during the anal stage of psychosexual development can lead to personality traits characterized by excessive orderliness, stinginess, or stubbornness, termed as anal retentive. 10) Individual memory is to preconscious as ancestral memory is to ________. A) unconscious B) personal unconscious C) ego D) collective unconscious Answer: D Rationale: According to Carl Jung's theory, individual memories reside in the preconscious (accessible but not currently in awareness), while ancestral or collective memories, symbols, and archetypes are stored in the collective unconscious, representing universal themes and experiences shared by all humans across cultures. 11) According to Jung’s psychoanalytic theory, each of us has ________, which are inherited predispositions to respond to certain concepts. A) drive B) instincts C) archetypes D) arch-egos Answer: C Rationale: In Jung's psychoanalytic theory, archetypes are universal, inherited patterns or predispositions that are shared among all humans and influence how we perceive and respond to certain concepts, symbols, or experiences. 12) According to Jung, our repressed thoughts, undeveloped ideas, and forgotten experiences are contained in the _______________. A) persona B) archetype C) personal unconscious D) collective unconscious Answer: C Rationale: Jung proposed that the personal unconscious contains repressed or forgotten thoughts, memories, and experiences unique to the individual, which may influence behavior and psychological functioning. 13) Jamie is a joiner. She is interested in other people and events going on around her in the world. In Jung’s view, she is an ___________________. A) archetype B) endomorph C) introvert D) extrovert Answer: D Rationale: In Jung's typology, extroverts are characterized by a primary interest in external objects, people, and events, as well as a tendency to focus their energy outwardly on the external world, social interactions, and external activities. 14) Carl Jung stressed the ________________ of people. A) sexual instincts B) learned motives C) spiritual qualities D) primary drives Answer: C Rationale: Carl Jung emphasized the spiritual aspects of human nature and the collective unconscious, focusing on themes of individuation, self-discovery, and the integration of unconscious elements to achieve wholeness and fulfillment. 15) Adler believed that people often are motivated by __________. A) feelings of inferiority B) sexual instincts C) their locus of control D) traumatic events during childhood Answer: A Rationale: Alfred Adler proposed that feelings of inferiority, stemming from early experiences of weakness or inadequacy, serve as a primary motivator for human behavior. Individuals strive to overcome these feelings through the pursuit of superiority and mastery in various domains of life. 16) John dreamed that he was in a train that entered a tunnel. If a psychologist believed that the dream expressed John’s unconscious sexual desires, the psychologist would likely be a _________. A) humanist B) learning theorist C) personologist D) psychoanalyst Answer: D Rationale: Psychoanalysts, influenced by Freud's theories, often interpret dreams as expressions of unconscious desires and conflicts, including sexual impulses. This interpretation aligns with Freudian psychoanalytic principles. 17) Jane is an angry, hostile woman. At work and in her personal life, she is described as an energetic go-getter because she is a workaholic and does a great deal of volunteer work for abused children and women. Jane’s behavior may be an example of which defense mechanism? A) sublimation B) displacement C) reaction formation D) projection Answer: A Rationale: Sublimation involves redirecting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable behaviors or pursuits. In Jane's case, her anger and hostility may be channeled into productive activities such as workaholism and volunteering, allowing her to express her energy in socially constructive ways. 18) The view that personality results from struggles between opposites within each of us is an assumption of which of the following? A) Jung B) Adler C) Maslow D) Mischel Answer: A Rationale: Carl Jung's theory of personality emphasizes the idea of psychic opposites or conflicting forces within the individual, such as the tension between the personal and collective unconscious, as well as the integration of archetypal opposites like anima/animus and persona/shadow. 19) In Adler’s theory, _______ is the energy behind personality and ________ represents form of personality. A) style of life; striving for superiority B) libido; eros C) instinct; reality D) striving for superiority; style of life Answer: D Rationale: According to Adlerian theory, the striving for superiority represents the primary motivational force behind personality development, while the style of life represents the unique pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that individuals adopt in pursuit of their goals. 20) The pleasure principle is to the reality principle as the _______ is to the _______. A) ego; id B) id; ego C) ego; superego D) id; superego Answer: B Rationale: The pleasure principle, which seeks immediate gratification of desires, corresponds to the id in Freud's structural model of personality. In contrast, the reality principle, which considers the constraints of reality and social norms, corresponds to the ego, which mediates between the id, superego, and external reality. 21) Which of the following gives the stages of development outlined by Freud in the order in which they occur? A) anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital B) anal, latency, oral, phallic, genital C) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital D) oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital Answer: C Rationale: The correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. 22) What did Freud call the part of the personality that had to be socialized by parents? A) id B) ego C) authentic self D) superego Answer: B Rationale: Freud referred to the ego as the part of the personality that interacts with reality and is responsible for mediating between the demands of the id, superego, and external world, including the need for socialization enforced by parents. 23) What did Freud call the part of the personality that learns that we will be happier if we postpone gratification? A) id B) ego C) authentic self D) superego Answer: B Rationale: The ego, according to Freud, learns the reality principle, which involves delaying immediate gratification in favor of more appropriate, socially acceptable outcomes. 24) What did Freud call the part of the personality that begins to develop at about age 5? A) id B) ego C) authentic self D) superego Answer: D Rationale: Freud referred to the superego as the moralistic and idealistic component of personality, representing internalized societal and parental standards, which begins to develop around the age of five. 25) The remembered and reported dream was referred to by Freud as: A) the latent content. B) conscious association. C) intellectual content. D) the manifest content. Answer: D Rationale: Freud distinguished between the manifest content of dreams, which is the actual content experienced and remembered upon waking, and the latent content, which consists of the symbolic meanings and hidden desires expressed through the dream. 26) The fundamental or most basic defence mechanism is _______. A) rationalization B) repression C) denial D) projection Answer: B Rationale: According to Freud, repression is considered the fundamental defense mechanism, as it involves pushing threatening or unacceptable impulses, memories, or thoughts into the unconscious mind to avoid conscious awareness. 27) Anna is a morally rigorous person who demands that her daughter remain a virgin until she is married. Anna cannot remember her own premarital sexual encounters. Which defense mechanism would likely account for this memory lapse? A) rationalization B) denial C) repression D) projection Answer: C Rationale: Anna's inability to recall her own premarital sexual encounters despite demanding moral standards likely indicates the defense mechanism of repression, where threatening or unacceptable memories are pushed into the unconscious to avoid conscious awareness. 28) “I didn't get the job even though I was the most qualified applicant because the company has to hire a minority worker.” This probably illustrates which defense mechanism? A) rationalization B) denial C) repression D) projection Answer: A Rationale: This statement reflects the defense mechanism of rationalization, where one justifies or explains away unacceptable behaviors, feelings, or outcomes by providing logical-sounding reasons or excuses. 29) A college professor continually implies that his students are intellectually inferior. Which of the following defense mechanisms is this professor likely using? A) projection B) denial C) reaction formation D) sublimation Answer: A Rationale: The professor projecting his own feelings of intellectual inferiority onto his students by continually implying they are intellectually inferior is an example of the defense mechanism of projection. 30) Behaving in ways that are the opposite of what one would unconsciously like to do defines _______. A) sublimation B) displacement C) reaction formation D) projection Answer: C Rationale: Behaving in ways that are the opposite of one's unconscious desires or impulses is characteristic of the defense mechanism of reaction formation. 31) If a person becomes a Catholic priest or nun because of latent homosexual desires, his/her occupational choice might represent which defence mechanism? A) sublimation B) displacement C) reaction formation D) projection Answer: A Rationale: Sublimation involves redirecting unacceptable impulses or desires into socially acceptable activities or pursuits. In this scenario, becoming a priest or nun may serve as a socially acceptable outlet for the individual's latent homosexual desires, thereby exemplifying the defense mechanism of sublimation. 32) Which structure of personality houses one’s instincts, according to Freud? A) ego ideal B) ego C) id D) superego Answer: C Rationale: Freud conceptualized the id as the primitive, unconscious part of personality that operates on the pleasure principle and houses innate biological drives, impulses, and instincts. 33) The part of personality, according to Freud, that seeks to avoid pain is the ________. A) id B) ego C) superego D) ego ideal Answer: A Rationale: The id operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification while avoiding pain or discomfort. 34) Which statement about the id is most accurate? A) It is in close contact with bodily needs. B) It follows the reality principle. C) It houses the conscience. D) It drives us to live up to our ideals. Answer: A Rationale: The id is primarily concerned with fulfilling basic biological and instinctual needs and operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification. 35) Which component of personality mediates between the forces of desire and reality on a moral basis? A) id B) ego C) superego D) ego ideal Answer: C Rationale: The superego represents the moral component of personality, internalizing societal and parental standards, and acting as a moral conscience that evaluates and regulates behavior based on moral principles and ideals. 36) Pleasure principle is to _______ as reality principle is to ____. A) id; superego B) superego; id C) id; ego D) ego; id Answer: C Rationale: The pleasure principle is associated with the id, which seeks immediate gratification of desires, while the reality principle is associated with the ego, which considers the constraints of reality and social norms in decision-making. 37) Identifying with one’s opposite-sex parent occurs in which psychosexual stage? A) oral B) anal C) phallic D) genital Answer: C Rationale: According to Freud's psychosexual theory, the phallic stage (ages 3 to 6 years) is characterized by the Oedipus complex for boys and the Electra complex for girls, during which children identify with the same-sex parent and experience unconscious sexual desires for the opposite-sex parent. 38) According to Freud, an inadequate resolution of the Oedipus complex leads to: A) child molestation. B) a high regard for women. C) a personality that is reckless and self-assured. D) love of nature. Answer: C Rationale: According to Freud, an inadequate resolution of the Oedipus complex may result in the development of a personality characterized by recklessness, overconfidence, and a sense of entitlement, as the individual struggles to assert dominance and overcome feelings of castration anxiety. 39) Which of the following is the most criticized and least empirically supported of Freud’s ideas? A) superego B) ego C) latency period D) Oedipus and Electra complexes Answer: D Rationale: The Oedipus and Electra complexes, along with the associated concepts of penis envy and castration anxiety, have been heavily criticized and are considered among the least empirically supported aspects of Freud's psychoanalytic theory. 40) Freud developed his theory of personality on the basis of: A) carefully controlled experiments. B) systematic observations of children. C) cross-cultural investigations. D) case studies of patients. Answer: D Rationale: Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality was largely based on his clinical observations and case studies of patients, particularly those suffering from neurotic disorders, rather than on systematic experimentation or cross-cultural research. 41) According to Freud, _______ is the basic motivation for all human behaviour. A) instinct B) the striving for self-actualization C) the need to know D) the desire to become superior Answer: A Rationale: Freud believed that instinctual drives, including the life (Eros) and death (Thanatos) instincts, are the fundamental motivators of human behavior and underlie all psychological processes. 42) After a brief early commitment to hypnosis as a method of uncovering unconscious material, Freud later developed his psychoanalytic method of: A) factor analysis. B) situational determinism. C) empathy. D) free association. Answer: D Rationale: Freud abandoned hypnosis in favor of free association, a technique where patients freely express their thoughts, feelings, and associations without censorship, to uncover unconscious conflicts and material. 43) According to psychoanalytic theory, the _______ is the most basic personality system. A) preconscious B) ego C) id D) superego Answer: C Rationale: According to Freud's structural model of personality, the id is the most basic personality system, operating on the pleasure principle and containing innate biological drives and instincts. 44) Joe seems to be constantly condemning himself for being bad and “sinful.” In psychoanalytic terms, we would say that Joe has an overdeveloped _______. A) libido B) id C) ego D) superego Answer: A Rationale: An overdeveloped libido, or sexual energy, may manifest as excessive guilt or selfcondemnation, reflecting an internalized sense of moral judgment and conflict within the individual. 45) Sheila was upset by her boss, so she goes home and beats her children, who in turn kick the dog. This episode is an example of _______. A) displacement B) undoing C) projection D) reaction formation Answer: A Rationale: Sheila displaces her anger from her boss onto her children, who become the target of her aggression instead. Displacement involves redirecting emotions or impulses from a threatening or unacceptable target onto a less threatening target. 46) The old adage “Everyone is queer but me and thee” illustrates the defense mechanism of _______. A) displacement B) undoing C) projection D) reaction formation Answer: C Rationale: Projection involves attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or impulses to others, as illustrated in the adage where the individual projects their own insecurities or fears onto others. 47) Picasso’s paintings often contained exaggerated sexual symbolism. This way of expressing a basic impulse in a socially praiseworthy fashion illustrates the use of _______. A) displacement B) sublimation C) projection D) reaction formation Answer: B Rationale: Sublimation involves channeling socially unacceptable impulses or desires into socially acceptable activities or pursuits. Picasso's use of exaggerated sexual symbolism in his paintings may represent a sublimated expression of his unconscious sexual impulses. 48) Maria takes good notes in class. Whenever someone who has missed class due to illness asks her if he can copy her notes, she grips them tightly and says, “No! They're mine, and I don’t wish to share them.” A psychoanalytic theorist would probably contend that Maria has a(n) _______ fixation. A) oral B) anal C) phallic D) genital Answer: B Rationale: Maria's behavior of tightly holding onto her notes and refusing to share them despite others' needs may reflect an anal fixation, where unresolved conflicts from the anal stage of psychosexual development manifest in behaviors related to control, possession, or orderliness. 49) One of the most serious criticisms of psychoanalytic theory is its: A) reliance on tests. B) lack of flexibility. C) unrealistic optimism. D) use of after-the-fact explanations. Answer: D Rationale: One of the significant criticisms of psychoanalytic theory is its heavy reliance on after-thefact explanations, which are difficult to test empirically and can be seen as unfalsifiable or overly speculative. 50) According to Freud, the _________ makes up the largest part of our personality. A) preconscious B) conscious C) unconscious D) These three areas contribute equally to personality. Answer: C Rationale: According to Freud, the unconscious mind is the largest part of our personality and contains repressed memories, desires, and impulses that influence behavior without conscious awareness. 51) The id is that part of the personality which operates according to the: A) pleasure principle. B) superego. C) rules of reality. D) past experiences of the individual. Answer: A Rationale: The id operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of instinctual desires and impulses without regard for consequences or external reality. 52) Six-year-old Suzie sees her younger brother approaching with the new toy he received for his birthday. Suzie suddenly decides she wants the toy, so she pushes her brother to the ground, grabs his toy, and rushes into the next room to play with it. During this situation, the part of Suzie’s personality that is most likely in control is her _______. A) conscious B) superego C) ego D) id Answer: D Rationale: In this scenario, Suzie's impulsive behavior, driven by the desire for immediate gratification without consideration of consequences, is characteristic of the id, which operates on the pleasure principle. 53) That part of the personality which operates on the reality principle is the _______. A) superego B) ego C) id D) eros Answer: B Rationale: The ego operates on the reality principle, balancing the demands of the id, superego, and external reality by considering consequences and planning actions to satisfy instinctual drives in a socially acceptable manner. 54) The superego is that part of the personality which represents the _______. A) pleasure principle B) reality principle C) thanatos D) conscience Answer: D Rationale: The superego represents the internalized moral standards and values learned from society and authority figures, acting as the conscience and striving for moral perfection. 55) An orally fixated person would most likely: A) be an only child. B) dislike his or her father. C) be a sloppy dresser. D) eat and smoke a great deal. Answer: D Rationale: Oral fixation, stemming from unresolved conflicts during the oral stage of psychosexual development, may manifest in behaviors such as overeating, smoking, or excessive oral behaviors as a means of seeking gratification and comfort. 56) The process of toilet training occurs during the _______ stage. A) phallic B) oral C) anal D) genital Answer: C Rationale: Toilet training typically occurs during the anal stage of psychosexual development, where children learn to control their bowel movements and experience conflicts related to autonomy and obedience. 57) The Oedipus and Electra complexes occur during the _______ stage. A) anal B) phallic C) oral D) latency Answer: B Rationale: According to Freud, the Oedipus complex (for boys) and Electra complex (for girls) occur during the phallic stage, characterized by unconscious sexual desires and conflicts involving attraction to the opposite-sex parent and rivalry with the same-sex parent. 58) Four-year-old Kevin is in love with his mother, and wants very much to get rid of his father so that he can have his mother all to himself. According to Freud, Kevin is undergoing: A) a regression. B) the genital stage. C) an Oedipus complex. D) all of the above Answer: C Rationale: Kevin's desire to eliminate his father and possess his mother is indicative of the Oedipus complex, a central aspect of psychoanalytic theory that occurs during the phallic stage of development. 59) The correct order of Freud’s stages of development is: A) anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency. B) oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency. C) latency, oral, anal, phallic, genital. D) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital. Answer: D Rationale: The correct sequence of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital, reflecting the progression of erogenous zones and psychosexual conflicts from infancy to adulthood. 60) The stage of personality development that lasts from about age 6 until puberty is known as the _______ stage. A) phallic B) anal C) genital D) latency Answer: D Rationale: The latency stage is the fourth stage of psychosexual development according to Freud, occurring from about age 6 until puberty, during which sexual impulses are suppressed, and children focus on developing social and intellectual skills. 61) The latency period lasts from _______ years of age. A) 1 to 3 B) 3 to 6 C) 6 to 12 D) 12 to 18 Answer: C Rationale: The latency period in Erikson's psychosocial theory lasts from approximately 6 to 12 years of age, during which children focus on developing social and intellectual skills rather than on resolving conflicts related to sexuality. 62) Erikson stresses the quality of _______ in personality development. A) sexual motives B) stimulus motives C) primary-process thinking D) parent-child relationships Answer: D Rationale: Erik Erikson emphasizes the significance of parent-child relationships and the quality of social interactions in personality development, particularly in his theory of psychosocial development. 63) Agnes is 70 years old. According to Erikson, her main task will be to develop a sense of _______. A) identity B) initiative C) generativity D) integrity Answer: D Rationale: According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, the primary task during late adulthood (age 65 and older) is to achieve a sense of integrity versus despair, involving reflecting on one's life and feeling satisfied with accomplishments rather than experiencing regret. 64) ______________ theory emphasizes that humans are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning. A) Humanistic B) Psychoanalytic C) Social-learning D) Trait Answer: A Rationale: Humanistic theory, represented by psychologists like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, emphasizes human potential for growth, self-actualization, and the pursuit of personal fulfillment. 65) Which of the following is NOT a humanist? A) May B) Maslow C) Bandura D) Rogers Answer: C Rationale: Bandura is not considered a humanist; he is known for his work in social learning theory, which focuses on observational learning, modeling, and cognitive factors in behavior. 66) Becoming what one ought to be is one way to define _____________. A) peak experience B) self-actualization C) achievement potential D) self-concept Answer: B Rationale: Self-actualization, a concept central to humanistic psychology, refers to the realization of one's full potential and becoming what one is capable of being. 67) Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are ____________. A) behaviourists B) psychoanalysts C) humanists D) cognitivists Answer: C Rationale: Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are both considered humanistic psychologists, known for their emphasis on personal growth, self-actualization, and human potential. 68) Which of the following believes that humans have a natural motivation to reach their highest potential? A) Maslow B) Skinner C) Adler D) Jung Answer: A Rationale: Abraham Maslow proposed the hierarchy of needs theory, suggesting that humans have an innate drive to fulfill basic needs and progress toward self-actualization, the realization of one's fullest potential. 69) According to Rogers, all people have a need for: A) superiority. B) sex and aggression. C) positive regard. D) anxiety reduction. Answer: C Rationale: Carl Rogers proposed that all individuals have a fundamental need for positive regard, both from others (external positive regard) and from themselves (internal positive regard), which is essential for psychological well-being and personal growth. 70) __________ theory emphasizes the concept that humans are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning. A) Humanistic B) Psychoanalytic C) Social-learning D) Trait Answer: A Rationale: Humanistic theory emphasizes the positive aspects of human nature, focusing on personal growth, self-actualization, and the pursuit of fulfillment, which distinguishes it from other theories such as psychoanalytic, social-learning, and trait theories. 71) The most famous humanistic psychologist was _______. A) Rogers B) Skinner C) Maslow D) Adler Answer: A Rationale: Carl Rogers is the most famous humanistic psychologist, known for his development of client-centered therapy and his emphasis on self-actualization and unconditional positive regard. 72) The push toward fulfillment of our inborn capacities and potentialities is what Rogers calls the ____________. A) primary process B) compensatory process C) actualizing tendency D) need for achievement Answer: C Rationale: Carl Rogers referred to the innate drive toward self-fulfillment and realization of one's potential as the actualizing tendency, which is a central concept in humanistic psychology. 73) According to Rogers, people brought up with conditional positive regard _______________. A) tend to be vain and narcissistic B) tend to act as if they were orally fixated C) feel valued regardless of their attitudes and behaviours D) live lives directed toward what others want and value Answer: C Rationale: Rogers proposed that individuals raised with conditional positive regard may struggle to develop a congruent self-concept but still feel valued and accepted despite their attitudes and behaviors. 74) Which of the following, according to Rogers, is MOST likely to become a fully functioning person? A) someone with a strongly developed superego B) someone with an extroverted personality C) someone brought up with conditional positive regard D) someone brought up with unconditional positive regard Answer: D Rationale: Rogers believed that individuals raised with unconditional positive regard, where they are accepted and valued regardless of their behavior, are most likely to develop into fully functioning persons, characterized by congruence between self-concept and experience. 75) Unconditional positive regard is most important to __________. A) Freud B) Jung C) Maslow D) Rogers Answer: D Rationale: Unconditional positive regard, a concept central to Carl Rogers' humanistic psychology, emphasizes acceptance, understanding, and valuing of individuals regardless of their behavior, facilitating personal growth and self-actualization. 76) Harry goes to a psychologist because he is continually depressed. When he gets to the psychologist’s office, he realizes that while he wants to end his depression it will take him far too long to tell the doctor his life story. The psychologist senses Harry’s reluctance and decides to administer an objective test to reveal Harry’s attitudes and feelings. The doctor administers which of the following tests? A) MMPI-2 B) TAT C) 16PF D) Rorschach Answer: A Rationale: The MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) is an objective personality test commonly used to assess various psychological disorders, including depression, by measuring specific personality traits and clinical symptoms. 77) Psychodynamic theorists believe that objective tests are of little use because _________________. A) they are difficult to score B) people are not usually aware of the unconscious determinants of their behavior C) they are usually neither valid nor reliable D) it is difficult to agree on the meaning of test results Answer: B Rationale: Psychodynamic theorists, influenced by Freudian psychoanalysis, believe that people are often unaware of the unconscious determinants of their behavior, making objective tests less useful for revealing these underlying dynamics. 78) Why was the MMPI originally developed? A) to identify people with psychological disorders B) to identify malingerers from people with true conversion disorders C) to identify applicants with the most potential for managerial positions D) to select applicants for the OSS who could make the best agents and spies Answer: A Rationale: The MMPI was originally developed to identify individuals with psychological disorders, particularly those being considered for psychological treatment or evaluation. 79) When a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure, the test has _______. A) reliability B) discriminative power C) statistical power D) Validity Answer: D Rationale: Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. When a test demonstrates validity, it accurately assesses the construct or characteristic it is designed to measure. 80) Consistency of measurement is indicative of the _______ of a test. A) validity B) difficulty C) reliability D) power Answer: C Rationale: Reliability refers to the consistency of measurement. A reliable test produces consistent results when administered under consistent conditions, indicating that it can be trusted to measure the construct or characteristic consistently. 81) There is a relationship between reliability and validity. Which of the following is true? A) A test cannot be valid unless it is reliable. B) A test cannot be reliable unless it is valid. C) A test can be valid but not reliable. D) Reliability and validity are not related. Answer: A Rationale: Reliability refers to the consistency of a test's results over time and across different situations, while validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. If a test is not reliable (i.e., its results vary widely), it cannot produce consistent results to accurately measure what it purports to measure, thus rendering it invalid. Therefore, for a test to be valid, it must first be reliable. 82) Which of the following is an objective test that describes personality and can be used to help diagnose emotional problems? A) MMPI-2 B) CPI C) Rorschach D) TAT Answer: A Rationale: The MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) is an objective personality test widely used in clinical and forensic settings. It assesses various personality traits and psychopathology, making it useful for diagnosing emotional problems. 83) Which type of standardized test presents ambiguous stimuli? A) MMPI-2 B) CPI C) Rorschach D) TAT Answer: C Rationale: The Rorschach inkblot test presents participants with ambiguous inkblot images and asks them to interpret what they see. The responses are then analyzed to provide insights into the participant's personality, emotions, and thought processes. 84) Which of the following tests has a respondent construct a story about a picture? A) MMPI-2 B) CPI C) Rorschach D) TAT Answer: D Rationale: The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) involves showing participants ambiguous pictures and asking them to create a story about each image. The stories they construct reveal aspects of their personality, emotions, and attitudes. 85) Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic types of tools used by psychologists to measure personality? A) personal interview B) objective tests C) projective tests D) aptitude tests Answer: D Rationale: The four basic types of tools used by psychologists to measure personality are personal interviews, objective tests, projective tests, and behavioral assessments. Aptitude tests assess a person's ability or potential in specific areas, such as academic or vocational skills, rather than personality traits. 86) To assess personality, behaviourists prefer __________. A) observation B) interviews C) objective tests D) projective tests Answer: A Rationale: Behaviorists focus on observable behaviors rather than internal mental processes or subjective experiences. Therefore, they prefer methods such as direct observation to assess personality traits and characteristics. 87) The most widely used objective personality test is the _______. A) MMPI-2 B) EPQ C) 16PF D) TAT Answer: A Rationale: The MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) is one of the most widely used objective personality tests. It has been extensively researched and validated for various clinical and forensic purposes. 88) Explain why psychodynamic theorists believe that objective tests are of little use because _____________. A) they are difficult to score B) people are not usually aware of the unconscious determinants of their behaviour C) they are usually neither valid nor reliable D) it is difficult to agree on the meaning of test results Answer: B Rationale: Psychodynamic theorists, influenced by Freudian principles, believe that much of human behavior is driven by unconscious processes and conflicts. Objective tests rely on selfreporting, but according to psychodynamic theory, people may not be fully aware of the unconscious determinants of their behavior. Therefore, psychodynamic theorists argue that objective tests may not accurately capture the deeper layers of personality dynamics. 89) Which personality tests rely on the interpretation of inkblots to understand personality? A) MMPI-2 B) TAT C) 16PF D) Rorschach Answer: D Rationale: The Rorschach inkblot test relies on the interpretation of ambiguous inkblot images to gain insight into an individual's personality, emotions, and thought processes. Participants are asked to describe what they see in the inkblots, and their responses are analyzed for underlying personality traits and psychological patterns. Test Bank for Psychology and Life Richard J. Gerrig, Philip G. Zimbardo, Serge Desmarais, Tammy Ivanco 9780205037117, 9780205859139

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