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1. Introduction and Methods of Research Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Which emotional concern has developed in the police photographer who described his crime scene experiences? A. anger B. sadness C. fear D. loneliness Answer: C 2. In “Cowering Under the Covers,” the woman with bipolar disorder reports that when she goes beyond the stage of feeling exhilaration, she _________. A. becomes manic B. experiences calm C. develops suicidal thoughts D. argues with her husband Answer: A 3. Thomas, the young man with paranoid schizophrenia and major depression, experienced severe symptoms until he ______. A. received two months of treatment in the psychiatric hospital B. found the correct medication C. underwent electroconvulsive therapy D. was given a prefrontal lobotomy Answer: B 4. An abnormal behavior pattern that is associated with states of intense emotional distress or an impaired ability to function is a(n) ______. A. abreaction B. reaction formation C. perceptual set D. psychological disorder Answer: D 5. Abnormal psychology deals chiefly with ______. A. diseases B. traits C. abnormal behaviors D. problems of immaturity Answer: C 6. The branch of psychology that deals with the description, causes, and treatment of abnormal behavior patterns is ______ psychology. A. abnormal B. social C. evolutionary D. developmental Answer: A 7. According to the World Health Organization, which of the 17 countries surveyed had the highest rates of diagnosable psychological disorders? A. France B. United States C. Haiti D. Latvia Answer: B 8. The term mental disorder is derived from which of the following models? A. epigenetic B. sociological C. medical D. psychological Answer: C 9. Who is affected by abnormal behavior? A. Only those who are mentally ill themselves B. Only those who are related to individuals with a mental illness C. Only those who work with individuals with a mental illness D. Virtually everyone Answer: D 10. Nearly one in ______ Americans is directly affected by a diagnosable mental illness at some point in their lives. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: A 11. About one in ______ adult Americans experiences a diagnosable mental illness in a given year. A. two B. three C. four D. five Answer: C 12. What is the view about the medical model stated by the authors of your text? A. It is not currently a prominent model for understanding abnormal behavior. B. It puts the study of abnormal behavior directly in the purview of the field of psychology. C. It provides terms such as “symptom” and “disease” which will be emphasized in the text. D. It is a major contemporary model, but psychological and sociocultural perspectives also warrant consideration. Answer: D 13. The ______ model considers abnormal behavior patterns to be symptoms of underlying illness. A. biogenic B. behavioral C. sociocultural D. medical Answer: D 14. The authors of your text prefer to use the term “psychological disorder” rather than “mental disorder” because ___________. A. the term “psychological disorder” puts the study of abnormal behavior squarely within the purview of the field of psychology. B. the term psychological disorder carries less of a stigma. C. the term psychological disorder implies that behavioral change is possible whereas mental disorder suggests a less malleable condition. D. the term “mental disorder” implies some type of serious illness, whereas the term “psychological disorder” does not Answer: A 15. The Surgeon General’s report states that treatment for mental disorders is most effective when A. pharmacological treatment is monitored weekly by a health care professional. B. psychological and pharmacological treatments are combined. C. the social and financial needs of the individual are addressed prior to treatment. D. clinicians serving an individual are from the same ethnic group. Answer: B 16. According to the 1999 Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health, what percentage of American adults receives some form of help for mental health problems each year? A. 5% B. 15% C. 25% D. 35% Answer: B 17. The authors use the report of the ______ as a backdrop for this text’s study of abnormal behavior. A. World Health Organization B. Surgeon General C. Secretary of Health and Human Services D. President’s Commission on Mental Health Answer: B 18. Which of the following behaviors is considered abnormal? A. feeling anxious in anticipation of an important job interview B. feeling sad after failing a test C. feeling panic whenever entering a department store D. feeling depressed about losing a loved one Answer: C 19. Which of the following statements about the unusualness criteria for determining abnormality is correct? A. It is the only criteria used to determine abnormality B. It is the best criteria for determining abnormality C. Statistical deviance or rarity is sufficient to judge abnormality D. Just because a behavior is unusual does not necessarily mean that it is considered abnormal. Answer: D 20. ______ societies have norms or standards that define the kinds of behavior acceptable in given contexts. A. Very few B. Around 1/3 of C. Around 2/3 D. All Answer: D 21. Which of the following is one of the criteria for determining abnormal behavior as presented in the text? A. The behavior is time consuming. B. The behavior is selfish. C. The behavior results in loss of income. D. The behavior is socially unacceptable. Answer: D 22. In judging whether a person's behavior is socially unacceptable or violates social norms, clinicians must take into account ______. A. ideas of persecution B. cultural differences C. universal truths D. subjects' expectations Answer: B 23. Which statement is true about the view of homosexuality as abnormal? A. Until the mid-1970s, homosexuality was classified as a mental disorder by the psychiatric profession. B. After World War I, homosexuality was not viewed as a mental disorder in the United States but it was in Europe. C. Homosexuality is classified as a mental disorder in the current psychiatric classification system in the United States but not in Europe. D. Homosexuality is currently classified as a disorder in men but not in women. Answer: A 24. Archibald has recurring delusions that he is the King of England. He also hallucinates that the Queen of England sits next to him and he talks to her throughout the day. Which criterion of abnormal behavior most closely reflects his behavior? A. significant personal distress B. self-defeating behavior C. socially unacceptable behavior D. faulty perception of reality Answer: D 25. Seeing things and hearing voices that are not present are considered ______. A. delusions B. compulsions C. hallucinations D. obsessions Answer: C 26. Kathy has recurring visions of demons chasing her around her house. She also hears them telling her, “We have come for you!” She is experiencing ______. A. delusions B. compulsions C. hallucinations D. obsessions Answer: C 27. Unfounded ideas, or false beliefs which have no basis in fact, are considered ______. A. delusions B. compulsions C. hallucinations D. obsessions Answer: A 28. Alexander believes that aliens from outer space are working together with the CIA in an elaborate plot to brainwash him with secret messages transmitted through static on his television. His beliefs are most likely what psychologists would call ______. A. delusions B. compulsions C. hallucinations D. obsessions Answer: A 29. Abigail is suffering from a combination of chronic anxiety and depression, and these conditions cause her to experience many troublesome emotions. Which criterion of abnormal behavior most closely matches her symptoms? A. significant personal distress B. self-defeating behavior C. unusual behavior D. faulty perception of reality Answer: A 30. Which criterion of abnormal behavior most closely matches a college student who must withdraw due to alcoholism? A. faulty perception of reality B. maladaptive or self-defeating behavior C. unusual behavior D. socially unacceptable behavior Answer: B 31. Megan has an intense fear of being stuck in an elevator or a similar enclosed place. Her fears are best described as ______. A. claustrophobia B. delusions C. agoraphobia D. ideas of persecution Answer: A 32. People are said to have ______ diagnoses when they have more than one disorder. A. coexisting B. comingled C. comorbid D. simultaneous Answer: C 33. Among Native Americans, hearing the voices of recently deceased loved ones is considered ______. A. normal B. abnormal C. unusual but not abnormal D. a hallucination due to extreme grief Answer: A 34. Native Americans often seek help for “White Man’s Illness” (e.g., alcoholism) through ______. A. “White Man's Medicine” B. native women healer’s C. shamans D. medicine men Answer: A 35. In a number of African cultures, anxiety is expressed as ______. A. fears of failure in procreation, in dreams, and complaints about witchcraft B. trancelike states C. physical symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, or weakness D. feelings of guilt or sadness Answer: A 36. In Eastern cultures, depression is experienced largely in terms of ______. A. fears of failure in procreation, in dreams, and complaints about witchcraft B. trancelike states C. physical or somatic symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, or weakness D. feelings of guilt or sadness Answer: C 37. Compared to the United States, the rates of schizophrenia in countries such as Colombia India, Denmark, Nigeria, and the former Soviet Union are _______. A. lower B. about the same C. higher D. lower for women and higher for men Answer: B 38. In our culture, models based on ______ have achieved prominence in explaining abnormal behavior. A. spiritual corruption B. demonology C. medical disease D. anthropomorphism Answer: C 39. Traditional native cultures attribute most mental illnesses to ______. A. supernatural causes B. poor child-rearing practices C. immorality D. psychic abilities Answer: A 40. In ______ folk society, psychological problems are often attributed to the influence of “spirits” or the possession of a “weak soul.” A. Malaysian B. Kurdish C. Nigerian D. Filipino Answer: D 41. Throughout much of history in Western societies, abnormal behavior was often taken as a sign of ______. A. psychic powers B. biological imbalances C. spiritual enlightenment D. demonic possession Answer: D 42. The process of cutting a hole in the skull to provide a pathway for demons to leave a possessed person's body is called _______. A. exorcism B. trephination C. spiritual incision D. expurgating Answer: B 43. Archaeologists have unearthed human skeletons with holes in the skull. It has been suggested that the holes were drilled into the skulls to _________. A. release fluid associated with brain swelling B. relieve the individual of a headache C. release “evil spirits” from the individual D. treat epilepsy Answer: C 44. Before Hippocrates, the ancient Greeks believed that abnormal behavior, or madness, resulted from ______. A. natural forces B. demonic possession C. punishment by the gods D. psychic powers Answer: C 45. In ancient Greece, people who behaved abnormally were often sent to temples dedicated to ______. A. Aphrodite B. Aesculapius C. Zeus D. Apollo Answer: B 46. The ancient Greeks attempted to cure mental illness by ______. A. sending people to temples where they were given rest, a nutritious diet, and exercise B. trephining C. performing exorcisms D. torturing them in order to force the evil spirits out of their bodies Answer: A 47. The celebrated ancient Greek physician who argued that illnesses of the body and mind resulted from natural causes rather than the wrath of the gods was ______. A. Socrates B. Hippocrates C. Demosthenes D. Aristotle Answer: B 48. The idea that the health of the body depends on a balance of four vital bodily fluids, or humors, was first proposed by ______. A. Galen B. Plato C. Socrates D. Hippocrates Answer: D 49. According to Hippocrates, abnormal behavior results from ______. A. biological imbalances B. angering the gods C. demonic possession D. spiritual deprivation Answer: A 50. Andy is a quick-tempered individual. According to Hippocrates, Andy would be described as having an excess of _____. A. phlegm B. blood C. green bile D. yellow bile Answer: D 51. Zorba is constantly depressed. According to Hippocrates' theory, Zorba has an excess of ______. A. phlegm B. blood C. green bile D. black bile Answer: D 52. Theo is lethargic and sluggish, always acting like he is in "slow motion." According to Hippocrates's theory, Theo has an excess of ______. A. phlegm B. blood C. yellow bile D. black bile Answer: A 53. George is cheerful, confident, and optimistic. According to Hippocrates' theory, George has an excess of ______. A. phlegm B. blood C. yellow bile D. black bile Answer: B 54. A person who is cheerful, confident, and optimistic is said to be ______. A. sanguine B. choleric C. phlegmatic D. melancholic Answer: A 55. Hippocrates would label a person who is lethargic and sluggish, with little or no energy, as ______. A. sanguine B. choleric C. phlegmatic D. melancholic Answer: C 56. Hippocrates labelled individuals that were quick-tempered, or bilious, as ______. A. sanguine B. choleric C. phlegmatic D. melancholic Answer: B 57. According to Hippocrates, a person who is chronically sad and depressed is said to be ______. A. sanguine B. choleric C. phlegmatic D. melancholic Answer: D 58. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from an excess of blood. The patient is probably ______. A. lethargic and sluggish B. quick-tempered C. confident and optimistic D. sad and depressed Answer: C 59. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from an excess of phlegm. The patient is probably ______. A. lethargic and sluggish B. quick-tempered C. confident and optimistic D. sad and depressed Answer: A 60. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from an excess of yellow bile. The patient is probably ______. A. lethargic and sluggish B. quick-tempered C. confident and optimistic D. sad and depressed Answer: B 61. The ethical oath that medical students take when they become physicians honours ______. A. Galen B. Thalen C. Aristotle D. Hippocrates Answer: D 62. Hippocrates' view that abnormal behavior could result from biological imbalances foreshadowed today's ______ model. A. medical B. eclectic C. psychoanalytic D. phenomenological Answer: A 63. Which of the following are the three categories of abnormal behavior identified by Hippocrates? A. melancholia, mania, and exhilaration B. melancholia, phrenitis, and mania C. mania, depression, and hypoactivity D. phrenitis, agitation, catatonia Answer: B 64. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from mania. The patient is probably ______. A. excessively depressed B. excessively excited C. schizophrenic D. autistic Answer: B 65. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from melancholia. The patient is probably ______. A. excessively depressed B. excessively excited C. schizophrenic D. autistic Answer: A 66. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from phrenitis. The patient is probably ______. A. excessively excited B. excessively depressed C. suffering from schizophrenia D. autistic Answer: C 67. The Greek physician who expanded on the teachings of Hippocrates was ______. A. Homer B. Themistocles C. Leonidas D. Galen Answer: D 68. The Greek physician who discovered that arteries carry blood, not air, as had been previously thought, was ______. A. Hippocrates B. Galen C. Socrates D. Themistocles Answer: B 69. Until the physician Galen found that arteries carried blood, it was thought by most people that they carried ______. A. bile B. phlegm C. air D. water Answer: C 70. During the Middle Ages, the treatment of choice for curing abnormal behavior was ______. A. trephining B. bleeding C. exorcism D. meditation Answer: C 71. In medieval times, the doctrine that abnormal behavior was a sign of possession by evil spirits or the devil was espoused by the ______ church. A. Episcopalian B. Muslim C. Roman Catholic D. Anglican Answer: C 72. Fear of witches reached its height during the ______. A. Middle Ages B. Renaissance C. Age of Enlightenment D. Victorian Age Answer: B 73. Torture, starvation, and beatings were among the ______. A. methods of persuasions used by exorcists B. methods of treatment used in medieval psychotherapy for depression C. threats made to hospitalized mental patients until electroshock therapy was developed D. forms of punishment used in the Renaissance by parents of rebellious male teenagers Answer: A 74. The "Malleus Maleficarum" was ______. A. a medical manual designed to help Renaissance physicians treat abnormal behavior B. the first diagnostic manual that correctly labelled some mental health problems according to their behavioral symptoms C. the holy ritual used to help priests perform exorcisms D. a manual for helping inquisitors identify suspected witches Answer: D 75. The “water-float” test was used during the 16th and 17th centuries to test for ______. A. being a witch B. loyalty to the King or Queen C. problem-solving skills D. melancholia Answer: A 76. If a suspected witch was subjected to the "water-float test" and was found to be spiritually pure, the suspect _______. A. was released B. was allowed to join a convent C. was given an exorcism to prevent future demonic possession D. drowned Answer: D 77. The behavior confessed by supposed “witches” was often akin to modern conceptualizations of _________, although it was likely that such confessions resulted from the effects of torture. A. major depression B. antisocial personality disorder C. brain damage D. schizophrenia Answer: D 78. Most scholars today believe that accusations of witchcraft during the Middle Ages and Renaissance were _______. A. based on valid fears of the unknown B. based on misinterpretations of abnormal behaviors resulting from mental illness C. convenient means of disposing of social nuisances and seizing property D. part of a general trend by the poor to seek revenge against the wealthy by accusing them of crimes which would cause them to be disgraced Answer: C 79. In Medieval England, most explanations of mental illness involved _______. A. sociological causes B. demonic possession C. physical illness or brain trauma D. spiritual impropriety Answer: C 80. Renaissance physician Johann Weyer was noted for arguing that abnormal behavior and thought patterns were caused by _______. A. physical problems B. demonic possession C. spiritual impurity D. sociological factors Answer: A 81. The first asylums, or "madhouses," began to crop up throughout Europe in the ______ centuries. A. 11th and 12th B. 13th and 14th C. 15th and 16th D. 17th and 18th Answer: C 82. The first asylums in Europe were ______. A. added on to existing hospitals as special "wards" for the mentally ill B. former leprosarium’s C. former prisons D. former military fortresses Answer: B 83. Which of the following is true of the first asylums for the mentally ill? A. Patients were used as "guinea pigs" for new and risky medical experiments. B. Residents were offered meaningful work as therapy. C. Asylum inmates frequently performed in plays for the public. D. They often were homes for beggars as well as the mentally disturbed. Answer: D 84. The word “bedlam” derived from _______. A. A slang term popular in the 15th and 16th century for chaos B. Sir Francis Reginald Bedlam, founder of the first asylum in London C. Bedlam, England, home of the first insane asylum D. St. Mary’s of Bethlehem Hospital in London Answer: D 85. The modern era of treatment can be traced, in large part, to the efforts of _______. A. Pussin and Pinel B. Roentgen and Pasteur C. Lavoix and Millet D. Mesmer and Charcot Answer: A 86. The modern era of humane treatment can be traced to the ______. A. late 16th and early 17th centuries B. late 17th and early 18th centuries C. late 18th and early 19th centuries D. late 19th and early 20th centuries Answer: C 87. In the late 18th and early 19th century, most Europeans viewed deranged or mentally ill people as ______. A. sick people in need of treatment B. demonically possessed C. having special "gifts" that allowed them to communicate with the spirit world D. threats to society Answer: D 88. Jean-Baptiste Pussin, a layman in charge of a ward for the “incurably insane” at the La Bicetre mental hospital in Paris is known for ______. A. moving patients to rooms with more sunlight B. providing medicine to hospitalized patients C. releasing insane inmates from their chains and shackles D. ending exorcisms in the asylums Answer: C 89. The first official to unchain a group of “incurably insane” patients was ______. A. Jean-Baptiste Pussin B. Dorothea Dix C. Philippe Pinel D. Horace Loveland Answer: A 90. If you were a follower of Philippe Pinel, you would most likely agree with which of the following statements? A. The mentally ill should be incarcerated and chained to prevent them from harming themselves or others. B. The mentally ill should be treated through purging, bloodletting, and ice-cold baths. C. The mentally ill will recover more quickly by living in the real world and learning to survive on their own. D. The mentally ill should be treated with in a humane manner, with understanding, and concern. Answer: D 91. The philosophy of treatment that emerged from the efforts of Frenchmen like Philippe Pinel is called ______ therapy. A. hedonistic B. moral C. rational D. organic Answer: B 92. A noted therapist argues that mentally ill patients should be treated in a decent and relaxed environment. Her argument most closely matches the tenets of ______ therapy. A. primal B. Catholic C. moral D. rational Answer: C 93. Pinel’s counterpart in England was ______. A. Horace Loveland B. William Tuke C. Charles Dewey D. Lord Cromwell Answer: B 94. The man considered to be the "father" of American psychiatry is ______. A. William Tuke B. Alfred Adler C. Benjamin Rush D. William James Answer: C 95. If you were a follower of Benjamin Rush, you would most likely agree with which of the following statements? A. The mentally ill should be incarcerated and chained to prevent them from harming themselves or others. B. The mentally ill should be treated through purging, bloodletting, and ice-cold baths. C. The mentally ill will recover more quickly by living in the real world and learning to survive on their own. D. The mentally ill should be given custodial care only, as their illnesses are incurable. Answer: B 96. Benjamin Rush believed that madness was caused by ______. A. poverty and social pressure B. engorgement of the blood vessels in the brain C. imbalances of bodily humours D. genetically inherited vulnerabilities Answer: B 97. The Boston schoolteacher most responsible for the establishment of mental hospitals in the 19th century United States is ______. A. Mary Dexter B. Dorothea Dix C. Laura Constance Wilson D. Martha Custis Answer: B 98. In the late 19th century, the attitude toward the mentally ill in the United States was dominated by ______. A. the belief in "moral therapy" B. apathy and neglect C. the belief in bloodletting and purging as a primary treatment D. fascination with Freud's new "talking cure" Answer: B 99. Through the middle of the 20th century, deplorable conditions at mental hospitals were ______. A. unheard of B. very rare C. occasionally found D. commonplace Answer: D 100. By the mid-1950s, the population in American mental hospitals had risen to about ______. A. 250,000 B. 500,000 C. 750,000 D. 1,000,000 Answer: B 101. In what year did Congress establish a nationwide system of community mental health centres that was intended to offer an alternative to long-term custodial care in bleak institutions? A. 1943 B. 1953 C. 1963 D. 1973 Answer: C 102. In 1963, community mental health centres (CHMCs) were established nationwide under a Congressional policy known as ______. A. reformation B. outsourcing C. deinstitutionalization D. compartmentalization Answer: C 103. The class of drugs most responsible for the mass release of many institutionalized mentally ill patients is the ______. A. phenothiazines B. MAO inhibitors C. tricyclics D. antibiotics Answer: A 104. Phenothiazines are a group of ______ drugs. A. antianxiety B. antipsychotic C. antidepressant D. analgesic Answer: B 105. Phenothiazines are used to treat the most flagrant behavior patterns associated with ______. A. schizophrenia B. obsessive-compulsive disorder C. dissociative fugue D. bipolar disorder Answer: A 106. The advent of phenothiazines was seen as instrumental in ____________. A. lowering the costs of care in state hospitals so that more could be constructed B. increasing populations of substance abusers and the mentally retarded while reducing the number of schizophrenics C. developing new diagnostic screening measures for schizophrenia D. reducing the population of mental hospitals Answer: D 107. Between the 1950s and 1990s, the mental hospital population across the United States has ______. A. increased dramatically B. remained relatively the same C. increased the number of female patients while decreasing the number of male patients D. decreased dramatically Answer: D 108. Which of the following has been a negative effect of the deinstitutionalization movement? A. a significant increase in violent crime by those who were released B. a nearly total collapse of the nationwide system of mental hospitals and community mental health centres C. an increase in the number of mentally ill patients requiring long-term care D. the abandonment of many former patients who, now homeless, wander the streets of American cities Answer: D 109. Beliefs in possession or demonology persisted until the rise of the natural sciences in the ______. A. 15th century B. 16th century C. 18th century D. 19th century Answer: C 110. In the 18th century, society began to turn toward ______ to explain natural phenomena and human behavior. A. demonology B. reason and science C. inner enlightenment D. spiritualism Answer: B 111. A German physician who argued that abnormal behavior was rooted in diseases of the brain was ______. A. William Griesinger B. Emil Von Tuke C. G. A. Hansen D. Gregor Mendel Answer: A 112. The physician who wrote an influential textbook on psychiatry in 1883, in which he likened mental disorders to physical diseases, was ______. A. Joseph Lister B. Robert Koch C. Emil Kraepelin D. G. A. Hansen Answer: C 113. The ______ model attempts to explain abnormal behavior on the basis of underlying biological defects. A. medical B. eclectic C. structural-functional D. centre-periphery Answer: A 114. According to the medical model, people behaving abnormally _______. A. suffer from incurable diseases caused by inherited genetic defects B. suffer from the results of early childhood trauma and can be cured with proper behavioral therapies C. suffer from mental illnesses that can be classified like physical illnesses, according to their distinctive causes and symptoms D. are often unjustly labelled "abnormal" by society because of fears about their "different" behaviors Answer: C 115. Emil Kraepelin specified ______ main groups of mental disorders. A. two B. four C. six D. eight Answer: A 116. Emil Kraepelin identified the group of diseases he called "dementia praecox," which we now call ______. A. conversion disorder B. dissociative identity disorder C. schizophrenia D. bipolar disorder Answer: C 117. Emil Kraepelin identified the group of diseases he called "manic-depressive psychosis," which we now call ______. A. conversion disorder B. dissociative identity disorder C. schizophrenia D. bipolar disorder Answer: D 118. Kraepelin believed that “manic-depressive psychosis” was caused by ______. A. an excess of green bile B. an abnormality in body metabolism C. obesity D. a biochemical imbalance Answer: B 119. The major contribution of Emil Kraepelin was ______. A. the development of a classification system in which the current diagnostic systems are rooted B. the discovery that early childhood environment plays a crucial role in the development of a healthy personality C. the discovery of the bacterium causing syphilis D. the development of "moral therapy," in which humane treatment and a relaxed environment were used to help restore mental health Answer: A 120. General paresis is a result of the advanced stages of ___________________. A. bipolar disorder B. schizophrenia C. dementia D. syphilis Answer: D 121. The discovery of a cure for syphilis led to ______. A. today’s general acceptance that there is a biological basis for all psychological disorders B. the cure for polio C. optimism that biological causes for other types of disturbed behavior would be discovered D. the eventual development of the fields of neurology and neuropsychology Answer: C 122. We realize today that ______ of all psychological disorders involve a complex web of factors which we are still struggling to understand. A. only one or two B. a few C. approximately half D. the great majority Answer: D 123. Which of the following is representative of the medical model terminology? A. fixed interval B. reinforcement C. syndrome D. time out Answer: B 124. A condition involving paralysis and numbness with no known medical cause was ______. A. dissociation B. fugue C. hypochondriasis D. hysteria Answer: D 125. ______ demonstrated that hysterical behaviors, like paralysis or numbness, could be induced in normal subjects under hypnosis through the use of suggestions. A. Mesmer B. Breuer C. Charcot D. Pinel Answer: C 126. The person who developed the first psychological theory of abnormal behavior was ______. A. Friedrich Mesmer B. Joseph Breuer C. Sigmund Freud D. Jean-Martin Charcot Answer: C 127. The physician with whom Freud worked most closely in the case of Anna O. was ______. A. Charcot B. Mesmer C. Jung D. Breuer Answer: D 128. The process of bringing emotions to the surface and "discharging" them in therapy is called ______. A. transference B. catharsis C. free association D. displacement Answer: B 129. The 21-year-old woman treated by Breuer in a classic case of hysteria was ______. A. Sonja J. B. Alica K. C. Anna O. D. Marta M. Answer: C 130. Mary goes to a therapist for treatment of numbness in her arms that appears to have no physical cause. Her therapist tells her that her symptoms result from repressed emotions dating back to subconscious conflicts during her early childhood. The therapist uses hypnosis and has her talk about her feelings to help her "discharge" her pent-up emotions. Her therapist’s treatment approach is most similar to that of ______. A. Freud B. Pinel C. Kraepelin D. Griesinger Answer: A 131. Until _____, the American Psychiatric Association classified homosexuality as a mental health disorder. A. 1963 B. 1973 C. 1983 D. 1993 Answer: B 132. Which of the following was classified as a mental health disorder by the American Psychiatric Association until 1973? A. Pedophilia B. Transvestitism C. Homosexuality D. Fetishism Answer: C 133. Research has found that _______________ have a greater frequency of suicide and of states of emotional distress, especially anxiety and depression, compared to heterosexual men and women. A. bisexual men B. homosexual men C. lesbian women D. homosexual men and lesbian women Answer: D 134. Which of the follow symptoms have been noted to occur at a higher level with gay men as compared to heterosexual men? A. psychopathy B. intellectual deficiency C. bipolar disorder D. depression Answer: C 135. As compared to married heterosexual couples, gays in close, committed relationships have been found to ______. A. exhibit more verbal conflict but less physical aggression B. exhibit more physical aggression but less verbal conflict C. be comparably well-adjusted D. be more generally dysfunctional in couple adjustment Answer: C 136. Which of the following statements is true? A. Gay men and lesbian women are less prone than heterosexuals to develop psychological problems. B. The majority of psychological problems experienced by gay men and lesbian women are directly the result of their sexual orientation. C. Statistically, gay adolescents have a lower suicide rate than heterosexual adolescents. D. The social stress associated with the stigma, prejudice, and discrimination that gay people encounter may directly cause mental health problems. Answer: D 137. The ______ perspective emphasizes factors such as unemployment, poverty, and family breakdown as causes of abnormal behavior. A. cognitive B. structural-functional C. social learning D. sociocultural Answer: D 138. The ______ model emphasizes a broad perspective that takes into account the social contexts in which abnormal behavior occurs. A. sociocultural B. Gestalt C. social learning D. environmental Answer: A 139. Gloria, a student from a poor family, goes to a therapist for treatment of her test anxiety. Her therapist tells her that the anxiety is not abnormal behavior on her part, but rather it is a normal reaction to the abnormal expectations placed on her by an unfair society that has failed to give her an equal chance to fairly compete with other students. Her therapist is using the ______ treatment model. A. social learning B. humanistic C. eclectic D. sociocultural Answer: D 140. The biopsychosocial perspective of abnormal behavior is also known as the ______ model. A. interactionist B. catharsis C. eclectic D. psychodynamic Answer: A 141. A systematic method of conducting scientific research in which theories or assumptions are examined in the light of evidence is ______. A. the intuitive method B. the philosophical approach C. the scientific method D. the Socratic method Answer: C 142. Research in the field of abnormal psychology is based on the application of ______. A. the intuitive method B. the philosophical approach C. the scientific method D. the Socratic method Answer: C 143. Which of the following is one of the primary objectives of science? A. revelation B. description C. remediation D. expediation Answer: B 144. In the story of the professor who placed a rat on top of her desk and then asked graduate students to describe the rat’s behavior, the rat was _______. A. released into the outside world B. genetically engineered to be more intelligent than a normal rat C. a clone D. blind Answer: D 145. A formulation of the relationships underlying observed events is called a ______. A. theory B. hypothesis C. supposition D. proposition Answer: A 146. Using scientific knowledge to help people shape their own goals and efficiently use their resources to accomplish them achieves which primary objective of science? A. description B. explanation C. remediation D. control Answer: D 147. Psychologists use _______ to advance the description, explanation, prediction, and control of abnormal behavior. A. common sense B. the clinical method C. the scientific method D. the medical model Answer: C 148. Which of the following is one of the steps in the scientific method? A. Making inferences from the research question B. Framing the research question in the form of a personal statement C. Testing new ideas D. Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis Answer: D 149. A prediction about behavior that is tested through experimentation is called a ______. A. theory B. hypothesis C. supposition D. proposition Answer: B 150. According to the text, testing the hypothesis is the ______ step in the scientific method. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth Answer: C 151. Emily is studying hyperactive children. Her observations have led her to predict that if she runs an experiment in which some hyperactive children are given a sugar-sweetened drink while others are given a drink sweetened with a sugar substitute, those receiving the sugar-sweetened drink will exhibit greater disruptions in their behavior. Her prediction is an example of a _______. A. theory B. hypothesis C. response set D. scientifically based conjecture Answer: B 152. According to the text, drawing conclusions about the hypothesis is the ______ step in the scientific method. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth Answer: D 153. Scientists are reasonably confident that group differences are significant when the probability that chance alone can explain the difference is less than ______ percent. A. 2 B. 5 C. 7 D. 10 Answer: B 154. ______ are designed to promote the dignity of the individual, protect human welfare, and preserve scientific integrity. A. Research methodologies B. Sampling techniques C. Ethical principles D. Research grants Answer: C 155. To review psychological research proposals to ensure their adherence to ethical guidelines, each university and hospital must have a(an) ______. A. ethical oversight committee B. institutional review board C. research equity committee D. scientific ethics panel Answer: B 156. The principle of ______ requires that people be free to choose whether they wish to participate in research studies and must be given sufficient information in advance about the study’s purposes, methods, risks, and benefits to allow them to make a knowledgeable decision about their participation. A. informed consent B. confidentiality C. debriefing D. free will Answer: A 157. In studies in which information was withheld or deception was used, subjects must later receive an explanation of the true methods and purposes of the study and why it was necessary to keep them in the dark. This process is known as ______. A. informed consent B. confidentiality C. debriefing D. free will Answer: C 158. _______________ is the principle that research subjects have the right to expect that their identities will not be disclosed and that records of the research will be kept similarly secure. A. Selective secrecy B. Confidentiality C. Debriefing D. Pre-emptive exclusion Answer: B 159. The research method in which subjects are observed unobtrusively, so that their behavior is not affected by the known presence of an observer, is the ______ method. A. case-study B. experimental C. correlational D. naturalistic observation Answer: D 160. The research method in which behavior is observed in the field, where it happens, is the ______ method. A. case-study B. experimental C. naturalistic observation D. psychometric Answer: C 161. Naturalistic observation reveals _______. A. neither how nor why subjects behave B. how subjects behave but not why C. why subjects behave but not how D. both how and why subjects behave Answer: B 162. Ellen decides to study overweight people. She designs her study so that she will observe overweight and normal people eating in restaurants to see if there are differences in what they order, how quickly they eat, and how much they eat. The diners will not know they are being observed. Ellen's research design employs the ______ method. A. survey B. experimental C. naturalistic observation D. case-study Answer: C 163. Naturalistic observation reveals _______. A. how subjects process their world B. where subjects engage in observed behaviors C. why subjects think as they do D. why subjects engage in observed behaviors Answer: B 164. A scientific method of study that examines the relationships between factors or variables expressed in statistical terms is the _______ method. A. survey B. experimental C. correlational D. case study Answer: C 165. A statistical measure of the association between two variables is a(n) ______. A. variable matrix B. independent variable C. correlation coefficient D. reciprocal function Answer: C 166. The range of numbers that may be used to express a correlation coefficient is between A. 0 and +1.00 B. -1.00 and +1.00 C. -1.00 and 0 D. -0.10 and +0.10 Answer: B 167. In a correlational study, when one variable increases as a second variable increases, there is a _______ correlation between them. A. random B. positive C. complementary D. negative Answer: B 168. In a correlational study, when one variable increases as a second variable decreases, there is a _______ correlation between them. A. random B. positive C. complementary D. negative Answer: D 169. Jan decides to study overweight people. She designs a correlational study comparing weight level and heart disease. She finds that as weight level increases, so does heart disease. Jan's study has found a ______ correlation. A. random B. positive C. complementary D. negative Answer: B 170. Jill decides to study overweight people. She designs a correlational study comparing weight level and level of physical activity. She finds that as the level of physical activity decreases, weight level increases. Jill's study has found a _______ correlation. A. random B. positive C. complementary D. negative Answer: D 171. Marge decides to study overweight people. She designs a study which will statistically compare weight level and level of physical activity to see if there is a significant statistical relationship between them. Marge's study is typical of the _______ method of research. A. survey B. psychometric C. correlational D. experimental Answer: C 172. Researchers have found that among schoolchildren, as the amount of time they spend reading increases, so do their grades. This is an example of a(n) ______. A. positive correlation B. negative correlation C. additive correlation D. statistical anomaly Answer: A 173. Researchers have found that among schoolchildren, as the amount of time they spend watching television increases, their grades decrease. This is an example of a(n) ______. A. positive correlation B. negative correlation C. additive correlation D. statistical anomaly Answer: B 174. Which is the strongest correlation? A. -0.33 B. +1.21 C. +0.45 D. -0.68 Answer: D 175. Correlational studies can prove _______. A. neither if a relationship exists nor if it is causal B. if a relationship exists, but not if it is causal C. if a relationship exists, and if it is causal in some situations D. if a relationship exists, and if it is causal in every situation Answer: B 176. Which of the following is true of correlational studies? A. They examine causal relationships between variables. B. They can reveal significant relationships that are hypothesized between variables. C. They are useful in achieving the scientific goal of explanation. D. They can prove cause-and-effect relationships between variables. Answer: B 177. Researchers using correlational methods have found consistently significant positive correlations between depression and negative thinking. What conclusions can you draw from these studies? A. Depression causes negative thinking. B. Negative thinking causes depression. C. Both negative thinking and depression are caused by some unknown outside variable. D. Depression and negative thinking are likely to occur together. Answer: D 178. A longitudinal study is a type of _______ study. A. individual case B. correlational C. experimental D. cross-sectional Answer: B 179. A well-known Danish longitudinal study has tracked a group of children since 1962 to determine their risk of developing ______. A. diabetes B. depression C. schizophrenia D. heart disease Answer: C 180. In a longitudinal study, subjects could be studied for as long as ______. A. six months B. one year C. two years D. decades Answer: D 181. A type of research in which people are periodically tested or evaluated over long periods of time is ______ study. A. an experimental B. an individual case C. across sectional D. a longitudinal Answer: D 182. Longitudinal studies are ______. A. inexpensive and quick B. inexpensive but time consuming C. costly but quick D. costly and time consuming Answer: D 183. Broadly speaking, a(n) ______ is a trial or test of a hypothesis. A. correlation B. case study C. experiment D. survey Answer: C 184. The research technique in which scientists seek to uncover cause-and-effect relationships by directly manipulating independent variables and observing the effects on dependent variables is the ______ method. A. correlational B. experimental C. psychometric D. case-study Answer: B 185. In an experiment, the suspected causal variables that are manipulated by the experimenter are known as ______ variables. A. independent B. codependent C. dependent D. reciprocal Answer: A 186. In an experiment, the observed effects on subjects' behavior resulting from experimenters manipulating suspected causal variables are called ______ variables. A. independent B. codependent C. dependent D. reciprocal Answer: C 187. Jen decides to study the effects of alcohol on driving ability. She selects 200 college students and randomly divides them into two groups of 100 students each. Subjects in group "A" drive a car through an obstacle course while remaining sober. Subjects in group "B" also drive through the obstacle course, but they are given an ounce of whiskey before each attempt at driving the course. As expected, the driving ability of subjects in group "B" steadily deteriorates as they consume more alcohol. In Jen's study, the amount of alcohol consumed is the ______. A. independent variable B. codependent variable C. dependent variable D. reciprocal variable Answer: A 188. Helen decides to study the effects of alcohol on driving ability. She selects 200 college students and randomly divides them into two groups of 100 students each. Subjects in group "A" drive a car through an obstacle course while remaining sober. Subjects in group "B" also drive through the obstacle course, but they are given an ounce of whiskey before each attempt at driving the course. As expected, the driving ability of subjects in group "B" steadily deteriorates as they consume more alcohol. In Helen's study, the subjects' driving ability is the ______. A. independent variable B. codependent variable C. dependent variable D. reciprocal variable Answer: C 189. In a study on alcohol and driving ability, half the subjects are given alcohol before driving an obstacle course, while the remaining subjects drive the course while remaining sober. In this study, those subjects who are given the alcohol before driving the course comprise the ______ group. A. control B. placebo C. observation D. experimental Answer: D 190. In a study on alcohol and driving ability, half the subjects are given alcohol before driving an obstacle course, while the remaining subjects drive the course while remaining sober. In this study, those subjects who drive the course while remaining sober comprise the _______ group. A. control B. placebo C. observation D. experimental Answer: A 191. Which of the following is an example of an independent variable? A. behavioral variables B. treatment factors C. physiological variables D. self-report variables Answer: B 192. Which of the following is an example of a dependent variable? A. a behavioral variable B. experimental manipulations C. types of treatment D. treatment factors Answer: A 193. Randy is running a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior. He randomly divides his subjects into two groups because he knows that if he allows his subjects to choose their own groups, aggressive subjects will tend to choose the group receiving alcohol while non-aggressive subjects will tend to choose the group receiving no alcohol. He then would not be able to distinguish the effects of the alcohol from the effects of subjects' innate aggressiveness. This tendency of his aggressive subjects to choose the alcohol group is called a(n) _______. A. placebo effect B. response set C. experimental blind D. selection factor Answer: D 194. The way in which scientists attempt to control for selection factors in experimental research is through the use of ______. A. experimental blinds B. placebos C. random assignment D. selective selection Answer: C 195. One way scientists control for subjects' expectations in experimental research is by keeping subjects in a state of being unaware of whether or not they have received an experimental treatment. This is also known as keeping the subjects ______. A. blind B. disoriented C. unaware D. confused Answer: A 196. Masking the taste of an alcoholic beverage with a mixer in an experiment may keep subjects ______ as to whether or not they received the experimental treatment. A. drunk longer B. less drunk C. blind D. high Answer: C 197. A state of being unaware of whether one has received an experimental treatment while participating in an experimental study is known as being ______. A. mystified B. blind C. distracted D. debriefed Answer: B 198. One way scientists control for subjects' expectations in experimental research involving medication is by using ______. A. selection factors B. independent variables C. dependent variables D. placebos Answer: D 199. A substance that has no psychological or physical effect of its own, but appears to have an effect because of the beliefs of the people using it is called a(n) ______. A. initiative substance B. confounding factor C. placebo D. neuter Answer: C 200. A bogus treatment designed to look real and used in research to control for subjects’ expectations is ______. A. an experimental blind B. a placebo C. an extraneous variable D. a situational factor Answer: B 201. In a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior, subjects are randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group receives real alcohol while the other group receives tonic water which tastes identical to real alcohol. In this way, neither group of subjects knows who got the real alcohol. In this study, the non-alcoholic tonic water serves as a(n) ______. A. selection factor B. dependent variable C. independent variable D. placebo Answer: D 202. In a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior, subjects are randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group receives real alcohol while the other group receives tonic water which tastes identical to real alcohol. Although the researchers know which group got the real alcohol, none of the subjects know. This study is designed as a ______ placebo-control study. A. single-blind B. double-blind C. longitudinal D. correlational Answer: A 203. In a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior, subjects are randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group receives real alcohol while the other group receives tonic water which tastes identical to real alcohol. Neither the subjects nor the researchers know which group got the real alcohol until after the study is completed. This study is designed as a ______ placebo-control study. A. single-blind B. double-blind C. longitudinal D. correlational Answer: B 204. Single-blind experiments control for ______. A. neither subjects' nor experimenters' expectations B. subjects' but not experimenters' expectations C. experimenters' but not subjects' expectations D. both subjects' and experimenters' expectations Answer: B 205. Double-blind studies control for _______. A. neither subjects' nor experimenters' expectations B. subjects' but not experimenters' expectations C. experimenters' but not subjects' expectations D. both subjects' and experimenters' expectations Answer: D 206. Evidence suggests that the effects of placebos are ______. A. extremely strong B. generally weak C. generally strong D. non-existent Answer: B 207. Evidence of placebo effects is strongest in studies of ______. A. pain B. depression C. diabetes D. arthritis Answer: A 208. In a study on psychotherapy techniques, subjects are randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group receives a specific type of therapy. The other group receives a credible treatment which has elements common to all therapies but no specific ingredients of the therapy received by the first group. This generic placebo therapy received by the second group is called a(n) _______ placebo. A. response B. inert C. blind D. attention Answer: D 209. Which of the following is a type of experimental validity? A. analogue validity B. specific validity C. control validity D. external validity Answer: D 210. In tests and measurements, ____________ is the term for the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. A. validity B. accuracy C. reliability D. congruence Answer: A 211. Experiments are said to have ______ validity when observed changes in the dependent variable(s) can be causally related to the independent or treatment variable. A. analogue B. construct C. internal D. external Answer: C 212. Experiments lack internal validity when they fail to control for other factors, called ______ that might pose rival hypotheses for the results. A. confounds B. placebos C. blinds D. alternatives Answer: A 213. A researcher administers an antidepressant drug to a group of depressed patients and over a period of time they improve. The researcher claims that their improvement is due to the drug, even though she did not control for outside factors such as improved emotional support from friends, or natural improvement over time. This study lacks ______. A. analogue validity B. construct validity C. internal validity D. external validity Answer: C 214. An experiment's generalizability or applicability beyond the original sample to other subjects, settings, and times is called _______ validity. A. analogue B. construct C. internal D. external Answer: D 215. In an experiment on treatments for depression, a researcher uses a sample consisting of depressed subjects who are NOT typical of the general population of depressed subjects. Although the treatment works on the sample subjects, it is unlikely to work on depressed people in general. Which type of validity does this study lack? A. analogue validity B. external validity C. internal validity D. construct validity Answer: B 216. The process of repeating an experiment in other settings or at other times is called ______. A. reiteration B. correlation C. replication D. a control study Answer: C 217. The degree to which treatment effects in an experiment can be accounted for by the theoretical mechanisms represented in the independent variables is called _______. A. face validity B. construct validity C. internal validity D. external validity Answer: B 218. A researcher tests a new antidepressant drug. The drug works, but not for the theoretical reasons proposed in the researcher's hypothesis. The experiment lacks ______ validity. A. face B. construct C. internal D. external Answer: B 219. Studies which examine the rates of occurrence of abnormal behavior in various settings and population groups are known as ______ studies. A. epidemiological B. quasi-experimental C. case D. psychometric Answer: A 220. A researcher using the epidemiological model would be most likely to use which of the following research techniques? A. a survey B. the intuitive approach C. a case study D. an experiment Answer: A 221. In epidemiological studies, the survey method investigates __________. A. causal factors B. double blind effects C. case studies D. rates of occurrence Answer: D 222. A researcher uses a series of interviews and questionnaires to examine rates of alcoholism among Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, and Native Americans. She finds that some ethnic groups, such as Native Americans, have much higher rates of alcoholism than others. Her study is typical of a(n) _______ study. A. psychometric B. naturalistic observation C. quasi-experimental D. epidemiological Answer: D 223. In the epidemiological model, the overall number of cases of a given disorder existing in a given population at a given time are known as ______. A. frequency B. prevalence C. incidence D. populations Answer: B 224. In the epidemiological model, the number of new cases of a disorder occurring during a specific period of time are known as ______. A. frequency B. prevalence C. incidence D. populations Answer: C 225. Identify the most important limitation of the survey method of epidemiological research. A. An entire population cannot be studied. B. They can only make suggestions about causal influences. C. Samples can never be entirely randomized. D. Behavior of groups can quickly change. Answer: B 226. Epidemiological studies ______. A. neither point to potential causal factors nor control for selection factors B. point to potential causal factors but do not control for selection factors C. control for selection factors but do not point to potential causal factors D. control for selection factors and point to potential causal factors Answer: B 227. In research, the target group you want to find out about, such as the "average American teenager," comprises the research ______. A. sample B. population C. cluster D. set Answer: B 228. In research, the subjects or individuals who are observed or who participate in the research are said to comprise a research ______. A. sample B. population C. cluster D. set Answer: A 229. In a research study of college substance abuse, the target group of college students represents the research ______. A. cluster B. set C. population D. sample Answer: C 230. Jack conducts a study on drinking habits among college students. Since there are too many college students for him to directly observe all of them, he randomly selects a group of 250 college students to represent all college students. Jack’s study finds that 90 percent of college students drink regularly, and 10 percent of those who drink will eventually become alcoholics. In this study, the 250 people that Jack actually observes represent the research _______. A. cluster B. set C. population D. sample Answer: D 231. A random sample is a sample in which _______. A. every member of a target population is chosen to be in the sample B. members of the sample are chosen by chance from the general population, whether or not they are members of the target population C. every member of the target population has an equal chance of being chosen to be in the experimental sample D. members are pre-screened to assure suitability for the study and are selected based on researcher decisions Answer: C 232. A sample in which every member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in an experiment is called a(n) _______ sample. A. analogue B. stratified C. in vivo D. random Answer: D 233. ______ studies attempt to disentangle the roles of heredity and environment in determining behavior. A. Case B. Analogue C. Kinship D. Naturalistic observation Answer: C 234. Heredity plays a role in ______ characteristics. A. neither our physical nor psychological B. our physical but not our psychological C. our psychological but not our physical D. both our physical and psychological Answer: D 235. The basic building blocks of heredity are ______ and they regulate the development of ______. A. chromosomes; traits B. genes; traits C. probands; chromosomes D. probands; genes Answer: B 236. The basic building blocks of heredity are ______. A. cells B. atoms C. genes D. chromosomes Answer: C 237. The rod-shaped genetic structures residing in the nuclei of cells are called ______. A. ribosomes B. nucleotides C. genes D. chromosomes Answer: D 238. A human cell normally contains ______ chromosomes. A. 23 B. 46 C. 69 D. 92 Answer: B 239. A human cell normally contains ______ pairs of chromosomes. A. 23 B. 46 C. 69 D. 92 Answer: A 240. There are ______ genes in the nucleus of a human body cell. A. 1,000 B. 5,000 to 10,000 C. 20,000 to 25,000 D. over 1,000,000 Answer: C 241. The set of traits specified by our genetic code is called our ______. A. archetype B. proband C. phenotype D. genotype Answer: D 242. Our actual, expressed traits are called our ______. A. archetype B. daguerreotype C. phenotype D. genotype Answer: C 243. There is a ______ percent overlap in genetic heritage between each parent and his or her offspring. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 100 Answer: B 244. Jerry and Stanley are non-twin brothers; they would have a ______ percent overlap in genetic heritage. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 100 Answer: B 245. A proband is ______. A. the subject of a case study B. the case first diagnosed with a disorder, used for comparison in kinship studies C. the random sample selected from a population in survey research D. a group of relatives whose phenotypes and genotypes are studied longitudinally Answer: B 246. Twin studies and adoptee studies are both examples of ______ studies. A. analogue B. experimental C. case D. kinship Answer: D 247. Twins who originated from a single fertilized egg cell, who share 100 percent of their genetic make-up are known as ______ twins. A. monozygotic B. polyzygotic C. dizygotic D. a zygotic Answer: A 248. Twins who develop from separate egg cells that were fertilized simultaneously, who share 50% of their genetic heritage, are known as ______ twins. A. monozygotic B. polyzygotic C. dizygotic D. zygotic Answer: C 249. Differences between monozygotic twins are the results of ______ differences. A. subtle genetic B. significant genetic C. personality D. environmental Answer: D 250. The percentage of cases in which both twins have the same disorder is called the ______ rate. A. concordance B. congruence C. compatibility D. consistency Answer: A 251. Differences in the rates of concordance for monozygotic versus dizygotic twins has suggested a strong genetic component for schizophrenia and ______. A. posttraumatic stress disorder B. major depression C. phobia D. post-concussion syndrome Answer: B 252. Aside from twins, another group that has been studied for genetic factors in the appearance of psychological traits and disorders are ______. A. children from small towns B. narrow religious groups C. adoptees D. children with mental retardation Answer: C 253. Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theory was based primarily on the use of ______ studies. A. case B. correlational C. quasi-experimental D. epidemiological Answer: A 254. Carefully drawn, intensive studies of the lives of individuals are called _______. They are based on clinical interviews, observations, and psychological tests. A. quasi-experimental studies B. epidemiological studies C. psychometric studies D. case studies Answer: D 255. Freud conducted a case study of ________. A. Ludwig van Beethoven B. Amadeus Mozart C. Leonardo da Vinci D. Otto Von Bismarck Answer: C 256. A therapist engages in ten years of therapy with a patient diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder. When the therapy has concluded, the therapist uses her extensive notes, drawn from clinical interviews with the patient, to write an extensive history of the patient. The history is then published so that others can learn from the therapist's experiences with her patient. This technique is known as a(n) _______ study. A. psychometric B. epidemiological C. case D. naturalistic observation Answer: C 257. Which of the following is a difficulty with the case-study method of research? A. Case studies are based on historical material. B. Information drawn from case studies usually lacks enough depth and sufficient detail for drawing meaningful conclusions. C. Case studies lack the rigor of other research designs. D. Case studies provide rich detail. Answer: C 258. Research designs in which subjects are used as their own controls are called ______ designs. A. quasi-experimental B. correlational C. single-case experimental D. double-case experimental Answer: C 259. A researcher designs a study so that his subjects are observed for several weeks with no treatment. They are then given a treatment for several weeks. This is followed by several more weeks in which the treatment is withdrawn. Finally, the subjects are given a second round of treatments. The effects of the first treatment, the withdrawal of treatment, and the second treatment are measured. This study is typical of a _______ design. A. case-study B. quasi-experimental C. single-case experimental D. double-case experimental Answer: C 260. A researcher sets up an experiment that will give subjects a double dose of treatment in an A-B-A-B pattern. This pattern of treatment is known as a _______ design. A. reversal B. repetitive C. progressive D. multiple baseline Answer: A 261. Azrin and Peterson (1989) used an A-B-A-B experimental design to help a nine-year-old girl control ______. A. thumb-sucking B. bed-wetting C. a facial twitch D. an eye tic Answer: D 262. Which of the following is an aspect of critical thinking? A. relying on feelings and gut impressions B. remaining fixed in one’s beliefs and attitudes C. seeking evidence to support or refute beliefs or claims D. maintaining an attitude of non-skepticism Answer: C 263. A high positive correlation between stress and depression demonstrates that _______. A. stress causes depression B. depression causes stress C. depression and stress are caused by other factors D. stress and depression are somehow related to each other Answer: D True-False Questions 264. Psychological disorders affect relatively few of us. Answer: False 265. Anxiety and depression are always abnormal responses to one's situation. Answer: False 266. Uncommon behavior is abnormal. Answer: False 267. Behavior that is deemed abnormal in one society may be perceived as perfectly normal in another. Answer: True 268. Many people today argue that homosexuality should be considered a normal variation in behavior. Answer: True 269. We tend to characterize behavior we do not understand as "sick." Answer: True 270. Abnormal behavior has multiple definitions. Answer: True 271. Claustrophobic behavior is characterized by intense fear of venturing into public places. Answer: False 272. Unfortunately, psychologists are unable to use various approaches, or models to explain abnormal behavior. Answer: False 273. Many traditional Native Americans claim to hear the spirits of people who have recently died calling to them as they ascend to the afterlife. Answer: True 274. Concepts of health and illness have different meanings in different cultures. Answer: True 275. Throughout history, concepts of abnormal behavior have been shaped by the prevailing worldview of the time. Answer: True 276. Hippocrates argued that illnesses of the body and mind were the result of possession by supernatural spirits. Answer: False 277. The modern medical model of abnormal behavior can be traced to the work of a Greek physician some 2,500 years ago. Answer: True 278. The Greek physician Galen discovered that arteries carried blood. Answer: True 279. The Renaissance is considered to be the transition from the medieval world to the modern world. Answer: True 280. Fear of witches reached its height during the Middle Ages. Answer: False 281. Innocent people were drowned in medieval times as a way of certifying that they were not possessed by the devil. Answer: True 282. Asylums, or "madhouses," began to crop up throughout Europe in the mid-eighteenth century. Answer: False 283. Many of the earliest asylums were leprosarium’s. Answer: True 284. A night’s entertainment in London a few hundred years ago may have included peering at the inmates at the local asylum. Answer: True 285. The modern era of treatment can be traced to the efforts of individuals like Philippe Pinel. Answer: True 286. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the belief that abnormal behavior could be treated by moral therapy fell into disfavor. Answer: True 287. In the 1950s, many mental institutions were described as "human snake pits." Answer: True 288. Phenothiazines represent a revolutionary group of major antidepressants. Answer: False 289. Many of the nation's homeless people are discharged mental patients. Answer: True 290. All adopters of the medical model believe every pattern of abnormal behavior is a product of defective biology. Answer: False 291. Cases of hysteria were a common occurrence in the late Victorian period, but are relatively rare today. Answer: True 292. In the famous case of Anna O., Anna was suffering from amnesia. Answer: False 293. The first major psychological theory of abnormal behavior was developed by Joseph Breuer. Answer: False 294. Sociocultural theorists look for the causes of abnormal behavior in the failures of society. Answer: True 295. Description is one of the primary objectives of science. Answer: True 296. To scientists, controlling behavior means coercing people into doing the bidding of others. Answer: False 297. A theory is a precise prediction about behavior that is examined in an experiment. Answer: False 298. The scientific method has four basic steps. Answer: True 299. The principle of informed consent precludes the use of naturalistic observation. Answer: False 300. In naturalistic observation, scientists make every effort to be obtrusive. Answer: False 301. Correlational research does not, in itself, demonstrate cause and effect. Answer: True 302. One type of correlational study is the longitudinal study. Answer: True 303. Suspected causal factors that are manipulated by researchers in an experiment are called dependent variables. Answer: False 304. In an experiment, apparent treatment effects can stem from subjects' expectations. Answer: True 305. Though placebos are routinely used in clinical research, evidence suggests that the effects of placebos are generally weak. Answer: True 306. Placebo effects are strongest in pain studies. Answer: True 307. In order to carry out valid research, it may be necessary to keep people unaware of the treatments they receive. Answer: True 308. A population is a segment or part of a sample. Answer: False 309. Epidemiological studies cannot control for selection factors. Answer: True 310. Recent evidence shows there are literally millions of genes in the nucleus of every cell in the body. Answer: False 311. The closer people’s kinship, the more likely they are to share similar environmental backgrounds. Answer: True 312. Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theory was developed primarily on the basis of naturalistic observation. Answer: False 313. Case studies have been conducted on people who have been dead for hundreds of years. Answer: True 314. A weakness of case studies is that they lack a treatment group. Answer: False Essay Questions 315. Identify and discuss six criteria that are used to define abnormal behavior. Answer: 1. Statistical Rarity: Abnormal behavior is often determined by how infrequent it is within a population. If a behavior or trait is statistically rare, it may be considered abnormal. 2. Violation of Social Norms: Behaviors that significantly deviate from societal norms or cultural expectations can be labelled as abnormal. This involves actions that society views as unacceptable or inappropriate. 3. Personal Distress: Behavior that leads to significant distress or suffering for the individual can be classified as abnormal. This criterion considers the individual's subjective experience of their symptoms. 4. Maladaptive Behavior: When behavior significantly interferes with an individual's ability to function in daily life, work, or relationships, it is considered abnormal. Maladaptive behavior hampers one's ability to achieve personal goals or adapt to the demands of life. 5. Danger to Self or Others: Behaviors that pose a threat to the safety or well-being of the individual or others are often seen as abnormal. This includes self-harm, suicidal tendencies, or violent behavior. 6. Irrationality and Unpredictability: Behavior that is illogical or unpredictable, especially when it is inconsistent with the person's usual patterns of behavior, can be seen as abnormal. This includes actions that do not make sense to others or are out of character. 316. Discuss the relationships between cultural beliefs, norms, and the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. Answer: The relationship between cultural beliefs, norms, and the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal is complex and dynamic: 1. Cultural Relativism: What is considered normal or abnormal behavior varies greatly across different cultures. Cultural beliefs and norms shape what behaviors are acceptable and which are viewed as deviations. For instance, hearing voices may be considered a spiritual experience in one culture and a symptom of a mental disorder in another. 2. Social Constructs: Norms and beliefs are social constructs that evolve over time. Behaviors that were once labelled abnormal may become accepted as normal as cultural attitudes change. For example, homosexuality was once widely considered abnormal but is now accepted as a normal variation of human sexuality in many cultures. 3. Contextual Factors: The context in which behavior occurs is crucial in determining its normalcy. Cultural norms provide a framework for understanding the appropriateness of behaviors in specific situations. Behavior that is appropriate in one context may be seen as abnormal in another due to differing cultural expectations. 4. Stigma and Discrimination: Cultural beliefs and norms can contribute to the stigmatization of certain behaviors and individuals. Labeling behaviors as abnormal can lead to discrimination and marginalization, affecting individuals' mental health and social inclusion. 5. Cultural Competence in Diagnosis: Mental health professionals must be culturally competent to avoid misdiagnosing culturally normative behaviors as abnormal. This requires an understanding of the cultural context and beliefs of individuals to provide accurate assessments and appropriate interventions. 6. Dynamic Interplay: The relationship between culture and abnormal behavior is reciprocal. Cultural norms influence the perception of abnormality, while behaviors and their labels can also influence cultural norms. This dynamic interplay highlights the importance of considering cultural factors in the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior. Understanding these relationships is essential for a nuanced and empathetic approach to mental health, ensuring that cultural context is taken into account in the labeling and treatment of behavior. 317. Recount the history of the demonological approach to abnormal behavior, referring to ancient and medieval times. Answer: Ancient Times: • Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt: Abnormal behavior was often attributed to demonic possession or the influence of gods and spirits. Treatment involved exorcisms, incantations, and various forms of ritualistic practices to appease or expel the spirits. • Ancient Greece and Rome: Although some thinkers like Hippocrates proposed natural explanations for mental disorders (e.g., imbalances in bodily fluids or humours), many still believed in supernatural causes. Treatments could involve both spiritual rituals and more naturalistic methods. Medieval Times: • Early Middle Ages: With the rise of Christianity, the demonological approach became more prevalent in Europe. Mental illness was frequently seen as a result of possession by evil spirits or punishment from God for sins. • Late Middle Ages: The Inquisition and witch hunts highlighted the intense belief in demonic possession. Individuals exhibiting abnormal behavior were often accused of witchcraft and subjected to harsh treatments like exorcisms, torture, and execution. • Treatment Methods: Exorcisms performed by priests, prayer, fasting, and the use of relics and holy water were common. There were also more brutal methods, such as beating and starvation, to drive out supposed demons. 318. Describe the development of treatment centres for abnormal behavior from asylums through mental hospitals. Answer: Development of Treatment Centres for Abnormal Behavior Asylums: • Origins in the 16th Century: The first asylums, like London's Bethlem Hospital (Bedlam), emerged in the 16th century. They were primarily custodial institutions, often providing poor living conditions and harsh treatments. • 17th and 18th Centuries: Asylums became more widespread in Europe and America. Treatment remained largely inhumane, with patients often chained, isolated, and subjected to brutal practices. Mental Hospitals: • 19th Century Reforms: The moral treatment movement, led by figures like Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix, advocated for more humane treatment of the mentally ill. This led to the establishment of state mental hospitals with better living conditions and more compassionate care. • 20th Century Developments: Advances in psychiatry and the introduction of psychoanalytic and behavioral therapies improved treatment approaches. However, overcrowding and underfunding remained significant issues. • Mid-20th Century Deinstitutionalization: The development of psychiatric medications and growing criticism of institutionalization led to deinstitutionalization. Many mental hospitals closed, and the focus shifted to community-based care. Modern Era: • Community Mental Health Centres: Emphasis on outpatient treatment, integration into society, and individualized care. Community mental health centres provide therapy, medication management, and support services. • Continuing Challenges: Despite advances, issues like stigma, funding, and accessibility continue to affect mental health care. There is ongoing effort to balance hospital care and community services to provide comprehensive support for individuals with mental illness. 319. Describe the major contributions to the study and treatment of abnormal behavior of three important figures that lived before 1950. Answer: 1. Philippe Pinel (1745-1826): • Contributions: Pinel is often credited with liberating mentally ill patients from chains and advocating for more humane treatment. He believed in moral therapy, which emphasized kindness, respect, and a nurturing environment. • Impact: His work at Bicêtre and La Salpêtrière hospitals in Paris laid the foundation for modern psychiatric practice by promoting the idea that mental illness could be treated with compassion and care rather than punishment. 2. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): • Contributions: Freud developed psychoanalysis, a groundbreaking approach to understanding and treating mental illness. He introduced concepts such as the unconscious mind, defense mechanisms, and the importance of early childhood experiences. • Impact: Freud’s theories revolutionized the field of psychology and psychiatry, influencing both the study and treatment of abnormal behavior by focusing on the inner workings of the mind and the role of unconscious processes. 3. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926): • Contributions: Kraepelin is known for his systematic classification of mental disorders. He distinguished between different types of mental illnesses, particularly separating what we now know as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. • Impact: His work laid the groundwork for modern diagnostic systems, such as the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), and helped establish psychiatry as a scientific discipline. 320. Discuss the reform movement and the use of moral therapy, focusing on roles of Pussin, Pinel, Rush, and Dix. Answer: Jean-Baptiste Pussin (1746-1811): • Contributions: As the head of the Bicêtre Asylum, Pussin implemented reforms that included unchaining patients, treating them with respect, and using kindness rather than brutality. His practices influenced Pinel. • Impact: Pussin’s work demonstrated that humane treatment could lead to improvements in patients' conditions, paving the way for broader reforms. Philippe Pinel (1745-1826): • Contributions: Building on Pussin’s work, Pinel removed chains from patients at La Salpêtrière and Bicêtre hospitals and advocated for moral therapy. He emphasized the importance of a supportive and therapeutic environment. • Impact: Pinel’s reforms marked a significant shift towards more compassionate care and influenced the development of psychiatric hospitals across Europe and America. Benjamin Rush (1746-1813): • Contributions: Known as the “father of American psychiatry,” Rush advocated for better conditions in mental hospitals and humane treatment of the mentally ill. He introduced therapeutic techniques such as occupational therapy. • Impact: Rush’s efforts helped to elevate the standards of care in American institutions and promoted the idea that mental illness could be treated medically and compassionately. Dorothea Dix (1802-1887): • Contributions: Dix was a tireless advocate for the humane treatment of the mentally ill. Through her efforts, she established or expanded more than 30 mental hospitals in the United States and influenced reforms in Europe. • Impact: Dix’s work significantly improved the conditions and treatment of the mentally ill, emphasizing the need for specialized, humane care facilities and inspiring future reforms in mental health care systems. 321. Discuss the factors associated with the current exodus from mental hospitals in the U.S. and its results. Answer: Factors: 1. Deinstitutionalization: Initiated in the mid-20th century, this movement aimed to transition patients from large state hospitals to community-based care. 2. Advances in Psychopharmacology: Development of effective psychiatric medications reduced the need for long-term hospitalization. 3. Legal and Policy Changes: Laws such as the Community Mental Health Act of 1963 emphasized outpatient treatment and the rights of the mentally ill. 4. Economic Factors: Cost-cutting measures and budget constraints led to the closure of many state hospitals. Results: 1. Community-Based Services: Increased reliance on outpatient treatment and support services. 2. Homelessness and Incarceration: Many individuals with severe mental illness ended up homeless or incarcerated due to inadequate community resources. 3. Improved Quality of Life: For some, living in the community allowed for a better quality of life and more autonomy. 4. Strain on Healthcare Systems: Overburdened community mental health services and emergency departments. 322. Describe three contemporary perspectives on abnormal behavior. Answer: 1. Biological Perspective: • Description: Focuses on genetic, neurological, and physiological factors that contribute to mental disorders. • Evaluation: Advances in neuroscience and genetics provide valuable insights, but this perspective may overlook environmental and psychological factors. 2. Psychological Perspective: • Description: Emphasizes cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes. Includes approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). • Evaluation: Effective in treatment and widely supported by research, though it may not fully address biological or sociocultural influences. 3. Sociocultural Perspective: • Description: Examines the impact of societal, cultural, and environmental factors on mental health. • Evaluation: Highlights the importance of context and social determinants, but may underestimate individual biological differences. 323. Describe and evaluate sociocultural and biopsychosocial perspectives. Answer: Sociocultural Perspective: • Description: Focuses on the role of social and cultural factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and cultural norms, in shaping behavior and mental health. • Evaluation: Provides important insights into how context influences mental health, but may be less effective in explaining individual differences in susceptibility and resilience. Biopsychosocial Perspective: • Description: Integrates biological, psychological, and social factors in understanding and treating mental disorders. • Evaluation: Offers a comprehensive framework that acknowledges the complexity of mental health, but can be challenging to apply due to the need for interdisciplinary approaches and resources. 324. Discuss the objectives of a scientific approach to the study of abnormal behavior. Answer: Objectives of a Scientific Approach to the Study of Abnormal Behavior 1. Describe: Accurately characterize and classify abnormal behavior using standardized criteria and methodologies. 2. Explain: Identify the causes and underlying mechanisms of mental disorders through research and theory development. 3. Predict: Forecast the course, outcomes, and potential complications of mental disorders based on empirical evidence. 4. Control: Develop effective interventions and treatments to manage or eliminate symptoms and improve patients' quality of life. 325. Describe the steps involved in the scientific method. Answer: Steps Involved in the Scientific Method 1. Observation: Identify and define a phenomenon or behavior to be studied. 2. Hypothesis Formation: Develop a testable prediction or explanation based on initial observations. 3. Experimentation: Design and conduct experiments to test the hypothesis, collecting data systematically. 4. Data Analysis: Analyze the collected data using statistical methods to determine whether the results support the hypothesis. 5. Conclusion: Draw conclusions based on the data analysis, accepting, rejecting, or refining the hypothesis. 6. Replication: Repeat the experiments to verify findings and ensure reliability. 7. Publication: Share the results with the scientific community through peer-reviewed publications for further scrutiny and validation. 326. Define ethics and explain what ethical principles in research are designed to do. Also, explain the principles of informed consent and confidentiality. Answer: Definition of Ethics: Ethics involves moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the conducting of an activity, ensuring fairness, integrity, and respect for individuals. Purpose of Ethical Principles in Research: Ethical principles in research are designed to protect participants from harm, ensure their rights and well-being, maintain integrity, and promote trust in research findings. Principles of Informed Consent: • Definition: Informed consent involves providing potential participants with all relevant information about the study, including its purpose, procedures, risks, and benefits, allowing them to make an informed decision about their participation. • Importance: Ensures that participation is voluntary and based on a clear understanding of what it entails. Principles of Confidentiality: • Definition: Confidentiality involves keeping participants' data private and ensuring that their identity is not disclosed without their consent. • Importance: Protects participants' privacy and fosters trust, encouraging honest and accurate responses. 327. Discuss the value and limitations of the naturalistic observation method. Answer: Value and Limitations of the Naturalistic Observation Method Value: • Real-World Context: Provides data on behavior in natural settings, enhancing ecological validity. • Unobtrusive: Allows for the observation of genuine behavior without interference or artificial influence. Limitations: • Lack of Control: Inability to control variables, making it difficult to determine causation. • Observer Bias: Observers' expectations or beliefs may influence their interpretations of the behavior. 328. Discuss the value and limitations of correlational research. Answer: Value and Limitations of Correlational Research Value: • Identifies Relationships: Reveals associations between variables, which can guide further research. • Practicality: Often easier and less costly than experimental methods, making it useful for large-scale studies. Limitations: • No Causation: Cannot determine cause-and-effect relationships, only that a relationship exists. • Third-Variable Problem: The observed correlation might be influenced by an unmeasured third variable. 329. Discuss the value and limitations of longitudinal research. Answer: Value and Limitations of Longitudinal Research Value: • Tracks Development: Provides insights into how individuals change over time, revealing patterns and long-term effects. • Causal Inferences: Better suited for making causal inferences than cross-sectional studies, as it observes changes in the same subjects. Limitations: • Time-Consuming and Expensive: Requires significant resources and time to follow participants over long periods. • Attrition: Participants may drop out over time, potentially biasing the results. 330. Describe the purpose and features of the experimental method. Answer: Purpose and Features of the Experimental Method Purpose: • To establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables by manipulating an independent variable and observing its effect on a dependent variable. Features: • Control Group: A group that does not receive the experimental treatment, serving as a baseline for comparison. • Random Assignment: Participants are randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group to minimize biases. • Manipulation of Variables: Deliberate alteration of the independent variable to assess its impact on the dependent variable. 331. Explain ways in which experimenters control for subjects' and researchers' expectations. Answer: Ways Experimenters Control for Subjects' and Researchers' Expectations Blinding: • Single-Blind Study: Participants are unaware of whether they are in the experimental or control group, reducing placebo effects. • Double-Blind Study: Both participants and researchers are unaware of group assignments, minimizing bias from expectations. Placebo Control: • Placebo Group: A control group that receives an inert treatment, allowing for comparison against the experimental group to measure the treatment's actual effect. Standardization: • Consistent Procedures: Ensuring all participants are treated identically, apart from the manipulation of the independent variable, to control for extraneous variables. 332. Describe three types of experimental validity. Answer: Three Types of Experimental Validity 1. Internal Validity: • Description: Refers to the extent to which an experiment accurately establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables. • Importance: Ensures that observed changes in the dependent variable are directly due to the manipulation of the independent variable, no other factors. 2. External Validity: • Description: The degree to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to other settings, populations, and times. • Importance: Determines the applicability of the experimental findings beyond the specific conditions of the study. 3. Construct Validity: • Description: The extent to which the test or experiment measures the concept or construct it is intended to measure. • Importance: Ensures that the operational definitions and measurements accurately reflect the theoretical concepts being studied. 333. Discuss the value of, and sources of error in, the epidemiological method. Answer: Value and Sources of Error in the Epidemiological Method Value: • Understanding Prevalence: Provides data on how common mental disorders are within a population. • Identifying Risk Factors: Helps in identifying factors that may contribute to the development of mental disorders. • Informing Policy and Prevention: Guides public health policies and preventive measures based on population-level data. Sources of Error: • Sampling Bias: If the sample is not representative of the population, the findings may be inaccurate. • Measurement Error: Inaccurate data collection methods can lead to incorrect estimates of prevalence and risk factors. • Confounding Variables: Other variables not accounted for in the study may influence the results, leading to incorrect conclusions. 334. Discuss the importance of drawing representative samples from target populations. Answer: Importance of Drawing Representative Samples from Target Populations • Generalizability: Ensures that the findings can be applied to the broader population, not just the sample. • Accuracy: Increases the accuracy of estimates of prevalence, risk factors, and treatment effects. • Reduction of Bias: Minimizes selection bias, ensuring that different subgroups within the population are adequately represented. 335. Explain how various kinship studies suggest roles for genetics in abnormal behavior. Answer: Kinship Studies and the Role of Genetics in Abnormal Behavior Twin Studies: • Description: Compare the concordance rates of mental disorders between monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins. • Findings: Higher concordance rates in identical twins suggest a genetic component to certain disorders. Adoption Studies: • Description: Examine the prevalence of mental disorders in adopted individuals compared to their biological and adoptive families. • Findings: Higher rates of mental disorders in biological relatives than adoptive relatives indicate genetic influence. Family Studies: • Description: Investigate the prevalence of mental disorders among family members across generations. • Findings: Patterns of inheritance and higher prevalence rates in biological relatives support the genetic basis of certain disorders. These kinship studies collectively suggest that genetics play a significant role in the development of abnormal behavior, although environmental factors are also influential. 336. Define the following terms: genes, chromosomes, genotype, phenotype and proband. Answer: Definitions: • Genes: Units of heredity that are passed from parents to offspring and contain instructions for building proteins. • Chromosomes: Structures in cells that contain genetic material (DNA) and are passed from one generation to the next. • Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism, consisting of alleles inherited from its parents. • Phenotype: The observable physical and physiological traits of an organism, determined by its genotype and environmental factors. • Proband: The individual in a study or pedigree who is first brought to the attention of researchers due to a particular phenotype or condition. 337. Discuss the value and limitations of the case-study method. Answer: Case-study method: • Value: Provides in-depth, detailed information about complex phenomena, allowing for detailed analysis of individual experiences or unique situations. It can generate hypotheses, offer insights into rare conditions, and provide context-rich data for understanding behavior or outcomes. • Limitations: Findings may not generalize to broader populations due to the uniqueness of cases studied. It can be subject to researcher bias or subjective interpretation. It often lacks control over variables, making it challenging to establish causation or identify universal principles. 338. Provide an example of a single-case experimental design and explain how this helps researchers overcome some of the limitations of the case-study method. Answer: Single-case experimental design example and benefits: Example: A researcher wants to assess the effectiveness of a new therapy for reducing anxiety in a single patient diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. The researcher uses an A-B-A design, where A represents baseline (no treatment), B represents treatment phase (new therapy introduced), and A represents withdrawal (therapy discontinued). Benefits: • Control over variables: By comparing baseline with treatment phases within the same individual, the researcher controls for individual differences that could confound results. • Internal validity: The design allows for rigorous assessment of cause-effect relationships within the individual, enhancing confidence in treatment effects. • Generalizability: Findings can sometimes be generalized to other individuals with similar conditions, providing insights beyond the single case studied. • Systematic replication: The design allows replication of the treatment effect across different phases within the same case, enhancing reliability of findings. 339. Explain why critical thinking is important in the study of abnormal psychology, and briefly describe 7 key features of critical thinking. Answer: Importance of critical thinking in abnormal psychology and key features: Importance: Critical thinking in abnormal psychology ensures rigorous evaluation of theories, research findings, and clinical practices, leading to accurate understanding and effective treatment of psychological disorders. Key features of critical thinking: 1. Evidence-based: Relies on empirical evidence rather than anecdotal or personal experience. 2. Skepticism: Questions assumptions, biases, and the reliability of sources of information. 3. Objectivity: Maintains impartiality and avoids personal biases when evaluating information. 4. Logical reasoning: Uses sound reasoning and avoids fallacies in arguments. 5. Open-mindedness: Considers alternative explanations and perspectives. 6. Clarity: Communicates ideas clearly and precisely. 7. Curiosity: Actively seeks out new information and perspectives to enhance understanding. Test Bank for Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene 9780205965014, 9780135821688, 9780134458311, 9780205961719, 9780130052162

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