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Chapter 9 Making State and Local Policy Multiple-Choice Questions 1. State and local governments have the primary responsibility for ________ and provide most of the money to pay for it. A. entertainment B. education C. globalization D. employee compensation E. congestion pricing Answer: B Rationale: State and local governments are primarily responsible for education because they oversee the operation of public schools and allocate funds for them. This is established through the tradition of local control over education, where decisions regarding curriculum, funding, and policies are made at the state and local levels rather than the federal level. 2. One of the issues often discussed about education funding is ________. A. equity B. feasibility C. accessibility D. information E. worthiness Answer: A Rationale: Equity in education funding refers to the fair distribution of resources among schools and districts to ensure that all students have access to quality education regardless of their socioeconomic background. It addresses disparities in funding that can perpetuate inequalities in educational opportunities. 3. ________ involves the absolute amount of funding provided to students in school districts. A. Equity B. Feasibility C. Adequacy D. Equality E. Reapportionment Answer: C Rationale: Adequacy focuses on whether the funding provided to schools is sufficient to meet the needs of students and deliver a quality education. It considers factors such as class sizes, teacher qualifications, instructional materials, and facilities. 4. ________ involves differences in funding between school districts. A. Equity B. Feasibility C. Adequacy D. Consistency E. Similarity Answer: A Rationale: Equity in education funding addresses disparities in funding between school districts, aiming to ensure that all students have access to resources and opportunities regardless of the wealth or property tax base of their district. 5. While administering public education, state money is distributed according to many formulas, but the trend is toward ________. A. giving more money to poorer communities to equalize education spending B. distributing money based on the communities‘ level of interest on education C. giving money equally to poor and rich communities to be consistent D. distributing money to various communities based on their future prospects E. giving less money to the minorities and more money to the majorities Answer: A Rationale: The trend in education funding is moving towards providing more resources to poorer communities to address inequities and equalize education spending. This approach aims to ensure that students in low-income areas have access to the same quality of education as those in wealthier districts. 6. The basic unit responsible for public elementary and secondary education in the United States is the ________. A. federal system B. unitary system C. national education board D. child welfare unit E. local school district Answer: E Rationale: The local school district is the basic administrative unit responsible for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. Each district operates its own schools, hires teachers, and manages its budget, allowing for local control and decision-making in education. 7. Which of the following statements is true about the administration of public education? A. The United States typically administers and funds education at the national level. B. Each state has a state superintendent of public instruction or commissioner of education. C. The trend is toward giving more state money to the richer communities for education. D. In northern states, the tradition is to have fairly large school districts in terms of geography. E. Actual operation of the public schools is the responsibility of the state officers. Answer: B Rationale: Each state has a state superintendent of public instruction or commissioner of education who oversees the administration of education within the state. While there is some federal involvement in education funding and policy, education is primarily administered at the state and local levels in the United States. 8. The federal government makes grants to the states for facilities, equipment, model programs, and general aid at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels through the ________. A. local school districts B. National Education Association C. educational communities D. Department of Education E. Department of Human Services Answer: D Rationale: The Department of Education is the federal agency responsible for administering educationrelated programs and funding in the United States. It provides grants to states for various purposes, including improving facilities, implementing model programs, and supporting education at all levels. 9. The ________, a grant competition, invited American states to compete for extra federal funding based on their willingness to try new educational programs. A. New Urbanism B. Race to the Top C. Teach to the Test D. Honda Foundation E. Missouri Plan Answer: B Rationale: The Race to the Top initiative was a federal grant competition launched by the U.S. Department of Education to encourage states to implement innovative education reforms and improve student outcomes. States competed for funding by proposing comprehensive education plans aligned with specific criteria set by the federal government. 10. With regard to the course of study in schools, professional educators and civil libertarians ________. A. want textbooks to present issues from the perspective they consider correct B. expect facts with regard to sex education to be suppressed C. do not encourage a positive view of labor and its role in society D. try to isolate schools from the pressures of all outside groups E. want family values and morality emphasized, and constraints imposed on the teaching of evolution Answer: D Rationale: Professional educators and civil libertarians generally advocate for academic freedom and oppose efforts to censor or restrict the curriculum based on ideological or political grounds. They believe that schools should be free from undue influence or pressure from external groups, allowing teachers and students to explore diverse perspectives and ideas in an open and intellectually stimulating environment. 11. Thomas, an American citizen, moved from a big city to the suburbs because his job required him to do so. When he approached the authorities of a nearby public school to enroll his daughter, he noticed that most of the children studying in the school were white and belonged to middle-class families. There were barely any children from other ethnicities. Which of the following terms describes this situation? A. Race to the Top B. de facto segregation C. reapportionment D. privatization E. gerrymandering Answer: B Rationale: De facto segregation refers to segregation that occurs by fact rather than by legal requirement. In this situation, although there may not be explicit laws mandating segregation, the demographics of the school reflect patterns of residential segregation and socioeconomic disparities. 12. In the United States, the argument over public school integration has shifted from race to ________. A. socioeconomic status B. age C. gender D. intelligence E. physical ability Answer: A Rationale: The shift in the argument over public school integration from race to socioeconomic status reflects changing demographics and recognition of the impact of economic disparities on educational opportunities. Socioeconomic integration aims to address inequalities in access to quality education by promoting diversity in schools based on economic status. 13. High-stakes testing refers to tests ________. A. that are basically used for ranking and comparing students‘ performances with one another B. that are used to understand the learning capacity of students belonging to a particular race C. that students must pass to go on to the next grade level or graduate from high school D. that are conducted for students who require special education and extra attention E. that are usually meant to assess only students who have above-average intelligence Answer: C Rationale: High-stakes testing refers to assessments that have significant consequences for students, such as determining grade promotion, graduation eligibility, or school funding. These tests often influence curriculum and teaching methods, leading to concerns about teaching to the test and narrowing the curriculum. 14. The ________ of 2002 required states to design state standards and annually test elementary school children to determine whether they are making adequate progress toward achieving those standards. A. Deficit Reduction Act B. No Child Left Behind Act C. Affordable Care Act D. Elementary and Secondary Education Act E. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Answer: B Rationale: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 aimed to improve student achievement by holding schools accountable for academic progress through standardized testing. It required states to establish standards and conduct annual assessments to measure student performance and progress toward meeting those standards. 15. Money provided by the American government to parents for payment of their children‘s tuition in a public or private school of their choice is known as a ________. A. reward B. debt C. bill D. benefit E. voucher Answer: E Rationale: A voucher is a government subsidy provided to parents to cover some or all of the cost of their children's education at a school of their choice, whether public or private. Vouchers are often used to promote school choice and encourage competition among schools. 16. With regard to the voucher system, skimming refers to ________. A. higher-achieving students opting out of public schools, leaving behind academicallystruggling students B. increased competition among students resulting in improved performance C. the rise in demand for public schools among students who are academically good D. the decrease in motivation faced by students who struggle academically who eventually choose to leave E. the drastically decreasing performance of students in private schools Answer: A Rationale: Skimming in the voucher system refers to higher-achieving students leaving public schools to enroll in private schools using vouchers, which can leave behind academically struggling students in the public school system. This can exacerbate inequalities in public education by concentrating disadvantaged students in under-resourced schools. 17. A(n) ________ refers to a publicly funded alternative to standard public schools in some states, initiated when individuals or groups receive charters. A. initiative B. charitable organization C. charter school D. non-profit institute E. eminent domain Answer: C Rationale: Charter schools are publicly funded schools that operate independently of the traditional public school system. They are established through charters, which are contracts between the school and an authorizing agency, and have more flexibility in their operations and curriculum compared to traditional public schools. 18. Which of the following statements is true about charter schools? A. They do not have the flexibility to hire and terminate teachers. B. The No Child Left Behind Act did not support charter schools. C. They are the fastest-growing form of choice in K–12 education. D. They adhere to all the procedural requirements that are followed by traditional public schools. E. They are subject to the collective bargaining arrangements that prevail in many public school systems. Answer: C Rationale: Charter schools have grown rapidly in the United States and are considered one of the fastestgrowing forms of school choice in K-12 education. They offer alternatives to traditional public schools and often have more autonomy in their operations, allowing for innovation and experimentation in education. 19. ________ typically receive funds from local as well as state governments and allow students to attend the first two years of college. A. Standard charter schools B. Local school districts C. Public community colleges D. Magnet schools E. Private institutions Answer: C Rationale: Public community colleges receive funding from both local and state governments and provide affordable post-secondary education opportunities, including two-year associate's degree programs. They serve as accessible pathways to higher education and workforce training for many students. 20. After graduating from high school, Beth takes up a two-year associate‘s degree in an institution in her area. Her friend Amanda pursues a course in nursing in the same institution because she does not want to leave her neighborhood. Which type of institution do they attend? A. Distance learning institution B. Confederation C. Eminent domain D. Charter community E. Public community college Answer: E Rationale: Beth and Amanda attend a public community college, which offers two-year associate's degree programs and vocational training in various fields. Public community colleges provide accessible higher education opportunities for students who prefer to remain in their local area or cannot afford to attend four-year institutions. 21. Which of the following is true of the administration of higher education? A. State colleges are governed only by boards appointed by the governor in all states. B. Education boards promote the dependence of public higher-education institutions on state politics. C. States have created boards with equal degrees of control over operations and budgets. D. Governors have not tried to impose controls on universities and colleges. E. Institutions of higher education have greater independence from political oversight. Answer: E Rationale: Institutions of higher education in the United States generally have greater independence from direct political oversight compared to K-12 education. While state governments may provide funding and establish broad policies, universities and colleges often have their own governing boards or trustees responsible for managing operations and budgets, allowing for greater autonomy in decision-making. 22. In terms of higher education in the United States, ________ at state universities has increased during the last few decades, often at two or three times the rate of inflation. A. tuition B. detention C. attrition D. privatization E. assessment Answer: A Rationale: Tuition at state universities in the United States has increased significantly over the past few decades, often at rates higher than inflation. This trend has resulted in growing concerns about the affordability of higher education and its accessibility to students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. 23. Which of the following statements is true of funding higher education? A. Professors‘ salaries in universities have kept pace with increasing tuition. B. The federal government is the chief supplier of student financial aid. C. States are not making any efforts to expand their programs of student aid. D. Because of financial aid from the federal government, the two-track system has been widely used. E. State funding of public colleges and universities is generally stable. Answer: B Rationale: The federal government is a major supplier of student financial aid in the United States, providing grants, loans, and work-study programs to help students afford the cost of higher education. While state funding for public colleges and universities varies, federal aid plays a significant role in supporting access to higher education for many students. 24. In terms of funding higher education, the two-track system involves ________. A. one set of colleges and universities for the poor and another for the rich B. two types of teaching systems to public higher-education institutions C. one set of courseware for public schools and another for private schools D. different types of performance tracking systems for rich and poor colleges E. two types of colleges and universities for students from the richer communities Answer: A Rationale: The two-track system in funding higher education refers to the existence of separate tracks or tiers of colleges and universities, with one track serving wealthier students and another serving poorer students. This system perpetuates inequalities in access to quality education based on socioeconomic status. 25. Which of the following federal welfare reform policies replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children? A. Elementary and Secondary Education Act B. American Recovery and Reinvestment C. No Child Left Behind D. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families E. State Children‘s Health Insurance Answer: D Rationale: The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) policy replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program as part of federal welfare reform in the United States. TANF introduced new requirements and restrictions on welfare recipients, including work requirements and time limits on benefits. 26. Landmark legislation called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families replaced the 60year-old program known as ________. A. Elementary and Secondary Education B. American Recovery and Reinvestment C. No Child Left Behind D. State Children‘s Health Insurance E. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Answer: E Rationale: The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, which had provided cash assistance to low- income families with children for over six decades. TANF introduced significant changes to welfare policy in the United States. 27. Under the ________, states provided monthly cash payments to poor families, largely to single mothers to help them take care of their children. A. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families policy B. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act C. Aid to Families with Dependent Children policy D. State Children‘s Health Insurance program E. No Child Left Behind Act Answer: C Rationale: The Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) policy provided monthly cash payments to poor families, primarily single mothers, to assist them in meeting the needs of their children. AFDC was a federal program administered by states prior to its replacement by TANF. 28. Which of the following is true of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) policy? A. States determined whether a smaller or larger proportion of poor families were eligible. B. States under AFDC were given greater flexibility in administering welfare policies. C. States under AFDC need not spend any of their welfare dollars on monthly cash payments to families. D. It strengthened work requirements for recipients and limited the time that families can receive benefits. E. States under AFDC had the option to use both public and private agencies to administer welfare. Answer: A Rationale: Under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) policy, states had flexibility in determining eligibility criteria and benefit levels, which could result in variations in the proportion of poor families served by the program across states. States were responsible for administering AFDC and had discretion in how they allocated welfare funds. 29. The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) policy differs from the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) policy in that ________. A. TANF imposes new restrictions on families receiving cash assistance B. TANF does not expand the goals of welfare policy C. states under TANF are given lesser flexibility in administering welfare policies D. states under TANF have to spend most of their welfare dollars on monthly cash payments to families E. states under TANF have to use only public bureaucracies to administer welfare Answer: A Rationale: The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) policy introduced new restrictions and requirements on families receiving cash assistance, including work requirements, time limits on benefits, and provisions aimed at promoting self-sufficiency. TANF represents a shift in welfare policy towards greater emphasis on employment and personal responsibility. 30. Which of the following is true of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)? A. It was replaced by the 60-year-old program known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children. B. States under TANF are given lesser flexibility in administering welfare policies. C. States under TANF have to spend most of their welfare dollars on monthly cash payments to families. D. It strengthened work requirements for recipients and limited the time that families can receive benefits. E. States under TANF can use only public bureaucracies to administer welfare but not private agencies. Answer: D Rationale: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) strengthened work requirements for recipients and imposed time limits on benefits, requiring recipients to engage in work-related activities and promoting self-sufficiency. TANF represented a significant shift in welfare policy towards promoting work and personal responsibility among recipients. 31. A welfare strategy adopted by some states that gives able-bodied adults who do not have preschool-age children the opportunity to learn job skills that can lead to employment is known as ________. A. workfare B. the two-track system C. the child-welfare scheme D. de facto segregation E. responsibility contract Answer: A Rationale: Workfare programs require able-bodied adults without preschool-age children to participate in job training or work-related activities as a condition for receiving welfare benefits. These programs aim to promote self-sufficiency and workforce participation among welfare recipients. 32. ________ refers to a welfare strategy adopted by some states in which recipients sign a written agreement specifying their responsibilities and outlining a plan for obtaining work and achieving self-sufficiency. A. Workfare B. The two-track system C. The charter system D. De facto segregation E. Responsibility contract Answer: E Rationale: A responsibility contract is a welfare strategy where recipients agree to certain responsibilities, such as participating in job training or seeking employment, in exchange for receiving welfare benefits. These contracts outline a plan for recipients to achieve selfsufficiency and transition out of welfare dependence. 33. Every state has an agency, usually known as a ________, which administers the state program and supervises local health officials. A. department of health B. public health center C. federal health care center D. Medicaid center E. Medicare center Answer: A Rationale: The department of health in each state is responsible for administering state health programs and overseeing local health officials. These agencies play a critical role in public health promotion, disease prevention, and healthcare delivery within their respective states. 34. Medicaid refers to the ________. A. federally funded medical benefit programs for the needy and uninsured B. federal health care program for people over the age of 65 C. federally funded medical benefit programs for the disabled D. federally funded medical benefit programs for low-income families E. federal health care program for children under the age of 18 Answer: A Rationale: Medicaid is a federally funded program that provides medical assistance to eligible lowincome individuals and families who are unable to afford healthcare coverage. It serves as a safety net for the needy and uninsured by covering a range of medical services. 35. The factor that distinguishes Medicare from Medicaid is that ________. A. Medicare served more than 62 million people, or about 20 percent of the American population in 2009 B. Medicare is not a federally funded medical benefit program C. Medicare is a federal health care program specifically for people over the age of 65 D. Medicare is a federally funded medical benefit program for low-income families E. Medicare is a federally funded medical benefit program for pregnant women Answer: C Rationale: Medicare is a federal health insurance program primarily for individuals aged 65 and older, as well as for certain younger people with disabilities. It is distinct from Medicaid, which provides healthcare coverage for low-income individuals and families regardless of age. 36. Which of the following statements is true of public health services? A. Very few states have a department of health to supervise local health officials. B. Medicaid is a federal health care program for people over the age of 65. C. Thousands of local governments do not have any kind of public health program. D. Prevention and control of disease are major state and local responsibilities. E. Medicare was designed to enable states to fund health care for people who were poor. Answer: D Rationale: Prevention and control of disease are major responsibilities of state and local public health agencies. These agencies work to promote health, prevent illness and injury, and respond to public health emergencies within their jurisdictions. 37. The ________ Act allows American states to develop different benefit packages for different types of Medicaid recipients. A. Deficit Reduction B. No Child Left Behind C. American Recovery and Reinvestment D. State Children‘s Health Insurance E. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Answer: A Rationale: The Deficit Reduction Act allows states to develop different benefit packages or coverage options for various groups of Medicaid recipients, such as pregnant women, children, or individuals with disabilities. This flexibility allows states to tailor Medicaid programs to meet the diverse needs of their populations. 38. Which of the following refers to the “connector model”? A. a system that involves one set of colleges and universities for the poor and another for the rich B. a quasi-governmental authority or agency that aims to pool individuals so that they can buy insurance together at a lower rate C. a model that connects the benefits offered by federally funded medical health care programs, namely Medicare and Medicaid D. a framework of roads, bridges, electrical facilities, telephone wiring, and so on needed for the operation of a society E. an approach to homeland security that addresses natural disaster as well as terrorism preparedness Answer: B Rationale: The "connector model" refers to a quasi-governmental authority or agency that facilitates the pooling of individuals or groups to purchase health insurance together, often at a lower group rate. These connectors aim to increase access to affordable health insurance coverage for individuals and small businesses. 39. In the ________ Program, the federal government provides matching funds to states to help cover the costs of providing health care to children under the age of 19 who live in families with incomes up to two times the federal poverty line. A. State Children‘s Health Insurance B. Aid to Families with Dependent Children C. No Child Left Behind D. Deficit Reduction E. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Answer: A Rationale: The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provides matching funds to states to support the provision of health insurance coverage to children under the age of 19 from lowincome families. SCHIP aims to expand access to healthcare for children who do not qualify for Medicaid but cannot afford private insurance. 40. The key provisions of the ________ Act include barring insurance companies from dropping people from coverage when they get sick and making it harder for insurance companies to deny coverage to individuals with pre-existing conditions. A. No Child Left Behind B. Deficit Reduction C. Affordable Care D. American Recovery and Reinvestment E. Morrill Answer: C Rationale: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes key provisions aimed at improving access to health insurance coverage and protecting consumers. These provisions include prohibiting insurance companies from denying coverage to individuals with pre-existing conditions and preventing them from dropping coverage for individuals who become sick. 41. ________ refer(s) to the underlying framework of roads, bridges, electrical facilities, telephone wiring, and so on needed for the operation of a society. A. Infrastructure B. The connector model C. The two-track system D. Zoning E. Environmental regulations Answer: A Rationale: Infrastructure encompasses the fundamental physical and organizational structures and facilities needed for the functioning of a society or enterprise, such as roads, bridges, utilities, and communication systems. 42. In the context of urban planning, which of the following terms refers to creating specific areas and limiting property usage in each area? A. Skimming B. Zoning C. Privatization D. Los Angelization E. De facto segregation Answer: B Rationale: Zoning involves dividing land into different zones or areas and regulating the permissible land uses, such as residential, commercial, or industrial, in each zone. It aims to organize development and protect the character of neighborhoods. 43. Which of the following is true of zoning? A. Zoning regulations help a city or county government coordinate services with land use. B. A zoning ordinance is much better than its enforcement. C. In most cases, a zoning or planning commission cannot amend ordinances. D. It involves creating specific areas without any limitations in terms of property usage. E. City planners are not concerned with the quality of life of the residents. Answer: A Rationale: Zoning regulations facilitate the coordination of services with land use by specifying the types of development permitted in different areas, which helps in efficient infrastructure planning and service delivery. 44. Sprawling urban growth without much planning for transportation, environmental protection, or management of water and other resources is known as ________. A. zoning B. skimming C. Los Angelization D. de facto segregation E. industrialization Answer: C Rationale: Los Angelization refers to uncontrolled urban sprawl characterized by rapid and often unplanned development without adequate consideration for transportation, environmental protection, or resource management. 45. The “new urbanism” movement seeks to build planned cities in which ________. A. the necessary roads, sewers, and schools need not be in place before development proceeds. B. there is no strategy for environmental protection, or management of water and other resources. C. local roads are built and repaired without the direction of city, township, and county officials. D. long-distance commercial transport will be conducted mainly by canal and railroad. E. people live within walking distance of work, shopping, and cultural resources. Answer: E Rationale: The "new urbanism" movement advocates for the development of planned cities or neighbourhoods where mixed land uses, pedestrian-friendly design, and access to amenities are prioritized, promoting walkability and reducing dependency on cars. 46. Which of the following statements about managing transportation is true? A. Much of the money for creating transportation facilities comes from the state and local governments. B. The federal government only builds highways, public buildings, airports, parks, and recreational facilities. C. States do the planning, estimate the costs, and arrange for the construction work, even when they receive federal assistance. D. States need not necessarily submit their plans to the U.S. Department of Transportation in order to receive any support. E. The function of road building was gradually transferred from the federal government to local governments. Answer: C Rationale: States typically lead transportation planning efforts, estimate project costs, and oversee construction, even when federal funding is involved. This decentralized approach allows states to tailor transportation projects to their specific needs and priorities. 47. The ________ delivers a report card on U.S. infrastructure every four years. A. American Society of Civil Engineers B. U.S. Department of Transportation C. Bureau of Transportation Statistics D. Transportation Security Administration E. National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission Answer: A Rationale: The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) publishes a report card on the state of U.S. infrastructure every four years, assessing the condition and performance of various infrastructure sectors and highlighting areas in need of investment and improvement. 48. In 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg of New York proposed ________ that would levy additional fees on cars entering lower Manhattan during high traffic times of the day. A. congestion pricing B. de facto segregation C. skimming D. privatization E. redistricting Answer: A Rationale: Mayor Bloomberg's proposal for congestion pricing aimed to reduce traffic congestion and raise revenue by charging additional fees on vehicles entering certain congested areas of Manhattan during peak hours. 49. A(n) ________ approach to homeland security addresses natural disasters and terrorism or other man-made incidents. A. environmental B. centralized C. remediation D. emergency management E. all hazards Answer: E Rationale: An "all hazards" approach to homeland security encompasses preparedness, response, and recovery efforts for a wide range of potential threats, including natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and other man-made incidents. 50. The federal government has developed the ________ to facilitate the local, state, and federal governments working together in the event of a natural or man-made disaster. A. National Association of Emergency Managers B. all hazards approach system C. emergency management system D. National Incident Management System E. National Recovery Platform Answer: D Rationale: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) provides a standardized framework and set of protocols for coordinating emergency response efforts across various levels of government and jurisdictions during natural and man-made disasters. 51. ________ is divided into four steps—readiness, response, recovery, and remediation. A. Gentrification B. Privatization C. Emergency management D. Zoning E. Gerrymandering Answer: C Rationale: Emergency management involves four key steps: readiness (preparing for emergencies), response (immediate actions taken during an emergency), recovery (efforts to restore normalcy after an emergency), and remediation (long-term measures to reduce vulnerability to future incidents). 52. In terms of emergency management, readiness involves ________. A. getting the right people to the site in question as quickly as possible B. prepositioning supplies and equipment and making sure that first responders are trained in what to do when an emergency occurs C. everything that occurs immediately after an emergency event such as the cleanup of debris and restoration of traffic patterns D. changing the design of communities and buildings to make them less vulnerable to future incidents E. educating people and providing them with adequate information Answer: B Rationale: Readiness in emergency management focuses on preparation before an emergency occurs, including activities such as training first responders, stockpiling supplies, and developing emergency response plans. 53. In the context of emergency management, response involves ________. A. getting the right people to the site in question as quickly as possible B. prepositioning supplies and equipment and making sure that first responders are trained in what to do when an emergency occurs C. everything that occurs immediately after an emergency event such as the cleanup of debris and the restoration of traffic patterns D. changing the design of communities and buildings to make them less vulnerable to future incidents E. educating people and providing them with adequate information Answer: A Rationale: Response in emergency management refers to the immediate actions taken during an emergency to save lives, protect property, and stabilize the situation, including deploying first responders and providing emergency services. 54. Of the four steps in emergency management, recovery involves ________. A. getting the right people to the site in question as quickly as possible B. prepositioning supplies and equipment and making sure that first responders are trained in what to do when an emergency occurs C. everything that occurs immediately after an emergency event such as the cleanup of debris and the restoration of traffic patterns D. changing the design of communities and buildings to make them less vulnerable to future incidents E. educating people and providing them with adequate information Answer: C Rationale: Recovery in emergency management encompasses the activities undertaken immediately after an emergency event to restore essential services, infrastructure, and community functions, including debris cleanup, restoring utilities, and resuming transportation. 55. Of the four steps in emergency management, remediation involves ________. A. getting the right people to the site in question as quickly as possible B. prepositioning supplies and equipment and making sure that first responders are trained in what to do when an emergency occurs C. everything that occurs immediately after an emergency event such as the cleanup of debris and the restoration of traffic patterns D. changing the design of communities and buildings to make them less vulnerable to future incidents E. educating people and providing them with adequate information Answer: D Rationale: Remediation in emergency management focuses on long-term measures to reduce vulnerability to future incidents, including structural improvements, land-use planning, and policy changes aimed at enhancing resilience and preparedness. 56. The inherent powers of state governments to pass laws to protect public health, safety, and welfare are referred to as ________. A. police powers B. the two-track system C. reserve powers D. de facto segregation E. supervisory powers Answer: A Rationale: Police powers are the inherent authority of state governments to enact and enforce laws and regulations for the protection of public health, safety, and welfare, including measures related to emergency management and environmental protection. 57. Which of the following is true about environmental regulation? A. In the early 1970s, pressure on the federal government to develop and implement national environmental standards decreased. B. One area in which states are increasingly responsible for environmental policy is waste management. C. State and local policies do not cover toxic sites that do not qualify as Superfund sites. D. Economically hard-pressed states have regulated waste management less aggressively than states whose economies are growing. E. An area in which states are losing interest is energy use and sustainability. Answer: B Rationale: States have taken on increasing responsibility for environmental policy, particularly in areas such as waste management, as evidenced by the growing role of states in regulating waste disposal and recycling programs. 58. In the context of waste management, the ________ cleans up the most contaminated toxic dump sites. A. Morrill Act B. Environmental Protection Agency C. Health and safety legislation D. all hazards approach E. Superfund Act Answer: E Rationale: The Superfund Act, officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), provides the legal framework and funding for the cleanup of the most contaminated hazardous waste sites in the United States. 59. The ________ requires states to have proper heating, lighting, ventilation, fire escapes, and sanitary facilities in work areas. A. health and safety legislation B. worker‘s compensation program C. consumer protection movement D. Environmental Protection Agency E. Superfund Act Answer: A Rationale: Health and safety legislation, at both federal and state levels, mandates standards and regulations to ensure safe working conditions, including requirements for proper heating, lighting, ventilation, fire safety, and sanitation in workplaces. 60. Today, all states have ________ programs based on the belief that employees should not have to bear the cost of accidents or illnesses incurred because of their jobs. A. de facto segregation B. consumer protection C. workers‘ compensation D. health and safety E. child labor Answer: C Rationale: Workers' compensation programs, established in all states, provide benefits to employees who suffer work-related injuries or illnesses, aiming to protect workers from financial hardship and ensure they receive necessary medical care and compensation for lost wages. True-False Questions 1. In the United States, state and local governments have the primary responsibility for education and provide most of the money to pay for it. Answer: True Rationale: State and local governments in the U.S. indeed have the primary responsibility for education, including funding and administration. While the federal government plays a role, such as through funding programs and setting some guidelines, the bulk of education funding and decision-making occurs at the state and local levels. 2. In education funding, equity involves the absolute amount of funding provided to students in school districts while adequacy involves differences in funding between school districts. Answer: False Rationale: Equity in education funding refers to fairness and impartiality in the distribution of resources, ensuring that all students have access to similar educational opportunities regardless of their background or location. Adequacy, on the other hand, refers to whether the amount of funding provided is sufficient to meet the needs of all students, regardless of disparities between districts. 3. Although actual operation of the public schools in the United States is the responsibility of the local community, state officers have important supervisory powers and distribute financial assistance to the communities. Answer: True Rationale: While local communities are typically responsible for the day-to-day operation of public schools, state officers play a crucial role in supervising education policies, distributing funding, setting standards, and ensuring compliance with state regulations. State governments often provide significant financial assistance to local school districts, influencing educational practices and outcomes. 4. In some states in the U.S., officials have the authority to set the course of study in schools—that is, to determine what must be taught and what may not be taught. Answer: True Rationale: Education governance varies across states in the U.S., and in some states, officials, such as state boards of education or appointed commissioners, have the authority to establish curriculum standards, set educational goals, and determine the content of courses taught in public schools. 5. Education can easily be fully separated from politics because most people have the same idea about how schools should be run. Answer: False Rationale: Education is inherently political, as it involves decisions about resource allocation, curriculum content, teacher hiring, and other matters that reflect societal values and priorities. Education policies often spark debates and disagreements among various stakeholders, including policymakers, educators, parents, and communities, making it challenging to fully separate education from politics. 6. During the 1970s and 1980s, in many places, people lived in segregated neighborhoods, which meant that eliminating overt segregation at neighborhood-centered schools would produce racially diverse schools. Answer: False Rationale: While some progress was made towards desegregation during the 1970s and 1980s, many neighborhoods and schools remained racially segregated due to historical patterns of residential segregation, discriminatory housing practices, and socioeconomic disparities. Eliminating overt segregation at neighborhood-centered schools did not automatically lead to racially diverse schools in many areas. 7. Charter schools are intended to interject the competition of the marketplace into elementary and secondary education. Answer: True Rationale: Charter schools, which are publicly funded but operate independently of traditional school districts, are often designed to introduce competition and innovation into the education system. They offer alternatives to traditional public schools, with the belief that competition will drive improvement and better serve students' diverse needs. 8. Publicly funded colleges and universities usually cannot control teaching loads, hiring and promotion, and the allocation of funds among internal units. Answer: False Rationale: Public colleges and universities typically have significant control over various aspects of their operations, including teaching loads, faculty hiring and promotion, and budget allocation among departments or units. While they may be subject to oversight by state governing boards or legislatures, they generally have substantial autonomy in academic and administrative matters. 9. State funding of public colleges and universities is unstable, rising when state revenues are growing but declining sharply during economic downturns. Answer: True Rationale: State funding for public higher education can be volatile and heavily influenced by economic conditions. During periods of economic growth, states may increase funding for colleges and universities, but during economic downturns or budget crises, higher education budgets are often among the first to be cut, leading to declines in state support for public institutions. 10. Low- and moderate-income families will have greater access to public higher education because the burden of paying for college is being shifted from students to the state. Answer: False Rationale: While some states may implement policies to increase access to higher education for lowand moderate-income families, the overall trend in many states has been to shift more of the financial burden of college education from the state to students and their families. This can result in decreased affordability and accessibility for disadvantaged students. 11. Pressure to reform the welfare system decreased among both Democrats and Republicans in the last decades of the twentieth century. Answer: False Rationale: Pressure to reform the welfare system intensified in the last decades of the twentieth century, driven by concerns about dependency, work disincentives, and fiscal sustainability. Both Democrats and Republicans advocated for welfare reform, leading to significant changes in policies and the enactment of legislation such as the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. 12. A landmark legislation called Aid to Families with Dependent Children replaced the 60year-old program known as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Answer: False Rationale: The statement is incorrect. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was replaced by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, not the other way around. TANF, enacted in 1996, represented a significant shift in welfare policy, introducing work requirements, time limits, and state flexibility in administering assistance programs. 13. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families differs from Aid to Families with Dependent Children in that it imposes new restrictions on families receiving cash assistance. Answer: True Rationale: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) introduced several new restrictions and changes compared to its predecessor, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). These include work requirements, time limits on cash assistance, stricter eligibility criteria, and greater state flexibility in designing and implementing welfare policies. 14. Under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, states were given greater flexibility in designing and administering welfare policies. Answer: False Rationale: Under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, states had limited flexibility in designing and administering welfare policies, as federal regulations imposed uniform eligibility criteria and benefit levels. The AFDC program was criticized for its lack of flexibility and incentives for welfare dependency, leading to its replacement by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which provided states with more flexibility and accountability. 15. Under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program, nearly all states, with federal help, have increased their spending on child care for low-income working families. Answer: True Rationale: The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program included provisions to increase funding for childcare assistance for low-income families. Many states used federal TANF funds to expand childcare subsidies and support services for working families, aiming to facilitate employment and self-sufficiency among welfare recipients. 16. In early 2006, Congress passed the Deficit Reduction Act, which includes many new options for states trying to reduce the growth of Medicaid spending. Answer: True Rationale: The Deficit Reduction Act of 2006 did indeed include provisions aimed at reducing the growth of Medicaid spending. These provisions provided states with various options and incentives to control costs and improve efficiency in their Medicaid programs. 17. Zoning laws help stabilize property values by preventing, for example, garbage dumps from being located next to residential areas. Answer: True Rationale: Zoning laws play a crucial role in regulating land use and development, including preventing undesirable land uses such as garbage dumps from being located in proximity to residential areas. By maintaining the quality and character of neighborhoods, zoning laws can help stabilize property values and protect homeowners' investments. 18. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics delivers a report card on U.S. infrastructure every four years. Answer: False Rationale: The statement is incorrect. While various organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, issue periodic reports on U.S. infrastructure, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics is primarily responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating transportationrelated data and statistics, rather than delivering infrastructure report cards. 19. Adding roads or lanes often leads more people to drive and may ultimately result in new traffic patterns that are no better than the old ones. Answer: True Rationale: This phenomenon, known as induced demand, is well-documented in transportation planning. Building new roads or expanding existing ones can initially alleviate congestion, but it often leads to increased vehicle use as people are attracted to the improved infrastructure. This can eventually result in similar or worse traffic patterns than before the expansion. 20. State and local officials are regularly “first responders” when terrorism or natural disaster hits. Answer: True Rationale: State and local officials, including emergency management agencies, law enforcement, fire departments, and public health authorities, typically serve as the first responders during terrorism incidents or natural disasters. They are responsible for immediate response efforts, including rescue operations, evacuations, and coordination of emergency services. 21. In terms of emergency management, remediation involves getting the right people to the site in question as quickly as possible. Answer: False Rationale: Remediation, in the context of emergency management, refers to the cleanup and restoration efforts that occur after an emergency or disaster event. It involves activities such as debris removal, environmental cleanup, and infrastructure repair, rather than simply getting people to the site quickly, which is typically part of the response phase. 22. Police powers are among those powers that are delegated to the federal government by the Constitution. Answer: False Rationale: Police powers, which involve the regulation of public health, safety, and welfare, are primarily reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. While the federal government has certain law enforcement powers, such as those related to interstate commerce and national security, police powers are generally exercised by state and local governments. 23. The basic model of environmental regulation involves federal standards for water and air quality and state and local implementation and monitoring. Answer: True Rationale: The statement accurately describes the basic model of environmental regulation in the United States. The federal government establishes overarching standards for environmental quality, such as the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act, while state and local governments are responsible for implementing and enforcing these standards within their jurisdictions. 24. Many states in America have been using alternative renewable energy both to cut down on energy costs and to rejuvenate dwindling rural economies. Answer: True Rationale: Many states in the U.S. have indeed been investing in alternative renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, and hydroelectric power, to diversify their energy portfolios, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, and promote environmental sustainability. Additionally, renewable energy projects can contribute to economic development, particularly in rural areas where natural resources are abundant. 25. In terms of workers‘ compensation, some employers argue that employee claims of workplace stress are excessive and will make U.S. firms uncompetitive. Answer: True Rationale: Some employers may indeed argue that employee claims of workplace stress are excessive and could potentially harm the competitiveness of U.S. firms. Concerns about rising workers' compensation costs and the impact on business operations are common among employers, leading to debates over the validity and management of stress-related claims. Short Answer Questions 1. Define de facto segregation. Answer: An ideal response will be: De facto segregation is defined as the racial or social class separation in public schools that exists because of the fact of where people live rather than by legal requirements. 2. Define vouchers. Answer: An ideal response will be: Money provided by the government to parents for payment of their children‘s tuition in a public or private school of their choice is known as a voucher. 3. What is a charter school? Answer: An ideal response will be: A charter school is a publicly funded alternative to standard public schools in some states, initiated when individuals or groups receive charters; charter schools must meet state standards. 4. Briefly describe community colleges in the context of higher education. Answer: An ideal response will be: Since the end of World War II, there has been a major expansion in the number and size of public community colleges, which typically receive funds from local as well as state governments and which allow students to attend the first two years of college or receive a technical education in their own communities. 5. Briefly explain Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Answer: An ideal response will be: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families is a federal welfare reform law that replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children, the 60-year-old assistance program for poor families with children. This 1996 law strengthened work requirements for recipients, limited the time that families can receive benefits, and gave states flexibility to develop service programs supporting work, marriage, and self-sufficiency. 6. Define workfare. Answer: An ideal response will be: Workfare refers to a welfare strategy adopted by some states that gives able-bodied adults who do not have preschool-age children the opportunity to learn job skills that can lead to employment. 7. What is a responsibility contract? Answer: An ideal response will be: A responsibility contract is a welfare strategy adopted by some states in which recipients sign a written agreement specifying their responsibilities and outlining a plan for obtaining work and achieving self-sufficiency. 8. Define infrastructure. Answer: An ideal response will be: Infrastructure is defined as the underlying framework of roads, bridges, electrical facilities, telephone wiring, and so on needed for the operation of a society. 9. What are police powers? Answer: An ideal response will be: Police powers refer to inherent powers of state governments to pass laws to protect public health, safety, and welfare; the national government has no directly granted police powers but accomplishes the same goals through other delegated powers. 10. Briefly describe working conditions in terms of consumer protection. Answer: An ideal response will be: The consumer protection movement, which became prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, says consumers should be provided with adequate safety information and should have their complaints heard. Most states have offices to hear consumer complaints, including lawyers working in the offices of the state attorney general. State governments often establish professional standards and handle complaints about legal and medical services or insurance practices. Essay Questions 1. Explain the role of the federal government in public schools. Answer: An ideal response would be: After the former Soviet Union‘s successful 1957 launch of Sputnik, the first satellite put into orbit, Congress responded by providing funding to strengthen mathematics and science education. In 1965, Congress adopted the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the major federal law dealing with education. Through the Department of Education, which was created in 1979, and other agencies, the federal government makes grants to the states for facilities, equipment, scholarships, loans, research, model programs, and general aid at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. But federal control over how the money may be spent comes with these federal dollars. Today, federal regulations cover school lunch programs, employment practices, admissions, record keeping, care of experimental animals, and many other matters. Indeed, local school authorities regularly complain that there are more regulations than dollars. With the passage of No Child Left Behind in 2002 and the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act‘s $4.35 billion “Race to the Top” grant competition, the role of the federal government in shaping what schools do has continued to increase. The “Race to the Top” invited states to compete for extra federal funding based on their willingness to try new programs. 2. Describe the administration of higher education. Answer: An ideal response would be: State colleges and universities are governed by boards appointed by the governor in some states and elected by the voters in others. These boards are designed to give public institutions of higher education some independence from state politics. With approximately 80 percent of the more than 15 million college students now attending publicly supported institutions, the control and support of higher education have become significant political issues. States have created boards with varying degrees of control over operations and budgets. In addition, governors have tried to impose controls on universities and colleges that many university administrators insist are inappropriate. Yet institutions of higher education have greater independence from political oversight than other tax-supported institutions. Publicly funded colleges and universities usually can control teaching loads, internal procedures, areas of teaching emphasis, hiring and promotion, and the allocation of funds among internal units. 3. Explain zoning. Answer: An ideal response would be: The most common method of ensuring orderly growth is zoning—creating specific areas and limiting property usage in each area. A community may be divided into designated areas for single family, two-family, or multi-family dwellings; for commercial purposes; and for light or heavy industry. Regulations restrict the height of buildings or require that buildings be located a certain distance apart or a certain distance from the boundaries of the lot. Zoning regulations help the city or county government coordinate services with land use. Zoning laws also help stabilize property values by preventing, for example, garbage dumps from being located next to residential areas. Day-to-day enforcement is usually the responsibility of a building inspector who ensures that a projected construction project is consistent with building, zoning, fire, and sanitary regulations before granting a building permit. A zoning ordinance, however, is no better than its enforcement. In most cases, a zoning or planning commission or the city council can amend ordinances and make exceptions to regulations, and these officials are often under tremendous pressure to grant exceptions. But if they go too far in permitting special cases, the whole purpose of zoning is defeated. Zoning is only one kind of community planning. Until recently, city planners were primarily concerned with streets and buildings. Today, most are also concerned with the quality of life. 4. Explain the steps involved in emergency management. Answer: An ideal response would be: Emergency management is often divided into four steps—readiness, response, recovery, and remediation. State and local government is involved in all four of these. • Readiness involves prepositioning supplies and equipment and making sure that first responders are trained in what to do when an emergency occurs. • Response involves getting the right people to the site in question as quickly as possible. Sometimes this is the most important step. • Recovery involves everything that occurs immediately after an emergency event— the cleanup of debris, restoration of traffic patterns, initial stabilization of damaged infrastructure, and so on. • Finally, remediation involves changing the design of communities and buildings to make them less vulnerable to future incidents. 5. Explain the aspects associated with the regulation of working conditions. Answer: An ideal response would be: Despite expanded federal regulation, state and local governments still have much to say about working conditions. • Health and safety legislation: States require proper heating, lighting, ventilation, fire escapes, and sanitary facilities in work areas. Machinery must be equipped with safety guards. Some standards have also been established to reduce occupation related diseases. Health, building, and labor inspectors tour industrial plants to ensure compliance with the laws. • Workers‘compensation: Today, all states have workers‘ compensation programs based on the belief that employees should not have to bear the cost of accidents or illnesses incurred because of their jobs. The costs of accidents and occupational diseases are borne by employers and passed on to consumers in the form of higher prices. In the past, employees had to prove that their employers were at fault if they suffered an accident on the job. Today, if people are injured or contract a disease in the ordinary course of employment, they are entitled to compensation set by a prearranged schedule. Workers‘compensation is a controversial issue, with employers arguing that employee claims of workplace stress are excessive and will make U.S. firms uncompetitive. • Child labor: All states forbid child labor, yet state laws vary widely in their coverage and in their definition of child labor. Many states set the minimum age for employment at 14. Higher age requirements are normal for employment in hazardous occupations and during school hours. Many of these regulations have been superseded by stricter federal laws. • Consumer protection: The consumer protection movement, which became prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, says consumers should be provided with adequate safety information and should have their complaints heard. Most states have offices to hear consumer complaints, including lawyers working in the offices of the state attorney general. State governments often establish professional standards and handle complaints about legal and medical services or insurance practices. Test Bank for State and Local Government by the People David B. Magleby Paul C. Light, Christine L. Nemacheck 9780205966530, 9780205828401

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