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Chapter 8 Local Governments and Metropolitics Multiple-Choice Questions 1. The ________ refers to a constitutional arrangement in which power is concentrated in a central government. A. unitary system B. merit system C. public defender system D. assigned counsel system E. spoils system Answer: A Rationale: In a unitary system, power is centralized in a national or central government, which holds authority over subordinate local governments or administrative divisions. This arrangement contrasts with federal systems, where power is divided between a central government and regional governments. 2. Local government units exist only as agents of the state and exercise only those powers expressly given to them by their respective state governments. This relationship is known as ________. A. Cooley Doctrine B. Dillon‘s Rule C. Absolute Priority Rule D. Administrative Rule E. Administrative-Control Rule Answer: B Rationale: Dillon's Rule is a legal principle that states that local governments only have the powers expressly granted to them by state governments. Under this doctrine, local governments are considered to be subordinate to state governments and can only act within the scope of authority delegated to them by state law. 3. ________ refers to state constitutional authorization for local governments to conduct their own affairs. A. Decentralization B. Redistricting C. Home rule D. Reduction veto E. Due process Answer: C Rationale: Home rule refers to the authority granted to local governments by state constitutions to govern their own affairs and enact laws without interference from the state government. This allows local communities to address their unique needs and concerns through local legislation. 4. Which of the following is true of the local government in the United States? A. Local governments have some constitutional authority in their own right. B. Local governments are not created by the state government. C. State officers do not participate in local government. D. Local governments are not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution. E. State governments and local governments exist independently of each other. Answer: D Rationale: Local governments are not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution, and their powers and structures are primarily determined by state constitutions and laws. The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reserves powers not delegated to the federal government to the states or the people, leaving the organization of local governments to the states. 5. Which of the following is true of the relationship between local and state governments? A. State officers do not participate in local government. B. Local governments are typically created by the federal government. C. Local governments do not rely on power given to them by state governments. D. Local governments are mentioned in the U.S. Constitution. E. State officials have the authority to appoint and remove some local officials. Answer: E Rationale: State governments have authority over local governments and can delegate powers to them, appoint or remove local officials, and enact laws governing local affairs. The relationship between state and local governments is hierarchical, with state governments exercising control over the organization and functions of local governments. 6. Which of the following refers to a county? A. the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities B. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region C. the largest local level of government below the state, currently used in 48 states D. a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth E. a local level of government that is usually organized around population centers Answer: C Rationale: A county is the largest local level of government below the state level in the United States. Counties are geographic subdivisions of states, responsible for providing various public services and administration within their boundaries. 7. Which of the following refers to a municipality? A. the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities B. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region C. the largest local level of government below the state, currently used in 48 states D. a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth E. a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers Answer: E Rationale: A municipality is a local level of government within counties, typically organized around population centers such as cities or towns. Municipalities have authority over local affairs within their boundaries and may have their own elected officials and administrative structures. 8. Which of the following refers to a metropolis? A. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region B. a larger area generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities C. the largest local level of government below the state, currently used in 48 states D. a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth E. a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers Answer: A Rationale: A metropolis is a large city or urban area that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region, often characterized by significant population, economic activity, and cultural institutions. Metropolises typically exert influence over surrounding areas and may encompass suburbs and satellite cities. 9. Which of the following refers to a metropolitan area? A. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region B. the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities C. the largest local level of government below the state, currently used in 48 states D. a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth E. a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers Answer: B Rationale: A metropolitan area is the larger region surrounding a metropolis, consisting of suburbs, satellite cities, and other smaller urban areas that are heavily influenced by the metropolis. Metropolitan areas often share economic, social, and cultural ties with the central city or urban core. 10. Which of the following refers to an exurb? A. the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities B. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region C. the largest local level of government below the state, currently used in 48 states D. a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth E. a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers Answer: D Rationale: An exurb is a community on the fringe of an urban area, characterized by relatively low housing density, high levels of commuting to the urban core, and often rapid population growth. Exurbs are typically located beyond the suburbs and may have a mix of rural and suburban characteristics. 11. Which of the following refers to a township? A. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region B. the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities C. the local level of government below the county used primarily in 20 northeastern states D. a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth E. a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers Answer: C Rationale: A township refers to the local level of government below the county, primarily used in 20 northeastern states. Townships typically provide basic municipal services and administration to residents within their boundaries. 12. Which of the following refers to a suburb? A. a large city that is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for the region B. the local level of government below the county used primarily in 20 northeastern states C. a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers D. a residential area, typically within commuting distance of a city E. the largest jurisdiction within a state Answer: D Rationale: A suburb is a residential area located on the outskirts of a city, typically within commuting distance. Suburbs are characterized by residential neighborhoods, schools, and commercial areas, providing housing and amenities for individuals who work in nearby urban areas. 13. The city of Fort Worth, Texas is located adjacent to the city of Dallas, Texas. Together they form a very large integral urban area that is interconnected in many ways. This joint entity is known as a ________. A. metropolis B. county C. municipal D. state E. metropolitan area Answer: E Rationale: A metropolitan area is a large urban region comprising a central city and its surrounding suburbs, interconnected economically, socially, and culturally. Fort Worth and Dallas together form a metropolitan area due to their close proximity and shared economic and social ties. 14. In the context of local government structures, areas of high population density are considered ________. A. to be rural B. to have low housing density C. to be municipal corporations D. to be urban E. to be counties Answer: D Rationale: Areas of high population density, characterized by a concentration of people and urban development, are considered urban. Urban areas typically include cities, towns, and densely populated neighborhoods. 15. Companies doing business with the city must provide their workers enough income for a decent standard of living. This idea, enacted by communities, is known as ________. A. “living wage” laws B. minimum wages for living C. collective bargaining D. “quality of life” laws E. gentrification Answer: A Rationale: "Living wage" laws require companies doing business with a city to pay their workers a wage that is sufficient to meet basic needs and maintain a decent standard of living. These laws aim to ensure fair compensation for workers and reduce poverty levels in communities. 16. ________ are the largest jurisdictions within a state and are among the oldest and most stable local governments in terms of their boundaries not changing. A. Metropolitan areas B. Exurbs C. Suburbs D. Towns E. Counties Answer: E Rationale: Counties are the largest jurisdictions within a state and serve as administrative divisions responsible for providing various public services and governance within their boundaries. Counties are established by state law and often have stable boundaries that have remained unchanged over time. 17. Which of the following is NOT a traditional function of a county government? A. law enforcement B. highway construction C. legislation D. tax collection E. property assessment Answer: C Rationale: Legislation is not a traditional function of county governments. While counties may enact local ordinances and regulations, the legislative authority primarily resides with elected bodies such as city councils or town boards. 18. In the context of county government, the ________ administer state laws, levy taxes, appropriate money, issue bonds, sign contracts on behalf of the county, and handle whatever jobs the state laws and constitution assign to them. A. council managers B. board of supervisors C. chief administrative officers D. councils of government E. administrative commission Answer: B Rationale: The board of supervisors in a county government is responsible for administering state laws, managing finances, and overseeing various functions of county government. They are typically elected officials who represent different geographic districts within the county. 19. Which of the following is NOT an example of an administrative officer of a county? A. mayor B. president of the council C. council manager D. borough president E. county judge Answer: C Rationale: A council manager is not typically an administrative officer of a county government. Instead, council managers are often employed in municipal governments where they serve as professional administrators responsible for implementing policies and managing day-to-day operations. 20. Which of the following is a step taken to improve the efficiency of county governments? A. increased responsibilities B. increased intervention by the state government C. increased revenue base D. appointment of professional county executives E. improved capacities Answer: D Rationale: The appointment of professional county executives or administrators is a common strategy to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of county governments. Professional administrators bring managerial expertise and administrative skills to county government, helping streamline operations and enhance service delivery. 21. Resistance to mandatory busing to achieve integrated schools in the 1960s and 1970s contributed to the so-called ________. A. eminent domain B. merit system C. unitary system D. home rule E. white flight Answer: E Rationale: White flight refers to the phenomenon in which white residents, particularly those of higher socioeconomic status, move out of urban areas to suburban or exurban areas to avoid racial integration, often in response to policies such as mandatory busing to achieve school integration. 22. What is meant by eminent domain? A. the power a government has to take private land to use for a public purpose B. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection C. the oldest and most common form of city government, consisting of either a weak mayor and a city council or a strong mayor elected by voters and council D. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area E. a form of local government in which the voters directly elect the city council and the mayor Answer: A Rationale: Eminent domain refers to the legal authority of a government to expropriate private property for public use, provided that just compensation is paid to the property owner. This power is often used for projects such as infrastructure development, urban renewal, or public utilities. 23. What is meant by a charter? A. the oldest and most common form of city government, consisting of either a weak mayor and a city council or a strong mayor elected by voters and council B. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area C. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection D. a form of local government in which the voters directly elect the city council and the mayor E. a form of local government in which the members of the city council select the mayor, who then shares power with other elected or appointed boards and commissions Answer: C Rationale: A charter is a legal document that serves as the constitution for a municipality or local government. It outlines the structure of the government, defines the powers and duties of elected officials, establishes local laws and regulations, and provides for the organization and operation of the government. 24. What is meant by a mayor-council charter? A. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area B. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection C. a form of local government in which the city council hires a professional administrator to manage city affairs D. the oldest and most common form of city government, consisting of either a weak mayor and a city council or a strong mayor elected by voters and council E. a constitutional arrangement in which power is concentrated in a central government Answer: D Rationale: A mayor-council charter is the oldest and most common form of city government, characterized by the presence of both an elected mayor and a city council. The mayor may have varying degrees of executive authority, depending on whether it is a weak or strong mayor-council system. 25. What is meant by the weak mayor-council form? A. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection B. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area C. a constitutional arrangement in which power is concentrated in a central government D. a form of local government in which the city council hires a professional administrator to manage city affairs E. a form of local government in which the members of the city council select the mayor, who then shares power with other elected or appointed boards and commissions Answer: E Rationale: In a weak mayor-council form of government, the mayor's authority is limited, and the city council, composed of elected members, plays a significant role in policymaking and administration. The mayor shares power with the council and often needs council approval for major decisions. 26. Which of the following is true of the weak mayor-council form? A. The mayor must usually obtain the council‘s consent for all major decisions. B. The mayor prepares and administers the budget with the help of his or her staff. C. The mayor enjoys almost total administrative authority. D. The mayor has the power to appoint and dismiss department heads. E. The mayor is elected directly by the people. Answer: A Rationale: In the weak mayor-council form, the mayor typically needs the council's consent for major decisions, as the mayor's authority is limited. The council often exercises significant control over policymaking and administration. 27. What is meant by the strong mayor-council form? A. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area B. a form of local government in which the voters directly elect the city council and the mayor, who enjoys nearly total administrative authority C. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection D. a form of local government in which the city council hires a professional administrator to manage city affairs E. a form of local government in which the members of the city council select the mayor, who then shares power with other elected or appointed boards and commissions Answer: B Rationale: In the strong mayor-council form, the mayor is directly elected by voters and enjoys significant executive authority, often with nearly total administrative control over city government. 28. Which of the following is true of the strong mayor-council form? A. Mayors are often chosen from members of the elected city council. B. The mayor‘s appointive powers are usually restricted. C. The mayor enjoys almost total administrative authority. D. The city council as a whole generally possesses both legislative and executive authority. E. The mayor must usually obtain the council‘s consent for all major decisions. Answer: C Rationale: In the strong mayor-council form, the mayor typically enjoys almost total administrative authority, with significant powers over city administration and policymaking. 29. What is meant by the council-manager plan? A. a form of local government in which the voters directly elect the city council and the mayor B. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection C. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area D. a form of local government in which the city council hires a professional administrator to manage city affairs E. a form of local government in which the members of the city council select the mayor, who then shares power with other elected or appointed boards and commissions Answer: D Rationale: The council-manager plan is a form of local government in which the elected city council appoints a professional city manager to oversee the day-to-day operations of the city government. 30. Which of the following is true of a council-manager charter? A. The mayor prepares and administers the budget. B. The council makes the laws and approves the budget. C. The council does not supervise city government. D. The city manager has no contribution to policy creation. E. The council does not contribute to policy creation. Answer: B Rationale: In a council-manager charter, the city council holds the primary legislative authority, making laws and approving the budget, while the city manager is responsible for managing city affairs and implementing policies established by the council. 31. The ________ refers to an official, hired by the mayor, who administers the day-to-day workings of the city staff in a strong mayor-council form of government. A. auditor B. assessor C. city manager D. commissioner E. chief administrative officer Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, chief administrative officer. In a strong mayor-council form of government, the chief administrative officer, often referred to as the city manager, is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations of the city staff. This role is typically appointed by the mayor to ensure efficient administration and implementation of policies. 32. Which of the following is true of the role of the mayor? A. Mayors make more in salary than city managers or chief city administrators. B. The main job of the mayor is legislative in the broadest sense of the term. C. Mayors do not supervise special agencies such as the board of elections. D. Mayors avoid any involvement with the school board over education policy. E. Mayors usually work with the private sector to promote economic opportunities. Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, Mayors usually work with the private sector to promote economic opportunities. While mayors may have various responsibilities, one of their key roles is to foster economic development in their cities. This often involves collaborating with the private sector to attract investment, create jobs, and stimulate growth. 33. A geographical region of at least 50,000 people with high population density in its urbanized core and a high degree of social and economic integration between its outlying counties and the core is known as a(n) ________. A. township B. exurb C. municipality D. Metropolitan Statistical Area E. annexe Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). An MSA is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as an integrated economic and social unit with a large population nucleus and adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. MSAs typically consist of a central city and surrounding counties, exhibiting characteristics of urbanization and interconnectedness. 34. Which of the following can dramatically affect city policy agendas? A. a decrease in the number of educational institutions B. an increase in the number of shopping centers C. a large number of new migrants D. a rise in housing costs E. an increase in the number of nonprofit organizations Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C, a large number of new migrants. The influx of new migrants can dramatically affect city policy agendas by placing increased demands on infrastructure, social services, housing, and employment opportunities. City governments may need to adapt policies and allocate resources to address the needs and concerns of the growing population. 35. Which of the following is a problem historically faced by central cities? A. They have high crime rates. B. Their population has been constantly increasing. C. They have more “low cost citizens.” D. They have smaller tax bases. E. They have poor infrastructure. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D, They have smaller tax bases. Historically, central cities have faced challenges related to their tax bases, often due to factors such as suburbanization, industrial decline, and demographic shifts. As a result, central cities may struggle to generate sufficient revenue to fund essential services and infrastructure maintenance. 36. Which of the following is the main reason for the shrinking tax bases of cities? A. an influx of immigrants B. white flight C. the presence of a large number of senior citizens D. a large number of truly needy people E. businesses moving out of the city Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, businesses moving out of the city. The departure of businesses from urban areas can significantly diminish the tax base of cities, as they contribute to local tax revenues through property taxes, business taxes, and other forms of taxation. This loss of revenue can impact the city's ability to provide services and maintain infrastructure. 37. Which of the following is a criticism of payroll or commuter tax? A. It is only a long-term revenue growth opportunity. B. It will encourage more businesses to leave a city. C. It will increase the demand for services. D. It will affect other tax collection measures. E. It will prevent the state from allowing cities to collect local income tax. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B, It will encourage more businesses to leave a city. Critics argue that implementing a payroll or commuter tax may incentivize businesses to relocate outside the city limits to avoid additional taxation. This could lead to further erosion of the city's tax base and economic vitality. 38. ________ is statistically associated with other problems such as poor health, infant mortality, stunted growth, low achievement and behavioral problems at school, and future unemployment as a young adult. A. Child poverty B. Reduced tax base C. Increased immigration D. Gentrification E. Reduced revenue Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A, Child poverty. Research has shown that child poverty is correlated with a range of negative outcomes, including poor health, higher infant mortality rates, educational underachievement, and increased risk of unemployment in adulthood. The effects of child poverty can have long-term consequences for both individuals and communities. 39. Which of the following is true of child poverty in the United States? A. It is a problem frequently seen in the rural areas of the United States. B. Detroit and Cleveland have the lowest child poverty rates. C. It occurs at a higher rate in cities than in suburban or nonmetropolitan areas. D. It is not associated with poor health and infant mortality. E. San Francisco has one of the highest child poverty rates. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C, It occurs at a higher rate in cities than in suburban or nonmetropolitan areas. Child poverty rates are generally higher in urban areas compared to suburban or rural areas. Cities often face greater economic disparities and social challenges, leading to higher concentrations of poverty among children. 40. Which of the following is a reason for the recent rejuvenation of the once-declining central cities in the United States? A. payroll taxes B. commuter taxes C. state intervention D. gentrification E. white flight Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D, gentrification. Gentrification, the process of revitalization and reinvestment in urban neighborhoods by wealthier individuals and businesses, has contributed to the rejuvenation of many declining central cities in the United States. This phenomenon can lead to economic growth, improved infrastructure, and increased property values, but it also raises concerns about displacement and social inequality. 41. What is meant by gentrification? A. a form of local government in which the members of the city council select the mayor, who then shares power with other elected or appointed boards and commissions B. a form of local government in which the voters directly elect the city council and the mayor C. the oldest and most common form of city government, consisting of either a weak mayor and a city council or a strong mayor elected by voters and council D. a city “constitution” that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection E. a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, a gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area. Gentrification refers to the process whereby affluent individuals or families move into a deteriorated urban neighborhood, renovate properties, and increase property values, often displacing lower-income residents. 42. Which of the following is a disadvantage of gentrification? A. emergence of more businesses that lead to overcrowding B. overwhelming of city services C. displacement of the poor D. increased property prices E. increased immigration Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C, displacement of the poor. While gentrification can bring positive changes to a neighborhood, such as improved infrastructure and increased property values, it often leads to the displacement of long-time, low-income residents who can no longer afford rising housing costs. This can contribute to social and economic inequality. 43. What is meant by “edge cities”? A. cities built on the boundary of metropolitan areas often in unincorporated areas of counties B. the largest local region below the state C. a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region D. the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities E. residential areas that are typically within commuting distance of a city Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A, cities built on the boundary of metropolitan areas often in unincorporated areas of counties. Edge cities are suburban centers of commerce and employment that develop on the outskirts of major metropolitan areas, often in previously undeveloped or unincorporated areas. 44. Which of the following is true of “edge cities”? A. There is no incidence of crime. B. They lie in unincorporated areas of counties. C. They are free of traffic congestion. D. The problem of urban blight does not exist. E. They are free of political problems. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B, They lie in unincorporated areas of counties. Edge cities typically develop in unincorporated areas of counties, where land is often less expensive and regulations may be less restrictive compared to within city limits. 45. Edge cities are sometimes run by ________ that refer to private owners who set the fees for policing, transportation, and various other services that are normally financed by taxes. A. commission charters B. shadow governments C. city managers D. state governments E. mayors Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B, shadow governments. In some edge cities, private entities or developers may exert significant influence over local governance and services, operating as de facto "shadow governments" that control aspects of public infrastructure and services. 46. Which of the following is a method used by suburbs to oppose economic growth and development? A. They passed a legislation banning the establishment of industries. B. They developed strategies to keep the minorities out of the area. C. They encouraged the gentrification of the central cities. D. They adopted building and zoning codes and land use regulations. E. They discriminated against industries that approached for building permits. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D, They adopted building and zoning codes and land use regulations. Suburbs often use regulatory measures, such as building codes, zoning laws, and land use regulations, to control and restrict economic growth and development within their jurisdictions, sometimes in opposition to neighboring cities or regions. 47. Which of the following is a challenge to coherent governance in the metro regions? A. strong central governments B. lack of dependence on state governments C. competitive political parties D. a rigid undivided executive authority E. fragmented legislative power Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, fragmented legislative power. In metropolitan regions, governance can be hindered by fragmented legislative power, where multiple jurisdictions and governmental bodies compete or overlap in authority, leading to inefficiencies, conflicts, and challenges in coordinating regional policies and initiatives. 48. In the context of strategies to govern metropolitan regions, what is meant by annexation? A. when one (typically large) city absorbs neighboring areas into it B. when multiple cities agree to share services C. when multiple cities establish an authority to run services in all the cities D. when units of government are established to provide services for a regional area E. when one merges with the surrounding county‘s government Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A, when one (typically large) city absorbs neighboring areas into it. Annexation involves the extension of a city's boundaries to incorporate adjacent or nearby areas, often to increase its tax base, expand its jurisdiction, or control development. 49. In the context of strategies to govern metropolitan regions, what is meant by agreements to furnish services? A. It refers to the practice of large cities absorbing neighboring areas into it. B. It refers to the practice of a few cities sharing a single activity. C. It refers to the practice of multiple cities establishing an authority to run services in all the cities. D. It is the practice of establishing units of government to provide one or more particular services for a regional area. E. It is the practice of merging with the surrounding county‘s government. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B, It refers to the practice of a few cities sharing a single activity. Agreements to furnish services involve multiple cities entering into agreements to jointly provide or share specific services, such as public transportation, waste management, or emergency response, to achieve economies of scale and enhance efficiency. 50. The most common solution to the problems of overlapping and duplicating jurisdictions is for the units of government to contract for services, a practice known as ________. A. collective bargaining B. gentrification C. privatization D. reapportionment E. outsourcing Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, outsourcing. Outsourcing involves contracting with external entities or private firms to provide specific services or functions on behalf of government agencies, reducing duplication, increasing efficiency, and leveraging specialized expertise or resources. 51. Which of the following is true of public authorities? A. It is the practice of typically large cities absorbing neighboring areas into it. B. It is the practice of multiple cities agreeing to share services. C. It is established to undertake specialized functions in certain regions. D. It is the practice of establishing units of government to provide services for a regional area. E. It is the practice of merging with the surrounding county‘s government. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C, It is established to undertake specialized functions in certain regions. Public authorities are governmental entities created to perform specific functions or services within a defined geographic area or jurisdiction. These authorities are often established to address specialized needs or challenges that may not be effectively addressed by existing governmental structures. 52. Which of the following is true of special districts? A. They are formed to avoid overlapping and duplicating jurisdictions. B. They are formed when multiple cities agree to share services. C. They are formed when one (typically large) city absorbs neighboring areas into it. D. They are units of government typically established to provide one or more specific services. E. They are established to undertake specialized functions in certain regions. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D, They are units of government typically established to provide one or more specific services. Special districts are local governmental entities created to provide specific services or functions within a defined geographic area. These districts operate independently of general-purpose local governments, focusing on services such as water supply, sanitation, fire protection, or parks and recreation. 53. What is meant by city-county consolidation? A. It is the practice of typically large cities absorbing neighboring areas into it. B. It is the practice of multiple cities agreeing to share services. C. It is the practice of multiple cities establishing an expert organization to run services in all the cities. D. It is a means of establishing units of government to provide one or more particular services for a regional area. E. It is a means of overcoming the fragmentation of metro regions by merging the city with the county. Answer: E Rationale: The correct answer is E, It is a means of overcoming the fragmentation of metro regions by merging the city with the county. City-county consolidation involves merging the governmental structures of a city and its surrounding county into a single entity. This consolidation aims to streamline governance, reduce duplication of services, and promote more coordinated and efficient delivery of services across the entire metropolitan area. 54. Which of the following is true of regional coordinating and planning councils? A. They are involved in the practice of absorbing neighboring areas into large cities. B. They bring locally elected officials together who devote time and resources to physical planning. C. They enable multiple cities to share services. D. They help multiple cities establish an expert organization to run services in all the cities. E. They help establish units of government to provide one or more particular services for a regional area. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B, They bring locally elected officials together who devote time and resources to physical planning. Regional coordinating and planning councils are intergovernmental organizations composed of representatives from local governments within a specific geographic region. These councils facilitate collaboration and coordination among municipalities on issues such as land use planning, transportation, and economic development. 55. Which of the following is true of federated governments? A. They build on existing governments by assigning crucial functions to an area-wide metro government. B. They bring locally elected officials together who devote time and resources to physical planning. C. They enable multiple cities to share services. D. They help multiple cities establish an expert organization to run services in all the cities. E. They help establish units of government to provide one or more particular services for a regional area. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A, They build on existing governments by assigning crucial functions to an area-wide metro government. Federated governments involve the creation of a new overarching governmental structure, often referred to as a metropolitan or regional government, which oversees and coordinates the activities of constituent local governments within a metropolitan area. This approach aims to address regional challenges while preserving local autonomy. 56. People come together in their own neighbourhoods to tackle common problems or form neighbourhood cooperatives. This is known as ________. A. local governance B. regional planning C. community self-help D. outsourcing E. public authority oversight Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C, community self-help. Community self-help refers to grassroots initiatives in which residents of a neighbourhood or community collaborate to address common challenges, improve living conditions, and enhance community well-being. This approach empowers local residents to take ownership of issues and develop solutions tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. True-False Questions 1. State officers participate in local government to a much greater extent than federal officers do in state politics. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. State officers, including governors and state legislators, often play significant roles in local government affairs. They may provide funding, set policies, and enact laws that impact local governments. In contrast, federal officers typically have less direct involvement in state politics, although federal funding and regulations can influence state and local government actions. 2. As a consequence of Dillon‘s rule, when doubts arise about the authority of local governments, courts generally decide for them. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. Dillon's Rule, which originated from the Supreme Court case Dillon v. City of Richmond in 1868, holds that local governments possess only those powers expressly granted to them by the state government, implied by the state constitution or laws, or essential to the municipality's existence. When doubts arise about the authority of local governments under Dillon's Rule, courts typically interpret narrowly and may decide against them. 3. When local governments prove ineffective, state officials may offer them financial assistance with certain strings attached or may even take over responsibilities previously handled locally. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. In situations where local governments are deemed ineffective or unable to fulfill their responsibilities, state officials may intervene by providing financial assistance with conditions attached, such as implementing specific reforms or measures to improve efficiency. In extreme cases, state governments may also take over certain responsibilities previously managed by local governments through mechanisms like receivership or oversight boards. 4. Most cities and towns have articles of incorporation—called initiatives—granted to them by the state. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. Articles of incorporation typically refer to documents filed with the state government to establish a corporation, outlining its purpose, structure, and operating procedures. Initiatives, on the other hand, are proposals or measures placed on the ballot through a petition process, often for the purpose of enacting new laws or amending existing ones through direct citizen participation. Cities and towns are typically incorporated through charters or statutes enacted by the state legislature, rather than through initiatives. 5. The system of local governments in the United States is always efficient and inexpensive. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. While local governments play essential roles in providing services and governance at the community level, the system is not always efficient or inexpensive. Factors such as bureaucracy, inefficiencies, varying levels of resources and funding, and challenges in coordination and cooperation can contribute to inefficiencies and increased costs in local government operations. 6. National surveys of citizens‘ views reveal that the responsiveness of the federal and state governments is better than that of the local government due to their size and budgets. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. National surveys often indicate that citizens perceive local government as more responsive and accountable compared to federal and state governments. Local governments are closer to the people they serve, allowing for greater citizen engagement, direct participation, and responsiveness to local needs and concerns. Additionally, local governments typically have smaller bureaucracies, which can facilitate more efficient decision-making and service delivery. 7. Urban and suburban counties have many of the same governmental structures as their rural counterparts, but they are more intertwined with their urban centers. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. While urban and suburban counties may have similar governmental structures as rural counties, such as boards of commissioners or supervisors, they often have more complex relationships with their urban centers. Urban and suburban counties tend to be more densely populated and economically interconnected with nearby cities, resulting in greater collaboration and coordination on issues such as transportation, land use planning, and service delivery. 8. Counties rely heavily on state and federal sources for their revenue. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. While counties may receive some funding from state and federal sources, they primarily rely on local revenue streams for their funding. Local revenue sources for counties can include property taxes, sales taxes, fees for services, and various other local taxes and charges. State and federal funding may supplement local revenues, particularly for specific programs or services mandated by higher levels of government. 9. The New England town meeting is the most complete example of direct democracy; voters participate directly in making rules, passing new laws, levying taxes, and appropriating money. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. The New England town meeting is a form of direct democracy in which eligible voters within a town gather annually or semi-annually to discuss and vote on various issues, including budgets, ordinances, and policies. Participants have the opportunity to debate and directly vote on matters affecting their community, making it a pure form of democratic governance at the local level. 10. A group of active citizens that provides political and policy-making leadership usually dominates town meetings. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. Town meetings often attract participation from active and engaged citizens who take on leadership roles in shaping local policies and decision-making. These individuals may have significant influence within the community and play a dominant role in guiding discussions, proposing initiatives, and rallying support for specific causes or positions during town meetings. 11. Since the founding of the United States, governments have had the power to take private land for public purposes, even without the consent of the landowner. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. The power of eminent domain, derived from the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, allows governments at all levels—federal, state, and local—to take private property for public use, provided that just compensation is paid to the property owner. This power has been used for various public projects, such as building roads, schools, and public infrastructure. 12. In cities with the weak mayor-council form, the mayor's appointive powers are restricted. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. In weak mayor-council forms of government, the mayor's powers are typically limited, especially concerning appointments and executive authority. The mayor may have ceremonial duties and limited administrative powers, but appointive powers are often vested in other bodies, such as city councils or boards of commissioners. 13. In cities with strong mayor-council form, the city council as a whole generally possesses both legislative and executive authority. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. In strong mayor-council forms of government, the mayor typically holds significant executive authority, while the city council focuses primarily on legislative functions. The mayor is responsible for implementing policies, managing city departments, and overseeing day-to-day operations, while the city council's role is to enact legislation, set policies, and provide oversight. 14. Under the council-manager charter, the council is usually elected in nonpartisan primaries and elections. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. In council-manager forms of government, city councils are often elected in nonpartisan primaries and elections, meaning that political party affiliations are not officially listed on the ballot. This approach is intended to promote nonpartisanship and focus on municipal issues rather than political party politics in local government elections. 15. A professional hired by the city council to manage the workings of the city staff in a council-manager form of government is known as a chief administrative officer. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. In a council-manager form of government, the professional hired by the city council to manage the city staff is typically known as the city manager, not the chief administrative officer. The city manager serves as the chief executive officer of the municipality, overseeing day-to-day operations, implementing policies set by the city council, and managing city departments. 16. Many cities with council-manager forms of government are increasingly moving toward at-large elections. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. In council-manager forms of government, there is typically a trend away from at-large elections, where candidates are elected to represent the entire city, and toward district-based elections, where candidates are elected to represent specific geographic areas or districts within the city. District-based elections are often seen as promoting better representation and diversity on city councils. 17. Partisan politics is an emerging feature of city governments. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. While partisan politics may play a role in some city governments, especially in larger urban areas, many municipal elections and governments are nonpartisan or less overtly partisan compared to state and federal politics. Local government officials often focus on pragmatic, nonpartisan approaches to addressing municipal issues, rather than adhering strictly to party ideologies. 18. In recent times, mayors have been given a share in policymaking, and city administration has been centralized under the mayor's direction. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. In many cities, especially those with strong mayor-council forms of government, mayors have been granted increased authority in policymaking and city administration. This trend toward mayoral empowerment reflects efforts to streamline decision-making, enhance executive leadership, and increase accountability in local government. 19. Large numbers of new immigrants can dramatically affect city policy agendas. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. Large influxes of immigrants into cities can significantly impact local policy agendas by influencing priorities related to housing, education, healthcare, social services, and cultural integration. Immigrants may also bring new perspectives, needs, and demands that local governments must address, leading to shifts in policy focus and resource allocation. 20. In the twentieth century, the immigrants into metropolitan areas were predominantly from rural areas in the Southern United States. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. During the twentieth century, especially during periods of urbanization and industrialization, many immigrants into metropolitan areas in the United States came from rural areas, particularly in the Southern United States. Economic opportunities in urban centers attracted migrants seeking employment in factories, manufacturing, and other industries, leading to significant demographic changes in cities. 21. The shrinking tax base in the central cities in the United States has made it easier for them to raise sufficient revenue. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. The shrinking tax base in central cities poses significant challenges for local governments in raising sufficient revenue to fund essential services and infrastructure. Factors such as population decline, urban blight, disinvestment, and tax base erosion due to factors like deindustrialization or suburbanization can hinder revenue generation, requiring central cities to seek alternative sources of funding and implement strategic economic development initiatives. 22. "Edge cities" are similar to suburbs in that they are part of an incorporated city or town. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. "Edge cities" are not typically part of an incorporated city or town but rather represent suburban centers of commerce, employment, and activity that develop on the periphery of major metropolitan areas. These areas often feature dense concentrations of office buildings, retail centers, and residential developments, but they may lack the traditional governmental structures and services associated with incorporated municipalities. 23. Annexation is when one city merges with its surrounding county to overcome the fragmentation of metro regions. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. Annexation refers to the process by which a municipality extends its boundaries to incorporate adjacent or nearby territory into its jurisdiction. It does not involve the merger of a city with its surrounding county. Annexation is often used by cities to expand their tax base, control development, or provide services to growing areas. 24. A disadvantage of public authorities is that they increase the administrative load for mayors. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is false. Public authorities, which are governmental entities established to perform specific functions or services within a defined geographic area, typically operate independently of mayoral or municipal administrative structures. While public authorities may collaborate with local governments on certain projects or initiatives, they generally do not increase the administrative load for mayors, as their operations are separate and distinct from municipal administration. 25. African Americans and Hispanics often oppose area consolidation or similar reform proposals that would invariably dilute their political power. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. In many cases, African American and Hispanic communities have historically opposed area consolidation or similar reform proposals that could potentially dilute their political power or representation. These communities may fear that consolidation efforts could lead to reduced influence, representation, or responsiveness to their specific needs and concerns within a larger, more diverse political entity. Short Answer Questions 1. Describe the unitary system and what it means for the power wielded by local governments. Answer: An ideal response would be: State constitutions create a unitary system in which power is vested in the state government, and local units exist only as agents of the state and exercise only those powers expressly given to them by their respective state governments, a relationship known as Dillon‘s Rule. 2. What are the options that are available to the state government in the event that the local government is found to be ineffective? Answer: An ideal response would be: When local governments prove ineffective, state officials may offer them financial assistance with certain strings attached or may even take over responsibilities previously handled locally. In some extreme cases, financial mismanagement by the local government can lead to a possible “hostile takeover” by the state government. 3. What is the difference between a metropolis and a metropolitan area? Answer: An ideal response would be: A metropolis is a large city that is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for the region. This metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, typically one or more closely neighbouring cities, is considered a metropolitan area. 4. What was the concept on which counties were originally organized? Answer: An ideal response would be: Counties were originally organized on the idea that the county seat—the town or city where the county government is based—would be no more than a day‘s journey for anyone within the county‘s borders. Farm families could pile into their wagons and head for the county seat, and while farmers were attending to business, their families could shop and pick up the local gossip. Then they could all get home in time to do the evening chores. 5. What are some of the traditional functions of counties? Answer: An ideal response would be: The traditional functions of counties include law enforcement, highway construction and maintenance, tax collection and property assessment, recording of legal papers, and administration of welfare programs. 6. Briefly explain the system of townships in New England. Answer: An ideal response would be: In New England, citizens do not only vote for members of the town board and other officers; in at least 1,000 towns, they also participate in annual town meetings. The New England town meeting is the most complete example of direct democracy; voters participate directly in making rules, passing new laws, levying taxes, and appropriating money. 7. Briefly describe eminent domain. Answer: An ideal response would be: Since the founding of the United States, governments have had the power to take private land for public purposes, even without the consent of the landowner. This power, called eminent domain, comes from English common law. State and local governments have mostly used eminent domain in cases of public need—for instance, the construction of a road or bridge— and tempered it with a right to just compensation for the landowner, usually paying the market rate for the land. 8. What are the attractions of “the good life” as described by different people living in cities? Answer: An ideal response would be: Different people define “the good life” differently, yet it often includes these attractions: (a) Employment opportunities (b) Diverse educational institutions (c) Wide variety of stores and specialty shops (d) Diversity of people, architecture, and lifestyles (e) Cultural centers, museums, performing arts centers, and theaters (f) Entertainment and nightlife (g) Professional sports teams (h) Good restaurants 9. Briefly explain commuter taxes and its benefits. Answer: An ideal response would be: In an effort to recapture part of the tax base that escapes to the suburbs in the evenings, some cities have imposed local payroll or other types of commuter taxes to obtain revenue from people who work in the central cities and make frequent use of city facilities yet live outside the city. Proponents of the payroll or commuter tax see it as an effective way to shift some of the burden to those who benefit from the city but do not help fund the city. 10. Briefly describe council of governments. Answer: An ideal response would be: Nearly all metro regions have some kind of council of government(COG). COGs began in the 1950s and were encouraged by the national government. In essence, these councils bring locally elected officials together. They devote most of their time and resources to physical planning; rarely do they tackle problems of race, poverty, and financial inequities in metro regions. Councils are set up, moreover, in such a way as to give suburbs a veto over virtually any project that would threaten their autonomy. In a few regions, the councils assume operating responsibilities over such regional activities as garbage collection, transportation, and water supply. Essay Questions 1. Describe the various local government structures in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: In the United States, a county is a local level of government below the state. Counties are used in 48 of the 50 states; only Connecticut and Rhode Island are not organized by county. Delaware has the fewest counties (3), and Texas has the most (254). Sub-county governments include municipalities and townships, which are generally organized around population centers. Because the classification of population centers is a matter of state law, the definition of a city or town varies widely from state to state. However, most cities and towns have articles of incorporation—called charters—granted to them by the state. They are legally considered municipal corporations. A large city that is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for the region is called a metropolis. This metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, typically one or more closely neighboring cities, is considered a metropolitan area. Areas of high population density are considered urban; residential areas—typically within commuting distance of a city—are referred to as suburbs; and rural areas have low population density. 2. Describe the changing responsibilities of county governments in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: The traditional functions of counties include law enforcement, highway construction and maintenance, tax collection and property assessment, recording of legal papers, and administration of welfare programs. Until recently, counties were convenient subdivisions that largely carried out policies established elsewhere—typically in the state capital. During the past generation, however, although counties in a few states have given up some of their responsibilities, in most others, especially in the South, they have taken over from the states such urban functions as transportation, water and sewer operation, and land use planning. Elsewhere, cities are contracting with counties to provide such joint services as employee training, law enforcement, and corrections, and in some instances, cities and counties are merging some governmental functions such as local public education. 3. Describe how the major tasks of suburban government are bound together with those of the metropolis. Answer: An ideal response would be: The major tasks of suburban government are often bound together with those of the metropolis. Larger cities usually maintain an elaborate police department with detective bureaus, crime detection laboratories, and communications networks, but police jurisdiction stops at the city line even though crime does not. Suburbs have fewer police, so they call on urban police expertise. Intercity highways, which have local access roads, also tie cities and suburbs together. In matters of health, there are often wide differences in services between city and suburb, even though germs, pollutants, and smog do not notice city signposts. 4. Describe the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Answer: An ideal response would be: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 forbids states and cities with a history of discrimination against minority voters from adopting the at-large system for electing council members if the effect would be to dilute the voting strength of these minorities. In a 1980 case, the Supreme Court found that the Constitution forbids only practices adopted or maintained with the intent to discriminate the Court permitted Mobile, Alabama, to keep its seven-decades-old system of choosing city commissioners in at-large elections, even though no black person had ever been elected to the three-person commission, because there was no direct evidence that the system was established with a discriminatory intent. However, Congress rejected this interpretation when it enacted the extension of the Voting Rights Act in 1982. In the revised Act, voters can challenge a voting scheme, such as at-large elections, by demonstrating that the voting arrangements, based on all the evidence presented, were racially discriminatory in their effects regardless of intent. 5. Briefly describe gentrification in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: Recently, many of the once-declining central cities have shown signs of rejuvenation and gentrification. Gentrification in an area refers to relatively wealthier people buying property in poorer areas of a city and moving there, which results in revitalization of the area and increased property values but is often accompanied by displacing the poor. Cities such as Atlanta, Kansas City, and Newark, which were losing population a decade or two ago, are now gaining new residents. Gentrification has attracted some suburbanites to come back to central cities. Some of the large city population increase may be the result of the late-2000s recession but large cities are also attractive places for young people to live and work. Test Bank for State and Local Government by the People David B. Magleby Paul C. Light, Christine L. Nemacheck 9780205966530, 9780205828401

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