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Chapter 4: Parties and Elections in the States Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is true regarding the constitutional roles of state and federal governments in regulating elections? A. In the United States, elections for the presidency are purely national. B. The U.S. Constitution gives the federal government the leading role in regulating elections. C. Senate elections are nationwide contests. D. The federal government has no control over the regulation of national elections. E. All elections for national offices are held by and within the states. Answer: E Rationale: According to the U.S. Constitution, while the federal government has certain powers regarding elections, such as setting the time for congressional elections and establishing certain regulations, elections themselves are primarily conducted by and within the states. This includes elections for national offices like the presidency and Congress. 2. According to Article I, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Congress may not alter regulations regarding the ________. A. time of holding elections for senators and representatives B. manner of holding elections for senators and representatives C. places of choosing senators D. date on which the elections are being held E. candidates being chosen for the elections Answer: C Rationale: Article I, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution grants states the authority to determine the "Times, Places, and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives," while also giving Congress the power to make or alter such regulations except as to the "Places of chusing Senators." 3. According to the U.S. Constitution, which of the following entities creates or regulates the laws regarding national elections? A. The U.S. Congress B. The President of the United States C. The Governor D. The State Legislature E. The U.S. Senate Answer: D Rationale: The U.S. Constitution grants authority over the regulation of elections to the state legislatures. While Congress has certain powers regarding federal elections, such as setting the time for congressional elections and establishing regulations, the primary responsibility for conducting and regulating elections lies with the states. 4. Which of the following is true of the Fifteenth amendment of the provisions of the U.S. Constitution? A. It requires that U.S. senators be chosen directly by a state‘s voters rather than its legislatures. B. It states that state governments cannot deny franchise based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” C. It guarantees women the right to vote. D. It prohibits states from requiring voters to pay a poll tax. E. It prevents states from denying the vote to otherwise qualified persons aged 18 or older. Answer: B Rationale: The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits the denial of voting rights based on "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It aimed to ensure voting rights for African American men following the Civil War and is distinct from amendments related to women's suffrage and other voting rights issues. 5. Which amendment of the U.S. Constitution requires that U.S. senators be chosen directly by a state‘s voters rather than its legislatures? A. Twenty-Fourth Amendment B. Fifteenth Amendment C. Seventeenth Amendment D. Twenty-Sixth Amendment E. Nineteenth Amendment Answer: C Rationale: The Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1913, requires the direct election of senators by the voters of each state, rather than their selection by state legislatures as was previously practiced. 6. Which amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees women the right to vote? A. Twenty-Fourth Amendment B. Fifteenth Amendment C. Seventeenth Amendment D. Twenty-Sixth Amendment E. Nineteenth Amendment Answer: E Rationale: The Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1920, guarantees women the right to vote and prohibits the denial of voting rights on the basis of sex. 7. Which amendment of the constitution prohibits states from requiring voters to pay a poll tax? A. Twenty-Fourth Amendment B. Fifteenth Amendment C. Seventeenth Amendment D. Twenty-Sixth Amendment E. Nineteenth Amendment Answer: A Rationale: The Twenty-Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1964, prohibits the imposition of poll taxes as a condition for voting in federal elections. 8. Which of the following is true of the provisions of the Twenty-Sixth Amendment of the U.S.Constitution? A. It requires that U.S. senators be chosen directly by a state‘s voters rather than its legislatures. B. It states that state governments cannot deny franchise based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” C. It prohibits states from requiring voters to pay a poll tax. D. It prevents states from denying the vote to otherwise qualified persons aged 18 or older. E. It guarantees women the right to vote. Answer: D Rationale: The Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1971, lowered the voting age from 21 to 18, thereby preventing states from denying the vote to otherwise qualified persons aged 18 or older. 9. Which of the following is true of the constitutional roles of state and federal governments in regulating elections? A. In the United States, elections for the presidency are purely national. B. It seems to require only that states actually use and abide by elections. C. The U.S. Constitution gives the federal government the leading role in regulating elections. D. The federal government has no control over the regulation of national elections. E. Senate elections are nationwide contests. Answer: B Rationale: While the U.S. Constitution establishes certain principles and regulations for federal elections, such as those for the presidency and Congress, the actual conduct and regulation of elections are primarily the responsibility of the states. This includes ensuring that elections are held and conducted according to established laws and procedures. 10. Which of the following brought about the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the right to vote? A. diplomatic pressure from international human rights agencies B. pressure from all states of the country to include the provision C. ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment that provided the right to vote regardless of race D. several European countries providing the right to vote to women E. women voting at the subnational level in some states Answer: E Rationale: The efforts of women's suffrage movements and activists at the state and national levels, including women voting in subnational elections in some states, played a significant role in pressuring Congress and state legislatures to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment, granting women the right to vote in the United States. 11. ________ refer to elections used to determine who will run in the general elections under the party labels. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendums E. Primary elections Answer: E Rationale: Primary elections are held to select candidates who will represent their political parties in the general elections. They determine party nominees for various offices, including presidential candidates, by allowing registered party members to vote for their preferred candidates. 12. ________ refer to elections in which voters elect officeholders. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendums E. Initiatives Answer: A Rationale: General elections are the regular elections held to elect public officials, including the President, members of Congress, state governors, and other elected representatives. 13. ________ refer to elections in which voters decide on ballot initiatives, vote on statewide constitutional changes or new constitutions, or elect a senator or representative to replace one who has died or resigned. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendums E. Initiatives Answer: B Rationale: Special elections are held for specific purposes, such as filling vacancies in elected offices, deciding on ballot initiatives, or voting on constitutional amendments. 14. ________ refer to procedures for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendums E. Initiatives Answer: C Rationale: Recall elections are a political procedure allowing citizens to remove elected officials from office before the end of their term through a direct vote. 15. ________ refer to procedures whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendums E. Initiatives Answer: E Rationale: Initiatives are procedures that allow citizens to propose new laws or constitutional amendments by gathering a certain number of petition signatures and submitting them to a vote by the electorate. 16. ________ refer to procedures for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendums E. Initiatives Answer: D Rationale: Referendums are procedures in which proposed laws or constitutional amendments passed by the legislature are submitted to the voters for approval or rejection in a direct vote. 17. Janice Strong is the current governor of the state of California. Her performance has been extremely dismal and the state has fallen behind the country on almost every single socioeconomic indicator. Which of the following political procedures can the people of California turn to, in order to remove Janice from office early? A. general elections B. special elections C. recall elections D. referendums E. initiatives Answer: C Rationale: In this scenario, the people of California can initiate a recall election to remove Janice Strong from office before the end of her term if they are dissatisfied with her performance. 18. The state of Connecticut has passed regulations making it legal to prescribe marijuana for medical purposes. However, several religious groups are opposed to the legislation and have petitioned the government to allow a ________ to be held to determine the public‘s wishes with regard to the bill. A. general election B. special election C. recall election D. public referendum E. public initiative Answer: D Rationale: In this situation, the religious groups are seeking a public referendum to gauge public opinion on the legislation legalizing marijuana for medical purposes. 19. “Marriage for All”, a gay-rights group based in the state of Colorado, have petitioned the government to propose a law allowing same-sex marriages to be voted on in the upcoming elections.This is an example of a ________. A. general election B. special election C. recall election D. public referendum E. public initiative Answer: E Rationale: The petition by the gay-rights group for a law allowing same-sex marriages to be voted on in the upcoming elections is an example of a public initiative, as it involves proposing a new law through citizen petition and submission to a vote by the electorate. 20. Which of the following is true of the nature of control over the vast electoral process in the United States in its rules and administration? A. It is decentralized. B. It is centralized. C. It is federally controlled. D. It is completely controlled by the state government. E. It is completely controlled by the local government. Answer: A Rationale: The electoral process in the United States is decentralized, meaning that election rules and administration are primarily managed at the state and local levels rather than by a centralized federal authority. Each state has its own set of election laws, procedures, and administration, although certain federal laws and regulations apply uniformly across the country. 21. Which of the following citizens are prohibited from voting in a majority of states in the United States? A. prison inmates B. ethnic groups C. Native Americans D. handicapped people E. low-income families Answer: A Rationale: Prison inmates are prohibited from voting in a majority of states in the United States. This disenfranchisement of prisoners varies by state, with some states permanently disenfranchising felons while others restore voting rights upon completion of sentence or parole. 22. Which of the following factors is used as a requirement for voter registration in several states in the United States? A. race B. gender C. physical handicap D. mental competency E. sexual orientation Answer: D Rationale: Mental competency is used as a requirement for voter registration in several states in the United States. Some states have laws that require individuals to be mentally competent to register and vote, although the interpretation and enforcement of these laws may vary. 23. Which of the following are the only two states in the United States to allow prison inmates to vote? A. Wisconsin and Minnesota B. Texas and Oklahoma C. Georgia and Florida D. California and New Mexico E. Maine and Vermont Answer: E Rationale: Maine and Vermont are the only two states in the United States that allow prison inmates to vote. These states do not disenfranchise prisoners, and individuals in prison can exercise their right to vote, albeit through certain restrictions and procedures. 24. Which is the only state in the United States that does not require its citizens to register before voting? A. North Carolina B. North Dakota C. South Dakota D. Virginia E. Montana Answer: B Rationale: North Dakota is the only state in the United States that does not require its citizens to register before voting. Instead, North Dakota relies on other forms of identification, such as proof of residency, to verify voters' eligibility at the polling place. 25. Which of the following acts made it easier for Americans to register to vote? A. the Help America Vote Act B. the Voting Rights Act C. the Motor Voter Act D. the Federal Election Campaign Act E. the Universal Right to Vote by Mail Act Answer: C Rationale: The Motor Voter Act, officially known as the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, made it easier for Americans to register to vote by requiring states to offer voter registration opportunities at various government agencies, such as the Department of Motor Vehicles and public assistance offices. 26. ________ is the term used to describe number of people in a state aged 18 or older minus noncitizens, prisoners and others who cannot vote. A. Voter turnout B. Voting-eligible population C. Citizen population D. Census E. Poll workers Answer: B Rationale: The voting-eligible population refers to the number of people in a state aged 18 or older who are eligible to vote, excluding noncitizens, prisoners, and other individuals who are ineligible to vote for various reasons. 27. Which of the following acts increased the focus on voter identification as a means to combat voter fraud? A. the Help America Vote Act B. the Voting Rights Act C. the Motor Voter Act D. the Federal Election Campaign Act E. the Universal Right to Vote by Mail Act Answer: A Rationale: The Help America Vote Act (HAVA) increased the focus on voter identification as a means to combat voter fraud by requiring states to implement certain identification requirements for first-time voters who register by mail and who do not provide identification when registering. 28. In the 1950s and 1960s, southern states disenfranchised ________ citizens by selectively enforcing poll taxes, literacy tests, and vouchers of “good character.” A. Native Americans B. Pacific Islander Americans C. Asian Americans D. African Americans E. Latino Americans Answer: D Rationale: In the 1950s and 1960s, southern states disenfranchised African American citizens by selectively enforcing discriminatory practices such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and vouchers of "good character," which were used to suppress the African American vote. 29. To combat disenfranchisement, which act was pushed for and signed by President Lyndon Johnson? A. the Help America Vote Act B. the Voting Rights Act C. the Motor Voter Act D. the Federal Election Campaign Act E. the Universal Right to Vote by Mail Act Answer: B Rationale: To combat disenfranchisement, President Lyndon Johnson pushed for and signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which aimed to eliminate racial discrimination in voting practices and protect the voting rights of African Americans. 30. Which of the following acts was used by the U.S. Department of Justice to block voter photoidentification rules in Texas and South Carolina? A. the Help America Vote Act B. the Federal Election Campaign Act C. the Motor Voter Act D. the Universal Right to Vote by Mail Act E. the Voting Rights Act Answer: E Rationale: The U.S. Department of Justice used the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to block voter photo identification rules in Texas and South Carolina, arguing that these rules disproportionately affected minority voters and violated the Voting Rights Act's prohibition against discriminatory voting practices. 31. A district in the state of Arizona has included new education requirements for voters that threaten to disenfranchise several citizens. Which act can prohibit such a regulation? A. the Help America Vote Act B. the Federal Election Campaign Act C. the Voting Rights Act D. the Universal Right to Vote by Mail Act E. the Motor Voter Act Answer: C Rationale: The Voting Rights Act prohibits discriminatory voting practices that may disenfranchise certain citizens based on race, ethnicity, or other protected characteristics. If the new education requirements for voters in Arizona disproportionately affect certain groups of citizens and result in disenfranchisement, the Voting Rights Act could be invoked to challenge and prohibit such regulations. 32. What was the biggest change affected by the passage of the Help America Vote Act? A. There was a significant drop in the use of paper ballots. B. Felons were allowed to vote. C. An increased usage of punch card ballots was observed. D. There was a change in the political alignment of the country. E. Prison inmates were allowed to vote. Answer: A Rationale: The biggest change affected by the passage of the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) was a significant drop in the use of paper ballots. HAVA aimed to modernize the voting process and improve election administration, leading to the adoption of electronic voting machines and other technologies, resulting in reduced reliance on paper ballots. 33. The ________ is a type of ballot that encourages party line voting by listing all of a party‘s candidates in a column under the party name. A. office block ballot B. split ticket C. straight ticket D. party column ballot E. absentee ballot Answer: D Rationale: The party column ballot is a type of ballot that encourages party line voting by listing all of a party's candidates in a column under the party name, making it easier for voters to vote for all candidates of a particular party with a single mark. 34. A(n) ________ is a vote for all of one party‘s candidates. A. office block ballot B. split ticket C. straight ticket D. party column ballot E. absentee ballot Answer: C Rationale: A straight ticket is a vote for all of one party's candidates, where the voter selects all candidates from a single party with a single mark on the ballot. 35. A(n) ________ is a ballot on which all candidates are listed under the office for which they are running. A. office block ballot B. split ticket C. straight ticket D. party column ballot E. absentee ballot Answer: A Rationale: An office block ballot is a ballot on which all candidates are listed under the office for which they are running, allowing voters to choose individual candidates regardless of party affiliation. 36. A(n) ________ is a vote for some of one party‘s candidates and some of another party‘s. A. office block ballot B. split ticket C. straight ticket D. party office ballot E. absentee ballot Answer: B Rationale: A split ticket is a vote for some of one party's candidates and some of another party's candidates, indicating that the voter has selected candidates from multiple parties. 37. ________ implement the rules on who may and may not vote, manage the entire process of voting, and have a strong impact on citizens‘ experience at the polls. A. Party representatives B. Candidates C. State government employees D. Federal government employees E. Poll workers Answer: E Rationale: Poll workers implement the rules on who may and may not vote, manage the entire process of voting, and have a strong impact on citizens' experience at the polls by ensuring fair and orderly elections. 38. A(n) ________ is a type of ballot offered in some states that can be requested by citizens who are unable to reach the polls on Election Day. The ballots are sent as well as submitted through the mail. A. office block ballot B. split ticket C. straight ticket D. party column ballot E. absentee ballot Answer: E Rationale: An absentee ballot is a type of ballot offered in some states that can be requested by citizens who are unable to reach the polls on Election Day. These ballots are sent to voters and submitted through the mail, allowing individuals to vote without physically going to a polling place. 39. Which of the following is a criticism of the vote-by-mail system? A. absence of adequate information B. increased difficulty for voters C. pressure to vote in a certain way D. lower turnout E. higher costs Answer: C Rationale: A criticism of the vote-by-mail system is the potential for pressure to vote in a certain way. Critics argue that individuals may face external influence or coercion when casting their votes from home, potentially undermining the integrity of the election process. 40. What is the main concern of critics with regard to online voting? A. voters easily coerced B. increased difficulty for voters C. security risks D. time constraints E. resource constraints Answer: C Rationale: The main concern of critics with regard to online voting is security risks. Critics argue that online voting systems may be vulnerable to hacking, cyberattacks, and other forms of interference, potentially compromising the confidentiality and integrity of the voting process. 41. ________ refers to allowing voters from outside the party to help determine the party‘s nominee. A. Closed primary B. Crossover voting C. Open primary D. A general election E. A special election Answer: B Rationale: Crossover voting allows voters from outside a particular political party to participate in that party's primary election and help determine the party's nominee. This can sometimes influence the outcome of the primary by allowing non-party members to vote for candidates who they believe may be weaker opponents in the general election. 42. Two-thirds of the states elect governors ________. A. in the year following a presidential election year B. in presidential midterm years C. in the same year as presidential election year D. in the year preceding the presidential election year E. during odd years Answer: B Rationale: Two-thirds of the states elect governors in presidential midterm years, which are the evennumbered years between presidential elections. This scheduling aligns with congressional elections and allows voters to participate in both state and federal elections simultaneously. 43. Separating state elections from presidential or federal elections ________. A. decreases election costs B. is necessary when both incumbents are from the same party C. permits voters to focus more closely on state issues D. is not possible as all governors‘ terms end at the same time as the president E. is necessary when incumbents are from different parties Answer: C Rationale: Separating state elections from presidential or federal elections permits voters to focus more closely on state issues, rather than being influenced primarily by national political dynamics. It allows for a clearer examination of state-level candidates and policies without the distraction of concurrent federal elections. 44. ________ may be used to amend the state‘s constitution or to enact ordinary legislation. A. General elections B. Special elections C. Recall elections D. Referendum elections E. Primary elections Answer: D Rationale: Referendum elections may be used to amend a state's constitution or to enact ordinary legislation. In a referendum, voters directly approve or reject a proposed law or constitutional amendment, bypassing the state legislature. 45. State governments can also hold ________ to vote on a ballot initiative, a statewide constitutional change or a new constitution, or to replace a U.S. senator who has died or resigned. A. special elections B. presidential elections C. recall elections D. crossover voting E. a referendum Answer: A Rationale: State governments can hold special elections to vote on various matters, including ballot initiatives, statewide constitutional changes or new constitutions, or to replace a U.S. senator who has died or resigned. Special elections are called for specific purposes outside of the regular election cycle. 46. In 2012, several residents of Wisconsin were unhappy with Governor Scott Walker‘s push for anti-union legislation. Which of the following should they have used to remove him from office? A. an initiative B. a general election C. a recall election D. a special election E. a referendum Answer: C Rationale: Residents of Wisconsin who were unhappy with Governor Scott Walker's policies could have initiated a recall election to attempt to remove him from office. A recall election allows voters to decide whether to remove an elected official from office before the end of their term. 47. States, cities, school boards, and other governmental organizations routinely issue ________ as a way to raise funds for a project now that can be paid off gradually over time. A. initiatives B. drafts C. bills D. referendums E. bonds Answer: E Rationale: States, cities, school boards, and other governmental organizations routinely issue bonds as a way to raise funds for projects. Bonds are debt securities that are sold to investors and can be paid off gradually over time, typically with interest. 48. ________ laws are a fundamental element of campaign finance regulation that ask candidates to file statements specifying who contributed money to their campaigns, and how much the individuals or organizations gave and when. A. Disclosure B. Election regulation C. Contribution limit D. Public financing E. Candidate expenditure Answer: A Rationale: Disclosure laws are a fundamental element of campaign finance regulation that require candidates to disclose information about their campaign finances. Candidates must file statements detailing who contributed money to their campaigns, how much they contributed, and when the contributions were made. 49. ________ refer to the constraints on how much a single contributor may give to a candidate in an election or period of time. A. Disclosure laws B. Election regulation laws C. Contribution limits D. Public financing laws E. Candidate expenditure laws Answer: C Rationale: Contribution limits refer to the constraints on how much a single contributor may give to a candidate in an election or period of time. These limits are imposed to prevent undue influence by wealthy individuals or special interest groups in the electoral process. 50. ________ are laws authorizing grants of government funds to qualifying candidates for elective office, to be used in their campaigns. A. Disclosure laws B. Election regulation laws C. Contribution limits D. Public financing laws E. Candidate expenditure laws Answer: D Rationale: Public financing laws authorize grants of government funds to qualifying candidates for elective office, to be used in their campaigns. These funds help reduce the reliance of candidates on private donations and can promote fairness and equality in the electoral process. 51. What is the purpose of public financing of qualifying candidates? A. to ensure that no private money is used during the campaign process B. to reduce the potential for corruption in relationships between donors and elected officials C. to prevent private candidates from spending private money that has not been disclosed D. to increase spending on campaigns and thereby increase voter interest E. to ensure that all campaign expenditure limits are met by limiting funding Answer: B Rationale: Public financing of qualifying candidates aims to reduce the potential for corruption in relationships between donors and elected officials. By providing public funds to candidates who meet certain criteria, it reduces their dependence on private donors and minimizes the risk of undue influence by wealthy individuals or special interest groups. 52. In the nineteenth century, a party leader who used patronage, government contracts, and access to power to dictate policy was known as the ________. A. party chair B. governor C. secretary D. vice-chair E. boss Answer: E Rationale: In the nineteenth century, a party leader who used patronage, government contracts, and access to power to dictate policy was known as the "boss." These bosses wielded significant influence over political processes and decisions within their respective parties. 53. How is the party chair for a party chosen? A. elected by the party‘s central committee B. elected by the public C. appointed by the governor D. elected by registered members of the public E. appointed by the national party committee Answer: A Rationale: The party chair for a party is typically chosen by being elected by the party's central committee. The central committee consists of representatives from various factions or regions within the party and is responsible for making key decisions about party leadership and strategy. 54. The ________ of the state‘s party is the spokesperson for the party, especially when the party does not control the governorship. He or she raises money for the party and its candidates. A. executive director B. treasurer C. party chair D. secretary E. vice-chair Answer: C Rationale: The party chair of the state's party is the spokesperson for the party, especially when the party does not control the governorship. The chair is responsible for raising money for the party and its candidates, as well as representing the party's interests to the public and the media. 55. The day-to-day operations of a political party are usually carried out by the party‘s ________, a full-time employee who oversees the staff, assists the chair, coordinates the work of the central committee and other party officials, and serves as a liaison with the national organizations. A. treasurer B. executive director C. party chair D. secretary E. vice-chair Answer: B Rationale: The day-to-day operations of a political party are usually carried out by the party's executive director. This full-time employee oversees the staff, assists the chair, coordinates the work of the central committee and other party officials, and serves as a liaison with national organizations. 56. Which of the following activities of a party involves narrowing the field of candidates through a primary election or convention process, providing voters with fewer and more focused choices in the general election? A. voter mobilization B. candidate recruitment C. voter registration D. providing structure for elections E. campaign resources Answer: D Rationale: Providing structure for elections involves narrowing the field of candidates through a primary election or convention process. This process helps provide voters with fewer and more focused choices in the general election, allowing for a clearer decision-making process. 57. Which of the following is the most important predictor of voting behavior? A. voter mobilization B. campaign resources C. issues D. candidate appeal E. party identification Answer: E Rationale: Party identification is the most important predictor of voting behavior. It refers to individuals' psychological attachment to a particular political party and often guides their voting decisions more strongly than individual candidate characteristics, campaign resources, or specific policy issues. 58. What is a party caucus? A. It is a gathering of party members to narrow the field of candidates before an election. B. It is the gathering of delegates from all states that officially elects the President. C. It is the meeting of party leaders and legislators to discuss party policy. D. It is a televised meeting of a party‘s top candidates for elected office to discuss their views on several issues. E. It is a meeting to redraw congressional and other legislative district lines based on the census. Answer: C Rationale: A party caucus is the meeting of party leaders and legislators to discuss party policy, strategy, and legislative priorities. Caucuses play a crucial role in shaping party platforms and coordinating legislative efforts within the party. 59. What is a one-party state? A. It is a state in which the two major parties alternate in winning majorities, and only one party is in power at a time. B. It is a state in which one party wins all or nearly all of the offices, and the second party receives only one-third of the popular vote. C. It is a state in which only one party is allowed to contest the elections for all elected official positions. D. It is a state in which only one party is allowed to contest the elections for the position of governor, but other parties are allowed to take part for other elected offices. E. It is a country where there is one party at a federal level and another party at the state level. Answer: B Rationale: A one-party state is a state in which one party wins all or nearly all of the offices, and the second party receives only one-third of the popular vote. In such states, the dominant party often holds significant control over government institutions and political processes. 60. Which of the following is true of politics in the U.S. post World War II? A. The Republican Party lost its previously solid support in the South. B. The Republican Party gained a stranglehold on elected offices in Maine and New Hampshire. C. Former Confederate states were inclined to predominantly vote for Democratic candidates. D. The number of Republicans decreased in southern state legislatures. E. The Democratic Party lost its previously solid support in the South. Answer: E Rationale: In the U.S. post-World War II, the Democratic Party lost its previously solid support in the South. This period marked a significant shift in political dynamics, with many southern states transitioning from predominantly Democratic to Republican-leaning, especially in the context of issues like civil rights and social conservatism True-False Questions 1. All elections for national offices are held by and within the states. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. While elections for national offices such as President and Congress are conducted within individual states, they are overseen and regulated by state governments according to their own laws and procedures. 2. Amendments to the original U.S. Constitution maintained the primacy of states in regulating elections, although they placed constraints on how states could exercise that authority. Answer: True Rationale: True. Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, such as the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, and TwentySixth Amendments, expanded voting rights and prohibited discrimination in voting based on race, sex, and age, respectively. However, they also preserved the authority of states to regulate their own elections, subject to these constitutional constraints. 3. The ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 came after a half-century of women voting at the subnational level in some states, which eventually forced national action. Answer: True Rationale: True. Before the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, some states had already granted women the right to vote at the subnational level. These actions at the state level demonstrated growing support for women's suffrage and helped pave the way for national action. 4. Primary elections are elections in which voters elect officeholders. Answer: False Rationale: False. Primary elections are elections in which political parties select their candidates for a subsequent general election. They are not elections in which voters directly elect officeholders. 5. Voter turnout is the number of eligible public voters in a particular region. Answer: False Rationale: False. Voter turnout refers to the percentage of eligible voters who actually cast a ballot in an election, not the total number of eligible voters. It is typically expressed as a percentage. 6. Voter registration rules are important because they can exclude or discourage people from participating in elections. Answer: True Rationale: True. Voter registration rules determine who is eligible to vote in an election. If these rules are overly restrictive or burdensome, they can exclude or discourage certain individuals from participating in the electoral process. 7. Restrictive voting registration laws are expected to have no effect on voter turnout. Answer: False Rationale: False. Restrictive voting registration laws, such as stringent ID requirements or limited registration periods, can indeed suppress voter turnout by making it more difficult for eligible individuals to register and vote. 8. In a closed primary, only voters registered in a party may vote in that party‘s primary. Answer: True Rationale: True. In a closed primary system, only voters who are registered members of a particular political party are allowed to participate in that party's primary election. Independent or unaffiliated voters are typically excluded from participating. 9. In an open primary, only voters registered in a party may vote in that party‘s primary. Answer: False Rationale: False. In an open primary system, voters are not required to declare a party affiliation in order to participate in a party's primary election. This means that voters registered with any party, as well as independent or unaffiliated voters, may choose which party's primary to participate in. 10. Separating state elections from presidential or federal elections means that state and local officials are less likely to be hurt by an unpopular presidential candidate at the top of the ticket. Answer: True Rationale: True. Separating state and local elections from presidential or federal elections can help insulate state and local officials from the potential negative impact of an unpopular presidential candidate. This allows voters to focus more on state and local issues when casting their ballots. 11. State law establishes the rules for local elections and it strictly enforces a set date of election upon cities and towns in the state. Answer: False Rationale: False. While state law does establish the framework for local elections, including procedures and eligibility requirements, it often grants local governments some degree of autonomy in setting the date of their elections. Localities may have different election dates based on their specific needs and circumstances. 12. Unlike initiatives and referendums, recalls do not require sufficient petition signatures from registered voters to meet a pre-established threshold. Answer: False Rationale: False. Like initiatives and referendums, recalls typically require a sufficient number of petition signatures from registered voters to meet a pre-established threshold before triggering a recall election. This threshold is established by state law and varies depending on the jurisdiction. 13. Voter participation in bond elections is frequently quite low, and information about the issues at hand is generally scarce. Answer: True Rationale: True. Bond elections, which involve issuing bonds to fund specific projects or initiatives, often attract lower voter participation compared to other types of elections. Additionally, voters may have limited information about the complex financial and policy issues involved in bond measures. 14. Disclosure laws deal with candidates specifying where and how they earned their personal wealth and assets. Answer: False Rationale: False. Disclosure laws require candidates to disclose information about their campaign finances, including sources of funding, expenditures, and financial interests. They do not specifically pertain to candidates' personal wealth and assets. 15. National parties, aside from their congressional campaign committees, are largely federations of autonomous state parties. Answer: True Rationale: True. National parties in the United States, such as the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and the Republican National Committee (RNC), are composed of state parties from across the country. While they provide overarching guidance and support, they largely operate as federations of autonomous state parties, each with its own leadership and priorities. 16. State party organizations nowadays do not vary greatly from one state to another, and are quite similar to the old political machines prevalent during the nineteenth century. Answer: False Rationale: False. State party organizations today exhibit significant variation from state to state in terms of structure, priorities, and strategies. While some aspects of contemporary parties may resemble elements of the old political machines, such as party discipline and organization, modern state parties are not monolithic entities and can differ greatly in their operations and influence. 17. Contemporary political parties are now more likely to have paid professional staffs. Answer: True Rationale: True. In recent decades, political parties in the United States have increasingly relied on paid professional staff to manage various aspects of party operations, including fundraising, communications, voter outreach, and campaign management. This trend reflects the growing complexity and competitiveness of modern political campaigns and the need for specialized expertise. 18. Political parties do not favor laws requiring voters to disclose their party preference at the time they register, as they feel that it might lead to discrimination. Answer: False Rationale: False. Political parties often support laws that require voters to disclose their party preference at the time of registration, as this information can help parties target their outreach efforts and mobilize their supporters more effectively. While concerns about discrimination may exist, many parties view party registration as a valuable tool for enhancing their electoral competitiveness. 19. Party identification is the most important predictor of voting behavior. Answer: True Rationale: True. Party identification, or the psychological attachment individuals feel toward a particular political party, is widely recognized as one of the strongest predictors of voting behavior. Research consistently shows that individuals who identify strongly with a political party are more likely to vote for candidates from that party, regardless of specific candidate characteristics or policy positions. 20. The prevalence of partisanship in American politics makes the appeal of the candidate an insignificant factor during elections. Answer: False Rationale: False. While party identification is a significant factor in shaping voting behavior, the appeal of individual candidates remains an important consideration for many voters. Candidates' personal qualities, policy positions, campaign messages, and perceived competence can all influence voters' decisions at the ballot box, even in highly partisan electoral environments. 21. Judicial elections are completely non-partisan and are shielded from the outside influences. Answer: False Rationale: False. Judicial elections, particularly at the state level, are often influenced by partisan considerations and outside influences, despite efforts to maintain the appearance of nonpartisanship. Political parties, interest groups, and other actors frequently involve themselves in judicial campaigns, endorsing candidates and providing financial support in an attempt to shape the composition and decisions of the judiciary. 22. Political parties play a role in organizing our governmental institutions, particularly the state executive and legislative branches. Answer: True Rationale: True. Political parties play a crucial role in organizing and structuring governmental institutions, particularly at the state level. State party organizations often recruit and support candidates for executive and legislative offices, develop policy agendas, coordinate legislative activity, and mobilize voters to participate in elections. As such, parties exert significant influence over the functioning of state governments. 23. Political parties have no say in the decision making process of state legislators and most legislators vote based on their understanding of and views on the issues. Answer: False Rationale: False. Political parties exert considerable influence over the decision-making process of state legislators through mechanisms such as caucus systems, party discipline, and leadership positions. Party leaders and caucus members often work together to develop legislative priorities, formulate policy positions, and coordinate voting strategies. While individual legislators may have their own views on issues, party affiliation and loyalty frequently shape their voting behavior and policy choices. 24. In a one-party state, only one party is allowed to contest elections. Answer: False Rationale: False. In a one-party state, although one party may dominate the political landscape and hold a near-monopoly on political power, other parties may still technically exist and be allowed to contest elections. However, the dominant party often maintains tight control over political institutions, suppresses opposition, and limits the ability of other parties to compete effectively, resulting in de facto one-party rule. 25. Outside the South, there has been a rise of Democratic strength in the formerly solid Republican states of Iowa, Maine, and New Hampshire. Answer: True Rationale: True. In recent years, there has been a notable shift in partisan alignment in several states outside of the traditional South. States like Iowa, Maine, and New Hampshire, which were previously considered solidly Republican, have seen increased Democratic strength in state and federal elections, reflecting changing demographic, economic, and political dynamics within these states Short Answer Questions 1. Describe how the amendments to the U.S. Constitution maintained the primacy of states in regulating elections. Answer: An ideal response would be: Amendments to the original Constitution maintained the primacy of states in regulating elections, although they placed constraints on how states could exercise that authority. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits states from denying the franchise on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The Nineteenth Amendment guarantees women the right to vote. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment prohibits states from requiring voters to pay a poll tax. And the Twenty-Sixth Amendment prevents states from denying the vote to otherwise qualified persons aged 18 or older. 2. Briefly explain public initiative. Answer: An ideal response would be: It is a procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters. It allows citizens to petition to propose a law to be voted on in an election without requiring any action by the legislature. 3. Describe the Act that simplified voter registration in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: Voter registration became somewhat easier when Congress passed the National Voter Registration, or Motor Voter, Act in 1993. The Act tried to reduce disparities in voter registration throughout income groups by, among other things, requiring states to offer voter registration when people apply for or renew their driver‘s license, or when they visit government agencies offering public assistance benefits. 4. Briefly describe the two types of party primaries conducted in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: There are two kinds of party primaries. In a closed primary, only voters registered in a party may vote in that party‘s primary. Such a primary discourages crossover voting—allowing voters from outside the party to help determine the party‘s nominee—that is why partisans prefer closed primaries. In an open primary, any voter can participate in any party‘s primary. 5. Apart from voting for candidates for office, what are some of the other issues that citizens vote on? Answer: An ideal response would be: Citizens in many states and communities frequently face a range of choices when they go to the polls. For example, approximately half of the states permit citizens to vote on initiatives and popular referendums, those placed on the ballot by petitions signed by the voters. Some states and many cities also have recall elections, and many localities use elections to gain approval for special projects or initiatives. 6. Briefly describe recall elections as well as when it can be used to remove elected officials in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: Recall elections permit citizens to attempt to remove elected public officials from office before the end of their term. Eighteen states permit the recall of at least some state-level officials; eleven of these states allow recalls for any reason while seven states require some sort of charges— incompetence, ethical violations, or such—to be made against the incumbent in order for a recall to occur. 7. Briefly describe voting on bond issues. Answer: An ideal response would be: States, cities, school boards, and other governmental organizations routinely issue bonds as a way to raise funds for a project now that can be paid off gradually over time. When the government sells the bond to investors, it agrees to pay the purchaser back for the price of the bond plus some amount of interest. The money collected from selling the bonds is then used for some purpose, such as building a new school, expanding a highway, or something similar. In many cities throughout the country, city officials need the approval of voters before they can issue such bonds. 8. Briefly describe the two different types of public financing programs. Answer: An ideal response would be: The two basic types of public financing programs for candidates are matching grants and flat grants. Matching grant programs provide funds to candidates in proportion to every qualifying private contribution the candidates raise and report. Flat grant programs provide funds to qualifying candidates in lieu of their raising additional private donations. 9. Briefly explain the requirements for political parties to get on the ballot. Answer: An ideal response would be: Most states prescribe the organization of the state parties, the means by which their officers are elected, the nomination process for president and other offices, and the requirements that party candidates must meet to get on the ballot. Election rules in general favor the two major parties over minor parties. Although Republican and Democratic candidates can count on being placed on the ballot, state laws typically require minor parties to garner a minimum number of votes in the previous election or submit a prescribed number of signatures of registered voters in order to appear on the ballot. States vary in the difficulty of ballot access for minor parties, depending on three factors: the number of signatures required, the time allowed collecting them, and whether signatures must be distributed across several counties. 10. What is meant by one-party state and two-party state? Answer: An ideal response would be: State politics can be classified according to how the parties share public offices. In a twoparty state, the Republican and Democratic parties can each regularly assemble winning majorities. Two-party states include Indiana, Michigan, and Missouri. In a one-party state, one party wins all or nearly all the offices, and the second party usually receives only onethird or less of the popular vote. Essay Questions 1. Describe how the amendments to the U.S. Constitution do not necessarily represent triumphs of national over state powers to control elections. Answer: An ideal response would be: Amendments to the U.S. Constitution do not necessarily represent triumphs of national over state powers to control elections because national action was often a culmination of state influence and innovation. For instance, the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 came after a halfcentury of women voting at the subnational level in some states, which eventually forced national action. In 1869–1870, the Wyoming territory gave women the rights to vote and hold office, rights that continued after Wyoming became a state 20 years later. Soon afterward, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho also gave women equal political rights. Between 1910 and 1914, seven more states in the West and Midwest gave women full voting rights, followed by large states such as New York in 1917 and Michigan in 1918. By the end of 1918, women had full voting rights in 15 states and partial rights (that is, they were eligible to vote in presidential elections only) in a dozen others. Thus, when Congress considered the proposed Nineteenth Amendment, many members were reluctant to vote against it as they would then have to justify why females in their own districts were unqualified to participate in the nation‘s politics. 2. Describe the various elections that are held in the United States. Answer: An ideal response would be: Each year, there are thousands of state and local elections. Selection of town and local officials in the late winter may be followed in the spring by primary elections, which are used to determine who will run in the general elections under the party labels. Actual officeholders are chosen in general elections in the fall. These elections may be interspersed with special elections, which are generally held to fill vacant offices, address one-time issues, to elect local school boards, or to adopt fiscal measures such as school budgets. Some states allow for recall elections, which are used to throw unpopular officials out of office. In addition, approximately half the states allow public initiatives and referendums to be put on the ballot by petition. A public referendum occurs when enough citizens petition to hold an election to vote on a bill that has already been approved by the legislature. A public initiative allows citizens to petition to propose a law to be voted on in an election without requiring any action by the legislature. 3. What is the caucus system of party nomination, how does it differ from primary elections? Answer: An ideal response would be: State law establishes the process by which party nominees are selected. Most states use primary elections, but some permit the parties to nominate their candidates through a caucus or convention. In the caucus system, party delegates elected in local voting district meetings decide on the party nominee. In some states, a convention narrows the field to two candidates if no candidate gets a set percentage of delegate votes at the party convention. The dynamics of winning a nomination in states with a caucus system are different from those in states with a primary. In a caucus system, having a grassroots organization or an intense appeal that can mobilize politically active, better educated voters to attend a neighbourhood meeting is essential for candidates. 4. Briefly describe voter registration. Answer: An ideal response would be: Helping register sympathetic voters is important to candidates, parties, and interest groups. These efforts are typically aimed at citizens they anticipate will vote for their preferred candidate. Interest groups with active voter registration efforts include organized labor, business groups, and groups concerned about the environment and abortion. Political parties favor laws requiring voters to disclose their party preference at the time they register. This requirement permits parties in states with closed primaries to limit participation to registered party members. Party registration also creates voter registration lists, which parties find extremely useful for campaigning and fund raising. List vending—selling voter lists with addresses, phone numbers, and party preferences—is a multimillion-dollar industry. Finally, voter registration helps the parties in the redistricting process because state legislators, using party registration, voting, and other data, can draw new congressional and state legislative district boundaries in ways that give their party an advantage. 5. Describe the consequences of party imbalance in a one-party state. Answer: An ideal response would be: A one-party state is one in which one party wins all or nearly all the offices, and the second party usually receives only one-third or less of the popular vote. In such a state, party imbalance may have a serious effect on the accountability that is part of electoral competition. Voters do not participate as much as they do in two-party contests, and voters who do cannot rely on party labels to help them differentiate between candidates. Competition that otherwise would occur between the major parties occurs among factions within the majority party. The most important contests in some states such as Rhode Island are generally not between Democrats and Republicans but among Democrats in the primary; the same is true for Republicans in Utah. In these intraparty fights, personalities dominate the campaign. Test Bank for State and Local Government by the People David B. Magleby Paul C. Light, Christine L. Nemacheck 9780205966530, 9780205828401

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