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Chapter 9 Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity 9.1 General Control Procedures 1) Which of the following is NOT one of the general control procedures mentioned in the text? A) replication B) preparation of setting C) careful selection of measurement instruments D) sampling controls Answer: D Rationale: Sampling controls are not listed among the general control procedures mentioned in the text. The other options (replication, preparation of setting, and careful selection of measurement instruments) are all examples of general control procedures commonly used in research to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings. 2) Any procedure used by the researcher to counteract potential threats to validity is a A) counter confound. B) confounding variable. C) control. D) counteracter. Answer: C Rationale: In research, any procedure implemented to counteract potential threats to validity is referred to as a control. This includes measures taken to minimize confounding variables or other factors that could affect the validity of the study. 3) Control procedures are used to enable researchers to A) be in perfect control of their research. B) accurately control the amount of the independent variable. C) accurately control the amount of the dependent variable. D) confidently draw conclusions from research. Answer: D Rationale: Control procedures are implemented in research to help researchers confidently draw conclusions by minimizing threats to validity. While they do help in controlling variables, their primary purpose is to ensure the validity of the research findings. 4) What kind of validity is threatened when we cannot generalize results of a study? A) external validity B) internal validity C) construct validity D) statistical validity Answer: A Rationale: When the results of a study cannot be generalized to other populations or settings, it threatens the external validity of the research. External validity refers to the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other contexts beyond the specific conditions of the study. 5) In experimentation, researchers A) use all possible controls in every study. B) use only control procedures that apply to that study. C) only use controls at the experimental levels. D) only use the control procedures that are easiest to implement. Answer: B Rationale: Researchers typically apply only those control procedures that are relevant and necessary for the specific study at hand. Using all possible controls in every study may not be feasible or relevant, depending on the research context and objectives. 6) Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of commonly used controls mentioned in the text? A) control over subject and experimenter effects B) control achieved through selection and assignment of participants C) control over population selection and specific observational procedures D) control achieved through specific experimental design Answer: C Rationale: Control over population selection and specific observational procedures is not explicitly mentioned as one of the four types of commonly used controls. The other options are commonly employed control strategies in research to minimize bias and ensure the validity of the findings. 7) What is the major purpose of controls in research? A) to produce research hypotheses when combined with problem statements B) to generate initial ideas C) to counteract threats to validity D) to increase participants' willingness to be involved Answer: C Rationale: The major purpose of controls in research is to counteract threats to validity, ensuring that the findings accurately reflect the effects of the variables under investigation while minimizing the influence of extraneous factors. 8) In order to counteract threats to validity, it is necessary to employ A) control procedures. B) more sophisticated statistical tests. C) large sample sizes. D) alternative explanations. Answer: A Rationale: Employing control procedures is necessary to counteract threats to validity in research. Control procedures help minimize the influence of extraneous variables and increase the confidence in the validity of the study findings. 9) Any procedure used by the researcher to counteract potential threats to the validity of the research is called A) a counter-validational measure. B) a control. C) a constraint. D) a confound. Answer: B Rationale: Procedures used by researchers to counteract potential threats to the validity of the research are referred to as controls. Controls are implemented to minimize the impact of confounding variables and other factors that could affect the validity of the study findings. 10) Whenever we increase control, we A) prevent generalization. B) increase the sample size. C) rule out alternative explanations of the obtained results. D) include alternative explanations of the obtained results. Answer: C Rationale: Increasing control in research helps to rule out alternative explanations of the obtained results. By minimizing the influence of extraneous variables through control procedures, researchers can increase the confidence that the observed effects are indeed due to the manipulated variables rather than other factors. 11) The research setting A) is always a laboratory. B) is always a laboratory in externally valid designs. C) is whatever place in which the research occurs. D) should be designed with internal validity as the priority; external validity is much less important. Answer: C Rationale: The research setting refers to the physical location where the research takes place, which can vary depending on the nature of the study. It is not restricted to always being a laboratory. Options A, B, and D present restrictive or incorrect views regarding the research setting, emphasizing either laboratories or specific priorities which may not apply universally. 12) The reduction of extraneous variables is typically an advantage of A) natural environments. B) laboratory settings. C) lower-constraint laboratory settings only. D) non-laboratory settings. Answer: B Rationale: Laboratory settings allow for greater control over extraneous variables compared to natural or non-laboratory settings. This control is beneficial for ensuring internal validity by reducing confounding factors that could influence the results. Option B correctly identifies laboratory settings as advantageous in this aspect. 13) Which of the following is NOT classified by your textbook as a major group of methods for achieving control in experimentation? A) internal-external locus of control B) general control procedures C) control achieved through participant selection and assignment D) control of subject and experimenter effects Answer: A Rationale: The internal-external locus of control is not typically classified as a major group of methods for achieving control in experimentation. The other options represent recognized methods for achieving control, such as general control procedures, participant selection and assignment, and control of subject and experimenter effects. 14) Control by preparation of laboratory setting primarily helps reduce threats to A) external validity. B) internal validity. C) construct validity. D) setting validity. Answer: B Rationale: Preparation of the laboratory setting primarily aims to enhance internal validity by reducing the influence of extraneous variables. This control helps ensure that observed effects are due to the independent variable and not confounding factors present in the environment. Options A, C, and D are incorrect as they do not accurately describe the primary purpose of preparing the laboratory setting. 15) In a laboratory setting, external validity is A) always high. B) increased when settings are more controlled. C) increased when laboratories are made more constrained. D) increased if the researcher makes an attempt to create a natural environment. Answer: D Rationale: External validity in a laboratory setting is enhanced when efforts are made to create a natural environment. This helps bridge the gap between the laboratory and real-world settings, increasing the generalizability of the findings. Options A, B, and C overlook the importance of creating a naturalistic environment for enhancing external validity. 16) The careful preparation of settings is A) used only in between-participants designs. B) a general control procedure. C) a control for experimenter effects. D) a control for construct validity. Answer: B Rationale: The careful preparation of settings is a general control procedure employed across various experimental designs to reduce the influence of extraneous variables. It aims to enhance internal validity by creating consistent conditions across experimental conditions. Options A, C, and D misrepresent the role of setting preparation or apply it narrowly to specific aspects of experimentation. 17) Control by preparation of the research setting primarily helps to reduce threats to A) external validity. B) internal validity. C) construct validity. D) statistical validity. Answer: B Rationale: Control by preparation of the research setting primarily aids in reducing threats to internal validity. By minimizing the influence of extraneous variables, setting preparation ensures that observed effects are attributable to the manipulated independent variable rather than confounding variables. Options A, C, and D incorrectly identify other types of validity or aspects of experimental control. 18) General control procedures A) are usually sufficient to protect internal validity. B) include a carefully selected and randomly assigned control group. C) include preparation of the setting and replication. D) include replication and a carefully constructed control group. Answer: C Rationale: General control procedures encompass various techniques aimed at enhancing the reliability and validity of experimental findings. Preparation of the setting and replication are two such procedures that contribute to minimizing extraneous influences and verifying the robustness of results. Options A, B, and D either inaccurately represent general control procedures or overlook other essential components. 19) By making an effort to create a natural environment in the laboratory, researchers can avoid compromising A) their ethics. B) internal validity. C) statistical validity. D) external validity. Answer: D Rationale: Creating a natural environment in the laboratory helps researchers avoid compromising external validity. By simulating real-world conditions, researchers can enhance the generalizability of their findings to broader contexts. Options A, B, and C misrepresent the potential impacts of creating a naturalistic laboratory environment. 20) In the Graziano and Mooney (1982) study of children's fears, the laboratory setting was both (1) designed to reduce the effect of extraneous variables, and (2) made to look like a living room. What was the purpose of preparing the lab in this way? A) to decrease both internal and external validity B) to increase both internal and external validity C) to decrease external and increase internal validity D) to reduce experimental variance Answer: B Rationale: The preparation of the laboratory setting in the Graziano and Mooney study aimed to increase both internal and external validity. By reducing extraneous variables and simulating a familiar environment (a living room), the researchers sought to enhance the validity of their findings while maintaining ecological relevance. Option B accurately reflects the purpose of preparing the lab in this manner. Options A, C, and D either misinterpret the purpose or overlook key aspects of experimental design. 21) Creating a laboratory setting that is highly controlled can result in poor: A) internal validity. B) face validity. C) external validity. D) statistical validity. Answer: C Rationale: External validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other settings or populations. Highly controlled laboratory settings may limit the real-world applicability of findings, thus reducing external validity. 22) Extremely high control in laboratory settings: A) is always accomplished. B) is not useful. C) may lead to diminished external validity. D) is crucial in case studies. Answer: C Rationale: Extremely high control in laboratory settings can lead to diminished external validity because the artificial conditions may not accurately reflect real-world situations, thereby limiting the generalizability of findings. 23) An example of a threat to ________ validity is the use of an unreliable dependent measure. A) general B) internal C) external D) statistical Answer: D Rationale: Statistical validity refers to the degree to which conclusions about the relationship among variables are supported by the data. Using an unreliable dependent measure can introduce error and affect the statistical validity of the results. 24) By using measures of known reliability and validity, researchers can improve both: A) statistical and construct validity. B) statistical and internal validity. C) internal and external validity. D) external and construct validity. Answer: A Rationale: Reliability and validity are essential aspects of measurement quality. By using measures with established reliability and validity, researchers can enhance both the statistical (reliable measurements lead to accurate statistical analyses) and construct (valid measurements accurately assess the intended constructs) validity of their study. 25) A researcher develops her own measure of a variable rather than use measures already available. This researcher's new measure does not appear to be highly reliable or valid. This could affect: A) statistical and construct validity. B) statistical and internal validity. C) internal and external validity. D) external and construct validity. Answer: A Rationale: If a researcher's new measure lacks reliability or validity, it can affect both statistical validity (due to unreliable measurements) and construct validity (due to invalid measurements). 26) In research on mood disorders, for example, if a researcher chooses well-validated and highly reliable measures of depression, the researcher improves both: A) statistical and construct validity. B) external and internal validity. C) generalizability and utility. D) construct and external validity. Answer: A Rationale: Well-validated and highly reliable measures contribute to both statistical validity (due to reliable measurements) and construct validity (due to valid measurements), enhancing the overall quality of the research. 27) Although many authors do NOT consider ________ to be a control procedure, Graziano and Raulin categorize it as such. A) publication of results B) replication C) going to conferences D) ethical awareness Answer: B Rationale: Replication involves repeating a study to see if the results can be reliably reproduced. While some authors may not consider replication as a control procedure, Graziano and Raulin do, as it helps ensure the reliability and validity of research findings. 28) Unlike some other authors, your textbook authors consider ________ to be a control procedure. A) regression B) publication C) replication D) education Answer: C Rationale: Replication is considered a control procedure because it allows researchers to verify the reliability and validity of findings by repeating the study under similar conditions. 29) Replicating earlier findings by testing some theoretical or procedural modification of the original is: A) construct replication. B) systematic replication. C) exact replication. D) conceptual replication. Answer: B Rationale: Systematic replication involves replicating earlier findings while introducing some theoretical or procedural modifications, allowing researchers to explore the robustness and generalizability of the original findings. 30) Dr. Firstly conducts a study on the effect of stress on adolescents. Dr. Secondly decides to replicate this study using the same operational definitions and procedures but testing adults. This will be an example of: A) exact replication. B) construct replication. C) systematic replication. D) conceptual replication. Answer: C Rationale: Dr. Secondly's replication involves testing the same phenomenon (the effect of stress) but with a different population (adults instead of adolescents), maintaining the same operational definitions and procedures. This fits the definition of systematic replication, as it examines the generalizability of the original findings to a different population. 31) Replication A) increases confidence in the validity of findings. B) guarantees construct validity. C) always shows the same results as the first study if the replication is carried out properly. D) both A and B Answer: A Rationale: Replication helps increase confidence in the validity of findings by verifying whether the results of a study can be consistently obtained under similar conditions. While it doesn't guarantee construct validity, it contributes to the overall assessment of validity by demonstrating the reliability of findings through repeated testing. 32) Designing an experiment to include some slight, but theoretically meaningful, differences from a previous study is an example of A) plagiarism. B) systematic replication. C) exact replication. D) replication of participants. Answer: B Rationale: Systematic replication involves introducing slight variations in experimental design while maintaining the core aspects, allowing researchers to generalize findings across different conditions or populations. Plagiarism refers to the unethical act of copying someone else's work without acknowledgment. Exact replication involves duplicating all procedures exactly as they were in the original study. Replication of participants implies using the same participants from the original study. 33) What is the chief purpose of replication in scientific research? A) Replication enhances confidence in the validity of findings. B) Replication guarantees the validity of findings. C) Replication guarantees the reliability of findings. D) Replication rules out Type I errors. Answer: A Rationale: The primary purpose of replication in scientific research is to enhance confidence in the validity of findings by demonstrating the consistency and reliability of results across different studies and conditions. While replication contributes to reliability, it does not guarantee it, and it also does not directly address Type I errors. 34) Running an experiment using precisely the same procedures used in running the experiment previously is known as A) exact replication. B) conceptual replication. C) systematic replication. D) identical replication. Answer: A Rationale: Exact replication involves precisely replicating all procedures and conditions from a previous study to verify the reliability and reproducibility of its results. Conceptual replication involves testing the same hypothesis using different methods or operational definitions. Systematic replication introduces slight variations in experimental design while maintaining the core aspects. 35) Which of the following is NOT a type of replication mentioned in the text? A) exact B) systematic C) conceptual D) construct Answer: D Rationale: The types of replication mentioned in the text include exact replication, systematic replication, and conceptual replication. Construct replication, while related to replication in research methodology, is not explicitly mentioned as a distinct type in this context. 36) Replicating a study by investigating the same problem statement using different operational definitions of the constructs is called A) construct replication. B) systematic replication. C) exact replication. D) conceptual replication. Answer: D Rationale: Conceptual replication involves exploring the same research question but with different operationalizations of the variables or constructs involved. This allows researchers to assess the robustness of findings across different conceptualizations or measurements. Construct replication is not a commonly used term in the context of replication types; it refers more broadly to the process of validating the conceptual framework underlying a study's hypotheses. 9.2 Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects 1) In which of the following procedures are ethical issues raised concerning denial of treatment to some participants? A) use of relaxation training B) use of placebos C) denial of informed consent D) lack of debriefing Answer: B Rationale: Ethical issues arise with the use of placebos because some participants are denied the active treatment under investigation, potentially affecting their well-being or rights as research subjects. Denial of informed consent and lack of debriefing are also ethical concerns but not specifically related to treatment denial. The use of relaxation training does not inherently involve denial of treatment. 2) Which of the following is NOT a control for subject and experimenter effects? A) automation B) use of subjective measures C) multiple observers D) use of objective measures Answer: B Rationale: Subjective measures are not a control for subject and experimenter effects; they may introduce bias due to individual interpretation or judgment. Automation, multiple observers, and the use of objective measures are all methods to control for such effects by reducing human influence and increasing the reliability and objectivity of data collection. 3) It is found that an experimenter somehow influenced the participants. This A) is a problem, but can be corrected through statistical procedures. B) occurs all the time in research. C) is sufficient to cast doubt on causal conclusions. D) is a problem, but not bad enough to question causal conclusions. Answer: C Rationale: Experimenter effects, where the behavior or expectations of the experimenter influence participant responses, can undermine the internal validity of an experiment by introducing confounding variables. Such influence casts doubt on the causal conclusions drawn from the study because it suggests alternative explanations for the observed effects. 4) Experimenter effects do NOT result from the experimenter's knowledge of A) the hypothesis being tested. B) the assignment of individual participants to conditions of the experiment. C) the nature of the experiment and control conditions. D) the specific details of the independent variable. Answer: D Rationale: Experimenter effects can arise from various sources, but they typically do not result solely from the experimenter's knowledge of the specific details of the independent variable. Instead, they often stem from subtle cues, biases, or unintentional behaviors exhibited by the experimenter, which can influence participant responses regardless of the specific content of the study. 5) To control for experimenter effects, the A) participant is kept blind to the nature of the independent variable. B) participant is kept blind to the hypothesis of the study. C) researcher's direct contact and knowledge about the participants is reduced. D) researcher's direct contact with participants is increased. Answer: C Rationale: By reducing the researcher's direct contact and knowledge about the participants, the likelihood of unintentional biases or influences on the participants is minimized. This helps maintain the integrity of the study by preventing experimenter effects from confounding the results. 6) In a single-blind, control-group procedure, the A) experimental group is blind to their assignment. B) person testing the participants is blind to the hypothesis and assignment of participants to conditions. C) receptionist is blind to the hypothesis and assignment of participants. D) participants are blind to their assignment. Answer: B Rationale: In a single-blind procedure, the participants are aware of their assignment, but the person conducting the experiment is unaware of which participants belong to which group. This helps prevent bias in administering the experiment and interpreting the results. 7) In a double-blind control procedure, A) the participants and researcher are blind to assignment of participants. B) the laboratory is not illuminated. C) the researcher and the research assistant(s) are blind to assignment to the experimental group. D) no one knows which participants are assigned to the experimental group. Answer: A Rationale: In a double-blind procedure, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which participants are assigned to the experimental or control groups. This helps to eliminate biases that could arise from knowledge of group assignments. 8) A research design in which the researcher is blind to the assignment of each participant and in which the participants are blind to their assignments is called A) a triple-blind control procedure. B) a double-blind control procedure. C) a single-blind control procedure. D) a placebo-blind control. Answer: B Rationale: Double-blind control procedures ensure that both the researcher and the participants are unaware of the group assignments, thus minimizing potential biases from influencing the results. 9) Double-blind control procedures are frequently used in A) stimulus-response studies. B) drug studies. C) systematic desensitization studies. D) psychogenetic studies. Answer: B Rationale: Double-blind control procedures are especially important in drug studies to ensure that neither the researchers nor the participants are biased by knowing who is receiving the treatment and who is receiving the placebo. 10) An ideal ________ manipulation is one in which the experimental and control group's treatments are so similar that both participants and the research assistant don't know who is receiving the manipulation. A) alternative B) placebo C) systematic D) desensitization Answer: B Rationale: The use of placebos helps maintain the integrity of the study by ensuring that neither the participants nor the research assistant are aware of who is receiving the actual treatment, thus minimizing potential biases. 11) Ethically, A) placebo treatment can never be used in medical and psychological research. B) placebo treatment is recommended in medical and psychological research. C) participants should not be told that they may receive a placebo. D) participants should be told they may receive placebo treatment. Answer: D Rationale: Ethically, participants should be informed about the possibility of receiving a placebo in research studies to ensure informed consent. This transparency maintains ethical standards while still allowing for the use of placebos in research. 12) The single-blind procedure involves A) having the experimenter aware of all of the hypotheses. B) having all participants blind to only one condition. C) having only one participant blind to the conditions. D) having the experimenter's assistant, who actually tests each participant, unaware of the hypotheses being tested or the condition under which each participant is tested. Answer: D Rationale: In a single-blind procedure, participants are typically aware of their condition, but those administering the experiment (such as the experimenter's assistant) are unaware of the specific conditions each participant is assigned to. This helps reduce potential biases in administering the experiment. 13) The double-blind control procedure involves A) having both the experimenter and participants blind to the assignment of each participant. B) having all participants blind to both the hypotheses and the assignment. C) having the experimenter's assistant and the experimenter both blind to the hypotheses. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: In a double-blind control procedure, both the researcher and the participants are unaware of the assignment of participants to different groups. This ensures that neither group is biased by knowledge of group assignments. 14) Placebos are often used in drug studies in order to A) reduce the number of participants needed. B) decrease the costs of expensive medication. C) enhance double-blind procedures. D) increase the potency of the drug. Answer: C Rationale: Placebos are used in drug studies to enhance double-blind procedures by providing a comparison against which the effects of the actual drug can be measured. This ensures that any observed effects are not due to placebo effects or biases. 15) Experimenter effects A) arise from the experimenter's detailed knowledge of the experiment. B) are actually of little concern in research. C) cannot be controlled. D) are best controlled by random assignment of participants. Answer: A Rationale: Experimenter effects refer to unintended biases or influences that the experimenter may introduce into the experiment due to their knowledge, expectations, or behavior. By having detailed knowledge of the experiment, the experimenter may inadvertently influence participant behavior or the outcome of the study. 16) A researcher who trains an assistant to administer an experiment without knowledge of either the hypothesis or the assignment of participants to conditions is employing A) a single-blind control procedure. B) a double-blind control procedure. C) faulty research policy. D) a triple-blind control procedure. Answer: A Rationale: In a single-blind control procedure, the researcher or the participants are unaware of the treatment assignments. In this scenario, the assistant administering the experiment is unaware of the hypothesis or the assignment of participants to conditions, reducing the risk of bias introduced by the experimenter's knowledge. 17) The double-blind control procedure is often used in what type of studies? A) behavioral studies of weight management B) studies on autistic children C) drug studies D) studies concerned with effects of loss of eyesight Answer: C Rationale: Double-blind control procedures are commonly utilized in drug studies. This approach ensures that neither the participants nor the researchers involved in the study know who is receiving the actual treatment and who is receiving a placebo, reducing potential biases in the results. 18) The double-blind control procedure is difficult to conduct in research that is purely psychological in nature primarily because A) it is difficult to create experimentally adequate and believable placebo manipulations. B) it is difficult to train assistants to be blind to participant assignment. C) it is difficult to obtain participants for these designs. D) these procedures typically take longer to conduct than other procedures. Answer: A Rationale: In psychological research, creating placebo manipulations that are both believable and ethically sound can be challenging. Unlike in drug studies where inert substances can be used as placebos, creating placebos for psychological interventions that are indistinguishable from the actual treatment poses difficulties. 19) For ethical reasons, researchers should compare a new treatment with A) a placebo treatment. B) the currently available treatment. C) no treatment. D) another experimental treatment. Answer: B Rationale: Comparing a new treatment with the currently available treatment ensures that participants are not deprived of existing effective treatments. This approach also helps to establish the efficacy of the new treatment in comparison to existing standards of care. 20) In a research study, it is most important for the research assistant to be blind to the participant's assignment to experimental conditions during A) the collection of the data. B) the scoring of the data. C) the interpretation of the data. D) Both A and B Answer: D Rationale: Ensuring that the research assistant remains blind to the participant's assignment to experimental conditions during both the data collection and scoring phases helps to minimize the risk of bias influencing the results at multiple stages of the research process. 21) To avoid experimenter bias, a general rule of thumb is to A) test participants and score data as blindly as possible. B) test participants and interpret data as blindly as possible. C) score and interpret data as blindly as possible. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: Testing participants and scoring data as blindly as possible helps to prevent experimenter bias by reducing the likelihood that the experimenter's expectations or knowledge will influence the outcomes of the study. 22) Which of the following reduces experimenter/participant contact? A) double-blind control procedure B) automation C) use of deception D) use of placebos Answer: B Rationale: Automation reduces the need for direct contact between the experimenter and the participant, thereby minimizing the potential for experimenter bias or influence on participant behavior. 23) In addition to blind control procedures, an effective method that reduces experimenterparticipant contact and potential biases is A) attentional controls. B) placebo controls. C) automation. D) replication. Answer: C Rationale: Automation reduces the need for direct interaction between the experimenter and the participant, thereby minimizing the potential for biases introduced through experimenterparticipant contact. This helps to enhance the internal validity of the study. 24) The use of objective measures of dependent variables is critical in A) establishing statistical validity. B) establishing construct validity. C) ruling out placebo effects. D) exerting control over subject and experimenter effects. Answer: D Rationale: Objective measures of dependent variables help to minimize the influence of subjective biases introduced by both the participants and the experimenters. By relying on objective measures, researchers can exert greater control over both subject and experimenter effects, thereby enhancing the reliability and validity of the study results. 25) Objective measures are based on A) empirical observations of nonspecific scientific events. B) empirical observations about objects. C) empirically observable and clearly specified events about which two or more people agree. D) subjectively observable and clearly specified events. Answer: C Rationale: Objective measures involve events that can be observed and agreed upon by multiple individuals, thus providing a clear and measurable basis for assessment. This helps minimize bias and ensures reliability in measurement. 26) Subjective measures are based on A) observations about which two or more people agree. B) observations about clearly specified events. C) clearly specific and/or unobservable events. D) general impressions of the observers. Answer: D Rationale: Subjective measures rely on personal interpretations and impressions rather than clearly defined and observable events. They are prone to individual biases and differences in perception. 27) A researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true? A) Both are subjective measures. B) Both are objective measures. C) #1 is objective; #2 is subjective. D) #1 is subjective; #2 is objective. Answer: C Rationale: Measure #1 involves a direct physiological response, which can be objectively quantified, making it an objective measure. Measure #2 relies on the subjective judgment of observers, making it a subjective measure. 28) Which of the following is correct? A) Objective measures are less prone to experimenter biases than subjective measures. B) Subjective measures are less prone to experimenter biases than objective measures. C) Objective and subjective measures are equally prone to experimenter biases. D) Neither objective nor subjective measures are prone to experimenter biases. Answer: A Rationale: Objective measures are based on observable events, reducing the influence of experimenter biases compared to subjective measures, which rely on personal interpretation. 29) Multiple observers should be used in psychology when A) observations are not completely subjective. B) there are questions about objectivity in making observations. C) it is thought that one observer is sufficient. D) the measure is unreliable. Answer: B Rationale: Multiple observers help mitigate biases and errors in observation, particularly when there are concerns about objectivity and variability in individual interpretations. 30) Which of the following is an appropriate control for situations in which there may be questions of objectivity in making observations? A) Increase the number of participants. B) Decrease the number of conditions to be manipulated. C) Use laboratory animals instead of human participants. D) Use several observers to record participants' responses. Answer: D Rationale: Using multiple observers helps ensure that observations are consistent and objective, reducing the impact of individual biases and errors. 31) Data obtained by multiple observers is useful in controlling A) experimenter effects. B) subject effects. C) placebo effects. D) social desirability. Answer: A Rationale: Multiple observers help control for experimenter effects, such as biases in observation or interpretation, by providing multiple perspectives and reducing the influence of any single observer's subjective judgments. 32) The most common control for subject effects is A) the use of objective measures. B) the use of single-blind procedures. C) the use of automation. D) the use of deception. Answer: B Rationale: Single-blind procedures help control for subject effects by ensuring that participants are unaware of the conditions they are assigned to, reducing the potential for bias in their responses. 33) The balanced placebo design used by Marlatt to study the effects of alcohol on behavior represents A) a tasty placebo. B) an elaborate use of deception. C) a complicated statistical design. D) the first time a placebo was used in alcohol research. Answer: B Rationale: The balanced placebo design involves manipulating participants' beliefs about whether they have consumed alcohol, without actually changing their alcohol intake. This requires deception to maintain the integrity of the study. 34) Deception is used in studies in which A) assistants may bias the results. B) experimenter effects are likely. C) lack of objectivity is likely. D) subject effects are likely. Answer: D Rationale: Deception is often employed in studies to control for subject effects, ensuring that participants' responses are not influenced by their knowledge of the true purpose or conditions of the study. 35) When deception is used in studies, participants are typically A) not told anything about the study. B) not told all the information about the study or given misleading information. C) told all the information about the study except the hypothesis. D) told all the information including the hypothesis. Answer: B Rationale: Deception in studies involves withholding or distorting information provided to participants. Option B accurately reflects this practice, as participants are not provided with complete or accurate information about the study, which helps in observing natural behavior without participants altering their responses due to awareness of the true purpose of the study. 36) What is the most common control for possible subject effects? A) decrease the number of participants B) debriefing C) deception D) increase the number of observers Answer: C Rationale: Deception serves as a common control for possible subject effects, as it involves manipulating the information given to participants to prevent them from altering their behavior or responses due to awareness of the true nature of the study. Debriefing (Option B) occurs after the study and is used to inform participants about the true purpose of the study, but it is not a control for subject effects during the study itself. 37) In the Marlatt study of the effects of alcohol and expectations on behavior, a ________ design was used. A) placebo deception B) balanced placebo C) deception placebo D) blind placebo Answer: B Rationale: The Marlatt study utilized a balanced placebo design (Option B), where participants were given both alcohol and a placebo, and were either told they received alcohol or not. This design allows for the examination of the effects of both alcohol consumption and participants' expectations on behavior. 38) Marlatt's balanced placebo design employs a type of A) deception. B) regression to the mean. C) statistical procedure. D) research hypothesis. Answer: A Rationale: Marlatt's balanced placebo design involves the use of deception (Option A) by providing participants with misleading information about whether they received alcohol or a placebo. This deception is crucial for examining the effects of both alcohol consumption and participants' expectations on behavior. 39) The Marlatt alcohol study, which used a balanced placebo design, is an example of a study that used A) multiple observers. B) the triple-blind control process. C) deception. D) automation. Answer: C Rationale: The Marlatt alcohol study employed deception (Option C) by misleading participants about whether they received alcohol or a placebo. This deception was essential for studying the effects of both alcohol consumption and participants' expectations on behavior. 9.3 Control through Participant Selection and Assignment 1) Careful participant selection increases A) normal validity. B) external validity. C) construct validity. D) statistical validity. Answer: B Rationale: Careful participant selection helps enhance external validity (Option B) by ensuring that the sample chosen is representative of the larger population, thus increasing the generalizability of the study's findings. 2) What is the major reason for careful participant selection? A) It generates clear research hypotheses. B) It reduces statistical errors. C) It improves internal validity. D) It enhances external validity. Answer: D Rationale: The major reason for careful participant selection is to enhance external validity (Option D) by ensuring that the sample is representative of the larger population of interest, thus allowing for generalization of the study's findings. 3) Careful participant selection ensures ________ validity, thereby allowing generalization of the results to a larger population. A) construct B) internal C) external D) statistical Answer: C Rationale: Careful participant selection ensures external validity (Option C) by selecting participants who are representative of the larger population, thereby allowing for the generalization of the study's results. 4) A population is A) the smallest number of events that are representative of the larger group. B) the larger group to which the researcher has access. C) the smaller number of events drawn from the larger group. D) the larger group of all events of interest from which a sample is selected. Answer: D Rationale: A population (Option D) refers to the larger group of all events or individuals of interest from which a sample is drawn for a study. 5) The smaller number of participants that is used in studies as if they adequately represent the larger group of interest is the A) target population. B) sample. C) larger population. D) accessible population. Answer: B Rationale: The smaller number of participants used in studies that represent the larger group of interest is known as the sample (Option B). This sample is selected from the larger population and is used to make inferences about that population. 6) The population from which we can readily sample is the ________ population. A) target B) accessible C) general D) sampling Answer: B Rationale: The accessible population refers to the population that is available and accessible for sampling. It includes individuals or elements that are within reach of the researcher, making sampling feasible and practical. 7) A researcher wants to look at self-concept in college students nationwide. However, she decides to sample from all college students in the Boston area. In this experiment, "college students nationwide" is the ________ population. A) target B) representative C) accessible D) sampling Answer: A Rationale: The target population refers to the larger group of interest that the researcher aims to generalize findings to. In this scenario, the target population is "college students nationwide," as the researcher intends to draw conclusions about this broader group. 8) A researcher wants to look at self-concept in college students nationwide. However, she decides to sample from all college students in the Boston area. In this experiment, "all college students in the Boston area" is the A) larger population. B) general population. C) accessible population. D) sampling population. Answer: C Rationale: The accessible population refers to the subset of the target population that the researcher can realistically access and sample from. In this case, "all college students in the Boston area" represents the accessible population as it is the group accessible to the researcher. 9) Which of the following is true? A) We can always generalize safely from a sample to a general population. B) We can always generalize safely from sample to a target population. C) We can never generalize safely to a general population. D) We can only generalize safely to the population from which we have taken the sample. Answer: D Rationale: Generalizing findings from a sample to a larger population can only be done with confidence if the sample is representative of that population. Therefore, the safest generalization is to the population from which the sample was drawn. 10) The larger population in which we are ultimately interested is called the A) accessible population. B) ad hoc population. C) random population. D) target population. Answer: D Rationale: The target population is the larger group of interest to the researcher. It represents the population to which the researcher aims to generalize findings or draw conclusions. 11) The larger group of all events or participants of interest from which a research sample is drawn is termed a A) representative sample. B) stratified sample. C) parameter. D) general population. Answer: D Rationale: The general population refers to the entire group of interest from which a sample is drawn. It includes all individuals or events relevant to the research question. 12) A smaller number of events or participants of interest drawn from a larger population is termed A) a sample. B) a target population. C) a focus. D) the accessible population. Answer: A Rationale: A sample is a subset of the larger population from which data is collected. It represents a smaller portion of the population that is studied to make inferences about the larger group. 13) The larger population in which the researcher is ultimately interested is termed the A) meta-population. B) target population. C) accessible population. D) ad hoc population. Answer: B Rationale: The target population is the primary group of interest for the researcher. It represents the larger population to which the study findings are intended to be generalized. 14) ________ populations are NOT often available to study. A) Accessible B) Ad hoc C) MetaD) Target Answer: D Rationale: Target populations, which represent the larger group of interest, are often not readily available for study due to logistical constraints or practical limitations. Researchers typically work with accessible populations that are feasible to sample from. 15) Replication is especially important when the researcher is using a(n) A) accessible population. B) representative population. C) general population. D) target population. Answer: A Rationale: Replication, the repetition of a research study to confirm or disconfirm its findings, is particularly crucial when working with accessible populations. This helps ensure the reliability and validity of research findings, especially when the sample may not fully represent the broader population of interest. 16) A sample that adequately reflects population characteristics is A) impossible in psychological research. B) a representative sample. C) a reflective sample. D) an ad hoc sample. Answer: B Rationale: A representative sample is one that accurately mirrors the key characteristics of the population from which it is drawn. It allows researchers to generalize findings from the sample to the larger population with greater confidence. 17) In general, as sample size increases, A) the sample becomes more representative. B) the sample becomes less representative. C) the sample becomes less stratified. D) the sample becomes more stratified. Answer: A Rationale: As the sample size increases, it becomes more likely to include a diverse range of individuals, which leads to a better representation of the population. Larger samples tend to reduce the impact of random variation and provide more stable estimates of population parameters. 18) Which of the following is true? A) Larger samples tend to reduce the effects of sampling error. B) Larger samples tend to increase the effects of sampling error. C) Smaller samples avoid the effects of sampling error. D) Sample size doesn't affect the degree of sampling error. Answer: A Rationale: Larger samples tend to reduce the effects of sampling error because they provide more data points, which helps to mitigate the impact of random variability. With larger sample sizes, the estimates derived from the sample are more likely to approximate the true population parameters. 19) Nearly all psychological research is carried out by sampling A) representative populations. B) target populations. C) accessible populations. D) the general population. Answer: C Rationale: Psychological research often involves sampling from accessible populations, which are groups that are readily available and practical for researchers to study. While representative populations may be ideal, they are not always feasible or necessary for research purposes. 20) Careful participant selection A) should not include random selection. B) reduces the probability of errors in the statistical computations. C) provides good protection of internal validity. D) controls for threats to external validity. Answer: D Rationale: Careful participant selection involves choosing individuals who are appropriate for the study's objectives and controlling for potential confounding variables. By selecting participants systematically, researchers can enhance the external validity of their findings, ensuring that results can be generalized to other populations or settings. 21) In order to generalize research findings to a target population, a researcher must be careful to select a(n) A) ad hoc sample. B) representative sample. C) stratified random sample. D) accessible sample. Answer: B Rationale: Generalizing research findings to a target population requires a representative sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the larger population. A representative sample increases the likelihood that findings from the study can be applied to the broader population with confidence. 22) Random sampling is assumed to produce a(n) A) ad hoc sample. B) representative sample. C) reflective sample. D) dependent sample. Answer: B Rationale: Random sampling involves selecting participants from a population in a way that gives each individual an equal chance of being chosen. This method is designed to produce a representative sample that accurately reflects the population's characteristics. 23) In a random sample, A) certain participants have a greater chance of selection, although selections are independent. B) certain participants have a greater chance of selection, and the selections are dependent. C) every member of population has equal chance of selection, although selections are dependent. D) every member of population has equal chance of selection, and the selections are independent. Answer: D Rationale: In a random sample, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected, and each selection is independent of the others. This ensures that the sample is not biased and accurately represents the population. 24) Random sampling reduces A) systematic biases. B) unsystematic biases. C) stratified, ad hoc biases. D) unstratified, ad hoc biases. Answer: A Rationale: Random sampling helps to reduce systematic biases by ensuring that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. This minimizes the potential for any particular subset of the population to be overrepresented or underrepresented, leading to more reliable and generalizable results. 25) A table of random numbers or a random-number generator program are used in A) choosing samples. B) identifying participants' numbers during an experiment. C) statistical testing procedures. D) matching participants for matched random assignment. Answer: A Rationale: A table of random numbers or a random-number generator program is used in choosing samples to ensure that the selection process is unbiased and every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Random sampling is a fundamental principle in research design to minimize bias and increase the generalizability of findings. 26) Random selection of a sample from a target population means drawing the sample so that A) every member has an equal chance of being selected. B) the selections are dependent on one another. C) some members have a better chance of being drawn than others. D) the selections can be discarded if they are not to the researcher's liking. Answer: A Rationale: Random selection ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, which helps in reducing bias and making the sample more representative of the population as a whole. 27) A random sample is a(n) A) unrepresentative sample. B) biased sample. C) unbiased sample. D) ad hoc sample. Answer: C Rationale: A random sample is unbiased because every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected, making it representative of the population. 28) In selecting a random sample, it is common to A) draw the numbers from a hat. B) draw numbers from the phone book and then reverse them. C) select the numbers while blindfolded. D) draw the numbers from a table of random numbers or use a random-number generator program. Answer: D Rationale: Using a table of random numbers or a random-number generator program ensures that the selection process is truly random and not influenced by any external factors or biases. 29) Randomization in experiments is typically done using A) a coin. B) an abacus. C) numbers in a hat. D) random numbers. Answer: D Rationale: Randomization in experiments is typically done using random numbers to ensure that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any experimental condition, minimizing biases and confounding variables. 30) Randomization is used for A) participant selection only. B) participant assignment only. C) participant selection and assignment. D) neither participant selection nor participant assignment. Answer: C Rationale: Randomization is used both for selecting participants from the population and assigning them to different experimental conditions, ensuring that the sample is representative and that any observed effects can be attributed to the experimental manipulation rather than pre-existing differences between groups. 31) Stratified random sampling employs the use of A) subpopulations defined in advance. B) ad hoc samples. C) political polls. D) socioeconomic status as a selection criterion. Answer: A Rationale: Stratified random sampling involves dividing the population into subgroups based on certain characteristics (e.g., age, gender, socioeconomic status) and then randomly selecting samples from each subgroup to ensure representation from all segments of the population. 32) In ________ sampling, separate samples are drawn from each of several subpopulations. A) subpopulation random B) random C) stratified random D) ad hoc Answer: C Rationale: Stratified random sampling involves drawing separate samples from each of several subpopulations to ensure representation from all segments of the population based on certain characteristics. 33) A researcher wants to study differences in opinion on environmental issues among different socioeconomic groups. Ideally, the researcher should use A) stratified random sampling. B) nonrandom sampling. C) environmental sampling. D) ad hoc sampling. Answer: A Rationale: Stratified random sampling would allow the researcher to ensure representation from each socioeconomic group, which is crucial for studying differences in opinion across different segments of the population. 34) It is especially important when using ________ samples to obtain demographic information on participants. A) post hoc B) stratified random C) ad hoc D) random Answer: C Rationale: Ad hoc samples, which are typically convenience samples, may not be representative of the population. Therefore, obtaining demographic information on participants becomes particularly important to assess the generalizability of findings. 35) It is seldom the case that ________ is used in psychological research. A) ad hoc sampling B) random sampling C) an accessible population D) biased sampling Answer: B Rationale: Random sampling is seldom used in psychological research due to practical constraints such as limited resources and difficulties in accessing a truly random sample. Instead, researchers often resort to convenience sampling or other non-random sampling methods. 36) In generalizing results from samples NOT randomly drawn from a target population, we must be careful A) to generalize beyond the characteristics of the sample. B) not to generalize beyond the limits of the sample. C) not to publish the results before we perform several replications. D) to reduce threats to internal validity. Answer: B Rationale: When samples are not randomly drawn from a target population, there's a risk that the sample might not accurately represent the entire population. Therefore, it's crucial not to generalize findings beyond the limits of the sample to avoid making unwarranted conclusions about the broader population. 37) With ________ sampling, there are no systematic biases that result in some members of the population having a greater chance than others of being selected. A) representative B) random C) democratic D) ad hoc Answer: B Rationale: Random sampling ensures that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample, thus eliminating systematic biases and ensuring representativeness. 38) In reality, most psychological research uses A) stratified random samples. B) ad hoc samples. C) random samples. D) post hoc samples. Answer: B Rationale: Psychological research often relies on ad hoc samples, which are not randomly drawn from a population but are instead based on convenience or accessibility. This is due to practical constraints such as time, resources, and ease of access to participants. 39) In ________ samples, the population to which researchers can safely generalize is determined by the characteristics of the sample. A) random B) post hoc C) ad hoc D) stratified random Answer: C Rationale: Ad hoc samples do not ensure random selection from the population, so the characteristics of the sample dictate the population to which findings can be safely generalized. 40) What term is used for a sample drawn from an accessible population? A) accessible sample B) ad hoc sample C) random sample D) target population Answer: B Rationale: An ad hoc sample is drawn from an accessible population, typically based on convenience or availability rather than random selection. 41) A sample cannot be randomly drawn if it is comprised of A) animals. B) human participants. C) volunteer participants. D) people from a subpopulation. Answer: C Rationale: Random sampling involves every member of the population having an equal chance of being selected, which is not possible when participants volunteer themselves. 42) A sample cannot be representative of the target population if it is comprised of A) animals. B) people who have been spanked. C) children. D) volunteers. Answer: D Rationale: Volunteers may differ systematically from non-volunteers, introducing bias into the sample and making it unrepresentative of the target population. 43) When the characteristics of a sample define the population to which we can generalize, the sample is termed A) an ad hoc sample. B) a post hoc sample. C) a random sample. D) a stratified random sample. Answer: A Rationale: Ad hoc samples are those where the characteristics of the sample dictate the population to which findings can be generalized, rather than being randomly selected from a defined population. 44) In an experiment, it is of great importance to employ A) biased participant assignment. B) systematic manipulations of the dependent variable. C) payment of participants in order not to rely on volunteers. D) random assignment of participants to conditions. Answer: D Rationale: Random assignment of participants to experimental conditions helps to ensure that groups are equivalent at the outset, reducing the influence of extraneous variables and enhancing the internal validity of the study. 45) In experimental designs, random assignment of participants helps to reduce threats to A) internal validity. B) external validity. C) construct validity. D) statistical validity. Answer: A Rationale: Random assignment helps to minimize systematic differences between groups, thereby reducing threats to internal validity, which pertains to the degree to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable rather than extraneous factors. 46) In using an ad hoc sample, the researcher should A) use the table of random numbers. B) not obtain descriptive information about participants, because it would bias the results. C) obtain sufficient descriptive information about participants to establish the limits for generalization. D) be cautious about internal validity. Answer: C Rationale: While ad hoc samples are not randomly drawn from a population, obtaining descriptive information about participants helps researchers understand the limits of generalizability and interpret findings appropriately. 47) Randomization does NOT control for A) threats to internal validity. B) threats to statistical validity. C) many confounding variables simultaneously. D) unknown factors. Answer: B Rationale: Randomization primarily addresses threats to internal validity by evenly distributing potential confounding variables across experimental conditions. However, it doesn't directly address threats to statistical validity, such as issues related to measurement or sampling errors. 48) In assigning participants to conditions, it is essential that the A) experimental and control groups are equal prior to the manipulation. B) experimental and control group are equal following the manipulation. C) experimental and control conditions are identical. D) experimental and control conditions are impossible. Answer: A Rationale: Ensuring that experimental and control groups are equal prior to the manipulation helps to establish a baseline for comparison. If groups are not equal at the outset, any differences observed after the manipulation cannot confidently be attributed to the experimental treatment. 49) Major potential confounding variables are NOT controlled for by the use of A) equal sample sizes. B) unbiased participant assignment. C) matched random assignment. D) inclusion of appropriate control group or conditions. Answer: A Rationale: Equal sample sizes do not directly control for potential confounding variables. While they may help to balance statistical power, they do not ensure that groups are comparable in terms of relevant variables that could influence the outcome. 50) Which of the following statements is correct about experiments? A) Random assignment of participants to conditions is more important than random selection of participants. B) Random assignment of participants to conditions is less important than random selection of participants. C) Random assignment of participants and random selection of participants are equally important. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: Random assignment of participants to conditions helps to ensure that groups are comparable and that any differences observed can be attributed to the experimental manipulation rather than pre-existing differences between groups. Random selection of participants is important but doesn't guarantee group comparability. 51) Free random assignment of participants to conditions is typically carried out by the use of A) participants' preferences. B) a random number generator. C) researchers' preferences. D) drawing straws. Answer: B Rationale: A random number generator is a reliable and unbiased tool for assigning participants to different conditions in an experiment. It ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any condition, minimizing potential biases and increasing the validity of the results. 52) Randomization in selection and assignment can control A) only one variable at a time. B) for threats to external validity but not for threats to internal validity. C) for many variables simultaneously. D) for threats to internal validity but not for threats to external validity. Answer: C Rationale: Randomization can control for many variables simultaneously by ensuring that potential confounding variables are equally distributed among the different conditions. This helps in reducing systematic biases and strengthens the internal validity of the study. 53) When participants are randomly assigned to conditions, A) potential confounding variables are distributed in a biased manner. B) potential confounding variables are distributed equally among the conditions. C) an equal number of participants is guaranteed in all conditions. D) there will always be an unequal distribution of males and females. Answer: B Rationale: Random assignment ensures that potential confounding variables are distributed equally among the conditions, reducing the likelihood of systematic differences between groups and increasing the internal validity of the study. 54) Randomization is A) the single most important control procedure. B) a relatively unimportant control procedure if you are using experimental design. C) not recommended in experimental research. D) one of the weakest controls. Answer: A Rationale: Randomization is considered the single most important control procedure in experimental research because it helps to ensure that the groups being compared are similar at the outset, reducing the impact of confounding variables and increasing the validity of the conclusions drawn from the study. 55) The most basic and single most important control procedure in assignment of participants to conditions is A) participants' preferences. B) participants' past performance in research. C) randomization. D) participants' cooperation. Answer: C Rationale: Randomization is the most basic and important control procedure because it ensures that potential biases in participant assignment are minimized, leading to more reliable and valid results in experimental research. 56) The only control procedure that can control for unknown factors is A) statistical control. B) repeated measures, within-subjects designs. C) randomization. D) complete disclosure on the part of participants. Answer: C Rationale: Randomization is the only control procedure that can effectively control for unknown factors because it ensures that any potential confounding variables are equally distributed among the different conditions, reducing the impact of unknown variables on the study outcomes. 57) Free random assignment works best with A) large samples. B) small samples. C) ad hoc samples. D) matched samples. Answer: A Rationale: Free random assignment works best with large samples because it helps to ensure that the groups being compared are more likely to be equivalent in terms of relevant characteristics, leading to more reliable and generalizable results. Small samples may not benefit as much from random assignment due to the increased likelihood of chance imbalances between groups. 58) If you want to make sure that you have the same number of participants in each group, you should use: A) free random assignment. B) randomization within blocks. C) stratified random sampling. D) random sampling. Answer: B Rationale: Randomization within blocks ensures that each group will have an equal number of participants by first organizing participants into blocks based on certain characteristics (e.g., age, gender) and then assigning each block to different experimental conditions randomly. This method helps to control for potential confounding variables and ensures more balanced group compositions. 59) When you randomize within blocks, you should: A) assign blocks of participants to groups instead of single participants. B) sample blocks of participants instead of single participants. C) use stratified random sampling with blocks of participants. D) assign blocks of participants so that one participant is assigned to each group before moving onto the next block of participants. Answer: D Rationale: Assigning blocks of participants so that one participant is assigned to each group before moving onto the next block of participants ensures that each block contributes equally to the formation of groups. This method maintains the balance within blocks while also ensuring randomness in the assignment process. 60) In ________ assignment of participants, participants are matched on a relevant variable and then one member of each pair is assigned to either the experimental or control group. A) paired B) matched random C) random D) matched ad hoc Answer: B Rationale: Matched random assignment involves pairing participants based on relevant variables (e.g., age, IQ) and then randomly assigning one member of each pair to either the experimental or control group. This method helps to control for potential confounding variables by ensuring that equivalent groups are formed in terms of the matched variables. 61) Matched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would A) increase chances of unequal sample sizes. B) cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions. C) not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the participants. D) not be possible because the researcher has too little prior knowledge about the participants. Answer: B Rationale: Matched random assignment is utilized when random assignment alone may result in unequal groups on key dimensions, leading to potential confounding. By matching participants on relevant variables, researchers can ensure that any differences between groups are not due to the variables used for matching. 62) In small-sample research, it is useful to assign participants to conditions by A) free random assignment. B) consulting a table of random numbers. C) asking participants which group they would like to be in. D) matched random assignment. Answer: D Rationale: Matched random assignment helps ensure that groups are comparable on key variables, which is particularly important in small-sample research where the random assignment alone might not achieve balanced groups. 63) When working with small numbers of participants, the use of free random assignment A) might result in unequal groups on important variables. B) is preferable to matched random assignment. C) prevents unequal groups from forming. D) is the only allowable assignment procedure. Answer: A Rationale: Free random assignment in small-sample research might lead to unequal groups on important variables, potentially confounding the results. Matched random assignment is preferred in such cases to ensure comparability between groups. 64) In general, a participant that receives the treatment is in the A) nonmanipulated group. B) manipulator group. C) experimental group. D) control group. Answer: C Rationale: The experimental group receives the treatment or manipulation, which allows researchers to observe the effects of the independent variable. 65) Matching of participants helps to make small-group research more sensitive to the effects of A) medication. B) the independent variable. C) the dependent variable. D) construct validity. Answer: B Rationale: Matching participants helps to control for individual differences, making the research more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable by reducing variability within groups. 66) An alternative to participant-by-participant matching, which is used frequently in differential research, is to A) obtain more than one measurement of the independent variable. B) obtain repeated measures of the dependent variable. C) match characteristics of groups. D) ignore group characteristics. Answer: C Rationale: Group matching involves ensuring that groups are comparable based on relevant characteristics, rather than matching individual participants, which can be particularly useful in studies with large sample sizes. 67) A variation of matching is to equate groups by A) holding the variable constant. B) allowing the dependent variable to vary. C) putting the same number of participants in each cell. D) reverse matching. Answer: A Rationale: Equating groups by holding a variable constant ensures that the groups are similar on that variable, reducing its potential to confound the results. 68) A disadvantage of holding a variable constant is that A) it reduces generalizability by reducing internal validity. B) it attenuates reliability. C) it attenuates correlations. D) it reduces generalizability by reducing external validity. Answer: D Rationale: Holding a variable constant may limit the generalizability of the findings because it restricts the range of conditions under which the results hold, thus impacting external validity. 69) Most potential confounding is controlled by including A) demographic measures and unbiased assignment of participants to conditions. B) a control group and an equal number of participants in each condition. C) unbiased assignment of participants to conditions and a control group. D) two or more control groups. Answer: C Rationale: By ensuring unbiased assignment of participants to conditions and including a control group, researchers can minimize potential confounding variables and enhance the internal validity of the study. 9.4 Control through Experimental Design 1) The careful arrangements of all parts of an experiment so as to test the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable while protecting against threats to internal validity is called A) matched design. B) hypothesis testing. C) experimental design. D) hypothesis experimental design. Answer: C Rationale: Experimental design refers to the systematic arrangement of all components of an experiment to effectively test the effects of the independent variable while safeguarding against potential threats to internal validity. 2) A key factor in experimental design is the A) testing of the effects of the dependent variable on the independent variable. B) protection of internal validity by controls to reduce confounding. C) protection of statistical validity by controls to reduce confounding. D) demonstration of a systematic, but not causal, relationship between two variables. Answer: B Rationale: Protection of internal validity through controls to minimize confounding variables is a fundamental aspect of experimental design, ensuring that observed effects can be confidently attributed to the independent variable. 3) A detailed plan for the conduct of an experiment is referred to as A) a variable design. B) a procedure design. C) an experimental design. D) an unbiased design. Answer: C Rationale: An experimental design outlines the specific procedures, manipulations, and controls implemented in an experiment to systematically test hypotheses and minimize threats to internal validity. 4) A critical issue in experimentation A) is discovering contingencies. B) focuses on the coefficient of determination. C) is protection of internal validity. D) focuses on observation of natural events in the natural environment. Answer: C Rationale: Protection of internal validity is a critical concern in experimentation, ensuring that observed effects are attributable to the manipulated independent variable rather than extraneous factors. 5) Protecting against threats to internal validity is A) a major aim of experimental design. B) of maximum concern in naturalistic research. C) achieved when sample size is equal in each group. D) the main purpose of differential design. Answer: A Rationale: One of the primary aims of experimental design is to protect against threats to internal validity, ensuring that observed effects are valid and can be attributed to the independent variable manipulation. 6) Protecting internal validity A) is a minor concern in experimentation. B) cannot be achieved with fewer than 100 participants. C) is the primary purpose of experimentation. D) is achieved whenever sample size is equal in all the groups. Answer: C Rationale: Protecting internal validity is indeed a primary purpose of experimentation, ensuring that the observed effects are attributable to the independent variable manipulation rather than confounding variables. 7) Being able to eliminate many extraneous variables is a major advantage of A) naturalistic research. B) case-study research. C) both naturalistic and case-study research. D) experimental research. Answer: D Rationale: Experimental research allows researchers to control and manipulate variables, thereby eliminating or minimizing extraneous influences and enhancing the internal validity of the study. 8) A critical control in experiments is A) careful participant selection. B) having a large number of participants. C) unbiased participant assignment to conditions. D) the use of electronic measuring instruments. Answer: C Rationale: Unbiased participant assignment to conditions is a critical control in experiments, ensuring that participants are assigned to groups without systematic bias, thereby reducing potential confounding variables. 9) Confounding due to maturation is controlled by A) limiting participants to one sex only. B) preventing attrition during the study. C) employing a posttest. D) having the experimental and control groups equivalent at the beginning of the study. Answer: D Rationale: Controlling confounding due to maturation involves ensuring that the experimental and control groups are equivalent at the outset of the study, minimizing the influence of developmental changes over time on the dependent variable. 10) In an experiment, the independent variable A) must be measured at least twice. B) is observed rather than manipulated. C) must vary across conditions. D) needs to be held constant across conditions. Answer: C Rationale: The independent variable in an experiment is the factor that the researcher manipulates or changes to observe its effect on the dependent variable. For an experiment to be valid, the independent variable must vary across different conditions or levels to assess its impact on the dependent variable. This variation allows researchers to compare the effects of different levels of the independent variable. 11) In an experiment, there must be A) at least one level of the independent variable. B) at least two levels of the independent variable. C) at least two measures of the dependent variable. D) not more than two levels of the dependent variable. Answer: B Rationale: To conduct a valid experiment, there should be at least two levels of the independent variable. This allows researchers to compare the effects of different conditions or levels of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Having multiple levels helps establish a clearer understanding of how changes in the independent variable affect the outcome. 12) A study designed with a pretest, a treatment, and a posttest A) has a built-in control group. B) compares a control group with an experimental group. C) cannot control several confounding variables. D) controls most sources of confounding. Answer: C Rationale: While a study with a pretest, treatment, and posttest design provides valuable data on changes over time, it lacks a control group for comparison. Without a control group, it becomes difficult to ascertain whether the observed changes are due to the treatment or other external factors, thereby limiting the control over confounding variables. 13) The single-group pretest-posttest design A) is an example of a nonexperimental design. B) includes its own control group. C) provides good protection of internal validity. D) provides the same level of control as the pretest-posttest control-group design. Answer: A Rationale: The single-group pretest-posttest design lacks a control group for comparison, making it an example of a nonexperimental design. Without a control group, it's challenging to attribute changes in the dependent variable solely to the treatment, reducing the protection of internal validity. 14) Being able to control many confounding variables is a major advantage of A) naturalistic research. B) case-study research. C) both naturalistic and case-study research. D) experimental research. Answer: D Rationale: Experimental research allows researchers to manipulate variables and control extraneous factors, providing a high level of control over confounding variables. This control is crucial for establishing causal relationships between variables, which is a major advantage of experimental research compared to other types of research methods like naturalistic or casestudy research. 15) Which of the following is essential for a successful control-group design? A) that the experimental and control groups be comparable at the start of the study B) that participants be randomly selected from a general population C) that at least three conditions are manipulated D) that there be an equal number of male and female participants Answer: A Rationale: For a successful control-group design, it's essential that the experimental and control groups are comparable at the start of the study. This ensures that any differences in the outcomes between the groups can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than preexisting differences between the groups. 16) In an experiment, it is essential that A) the group sizes are equal. B) the experimental and control groups are comparable at the start of the study. C) all participants are given a pretest. D) the groups are equal after the manipulation. Answer: B Rationale: Ensuring that the experimental and control groups are comparable at the start of the study helps minimize the influence of confounding variables and strengthens the internal validity of the experiment. It ensures that any differences observed between the groups after the manipulation can be confidently attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable. 17) The independent variable must vary from one condition to another in a(n) A) pretest manipulation control. B) experiment. C) manipulated posttest control experiment. D) pretest manipulation experiment. Answer: B Rationale: In an experiment, the independent variable is manipulated or varied across different conditions or levels to observe its effect on the dependent variable. This manipulation distinguishes experiments from other research designs, making option B the correct choice. 18) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an experiment? A) unbiased assignment of participants to conditions B) two or more levels of the independent variable C) the unbiased use of a placebo D) the use of specific controls to decrease threats to internal validity Answer: C Rationale: The unbiased use of a placebo is not a characteristic of an experiment; it's a characteristic associated with placebo-controlled trials, which are a specific type of experimental design. While experiments may involve placebos, their use is not a universal characteristic of all experiments. 19) A characteristic of an experiment is that A) both the dependent variable and the independent variable must be dichotomous. B) the independent variable must be dichotomous and the dependent variable continuous. C) the dependent variable must be presented at a minimum of two levels. D) the independent variable must be presented at a minimum of two levels. Answer: D Rationale: In experimental research, the independent variable must be manipulated at a minimum of two levels or conditions to assess its effect on the dependent variable. This variation allows researchers to compare the outcomes across different levels of the independent variable, contributing to the establishment of causal relationships. 20) A characteristic of an experiment is that A) participants must be assigned to conditions in an unbiased manner. B) participants must be assigned to conditions in a biased manner. C) the research hypothesis cannot be formulated until the supportive data have been collected. D) researchers must be blind as to condition. Answer: A Rationale: In experimental research, it's crucial to ensure that participants are assigned to different experimental conditions without bias to prevent skewing the results. Random assignment helps to distribute potential confounding variables evenly across groups, enhancing the validity of the findings. 9.5 Ethical Principles 1) A researcher using an experimental design to study the effects of alcohol must A) make sure that participants are legally able to drink. B) be truthful about the content of the beverage that the participant is asked to consume. C) ask participants to not drink for two days before the experiment. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: Ensuring participants are legally able to drink is essential for ethical research involving alcohol effects, as it aligns with legal regulations and minimizes potential harm to underage individuals. 2) For ethical reasons, which of the following participants should be excluded in a study of the effects of alcohol consumption A) Anyone not legally able to drink. B) Anyone with a moral objection to drinking. C) Anyone with a medical condition that might be harmed by drinking. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Excluding individuals who are not legally allowed to drink, have moral objections, or have medical conditions that could be adversely affected by alcohol consumption is crucial to uphold ethical standards and prevent harm to participants. 3) Why do most alcohol researchers exclude people who have no experience with alcohol? A) A small percentage of those people could be allergic to alcohol and might go into shock. B) Some people react dramatically to their first exposure to alcohol. C) Many of those people are underage. D) People who don't drink at all usually have emotional problems. Answer: B Rationale: Excluding individuals with no prior alcohol experience is essential because some people may have strong reactions or sensitivities to alcohol upon first exposure, which could lead to unexpected adverse effects or reactions during the study. 4) Why do many alcohol researchers insist that the participants stay in the lab for an extended period? A) Any participant who is still intoxicated will have a higher risk of accident or injury. B) Some of the most interesting effects of alcohol occur during the period when the person has stopped drinking. C) Most studies of alcohol response require several hours to complete. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: Keeping participants in the lab until the effects of alcohol have worn off is important for their safety, as intoxicated individuals are at a higher risk of accidents or injuries. 5) Why is it ethical to deceive participants in a balanced placebo design studying the effects of alcohol? A) You cannot separate the pharmacological and expectancy effects of alcohol without the deception. B) The deception is not complete because participants are told that they may be consuming alcohol. C) The deception should not cause physical or emotional discomfort or risk. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Deception in a balanced placebo design is considered ethical because it is necessary to distinguish between the pharmacological effects of alcohol and the psychological effects of expectation. However, it's crucial to ensure that the deception does not cause undue harm or discomfort to participants. 6) Why does the balanced placebo design raise ethical issues? A) Because it involves deception. B) Because it involves the consumption of a substance that may pose risks. C) Because it involves the consumption of a substance that has legal restrictions. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: The balanced placebo design raises ethical concerns due to its use of deception, potential risks associated with consuming a substance, and adherence to legal regulations surrounding alcohol consumption. 7) After a study of the effects of alcohol using a balanced placebo design, the researcher has an ethical obligation to A) debrief the participants about the deception and the reason for the deception. B) offer the participant a free doctor visit to make sure that no damage was done. C) provide a ride home for each participant. D) provide a note that says that the participant's intoxication is the result of a research study. Answer: A Rationale: Researchers have an ethical obligation to debrief participants about the deception used in the study and explain the reasons behind it, ensuring that participants are fully informed about their involvement and the study's procedures. This promotes transparency and protects participants' rights. Test Bank for Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin 9780205900923, 9780205907694, 9780135705056

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