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Chapter 11 Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs 11.1 Within-Subjects Designs 1) Correlated-groups designs A) use random assignment of participants. B) provide equivalent groups at the start of the study. C) use only one level of the independent variable. D) are less sensitive than between participant experimental design. Answer: B Rationale: Correlated-groups designs aim to provide equivalent groups at the start of the study by correlating participants' scores or characteristics, hence the name. This equivalence is achieved through methods such as matching or within-subject designs. 2) Why do the authors of this text consider correlated-groups designs to be experiments? A) They maximize error variance. B) They always use score data. C) They randomly assign all participants to conditions. D) They meet the requirement of equivalence of groups. Answer: D Rationale: Correlated-groups designs are considered experiments because they meet the fundamental requirement of experimental research, which is the equivalence of groups. By ensuring that groups are comparable at the start of the study, they allow for causal inferences to be drawn from the results. 3) Which of the following is NOT used in correlated-groups designs? A) matching of participants B) random assignment to conditions C) within-subjects procedures D) careful measurement of the dependent variable Answer: B Rationale: Correlated-groups designs typically do not use random assignment to conditions. Instead, they rely on methods like matching or within-subjects procedures to establish equivalence between groups. 4) Random assignment of participants to conditions gives us confidence that A) the researcher will remain blind to the condition under which each participant is tested. B) the groups to be compared are equivalent at the start of the study. C) the participants will remain blind to condition throughout the experiment. D) any placebo effect will be nullified. Answer: B Rationale: Random assignment ensures that groups are equivalent at the start of the study, which is crucial for making causal inferences about the effects of the independent variable. 5) Within-subjects designs allow a researcher to test causal hypotheses with confidence and without A) mistakes. B) statistical analyses. C) randomization. D) any form of bias. Answer: C Rationale: Within-subjects designs eliminate the need for randomization because each participant serves as their own control, effectively removing potential biases associated with individual differences. 6) Correlated-groups designs are considered in this textbook to be a category of A) experimental design. B) nonexperimental design. C) low-constraint research. D) naturalistic research. Answer: A Rationale: Correlated-groups designs are categorized as experimental designs because they involve manipulating variables to observe their effects on dependent variables while attempting to control for potential confounding variables. 7) In within-subjects designs, all participants are exposed to A) some of the experimental conditions. B) some of the dependent measures. C) all of the control measures. D) all of the experimental conditions. Answer: D Rationale: Within-subjects designs involve exposing each participant to all levels of the independent variable, ensuring that each participant experiences all experimental conditions. 8) In within-subjects designs, A) each participant serves as his or her own control. B) the control group is matched with the experimental group. C) each participant is exposed to one level of the independent variable. D) each participant is randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. Answer: A Rationale: Within-subjects designs compare each participant's performance across different levels of the independent variable, effectively using each participant as their own control to account for individual differences. 9) What are the two types of designs used to introduce the correlation in correlated-groups designs? A) Within-subjects designs and matched-subjects designs. B) Between-subjects designs and matched-subjects designs. C) Randomized-subjects designs and matched-subjects designs. D) Between-subjects designs and within-subjects designs. Answer: A Rationale: Correlated-groups designs introduce correlation through within-subjects designs, where each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variable, and matched-subjects designs, where participants are matched on relevant variables to create equivalent groups. 10) What is the major strength of the within-subjects design? A) More participants can be used in a single study. B) Interactive effects can be identified. C) Carry-over effects are eliminated. D) It guarantees that the participants in the various conditions are equivalent at the start of the study. Answer: D Rationale: Within-subjects designs ensure equivalence of participants across conditions by having each participant experience all levels of the independent variable, thereby controlling for individual differences and enhancing the internal validity of the study. 11) In which design are all participants exposed to all experimental conditions? A) randomized, posttest-only B) randomized, pretest-posttest C) within-subjects D) between-subjects Answer: C Rationale: In a within-subjects design, each participant experiences all experimental conditions. This allows for direct comparison within the same individuals, minimizing individual differences and increasing statistical power. 12) A within-subjects design helps to ensure equivalence of groups at the start of the experiment because A) it employs a form of randomization. B) the participants in one group are the same participants as in the other group. C) of the extensive pretesting to rule out differences between individuals. D) of the stringent criteria of participant selection. Answer: B Rationale: In a within-subjects design, the same participants are exposed to all conditions, ensuring equivalence between groups at the start of the experiment since each participant serves as their own control. 13) In order to test the effects of noise levels on typing speed, a researcher uses six expert typists and asks each to type a page at two different noise levels (low and high). The dependent variable, typing speed, is measured under both conditions for all typists. What kind of design is the researcher employing? A) a between-subjects design B) a between-groups design C) a within-subjects design D) a single-variable, independent-groups design Answer: C Rationale: This is a within-subjects design because each participant (typist) experiences both levels of the independent variable (noise levels), allowing for direct comparison within the same individuals. 14) A within-subjects design is also referred to as a(n) A) between-subjects design. B) independent-groups design. C) nonparametric design. D) repeated-measures design. Answer: D Rationale: A within-subjects design is also known as a repeated-measures design because each participant is measured repeatedly under different experimental conditions. 15) The key idea in correlated-groups designs is that in seeking to insure equivalence of groups, A) some correlation among participants in different groups is introduced. B) there is no correlation introduced in the assigning of participants to groups. C) a small participant size must be used to prevent error. D) coefficients of correlation must be group specific. Answer: A Rationale: In correlated-groups designs (such as within-subjects designs), some correlation among participants in different groups is introduced because each participant serves as their own control, ensuring equivalence of groups. 16) In within-subjects designs, each participant A) is measured at least five times. B) serves as his or her own control. C) is measured only once. D) is randomly assigned to one of two conditions. Answer: B Rationale: Each participant in a within-subjects design serves as their own control because they experience all experimental conditions, allowing for comparison within individuals. 17) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a within-subjects design? A) Each participant is tested under each experimental condition. B) The scores in each condition are correlated with each other. C) Each participant is measured only once on the dependent variable. D) The critical comparison is the difference between correlated groups on the dependent variable. Answer: C Rationale: In a within-subjects design, each participant is tested under each experimental condition, making option C incorrect. Participants are measured multiple times, once for each condition. 18) In within-subjects designs, the critical comparison is A) between correlated groups on the confounding variables. B) between correlated groups on the independent variable. C) between randomly assigned groups. D) between correlated groups on the dependent variable. Answer: D Rationale: The critical comparison in within-subjects designs is between correlated groups (i.e., the same participants under different conditions) on the dependent variable to assess the effect of the independent variable. 19) In within-subjects designs, the scores in each condition are A) correlated with scores in other conditions. B) not correlated. C) almost always nominal. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: Scores in each condition of a within-subjects design are correlated with scores in other conditions because each participant serves as their own control, leading to correlated data. 20) In within-subjects designs, A) performance in one condition is correlated with performance in each of the other conditions. B) performance in one condition is not correlated with performance in other conditions. C) performance is measured once. D) performance is not measured. Answer: A Rationale: In within-subjects designs, performance in one condition is correlated with performance in each of the other conditions because the same participants are measured under all experimental conditions, allowing for within-participant comparisons. 21) Which of the following is true for within-subjects designs? A) There must be at least three conditions manipulated. B) Participants are all randomly assigned to conditions. C) Each participant serves as his or her own control. D) They require more participants than do between-subjects designs. Answer: C Rationale: In within-subjects designs, each participant experiences all conditions of the experiment. This allows each participant to act as their own control, as any individual differences that could affect the results are accounted for by comparing each participant's performance across different conditions. 22) The advantage of a within-subjects design is that A) the F-ratio is reduced. B) randomized participant assignment is maximized. C) it requires fewer dependent measures. D) it equates participant in conditions prior to experimental manipulation. Answer: D Rationale: Within-subjects designs involve each participant experiencing all conditions of the experiment, which ensures that any individual differences between participants are accounted for. This equating of participants in conditions prior to the experimental manipulation helps to control for potential confounding variables and increases the internal validity of the study. 23) A potential confounding factor that can occur in within-subjects designs if the researcher does not vary the order of presentation is called A) sequence effects. B) counterbalancing. C) repeated measures. D) the placebo effect. Answer: A Rationale: Sequence effects refer to the influence of the order in which conditions are presented on participants' responses. If the order of presentation is not varied, it can lead to confounding effects where the observed differences between conditions may be due to the order rather than the experimental manipulation. 24) Which of the following is a potential confounding factor in within-subjects designs but NOT in a between-subjects design? A) regression to the mean B) sequence effects C) attrition D) history Answer: B Rationale: Sequence effects, such as practice or fatigue effects, can occur in within-subjects designs when participants experience conditions in a fixed order. This is a potential confounding factor because it can influence participants' responses and obscure the true effects of the independent variable. In between-subjects designs, where participants are only exposed to one condition, sequence effects are not a concern. 25) The main drawback of within-subjects designs is that A) sequence effects can occur. B) smaller samples mean less sensitivity. C) differences between groups are due to participant variables. D) more participants are needed. Answer: A Rationale: Sequence effects, such as practice or fatigue effects, can occur in within-subjects designs when participants experience conditions in a fixed order. This can confound the results by influencing participants' responses, making it difficult to attribute observed differences to the independent variable. 26) In within-subject designs, sequence effects can be controlled by A) counterbalancing. B) changing the frequency of test conditions. C) giving each participant only one level of the independent variable. D) random assignment of participants to groups. Answer: A Rationale: Counterbalancing involves presenting different orders of conditions to different participants, effectively controlling for sequence effects. By systematically varying the order of presentation across participants, the potential influence of order effects on the results is minimized. 27) Counterbalancing can be used to control A) sequence effects. B) attrition. C) selection effects. D) regression to the mean. Answer: A Rationale: Counterbalancing involves systematically varying the order of conditions across participants, which helps control for sequence effects. By ensuring that each condition is experienced equally often in each position, any potential bias introduced by the order of presentation is minimized. 28) Which of the following is a major control for sequence effects? A) random assignment of participants B) counterbalancing C) holding the variable constant D) including the factor as a research variable Answer: B Rationale: Counterbalancing is a major control for sequence effects in within-subjects designs. By systematically varying the order of conditions across participants, counterbalancing helps to ensure that any observed differences between conditions are not due to the order in which they were presented. 29) In contrast to a single-group, pretest-posttest design, participants in a within-subjects design A) respond to a fixed order of presentations of the independent variable. B) respond to a fixed order of presentations of the dependent variable. C) are presented with the independent variable only once. D) respond in two or more conditions and the order of presentation of conditions is not necessarily fixed. Answer: D Rationale: In within-subjects designs, participants respond in two or more conditions, and the order of presentation of conditions is not necessarily fixed. This contrasts with single-group, pretestposttest designs, where participants typically only experience one condition. 30) A major control for sequence effects in within-subjects designs is A) keeping the order of presentation invariant. B) counterbalancing the order of presentation. C) reversing the order of participants when entering the data. D) keeping the order the same in replication studies. Answer: B Rationale: Counterbalancing the order of presentation is a major control for sequence effects in withinsubjects designs. By systematically varying the order of conditions across participants, counterbalancing helps to ensure that any observed differences between conditions are not due to the order in which they were presented. 31) Negative practice effects A) increase performance of participants. B) depend on sequence of conditions. C) depend on the assignment of participants. D) decrease performance of participants. Answer: D Rationale: Negative practice effects refer to a decrease in performance over successive trials or conditions. This contrasts with positive practice effects (option A), which would result in increased performance. Options B and C are unrelated to the concept of practice effects. 32) A researcher is using a within-subjects design. After condition two (there are a total of three conditions) the researcher notices that the participants are looking bored and restless. After the third condition, the researcher records a falling off of performance. This is a A) positive practice effect. B) negative practice effect. C) participant effect. D) ordering effect. Answer: B Rationale: The scenario describes a decline in performance over successive conditions, indicating a negative practice effect. Positive practice effects (option A) would result in increased performance. Options C and D are unrelated to the observed phenomenon. 33) What is the term for unwanted enhancement of performance on subsequent conditions in within-subjects designs? A) positive practice effect B) negative practice effect C) participant attrition D) performance maturation Answer: A Rationale: Unwanted enhancement of performance in within-subjects designs refers to positive practice effects. Negative practice effects (option B) would involve a decrease in performance. Options C and D are unrelated terms. 34) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of counterbalancing? A) Each participant is exposed to all conditions of the experiment. B) Each condition is presented an equal number of times. C) Each condition is presented randomly in each position. D) Each condition precedes and follows each other condition an equal number of times. Answer: C Rationale: Counterbalancing involves systematically varying the order of presentation of conditions to control for sequence effects. Random presentation of conditions in each position (option C) is not a characteristic of counterbalancing. Options A, B, and D are characteristic of counterbalancing. 35) If an experimental procedure is lengthy or demanding, participants might become fatigued and exhibit ________ effects. A) negative carry-over B) positive carry-over C) negative practice D) positive practice Answer: C Rationale: Lengthy or demanding experimental procedures may lead to participants experiencing negative practice effects due to fatigue or weariness. Options A and B are not directly related to the scenario described. Option D refers to an unrelated concept. 36) Effects caused by participants' growing experience with procedures as they move through successive conditions are termed A) carry-over effects. B) participants effects. C) experiential effects. D) practice effects. Answer: D Rationale: The description matches the concept of practice effects, where participants' performance improves as they become more experienced with the experimental procedures. Options A, B, and C are either unrelated or incorrectly labeled. 37) Varying the order of presentation of conditions in a within-subjects design will control A) sequence effects. B) placebo effects. C) experimenter effects. D) researcher bias. Answer: A Rationale: Varying the order of presentation of conditions helps to control for sequence effects, ensuring that the effects observed are not simply due to the order in which conditions are presented. Options B, C, and D are unrelated to the purpose of varying the order of presentation. 38) One way to control for sequence effects is to A) use double-blind designs. B) use well-validated dependent measures. C) randomly assign participants to groups. D) vary the order of presentation of conditions. Answer: D Rationale: Varying the order of presentation of conditions is a method of counterbalancing, which helps control for sequence effects in within-subjects designs. Options A, B, and C are unrelated methods of control. 39) The two types of potentially confounding sequence effects are ________ effects and ________ effects. A) overinflation; underinflation B) practice; carry-over C) carry-over; placebo D) participant; experimenter Answer: B Rationale: Practice effects and carry-over effects are the two types of potentially confounding sequence effects. Options A, C, and D are unrelated terms. 40) A good way to control for carry-over effects in within-subjects experiments, provided that there are not too many experimental conditions, is A) positive practice. B) using a matched-subjects design. C) debriefing participants. D) counterbalancing. Answer: D Rationale: Counterbalancing involves systematically varying the order of presentation of conditions to control for carry-over effects in within-subjects experiments. Options A, B, and C are unrelated or ineffective methods for controlling carry-over effects. 41) Which of the following is NOT a way of controlling for sequence effects in withinsubject design? A) randomizing the order of conditions B) counterbalancing C) Latin square design D) random participant assignment Answer: D Rationale: Random participant assignment is a method used in between-subject designs to ensure groups are equivalent across conditions. Within-subject designs involve the same participants experiencing all conditions, so random participant assignment is not applicable. 42) Carry-over effects occur when A) groups are not equivalent. B) groups are randomized. C) an ad hoc sample is used. D) participants gain experience from early conditions. Answer: D Rationale: Carry-over effects refer to the influence of one condition on subsequent conditions. They occur when participants' experiences in early conditions affect their performance in later conditions, which is described in option D. 43) One disadvantage of within-subjects designs is the A) placebo effect. B) pilot effect. C) carry-over effect. D) ANOVA effect. Answer: C Rationale: Carry-over effects are a disadvantage of within-subject designs because they can confound the results by influencing responses to subsequent conditions. 44) In within-subjects designs, the unwanted effects due to the influence of one condition on the following conditions is called A) positive practice effects. B) negative practice effects. C) carry-over effects. D) attrition effects. Answer: C Rationale: Carry-over effects specifically refer to the influence of one condition on subsequent conditions, which can distort the results in within-subject designs. 45) Effects that are due to the influence of a particular condition on responses to conditions that follow are termed A) carry-over effects. B) positive practice effects. C) conditional effects. D) practice effects. Answer: A Rationale: Carry-over effects are precisely described as the influence of a particular condition on responses to subsequent conditions, as stated in option A. 46) It is important to note that carry-over effects may be A) unimportant. B) differential. C) random. D) spurious. Answer: B Rationale: Carry-over effects may vary across conditions, affecting the results differentially, which is described as being "differential" in option B. 47) Carry-over effects are sequence effects that A) are a result of a particular condition on the following condition(s). B) are due to participant variance. C) are due to any measurable condition. D) result from any one condition or conditions. Answer: A Rationale: Carry-over effects specifically refer to the influence of a particular condition on subsequent conditions, as stated in option A. 48) Carry-over effects can be controlled by A) varying the order of presentation of conditions. B) holding the extraneous variable constant. C) both varying the order of presentation and holding the extraneous variable constant. D) holding the practice variable constant. Answer: A Rationale: Varying the order of presentation of conditions helps to minimize carry-over effects by distributing their impact across different sequences, as described in option A. 49) With five experimental conditions, there are ________ orders of presentation. A) 20 B) 60 C) 80 D) 120 Answer: D Rationale: The number of possible orders of presentation can be calculated using factorial notation, where 5 factorial (5!) equals 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120. 50) A Latin square design is a more formalized design for use in A) within-subjects experiments on eye color and visual acuity. B) between-subjects designs. C) within-subjects experiments with three or more conditions. D) within-subjects experiments with no more than three conditions. Answer: C Rationale: Latin square designs are particularly useful in within-subject experiments with three or more conditions because they help to counterbalance order effects by ensuring each condition appears in each ordinal position an equal number of times. 51) If strong carry-over effects are expected in an experiment, A) the within-subjects design is not recommended. B) the within-subjects design is recommended. C) controls for attrition are crucial. D) the problem statement for that particular study cannot be researched. Answer: A Rationale: Strong carry-over effects can confound within-subjects designs, making them less reliable and valid. Carry-over effects occur when the effects of one condition persist and influence subsequent conditions. Thus, in such cases, it's not recommended to use within-subjects designs as they may not effectively control for these carry-over effects. 52) In a study with three experimental conditions, there are ________ possible orders of presentation of conditions. A) 12 B) 6 C) 9 D) 27 Answer: B Rationale: The number of possible orders of presentation in a study with n conditions is given by n factorial (n!), which is calculated as 3! = 3 × 2 × 1 = 6. 53) In a study with four experimental conditions, there are ________ possible orders of conditions. A) 24 B) 8 C) 16 D) 38 Answer: A Rationale: The number of possible orders of presentation in a study with four conditions is 4 factorial (4!), which is calculated as 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24. 54) Counterbalancing is best used A) in studies with many conditions. B) in studies with a small number of conditions. C) in all studies. D) in situations where conditions are randomly ordered. Answer: B Rationale: Counterbalancing is particularly useful in studies with a small number of conditions to control for order effects, such as practice or fatigue effects. In studies with many conditions, counterbalancing becomes impractical. 55) How many orders of presentation are necessary to counterbalance in an experiment with four experimental conditions? A) 10 B) 4 C) 24 D) 5 Answer: C Rationale: To counterbalance in an experiment with four conditions, you need to compute 4 factorial (4!), which equals 24. 56) Correlated-groups designs A) test causal hypotheses with randomization. B) test causal hypotheses without eliminating rival hypothesis. C) are more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable than are between-subjects designs. D) All of the above Answer: C Rationale: Correlated-groups designs, also known as within-subjects or repeated measures designs, are more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable compared to between-subjects designs. This sensitivity arises because each participant serves as their own control, reducing individual differences and increasing statistical power. 57) Correlated-groups designs are generally more sensitive than between-subjects designs to A) researcher effects. B) the effects of the dependent variable. C) medications. D) the effects of the independent variable. Answer: D Rationale: Correlated-groups designs are more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable because they involve comparing within-subject differences rather than between-subject differences. This sensitivity allows for a better detection of the effects of the independent variable. 58) Which statistical analysis technique would be commonly used for the single-variable, within-subjects design? A) correlation coefficient B) repeated-measures ANOVA C) chi-square D) t-test for independent groups Answer: B Rationale: Repeated-measures ANOVA is commonly used for analyzing within-subjects designs where the same participants are measured under different conditions or at different times. It's appropriate for comparing means across multiple related conditions. 59) Which of the following is an appropriate statistical test for a within-subjects experiment with two experimental conditions and a dependent variable that produces score data? A) repeated-measures ANOVA B) t-test for independent groups C) chi-square D) ANOVA for independent groups Answer: A Rationale: Repeated-measures ANOVA is suitable for comparing means across two or more related conditions within the same participants in a within-subjects design. 60) The most commonly used statistical analysis for the single-variable, within-subjects experiment is A) a chi-square test. B) a t-test for independent groups. C) a simple ANOVA. D) a repeated-measures ANOVA. Answer: D Rationale: Repeated-measures ANOVA is the most commonly used statistical analysis for withinsubjects experiments because it allows for the comparison of means across multiple related conditions while accounting for within-subject variability. 61) In terms of the F-test, the value of F is increased by A) increasing experimental variance and/or decreasing error variance. B) decreasing experimental variance and/or increasing error variance. C) increasing error variance. D) decreasing error variance and/or decreasing experimental variance. Answer: A Rationale: In the F-test, F is the ratio of the variance between groups to the variance within groups. By increasing the experimental variance (the variance between groups) or decreasing the error variance (the variance within groups), the ratio of between-group variance to within-group variance (F) increases, leading to a larger F-value. 62) In within-subjects designs, the removal of individual differences would have what effect on the F-ratio? A) The F will be smaller. B) There will be no effect. C) increasing error variance. D) The denominator in the F-ratio will be larger. Answer: C Rationale: Within-subjects designs involve comparing the same subjects under different conditions, effectively controlling for individual differences. When individual differences are removed, there is less variability within groups, leading to a larger ratio of between-group variability to within-group variability, thus increasing the F-ratio. 63) The between-groups sum of squares in a one-way ANOVA is called a ________ in a repeated-measures ANOVA. A) within-groups sum of squares B) within-category sum of squares C) between-conditions sum of squares D) participants term Answer: C Rationale: In a repeated-measures ANOVA, the between-groups sum of squares in a traditional ANOVA is equivalent to the sum of squares between conditions, as conditions replace traditional between-group categories. 64) In the repeated-measures ANOVA, the within-groups sum of squares is split into the ________ and the ________. A) numerator; denominator B) between-groups term; within-groups term C) error term; degrees of freedom D) subjects term; error term Answer: D Rationale: In a repeated-measures ANOVA, the within-groups sum of squares is partitioned into the subjects term, representing individual differences, and the error term, representing random variability within conditions after removing the effect of individual differences. 65) In a repeated-measures ANOVA, we test the null hypothesis that there are no differences between conditions by dividing the ________ by the ________. A) mean square between; error mean square B) participants term; error term C) participants sum of squares; between-groups sum of squares D) error term; participants term Answer: A Rationale: To test the null hypothesis of no differences between conditions, we divide the mean square between conditions by the mean square error, which represents the variability within conditions after accounting for differences between conditions. 66) The major advantage of within-subjects designs over between-subjects designs is A) error variance is eliminated. B) fewer conditions are needed. C) simpler statistics can be used. D) individual differences are eliminated. Answer: D Rationale: Within-subjects designs allow for the elimination of individual differences because each participant is exposed to all conditions, making comparisons within participants rather than between participants. 67) What makes within-subjects designs more sensitive than between-subjects designs? A) They control for effects of maturation. B) They reduce error variance. C) They increase the number of participants. D) They require more measurements per condition. Answer: B Rationale: Within-subjects designs reduce error variance by controlling for individual differences, resulting in a more accurate estimation of treatment effects and increased statistical power. 68) In a repeated-measures design, the single largest contributing factor to error variance has been removed. What is that factor? A) individual differences B) experimenter effects C) participant bias effects D) measurement error Answer: A Rationale: In repeated-measures designs, individual differences are largely eliminated as each participant serves as their own control, thereby removing the variability attributed to differences between participants. 69) In a repeated measure ANOVA, we can partition out the effects of _____ from the error term. A) the sum of squares. B) individual differences. C) confounding variables. D) the manipulation of the dependent variable. Answer: B Rationale: In a repeated-measures ANOVA, individual differences are accounted for by separating them from the error term, allowing for a more accurate assessment of the treatment effects. 70) By removing the effects of individual differences from the error component in an ANOVA, the F value A) stays the same. B) becomes larger. C) becomes smaller. D) is around 1.00. Answer: B Rationale: Removing the effects of individual differences reduces the variability within groups, leading to a larger ratio of between-group variability to within-group variability, and thus a larger Fvalue. 71) Within-subjects designs A) increase variance due to participant differences. B) eliminate variance due to participant differences. C) increase variance due to the experimental manipulation. D) decrease variance due to the experimental manipulation. Answer: B Rationale: Within-subjects designs involve using the same participants for all conditions of the experiment, thereby controlling for individual differences because each participant serves as their own control. This eliminates variance due to participant differences. 72) By using a within-subjects design, we not only control, but actually eliminate A) experimenter bias. B) experimental variance. C) extraneous variance. D) the variance due to individual differences. Answer: D Rationale: Within-subjects designs eliminate the variance due to individual differences because each participant serves as their own control, thus controlling for and eliminating this source of variance. 73) The use of within-subjects designs decreases error variance by removing its major contributor, A) individual differences. B) group differences. C) systematically distributed noise in the design. D) external validity. Answer: A Rationale: Within-subjects designs decrease error variance by removing its major contributor, which is individual differences, as each participant serves as their own control. 74) Compared with between-subjects designs, within-subjects designs are A) more sensitive to effects of the independent variable. B) less sensitive to sequence effects. C) more sensitive to 4-way ANOVAs. D) less sensitive to participant needs. Answer: A Rationale: Within-subjects designs are more sensitive to effects of the independent variable because they reduce error variance by controlling for individual differences, making it easier to detect the effects of the independent variable. 75) Compared with between-subjects designs, correlated-groups designs A) are less precise in their findings. B) require more participants. C) are more likely to require ANOVAs. D) are more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable. Answer: D Rationale: Correlated-groups designs are more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable because they reduce error variance by controlling for individual differences, similar to withinsubjects designs. 76) What is the major advantage of within-subjects designs over between-subjects design? A) They rule out confounding variables. B) They require less time from each participant. C) They are more sensitive. D) They are better tests of causality. Answer: C Rationale: Within-subjects designs are more sensitive compared to between-subjects designs because they reduce error variance by controlling for individual differences, making it easier to detect effects of the independent variable. 77) One advantage of a within-subjects design is that there are no differences between groups due to A) experimenter variables. B) organismic variables. C) Hawthorn effects. D) miscalculations. Answer: B Rationale: Within-subjects designs control for differences between groups due to organismic variables because each participant serves as their own control, eliminating this source of variance. 78) One important advantage of within-subjects designs is that they are often a great deal more sensitive than between-subjects designs to A) the effects of both the independent and dependent variables. B) statistical analysis. C) the effects of the independent variable. D) the effects of the dependent variable. Answer: C Rationale: Within-subjects designs are often more sensitive to the effects of the independent variable compared to between-subjects designs because they reduce error variance by controlling for individual differences. 79) One advantage of correlated-groups designs over between-subjects designs is that they A) require more participants. B) provide for better random assignment. C) are more sensitive to manipulation effects. D) need fewer variables. Answer: C Rationale: Correlated-groups designs are more sensitive to manipulation effects compared to betweensubjects designs because they reduce error variance by controlling for individual differences. 80) An advantage of within-subjects designs is that A) they are less complex conceptually. B) fewer participants are needed to run the experiment. C) the statistics used are simpler than in a between-subjects design. D) sequence effects enhance the results. Answer: B Rationale: Within-subjects designs require fewer participants compared to between-subjects designs because each participant serves as their own control, reducing the need for a larger sample size. 81) Practice effects are due to A) influences of a particular condition. B) research bias. C) sequence. D) task familiarity. Answer: D Rationale: Practice effects refer to improvements in performance due to repeated exposure or practice with a task. This improvement occurs because participants become more familiar and skilled with the task over time, indicating that the correct answer is D) task familiarity. 82) An advantage of within-subjects designs is that A) they are much more sensitive than between-subjects designs to the effects of the dependent variable. B) there are no placebo effects in drug studies. C) often there is a considerable savings of time since instructions do not have to be repeated. D) the effect size is usually larger because more participants are needed. Answer: C Rationale: Within-subjects designs involve each participant experiencing all conditions of the experiment, which eliminates individual differences and increases statistical power. Consequently, there is often a considerable savings of time since instructions do not have to be repeated for different groups of participants, making option C) correct. 83) We carry out a study using an independent-groups design. We have ten participants per condition and three conditions. The total number of participants needed to carry out this study will be ________. A) 20 B) 30 C) 10 D) 40 Answer: B Rationale: In an independent-groups design, each condition consists of different participants. With 10 participants per condition and 3 conditions, the total number of participants needed is calculated by multiplying the number of participants per condition by the number of conditions, resulting in 10 participants x 3 conditions = 30 participants, thus option B) is correct. 84) The major disadvantage in using within-subjects designs is the possible confounding factor of A) participant effects. B) experimenter effects. C) joint alpha. D) sequence effects. Answer: D Rationale: Within-subjects designs expose participants to all conditions of the experiment, which can lead to sequence effects, where the order of conditions influences the results. This is a major disadvantage as it confounds the effects of the independent variable. Therefore, option D) sequence effects is correct. 85) In cases in which a treatment has a long-lasting effect on participants, ________ are difficult to control in a within-subjects design. A) sequence effects B) placebo effects C) Type I errors D) Type II errors Answer: A Rationale: Sequence effects, where the order of conditions affects the outcome, are difficult to control in within-subjects designs, particularly when a treatment has a long-lasting effect on participants. Thus, option A) sequence effects is the correct choice. 86) The research design to use when strong carry-over effects are thought to be likely is a A) matched-subjects design. B) single-variable, within-subjects design. C) class research design. D) longitudinal design. Answer: A Rationale: Matched-subjects designs involve pairing participants based on relevant characteristics, which helps control for carry-over effects that might occur in within-subjects designs. Therefore, option A) matched-subjects design is the correct choice. 87) Confounding in a single-group, pretest-posttest design can be controlled by A) the use of the Latin square design. B) the use of the ANOVA. C) the use of the t-test. D) the addition of a control group. Answer: D Rationale: Confounding in a single-group, pretest-posttest design can be controlled by adding a control group. This allows for comparison between the treatment group and a group that does not receive the treatment, helping to isolate the effects of the treatment variable. Hence, option D) the addition of a control group is correct. 88) The single-group, pretest-posttest design, although it is considered a(n) ________ design, is a(n) ________ design. A) within-subjects; nonexperimental B) between-subjects; nonexperimental C) within-subjects; experimental D) low-constraint; experimental Answer: A Rationale: The single-group, pretest-posttest design involves measuring participants' responses before and after exposure to a treatment within the same group, making it a within-subjects design. However, because there is no comparison group, it is considered nonexperimental. Thus, option A) within-subjects; nonexperimental is the correct choice. 11.2 Matched-Subjects Designs 1) The process of matching before assignment to conditions is called A) a pretest-posttest design. B) random participant assignment. C) nonrandom participant assignment. D) matched random assignment. Answer: D Rationale: Matching before assignment to conditions is termed as matched random assignment. This involves pairing participants based on relevant characteristics before they are assigned to different experimental conditions. Hence, option D) matched random assignment is the correct choice. 2) In matched-subjects designs, A) each participant is exposed to all levels of the dependent variable. B) each participant is exposed to one level of the dependent variable. C) each participant has a matched participant in each condition. D) each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variable. Answer: C Rationale: In matched-subjects designs, each participant is paired or matched with another participant based on relevant characteristics, and each participant has a matched participant in each condition. This ensures that the groups are equivalent on those characteristics, reducing variability and increasing the internal validity of the study. Thus, option C) each participant has a matched participant in each condition is the correct choice. 3) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of matched-subjects designs? A) Each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable. B) Each participant has a matched participant in each of the other conditions, so that the groups are correlated. C) Each participant serves as his or her own control. D) The critical comparison is the difference between the correlated groups, where the correlation is created by the matching procedure. Answer: C Rationale: In matched-subjects designs, participants are not their own controls; instead, the matching procedure aims to create comparable groups. Each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable, and the critical comparison is between correlated groups. However, there is no control condition within the same participant in matched-subjects designs. 4) In matched-subjects designs, A) each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variable. B) each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable. C) there must be at least three levels of the independent variable. D) there must be at least four levels of the independent variable in order to accomplish the proper matching. Answer: B Rationale: Matched-subjects designs involve assigning each participant to only one level of the independent variable. This contrasts with within-subjects designs, where participants experience all levels of the independent variable. Therefore, option B is correct. 5) In a research study employing a within-subjects design, the researchers become concerned that the hypothesis might be discernible by participants because each participant sees all of the experimental conditions. In such a circumstance, it would be best to use a A) time-series design. B) posttest-pretest design. C) matched-subjects design. D) None of the above Answer: C Rationale: Matched-subjects designs are suitable when there's concern about participants detecting the hypothesis due to exposure to all experimental conditions. By matching participants on relevant variables, the risk of hypothesis disclosure is minimized. 6) Independent-groups designs rely on ________ to equate groups. A) chance B) equivalence C) matching D) variable relevance Answer: A Rationale: Independent-groups designs typically rely on random assignment to ensure groups are equivalent. Random assignment helps minimize systematic differences between groups, ensuring that any observed differences are more likely due to the independent variable manipulation. 7) Matched-subjects designs are commonly used when A) we need an independent-subjects group. B) researchers are studying eye color or visual acuity. C) several dependent variables are being tested at the same time. D) exposure to a condition causes long-term changes in the participant, making it impossible for the participant to appear in the other conditions. Answer: D Rationale: Matched-subjects designs are preferred when exposure to one condition may have lasting effects, preventing participants from appearing in other conditions. By matching participants on relevant variables, the effects of these variables are controlled, allowing for more accurate comparisons. 8) If an instructor wanted to compare two methods of teaching reading to first graders, which type of design would NOT be appropriate and why? A) A matched-subjects design is not appropriate because it requires too many participants in comparison with other types of designs. B) A within-subjects design is not appropriate because of its sensitivity to carryover effects. C) A between-subjects design is not appropriate because of its sensitivity to carryover effects. D) A matched-subjects design is not appropriate because of its sensitivity of carryover effects. Answer: B Rationale: Within-subjects designs are not suitable when there's a risk of carryover effects, as each participant experiences all conditions. This can lead to contamination of results, particularly if the conditions are highly similar or if order effects are present. 9) In a study of the effectiveness of an experimental drug on sleep apnea, researchers are expecting the drug to have long-lasting beneficial effects on their participants. In this case, what type of correlated-groups design should they use? A) a within-subjects design B) a matched-subjects design C) a simple repeated-measures design D) a matched-conditions design Answer: B Rationale: A matched-subjects design is appropriate when researchers expect long-lasting effects from one condition, as it ensures comparable groups by matching participants on relevant variables. This minimizes the risk of confounding variables affecting the results. 10) Matching participants on the variable of gender is relatively simple because A) gender of participants has only two levels. B) gender is a continuous variable. C) many studies use gender as a variable. D) determining gender is a relatively straightforward procedure. Answer: A Rationale: Gender typically has two levels (male and female), making it relatively straightforward to match participants based on this variable compared to continuous variables or variables with multiple levels. 11) In using a matched-subjects design, it is important to remember that matching on more than one continuous variable A) is difficult to accomplish and will usually result in significant participant loss. B) is preferred to matching on dichotomous variables. C) is difficult to accomplish and usually results in skewed distributions. D) often confounds the results if the variables are strongly related to performance on the dependent measure(s). Answer: A Rationale: Matching on multiple continuous variables can be challenging and may result in significant participant loss, as finding participants who closely match on multiple dimensions becomes increasingly difficult. 12) Matching participants A) becomes easier as the number of matching variables increases. B) increases error variance. C) is best when there are a small number of matching variables. D) requires equal numbers of males and females. Answer: C Rationale: Matching participants becomes more manageable when there are fewer matching variables, as it increases the likelihood of finding suitable matches without excessive participant loss. Matching on too many variables can complicate the matching process and potentially lead to skewed distributions or increased error variance. 13) Matching several variables simultaneously A) can lead to egregious errors when analyzing the data set. B) is commonly done when the researcher has only a few participants to work with. C) is usually not a workable solution. D) is easy and is far superior to a within-subjects design. Answer: C Rationale: Matching several variables simultaneously can often be impractical or infeasible due to the complexity it introduces. It can lead to difficulties in finding appropriate matches for each participant, potentially compromising the study's validity and making the process unworkable. 14) In choosing relevant variables for matching in a matched-subjects design, it is important to note that A) we must establish the same degree of control over all extraneous variables as found in a within-subjects design. B) we must match participants on all variables, whether relevant or not. C) we cannot match participants on too many variables without introducing variable-match confounding. D) a variable is relevant if it can have an effect on the dependent variable in a study. Answer: D Rationale: Relevant variables for matching in a matched-subjects design are those that can potentially affect the dependent variable. Matching on irrelevant variables adds unnecessary complexity and may not improve the study's validity. 15) When seeking to match participants on relevant variables in a matched-subjects design, which of the following defines a relevant variable? A) a variable that has no effect on the dependent variable B) a variable that can have an effect on the dependent variable C) a variable that has an effect on the independent variable D) any variable Answer: B Rationale: Relevant variables in a matched-subjects design are those that can influence the dependent variable, as matching on these variables helps to control for potential confounding factors and enhances the validity of the study. Matching on variables that have no effect on the dependent variable would not improve the matching process or the validity of the study. 16) In matched-subjects designs, the important variables to match on are A) those related to performance on the dependent measure(s). B) those related to performance on the independent variable(s). C) those variables that do not threaten to confound the study. D) age and IQ. Answer: A Rationale: Matched-subjects designs aim to reduce variability between groups, particularly regarding the dependent measure(s) under investigation. Therefore, it's crucial to match participants based on variables related to their performance on the dependent measure(s) to ensure that any observed differences between groups are not due to pre-existing disparities in these variables. Options B, C, and D are less relevant because they do not directly address the key objective of matching in a matched-subjects design. 17) Assume we are carrying out a study involving children between the ages of 6 months and 2-1/2 years. We are looking at the effects of sudden noise on behavioral response. The most important variable to match the groups on is A) birth order. B) eye color. C) age. D) weight. Answer: C Rationale: Age is the most critical variable to match on in this scenario because the study focuses on children's behavioral responses, which can vary significantly depending on their developmental stage. Matching on age helps ensure that any observed differences in response to sudden noise are not confounded by age-related developmental factors. Options A, B, and D are less relevant to the study's focus on behavioral response to sudden noise. 18) In a matched-subjects design, it is best to match on variables that A) show the smallest amount of variance in the population from which we are sampling. B) demonstrate very small mean differences in randomly selected groups. C) do not affect the dependent measure(s). D) show the greatest natural variability in the population from which we are sampling. Answer: D Rationale: Matching on variables with the greatest natural variability in the population helps ensure that the matched groups are representative and cover the full range of relevant characteristics. This approach maximizes the generalizability of findings while minimizing the risk of overlooking important sources of variation. Options A, B, and C do not address the primary objective of matching in a matched-subjects design, which is to reduce variability between groups on factors relevant to the dependent measure(s). 19) Which of the following variables is most likely NOT a critical variable on which to match participants in research using high school student populations? A) age B) gender C) IQ D) family income Answer: A Rationale: In research involving high school student populations, age is typically not a critical variable to match on because participants are generally within a narrow age range. Gender, IQ, and family income are more likely to influence various aspects of behavior, cognition, and socioeconomic status, respectively, making them more critical variables for matching purposes. 20) When doing research with young children, which of the following can be a particularly important variable on which to match participants? A) eye color B) age C) height D) handwriting samples Answer: B Rationale: Age is often a crucial variable to match on when conducting research with young children because developmental differences can significantly impact cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses. Matching on age helps control for these developmental disparities and ensures that any observed effects are not confounded by age-related factors. Options A, C, and D are less relevant to the developmental considerations inherent in research with young children. 21) It is especially important for researchers to be thoroughly familiar with research literature when performing which type of design? A) naturalistic research B) case-study designs C) matched-subjects designs D) between-groups designs Answer: C Rationale: Thorough familiarity with research literature is crucial when performing matched-subjects designs because researchers need to identify and select relevant variables for matching, understand potential confounding variables, and interpret findings in the context of existing research. Options A, B, and D may also require familiarity with the literature, but the complexity of matching in matched-subjects designs often necessitates a deeper understanding of prior research. 22) In matched-subjects designs, random assignment of matched participants to groups is A) not necessary. B) necessary to control unidentified confounding variables. C) unlikely to control unidentified confounding variables. D) not useful. Answer: B Rationale: Random assignment of matched participants to groups helps ensure that any remaining differences between groups are due to chance rather than systematic biases or confounding variables. While matching minimizes differences between groups on known variables, random assignment helps control for unidentified or unmeasured variables that could still influence the outcome. Options A, C, and D underestimate the importance of random assignment in controlling for confounding variables in matched-subjects designs. 23) It is important in a matched-subjects design for researchers to assign each matched set of participants randomly to the conditions primarily because A) all of the critical variables should have been identified by consulting published studies. B) of the requirements to keep researchers blind as to condition. C) of the requirements to keep participants blind as to condition. D) random assignment within sets can control for unidentified confounding variables. Answer: D Rationale: Random assignment within matched sets helps to control for unidentified confounding variables that may still exist despite efforts to match participants on relevant variables. This randomization ensures that any remaining differences between the conditions within each matched set are due to chance rather than systematic biases. 24) The key to analyzing data from a matched-subjects design is to A) maintain the ordering of data all the way through to the end of the study. B) enter the data in a random order so as not to introduce an order confounding. C) analyze the data in the same way as a one-way ANOVA. D) avoid the use of a repeated-measures ANOVA. Answer: A Rationale: Maintaining the ordering of data preserves the matched nature of the design, ensuring that comparisons are made between matched pairs. This helps control for individual differences between participants and enhances the sensitivity of the analysis. 25) Matched-subjects designs A) require no more than ten participants, just like within-subjects designs. B) are sensitive to small experimental differences, just like within-subjects designs. C) cannot be used with young children for ethical reasons. D) require at least four balanced experimental conditions. Answer: B Rationale: Matched-subjects designs are sensitive to small experimental differences because each participant is matched with another participant on key variables, reducing individual differences and increasing the power of the design. 26) Compared with within-subjects designs, matched-subjects designs A) have stronger sequence effects. B) eliminate all variance. C) have no practice and carry-over effects. D) maximize the within-groups variance. Answer: C Rationale: Matched-subjects designs minimize practice and carry-over effects because each participant is only exposed to one condition, unlike within-subjects designs where participants experience multiple conditions. 27) Both the matched-subjects and the within-subjects designs have greater sensitivity than between-subjects designs to A) factorial crossover effects. B) small differences between conditions. C) practice and carry-over effects. D) dichotomous variables than to continuous variables. Answer: B Rationale: Both matched-subjects and within-subjects designs are more sensitive to small differences between conditions compared to between-subjects designs because they control for individual differences through matching or repeated measures. 28) The major disadvantage of the matched-subjects design is that A) it cannot control for sequence effects. B) it has a low level of statistical power. C) it is often a lot of extra work. D) it requires too few participants. Answer: C Rationale: The matched-subjects design can be more labor-intensive because it involves pairing participants based on specific criteria, which can require additional effort in recruitment and matching. 11.3 Single-Subject Experimental Designs 1) Single-subject designs A) use one participant in a randomly assigned condition. B) use one participant in one condition. C) are usually variations on time-series designs. D) use one participant in one condition and another participant in another condition. Answer: C Rationale: Single-subject designs typically involve variations on time-series designs, where one participant is studied over time under different conditions or phases. 2) Single-subject designs are extensions of A) between-subjects designs. B) matched-subjects designs. C) naturalistic designs. D) within-subjects designs. Answer: D Rationale: Single-subject designs are extensions of within-subjects designs because they involve studying the same participant under different conditions, allowing for within-subject comparisons. 3) Single-subject designs are often used in research on A) behavior modification. B) stereotyping and prejudice. C) development of teaching methods. D) the side effects of psychotropic medications. Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject designs are commonly used in behavior modification research because they allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions on individual participants. 4) Single-subject designs are A) experimental designs carried out using a single participant. B) nonexperimental designs carried out using a single participant. C) designs that investigate only one single research topic at a time. D) unpopular in clinical psychology. Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject designs are experimental designs that involve studying the behavior of a single participant under different conditions or phases, allowing for within-subject comparisons. 5) Single-subject designs are A) experimental designs that are carried out using only a single participant. B) experimental designs in which each participant is considered separately before being added to the group. C) correlational designs in which each participant is matched with another participant. D) correlational designs that are carried out using only a single participant. Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject designs involve the intensive study of individual participants, often across multiple conditions or time points, allowing researchers to draw conclusions about the effects of interventions or treatments on a single individual's behavior. 6) Single-subject experimental designs are variations of within-subject designs because the same A) participant is exposed to all manipulations. B) statistical test is used to analyze both designs. C) dependent measures are of interest in both types of design. D) independent variables are investigated in both types of design. Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject experimental designs, like within-subject designs, involve repeated measures on the same participant across different conditions or phases, allowing researchers to observe changes within individuals over time or across manipulations. 7) Single-subject designs are variations on _____ designs because the same participant is exposed to all manipulations. A) correlational B) differential C) within-subject D) between-subject Answer: C Rationale: Within-subject designs involve the same participants being exposed to different conditions or manipulations, allowing for direct comparisons within individuals, which is a characteristic feature of single-subject designs. 8) Single-subject designs are variations on _____ designs because we take dependent measurements of the same participant at different points in time. A) time-series B) between-subject C) differential D) correlational Answer: A Rationale: Time-series designs involve repeated measurements of the same variable over time, and single-subject designs often utilize this approach to observe changes in behavior within individuals across different conditions or phases. 9) Single-subject designs are variations on A) naturalistic designs. B) mixed designs. C) within-subject designs D) between-subject designs Answer: C Rationale: Single-subject designs are a type of within-subject design where the focus is on observing individual behavior across different conditions or phases. 10) Single-subject experimental designs represent a further development of what type of designs? A) time-series designs B) between-subjects designs C) ex post facto designs D) between-groups designs Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject experimental designs build upon the principles of time-series designs by incorporating experimental manipulation of independent variables within the repeated measures framework. 11) Which of the following is true about single-subject designs? A) They are variations of within-subjects designs. B) They have poor internal validity. C) They have good internal and external validity. D) They have poor internal validity but good external validity. Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject designs are variations of within-subjects designs, focusing on intensive study of individual participants, but they can sometimes face challenges regarding internal validity due to potential confounding variables. 12) Single-subject experiments A) are the same as case studies. B) differ from case studies because independent variables are manipulated. C) cannot support causal inferences. D) have extremely high external validity. Answer: B Rationale: Single-subject experiments involve manipulating independent variables within a controlled setting, distinguishing them from case studies where variables are not typically manipulated but rather observed as they occur naturally. 13) The ex post facto, single-case study ________ hypotheses, while the single-subject design ________ hypotheses. A) uses; does not us B) generates; tests C) tests; generate D) negates; augments Answer: B Rationale: Ex post facto and single-case study designs may generate hypotheses based on observed patterns, while single-subject designs typically involve testing hypotheses through experimental manipulation of variables. 14) In the ex post facto, single-case study design, independent variables are A) not manipulated and are really inferred variables. B) manipulated after the fact. C) controlled through random assignment. D) not changed over time. Answer: A Rationale: In ex post facto and single-case study designs, independent variables are not manipulated but rather observed as they naturally occur, leading to inferences about potential relationships or causes based on observed patterns. 15) Which of the following is a weak design because the researcher has no control over the independent variables? A) single-subject experimental design B) ex post facto, single-case study C) single-topic design D) repeated-measures design Answer: B Rationale: The ex post facto, single-case study is a weak design because the researcher cannot control the independent variables. In ex post facto studies, the independent variables have already occurred or been set by circumstances beyond the researcher's control, limiting the ability to establish causal relationships. 16) The basic comparison in single-subject experimental designs is A) between the participant's responses and those of a matched control. B) between the same participant's own pretreatment and post-treatment responses. C) between the post-treatment responses of the participant and those of a matched control. D) a comparison between the real and the ideal responses. Answer: B Rationale: In single-subject experimental designs, the basic comparison is between the same participant's own pretreatment and post-treatment responses. This allows for the examination of changes within the individual over time rather than comparing different individuals or groups. 17) Single-subject designs can improve on the pretest-posttest designs by A) adding a control group. B) adding an additional single-subject as a hypothetical control. C) adding more conditions to the experiment. D) using a better statistical test to evaluate the data. Answer: C Rationale: Single-subject designs can improve on pretest-posttest designs by adding more conditions to the experiment. By incorporating multiple conditions or phases, researchers can assess the effects of different interventions or variables within the same individual. 18) Which of the following statements is accurate? A) The single-subject experimental design is problematic because we are unable to manipulate independent variables. B) The ex post facto, single-case study is used to test hypotheses. C) We are able to manipulate independent variables and to draw causal inferences in the single-subject experimental design. D) We are able to manipulate independent variables and to draw causal inferences in the ex post facto, single-case study design. Answer: C Rationale: The statement that is accurate is: We are able to manipulate independent variables and to draw causal inferences in the single-subject experimental design. Single-subject experimental designs involve manipulation of independent variables within the same individual and allow for drawing causal inferences based on repeated observations and interventions. 19) In single-subject experimental designs, we are able to A) manipulate dependent variables and observe their effect on independent variables. B) manipulate independent variables and observe their effect on dependent variables. C) use large groups of participants while paying attention to each participant's individual differences. D) draw causal inferences without manipulating the independent variable. Answer: B Rationale: In single-subject experimental designs, researchers are able to manipulate independent variables and observe their effect on dependent variables within the same individual. This allows for the examination of causal relationships at the individual level. 20) Single-subject experimental designs are useful when A) we want to generalize to a population. B) we want to limit our conclusions to a particular individual. C) we want to increase external validity. D) we want to do an intensive study of a representative group. Answer: B Rationale: Single-subject experimental designs are useful when we want to limit our conclusions to a particular individual. These designs focus on the intensive study of individual behavior rather than making generalizations to populations or representative groups. 21) Single-subject designs are useful when A) we want an intensive study of an individual. B) we do not wish to make inferences about a population. C) we want to limit the conclusions to the individual. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Single-subject designs are useful when we want an intensive study of an individual, when we do not wish to make inferences about a population, and when we want to limit the conclusions to the individual. These designs allow for detailed examination of behavior at the individual level. 22) Single-subject designs are weak in A) external validity. B) statistical validity. C) internal validity. D) construct validity. Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject designs are weak in external validity because they focus on the behavior of a single individual, making it difficult to generalize findings to other individuals or populations. 23) Single-subject designs A) can give us valid and reliable information about a population. B) can give us valid and reliable information about a single individual. C) cannot give us valid and reliable information. D) should be used only when more participants are not available. Answer: B Rationale: Single-subject designs can give us valid and reliable information about a single individual. By closely examining behavior within the context of interventions or conditions, researchers can draw meaningful conclusions about individual behavior. 24) Single-subject experiments are necessarily weak in A) confound validity. B) construct validity. C) internal validity. D) external validity. Answer: D Rationale: Single-subject experiments are necessarily weak in external validity because they focus on the behavior of a single individual, limiting the generalizability of findings to other individuals or populations. 25) If a researcher suspects that treatment may be effective for some participants and it may not be effective for other participants, using between-subjects group comparison designs A) may obscure the effect by averaging the scores of the individuals in the group. B) will allow the researcher to determine the effect of treatment on the individual as well as the group. C) will allow the researcher to determine the effect of treatment on the individual, but will obscure the effect on the group. D) is unethical because there may be participants who are not cured. Answer: A Rationale: In between-subjects group comparison designs, individual differences in treatment response are often obscured by averaging scores across participants. This can lead to the masking of potential treatment effects, especially if the treatment is effective for some but not all participants. 26) If a between-subjects, group comparison design was used to evaluate a treatment in which some participants in the experimental group improved, some remained the same, and some became worse, the researcher would most likely conclude A) the treatment is effective. B) the treatment is not effective. C) the treatment is more effective for the control group than for the experimental group. D) there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Answer: B Rationale: If there are participants who did not show improvement or even worsened after receiving the treatment in an experimental group, it would suggest that the treatment is not effective overall. 27) Which of the following is NOT an example of a common usage of single-subject designs? A) determining whether a particular client is improving when a particular treatment is applied B) determining if a specific child's academic achievement improves with a specific teaching method C) determining if an antismoking campaign is having an effect at a specific school D) determining which particular dose of a drug is the most effective for a specific patient Answer: C Rationale: Single-subject designs typically focus on assessing the impact of interventions or treatments at the individual level rather than assessing broad, population-level interventions like antismoking campaigns at specific locations. 28) The basis for Sidman's (1960) argument that single-subject designs are preferable to group-comparison designs is that A) single-subject designs are more efficient. B) single-subject designs are less costly. C) in the process of summarizing each group's performance, we may lose important information on how individuals perform. D) group-comparison designs generally require the use of sophisticated Bayesian statistical analyses. Answer: C Rationale: Sidman argued that group-comparison designs often lose important individual-level information by summarizing performance across groups, which can obscure potentially meaningful variability in treatment effects among individuals. 29) Single-subject designs are sometimes preferable to between-subjects group comparison designs because A) independent variables cannot be manipulated in between-subjects group comparison designs. B) single-subject designs have greater external validity. C) important information about the way individuals perform is lost when summarizing group information. D) None of the above (single-subject designs are never preferable to between-subjects designs) Answer: C Rationale: Single-subject designs allow for a more detailed analysis of individual responses to treatment, whereas group comparison designs may overlook individual variability in treatment effects. 30) Bergin (1966) and Bergin and Strupp (1970) were critical of the use of group-comparison methods in A) studying the effects of seat belt legislation. B) studying the effects of psychotropic medication. C) agricultural research. D) evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Answer: D Rationale: Bergin and Strupp criticized the use of group-comparison methods specifically in evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy, arguing that such methods failed to capture the complexity of individual responses to treatment. 31) Which of the following statements is accurate? A) The intensive experimental study of individuals had a prominent place in psychology up until the late 1930s. B) The intensive experimental study of individuals has always been frowned upon in American psychology. C) E. L. Witmer was responsible for the abolition of intensive experimental study of individuals in the 1930s. D) B. F. Skinner was responsible for the abolition of intensive experimental study of individuals in the 1950s. Answer: A Rationale: Prior to the late 1930s, intensive experimental study of individuals was a common approach in psychology, and it only began to decline in prominence thereafter. 32) The most influential factor in the shift from single-subject to group comparisons was most likely the A) work of E. L. Witmer in the 1930s, calling for the creation of clinical psychology. B) publication in 1935 of Sir Ronald Fisher's The Design of Experiments. C) work of B. F. Skinner in the 1950s, which demanded the use of more controlled methods in psychological research. D) availability of research participants following the post-World War II return of veterans. Answer: B Rationale: The publication of Fisher's work on experimental design in 1935 popularized groupcomparison methods and contributed to the shift away from single-subject designs in psychological research. 33) The publication in 1935 of Sir Ronald Fisher's The Design of Experiments heralded a shift A) from group-comparison experiments to intensive experimental study of individuals B) from the use of analysis of variance to the use of t-tests. C) from single-subject designs to multi-subject, group-comparison experiments. D) from thinking clinically to thinking experimentally. Answer: C Rationale: Fisher's work promoted the use of group-comparison experiments over single-subject designs in experimental research. 34) Following the 1935 publication of Fisher's work on experimental design, experimental research in psychology shifted, with one notable exception, to the use of multi-subject procedures. Who is the influential psychologist who continued to develop methods for the controlled study of individual participants? A) E. L. Witmer B) Sigmund Freud C) Solomon Asch D) B. F. Skinner Answer: D Rationale: B. F. Skinner continued to advocate for and develop methods for the controlled study of individual participants despite the shift towards group-comparison methods in psychology. 35) Who wrote the influential treatise on research methodology entitled The Design of Experiments (1935)? A) Sir Ronald Fisher B) B. F. Skinner C) Sir Reginald Bayer D) Donald F. Campbell Answer: A Rationale: Sir Ronald Fisher authored The Design of Experiments in 1935. Fisher was a prominent statistician and geneticist who made significant contributions to experimental design and statistical analysis, particularly in the field of agricultural research. 36) What is the significance for psychology of the 1935 publication of Fisher's The Design of Experiments? A) It was the last book published in Europe before the takeover by the Nazis. B) It laid the groundwork for the development of multi-subject, group-comparison experiments and provided the statistical procedures for evaluating data from such designs. C) It laid the groundwork for the development of the experimental analysis of behavior, which is primarily focused on intensive and systematic study of individual participants. D) It was the first time that statistical models were presented to psychologists for use in evaluating their experiments. Answer: B Rationale: Fisher's book laid the foundation for modern experimental design and statistical analysis in psychology by introducing methods for conducting multi-subject experiments and evaluating data from such designs. It provided essential statistical procedures that became fundamental tools for psychologists conducting research involving group comparisons. 37) Who is primarily responsible for the development of "the experimental analysis of behavior"? A) E. L. Witmer B) J. B. Watson C) B. F. Skinner D) R. A. Fisher Answer: C Rationale: B. F. Skinner is primarily responsible for the development of the experimental analysis of behavior. Skinner's work laid the theoretical and methodological groundwork for this approach, emphasizing the study of behavior in controlled laboratory settings with a focus on individual subjects. 38) The "experimental analysis of behavior" refers to the development of methods for A) statistical analyses of group designs. B) the study of animal behavior in laboratories. C) designing multi-subject, group-comparison studies. D) the intensive, systematic, and controlled study of individual participants. Answer: D Rationale: The experimental analysis of behavior involves the intensive, systematic, and controlled study of individual participants, typically in laboratory settings. It emphasizes understanding behavior through experimental manipulations and rigorous observation. 39) The controlled study of a single individual has become particularly important in A) clinical psychology. B) cognitive psychology. C) cross-cultural psychology. D) social psychology. Answer: A Rationale: The controlled study of a single individual, often referred to as single-subject design, has become particularly important in clinical psychology. This approach allows for detailed examination and evaluation of interventions and treatments tailored to individual clients. 40) One reason the study of single subjects declined after the 1930s is A) the availability of new statistical procedures to evaluate multi-subject designs. B) the end of the Great Depression led to greater availability of money for multi-subject designs. C) B. F. Skinner encouraged the use of multi-subject designs. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: The availability of new statistical procedures to evaluate multi-subject designs contributed to the decline in the study of single subjects after the 1930s. Researchers began to rely more on group designs due to the perceived advantages in terms of statistical power and generalizability. 41) Many of the single-subject designs used today are extensions of _____ work to develop methods for intensive, systematic, and controlled study of individual participants. A) Rosenhan's B) Skinner's C) Freud's D) Fisher's Answer: B Rationale: Many single-subject designs used today are extensions of B. F. Skinner's work. Skinner pioneered methods for conducting intensive, systematic, and controlled studies of individual participants, laying the foundation for modern single-subject research methodologies. 42) Baseline measures are taken A) before any manipulations are made. B) immediately following the manipulation. C) only on the experimental group. D) only on the control group. Answer: A Rationale: Baseline measures are taken before any manipulations are made in an experiment. They provide a basis for comparison to assess the effects of the experimental manipulations on the dependent variable. 43) ABA designs are also known as A) alphabetic designs. B) Latin square designs. C) reversal designs. D) multiple baseline designs. Answer: C Rationale: ABA designs are also known as reversal designs. In these designs, the baseline phase (A) is followed by the treatment phase (B), which is then followed by a return to baseline (A) to assess the reversibility of the effects of the treatment. 44) In reversal designs, the effects of a manipulation are demonstrated by A) measuring the independent variable at three or four points in time. B) measuring the independent variable during the no-treatment baseline period. C) reversing the order of presentation of experimental stimuli. D) measuring the dependent variable at three or four points in time. Answer: D Rationale: In reversal designs, the effects of a manipulation are demonstrated by measuring the dependent variable at three or four points in time: during baseline, during treatment, during the reversal to baseline, and potentially during a second treatment phase. This allows researchers to observe changes in behavior associated with the manipulation of the independent variable. 45) In an ABA reversal design, the term "reversal" refers to A) the sequential reversal of levels of treatment. B) reversing the order of presentation of stimuli. C) controlling for sequence effects. D) switching the independent variable with the dependent variable. Answer: A Rationale: In ABA reversal designs, the term "reversal" specifically denotes the sequential reversal of levels of treatment. This means that after an initial baseline period (A), the treatment is introduced (B), followed by a return to baseline conditions (A). This allows researchers to observe whether changes in the dependent variable correspond to the introduction and removal of the treatment. 46) In ABA designs, the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are demonstrated if A) the level of the dependent variable stays the same in spite of any manipulation. B) the behavior changes in the predicted direction whenever the conditions are reversed. C) the level of the dependent variable changes even though there is no independent variable being manipulated. D) the time graph shows some fluctuations. Answer: B Rationale: In ABA designs, the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are demonstrated when the behavior changes in the predicted direction whenever the conditions are reversed. This indicates that the changes in behavior are specifically tied to the introduction and removal of the independent variable, supporting a causal relationship. 47) The second A in an ABA design refers to A) the reversal to the no-treatment condition. B) the absolute minimum number of responses. C) the archaic principle. D) the treatment condition. Answer: A Rationale: The second A in an ABA design refers to the reversal to the no-treatment condition. This signifies the return to baseline conditions after the introduction of the treatment (B). It allows researchers to assess whether changes observed during the treatment phase are indeed due to the manipulation of the independent variable. 48) What does the B refer to in an ABA design? A) the treatment condition B) the baseline condition C) a return to the baseline condition D) the behavior of the participant Answer: A Rationale: In an ABA design, the B refers to the treatment condition. It is the phase where the independent variable is introduced, allowing researchers to observe its effects on the dependent variable. 49) Reversal designs are also called A) pretest-posttest designs. B) randomized time-series designs. C) multiple baseline designs. D) ABA designs. Answer: D Rationale: Reversal designs are also known as ABA designs. This naming convention reflects the sequential structure of the design, involving baseline (A), treatment (B), and reversal to baseline (A) phases. 50) The experimental manipulation in reversal designs A) occurs only in the control group. B) occurs after baseline measurements have been taken. C) occurs naturally and therefore is not a true manipulation. D) Both A and B Answer: B Rationale: In reversal designs, the experimental manipulation typically occurs after baseline measurements have been taken. This allows researchers to establish a stable baseline before introducing the treatment condition, facilitating the assessment of its effects on the dependent variable. 51) When using an ABA design, if you find that the behavior (the dependent measure) changes in the predicted direction, increasing or decreasing each time the reversal occurs, then A) you have a compelling demonstration that the dependent measure is unreliable and should be changed. B) you should consider the possibility that the dependent variable is not constant and is causing the fluctuations. C) you have a compelling demonstration that the independent variable, and not some confounding variable, has affected the dependent variable. D) you have shown that confounding variables, and not the independent variable, has affected the dependent variable. Answer: C Rationale: When behavior changes in the predicted direction each time the reversal occurs in an ABA design, it provides a compelling demonstration that the independent variable, and not some confounding variable, has affected the dependent variable. This supports the conclusion that the observed changes in behavior are indeed due to the manipulation of the independent variable. 52) In an ABA reversal design, we are given a compelling demonstration that the independent variable is responsible for the change in the dependent variable when A) there is no reversal. B) the behavior changes in the predicted direction each time the reversal occurs. C) the behavior changes in no particular direction at each measurement instance. D) the behavior stays the same each time the reversal occurs. Answer: B Rationale: In an ABA reversal design, a compelling demonstration that the independent variable is responsible for the change in the dependent variable is given when the behavior changes in the predicted direction each time the reversal occurs. This pattern of behavior supports the conclusion that the manipulation of the independent variable is driving the observed changes. 53) What type of relationship is tested in reversal designs? A) differential B) correlational C) causal D) inverted Answer: C Rationale: Reversal designs test causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. By systematically introducing and removing the independent variable, researchers can assess whether changes in the dependent variable correspond to these manipulations, providing evidence for causality. 54) In reversal designs, the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are demonstrated A) if the behavior changes in the predicted direction whenever the conditions are reversed. B) by measuring the dependent variable during a no-treatment baseline, during the treatment, and during the reversal to a no-treatment condition. C) by measuring the dependent variable at three or four points in time. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: In reversal designs, the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are demonstrated by various means, including observing changes in behavior corresponding to the introduction and removal of the independent variable (option A), measuring the dependent variable across baseline, treatment, and reversal phases (option B), and assessing behavior at multiple points in time (option C). Thus, all of these options provide evidence for the effects of the independent variable. 55) A type of single-subject experimental design is the A) reversal or ABA design. B) multiple baseline design. C) single-subject, randomized, time-series design. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Each of the options listed (reversal or ABA design, multiple baseline design, single-subject, randomized, time-series design) represents a valid type of single-subject experimental design. Therefore, option D is correct as it encompasses all possible types. 56) Which of the following is NOT a frequently used single-subject experimental design? A) reversal or ABA design B) multiple baseline design C) Solomon four-group design D) single-subject, randomized time-series design Answer: C Rationale: The Solomon four-group design is not a commonly used single-subject experimental design. Options A, B, and D are all recognized types of single-subject experimental designs, making option C the correct choice. 57) In the example of an ABA design in which a teacher wanted to reduce a child's selfstimulatory behavior, the independent variable was A) the number of times the child hit herself. B) the number of days it took to reduce the self-stimulatory behavior. C) the attention given to the child when she engaged in self-stimulatory behavior. D) the psychologist's presence in the classroom. Answer: C Rationale: In an ABA design, the independent variable is the factor that the researcher manipulates or controls, which in this case is the attention given to the child when engaging in selfstimulatory behavior. Option C correctly identifies this. 58) In the example of an ABA design in which a teacher wanted to reduce a child's selfstimulatory behavior, the dependent variable was A) the number of days it took to reduce self-stimulatory behavior. B) the attention given to the child when she engaged in self-stimulatory behavior. C) the number of self-stimulatory behaviors. D) the treatment applied to the child. Answer: C Rationale: The dependent variable is the behavior being measured or observed, which in this case is the number of self-stimulatory behaviors. Option C accurately identifies the dependent variable in this scenario. 59) In the example of a reversal design in which a teacher wanted to reduce a child's selfstimulatory behavior, why did the psychologist use an ABAB design instead of an ABA design? A) The behavior in the treatment (B) condition was preferable to the behavior in the notreatment (A) condition. B) The money was available to do a final check on the B condition C) In real-life situations, it is necessary to return the participant to their original state. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct because in an ABAB design, the reintroduction of the treatment after a non-treatment phase suggests that the behavior in the treatment condition (B) is preferable to the behavior in the no-treatment condition (A). 60) In the example of an ABA design in which a teacher wanted to reduce a child's selfstimulatory behavior, there was thought to be a _____ relationship between teacher's attention and self-stimulating behavior. A) casual B) linked C) outcome D) differential Answer: A Rationale: The correct term is "causal" which indicates that the teacher's attention is presumed to have a direct effect on the child's self-stimulating behavior. 61) Reversal or ABA designs can be A) used to test the effectiveness of neurosurgery for the treatment of epilepsy. B) used to test the effectiveness of interventions to increase the strength of positive behaviors. C) used to test the effectiveness of an anti-smoking campaign on a specific school. D) All of the above Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct as reversal or ABA designs are commonly used to test the effectiveness of interventions, including those aimed at increasing positive behaviors. 62) What is the reason for ending on a B condition once we have demonstrated the causal relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in an ABA design? A) because we wish to achieve symmetry for statistical purposes B) because we do not wish to confuse the participant C) because we have an ethical obligation to do so, once the treatment has been shown to be effective D) because it is bad luck to end on an odd number of conditions Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct as it highlights the ethical obligation to continue with the treatment condition (B) once its effectiveness has been demonstrated in improving the dependent variable. 63) Why is a final A to B (i.e., back to the treatment) reversal sometimes carried out in reversal designs? A) To demonstrate loss of control. B) To reduce the number of participants needed. C) For ethical reasons. D) Both A and C Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct as reintroducing the treatment in a final reversal is often done for ethical reasons, ensuring that participants are not left without beneficial treatment once its effectiveness has been demonstrated. 64) If an ABA reversal design is not feasible in studying a particular phenomenon, such as severe self-injurious behavior, an acceptable alternative might be a A) within-subjects design. B) multivariate analysis. C) multiple assessment design. D) multiple baseline design. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct because the multiple baseline design is a suitable alternative when an ABA reversal design is not feasible, especially in cases involving severe behaviors where removing treatment may not be ethical or practical. 65) Which of the following is an accurate statement? A) There is no reversal of conditions in a multiple baseline design. B) There is a reversal of conditions in a multiple baseline design. C) Multiple baseline designs cannot be used in educational settings. D) The ABA reversal design cannot be used with mentally retarded individuals. Answer: A Rationale: In a multiple baseline design, there is no reversal of conditions. Instead, the intervention is applied sequentially to different baselines, making it impossible to reverse conditions. 66) What is the difference between the ABA reversal design and the multiple baseline design? A) In the ABA reversal design, the dependent measure is taken more than once. B) In the multiple baseline design, there is no reversal of conditions. C) In the multiple baseline design, the dependent measure is taken more than once. D) In the ABA reversal design, there is no manipulation of the independent variable. Answer: B Rationale: The key difference is that in the multiple baseline design, there is no reversal of conditions, whereas in the ABA reversal design, there is a reversal to observe changes in behavior. 67) When would it be more appropriate to use the multiple baseline design? A) when the reversal procedures are not feasible or not ethical B) when the behavior being reduced is harmful to the participant C) when the behavior being strengthened (e.g., academic performance) would suffer from the reversal condition D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: The multiple baseline design is more appropriate when reversal procedures are not feasible or ethical, or when the behavior being studied would suffer from the reversal condition, or when harmful behavior needs to be reduced. 68) In the multiple baseline design, the effects of the treatment A) are demonstrated on different behaviors successively. B) are not as striking as in the ABA design. C) are more striking than in the ABA design. D) are demonstrated on different behaviors concurrently. Answer: A Rationale: In the multiple baseline design, the effects of treatment are demonstrated on different behaviors successively, as the intervention is applied to different baselines one at a time. 69) In the multiple baseline design, A) there is more than one independent variable. B) there is more than one participant. C) there may be more than one dependent variable. D) Both A and C Answer: C Rationale: While there can be multiple participants in a multiple baseline design, there is typically only one independent variable manipulated. However, there may be more than one dependent variable measured. 70) In the example given in the text of the use of a multiple baseline design in improving a fifth-grade boy's behavior and performance in school, the dependent variable(s) is(are) A) teacher attention. B) disruptive behavior, math performance, and reading performance. C) teacher attention, math performance, and reading performance. D) presence and absence of contingent teacher attention. Answer: B Rationale: The dependent variables in the given example are disruptive behavior, math performance, and reading performance, as these are the behaviors being measured to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. 71) Which design is used to overcome the limitations of the reversal design and the multiple baseline design? A) the ABA design B) the ABAB design C) the Solomon four-group design D) the single-subject, randomized, time-series design Answer: D Rationale: The single-subject, randomized, time-series design is used to overcome the limitations of both the reversal design and the multiple baseline design by incorporating randomization and time-series analysis. 72) The single-subject, randomized, time-series design A) is only used in large scale studies in which random assignment of participants is possible. B) can be used only if there are multiple dependent measures in the study. C) can be used when a multiple baseline design is not feasible. D) Both B and C Answer: C Rationale: The single-subject, randomized, time-series design can be used when a multiple baseline design is not feasible, offering an alternative method for studying behavior change in single subjects. 73) The single-subject, randomized, time-series design is essentially an interrupted timeseries design with one refinement. What is that refinement? A) The experimenter is kept blind as to the manipulation. B) The participant designs and self-administers the manipulation. C) The assignment of the manipulation in the time-series is randomized. D) The assignment of participants to conditions is randomized. Answer: C Rationale: The refinement in the single-subject, randomized, time-series design is the randomization of the assignment of the manipulation in the time-series, which helps control for potential confounding variables. 74) The introduction of a token system of reinforcement applied at some random point in time is an example of which type of design? A) the single-subject, randomized, time-series design B) the ABA reversal design C) the multiple baseline design D) the interrupted time-series design Answer: A Rationale: The introduction of a token system of reinforcement at some random point in time aligns with the principles of the single-subject, randomized, time-series design, where randomization is used to introduce the intervention. 75) What is randomized in the single-subject, randomized, time-series design? A) the time at which the manipulation or treatment is introduced B) assignment to a treatment group C) type of dependent measure used D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: In a single-subject, randomized, time-series design, randomization occurs in determining the time at which the manipulation or treatment is introduced. This randomization helps to control for potential confounding variables and ensures that any observed effects can be attributed to the treatment rather than external factors. 76) What can we conclude in a time-series design if the dependent variable shows a marked change in the predicted direction at precisely the point at which we have randomly introduced the treatment? A) Such a change is likely to have occurred because of maturation. B) We have a convincing illustration that the independent variable was effective. C) Such a change is likely to have occurred because of history. D) We cannot conclude anything. Answer: B Rationale: If the dependent variable shows a marked change in the predicted direction precisely at the point where the treatment is introduced, it provides strong evidence that the independent variable (treatment) was effective in producing the observed change. This supports the conclusion that the treatment had a causal effect on the dependent variable. 77) _____ replication involves carrying out a series of single-subject experiments with different people in different settings and with new target behaviors. A) Single-subject systematic B) Single-subject direct C) Single-subject clinical D) Single-subject exact Answer: A Rationale: Single-subject systematic replication involves conducting a series of experiments with different participants, settings, and target behaviors. This helps to establish the generalizability and robustness of the treatment effects across various conditions and populations. 78) ________ replication means repeating the experiment with the same participant or a series of participants who present the same behavioral issue. A) Single-subject systematic B) Single-subject direct C) Single-subject clinical D) Single-subject exact Answer: B Rationale: Single-subject direct replication involves repeating the experiment with the same participant or a series of participants who exhibit the same behavioral issue. This replication helps to confirm the reliability and consistency of the treatment effects within the same individuals. 79) _____ replication involves an integrated treatment package of two or more procedures that are applied to a succession of participants. A) Single-subject systematic B) Single-subject direct C) Single-subject clinical D) Single-subject exact Answer: C Rationale: Single-subject clinical replication involves applying an integrated treatment package comprising multiple procedures to a succession of participants. This replication helps to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive treatment approaches in clinical settings. 80) Much research on behavior modification treatment utilizes what type of designs? A) between-subjects designs B) single-subject experimental designs C) ex post facto, single-case study designs D) multi-subject, group-comparison experiments Answer: B Rationale: Much research on behavior modification treatment utilizes single-subject experimental designs because they allow for the systematic evaluation of interventions on individual subjects over time, providing detailed information about treatment effectiveness at the individual level. 11.4 Ethical Principles 1) What treatment is most likely to be evaluated with a single-subject experimental design? A) a medication B) teaching method C) psychological treatment D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Single-subject experimental designs are versatile and can be applied to evaluate various types of treatments, including medications, teaching methods, and psychological interventions. They offer a rigorous approach to assessing treatment effectiveness at the individual level. 2) In addition to the basic ethical admonition that a psychologist should do no harm, when evaluating treatment programs using single-subject designs, a psychologist is also ethically bound to A) try to do some good. B) inform participants that harm is unlikely. C) report the findings regardless of the result. D) get permission from one's supervisor before proceeding. Answer: A Rationale: In addition to the principle of non-maleficence (do no harm), psychologists using singlesubject designs have an ethical obligation to try to do some good, meaning they should strive to implement interventions that benefit participants and contribute to their well-being. 3) Single-subject experimental studies often provide another layer of ethical obligations because A) there is no control group to verify a treatment effect. B) the research participant is also a client, student, or patient of the researcher. C) the researcher has direct contact with the participant. D) All of the above Answer: B Rationale: Single-subject experimental studies often involve participants who are also clients, students, or patients of the researcher, creating additional ethical obligations due to the dual role relationship. This necessitates careful consideration of potential conflicts of interest and protection of participant welfare. 4) Because single-subject experimental designs tend to be used in clinical settings, the researcher has an additional ethical obligation to A) obtain the permission of a legal guardian. B) provide a more detailed informed consent form. C) provide a less detailed informed consent form. D) take into account the client's or patient's developmental, physical, or psychological condition in treatment planning. Answer: D Rationale: Researchers using single-subject experimental designs in clinical settings have an ethical obligation to take into account the client's or patient's developmental, physical, or psychological condition in treatment planning. This ensures that interventions are tailored to individual needs and circumstances, promoting ethical practice and participant well-being. Test Bank for Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin 9780205900923, 9780205907694, 9780135705056

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