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Chapter 19 Appendix E: Research Design Checklist 19.1 Appendix E Items 1) Before data collection begins, the researcher should complete a(n) ________ checklist. A) research design B) pre-collection C) pre-flight D) all-systems-go Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct because before data collection, it's crucial for the researcher to ensure that the research design is well-planned and organized, covering all necessary aspects of the study. 2) The problem-definition phase of the research design checklist involves asking A) has the literature review been completed? B) has the problem statement been clearly developed? C) have the variables been defined and operationally defined? D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct because during the problem-definition phase, all the aspects mentioned in options A, B, and C are crucial for establishing a clear understanding of the research problem and its context. 3) The research hypothesis must be stated as a A) question posed in previous research literature. B) prediction of a relationship between two or more variables. C) prediction of a causal relationship. D) validation of a dependent measure. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct because the research hypothesis predicts a relationship between variables, which is a fundamental aspect of formulating a hypothesis in research. 4) Planning for the statistical analysis of data should occur A) as soon as the data has been collected. B) before the research hypotheses have been formulated. C) before the researcher begins the collection of data. D) as one is interpreting the data obtained in the study. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct because planning for statistical analysis should occur before data collection begins to ensure that appropriate methods are chosen and data are collected in a way that allows for meaningful analysis. 5) Which of the following is NOT a phase of the research design checklist suggested in your text? A) clarity of the research hypothesis B) adequacy of the independent variable manipulation C) adequacy of the supplies and funding D) adequacy of the dependent measure Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct because while clarity of the research hypothesis, adequacy of the independent variable manipulation, and adequacy of the dependent measure are important phases, adequacy of supplies and funding is not typically part of a research design checklist. 6) Statistical analysis procedures for a research study should be A) determined by a statistician. B) selected before data collection begins. C) computed by hand for greater accuracy. D) selected after data collection is complete to ensure a match between the procedure and the type of data. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct because selecting statistical analysis procedures before data collection allows researchers to plan their study effectively and ensure that the data collected will be suitable for the chosen analysis methods. 7) If a researcher uses an established dependent measure she A) does not need to evaluate reliability and validity data. B) should create her own measure as a manipulation check. C) should still evaluate reliability and validity data. D) should obtain permission to use the measure from its author. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct because even when using an established dependent measure, it's important for researchers to evaluate its reliability and validity within the context of their specific study to ensure the measure is appropriate and accurate. 8) The manipulation of the independent variable A) should be clearly planned in advance of the data collection. B) should be evaluated with some type of manipulation check if there is any question about how effective it is. C) should be pretested to verify that it will work. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct because all the statements are true regarding the manipulation of the independent variable, emphasizing the importance of careful planning, evaluation, and pretesting to ensure its effectiveness. 9) One should obtain demographic information from participants A) only if the sample is a random sample. B) only if there is a question about how representative the sample is. C) to be able to adequately describe the sample when writing up the research findings. D) to determine the adequacy of the independent variable manipulation. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct because obtaining demographic information helps researchers describe their sample accurately, providing important context for interpreting and generalizing the research findings. 10) Independent variable manipulations A) should be pretested for feasibility. B) should be chosen carefully because they may interfere with the statistical procedures. C) help determine the level of constraint of the dependent measures. D) should be used only when matched groups are not available. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct because pretesting independent variable manipulations helps ensure their feasibility and effectiveness before implementing them in the main study, reducing the risk of issues during data collection. 11) The variables in a research project should be A) clearly identified and operationally defined. B) randomly assigned to conditions. C) randomly selected from the population of variables. D) double checked with appropriate statistical procedures. Answer: A Rationale: Clear identification and operational definition of variables ensure consistency and clarity in research methodology, facilitating replication and interpretation of findings. 12) Reporting the demographic characteristics of your sample is necessary if A) generalizations are to be made beyond the research sample. B) replication of the study may be attempted. C) there are a large number of participants. D) Both A and B Answer: D Rationale: Reporting demographic characteristics allows for the generalization of findings beyond the specific sample and facilitates replication of the study, enhancing the transparency and validity of research. 13) Sample size must be sufficiently large to A) fill all the cells of the design with a sufficient number of participants. B) meet the standards set by the APA. C) insure the reliability of dependent measures. D) insure the reliability of independent measures. Answer: A Rationale: A sufficiently large sample size ensures that each condition or group in the research design has an adequate number of participants, allowing for robust statistical analysis and interpretation of results. 14) The procedure for assigning participants to groups or conditions A) varies depending on the research design. B) need not be determined until after the data have been collected. C) is relevant only when the researcher is using a matched-subjects design. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: The procedure for assigning participants to groups or conditions depends on the specific research design and should be established prior to data collection to ensure methodological consistency and validity. 15) Which of the following is NOT an ethical safeguard for research studies? A) IRB ethics approval for research methods B) informed consent forms for research participants C) payment of participants D) feedback/debriefing procedures for participants Answer: C Rationale: While payment of participants is sometimes appropriate, it is not considered a universal ethical safeguard for research studies. However, obtaining IRB ethics approval, obtaining informed consent, and providing feedback/debriefing procedures are standard ethical practices. 16) Ethical considerations should be addressed A) after one has met with the IRB. B) during the interpretation phase of the study. C) before one has decided on the design of the study. D) after the data are collected. Answer: C Rationale: Ethical considerations should be addressed before deciding on the design of the study to ensure that ethical principles are integrated into all stages of the research process. 17) When using research assistants, ________ is critical to insure the data will be collected as planned. A) random assignment B) reimbursement for participants' time C) proper training D) All of the above Answer: C Rationale: Proper training of research assistants is critical to ensure that they understand and adhere to the study protocol, minimizing errors and ensuring the integrity of the data collection process. 18) All instructions to participants, procedures, and tests should be A) prepared and piloted. B) ambiguous. C) non-defensive and user-friendly. D) creative and original. Answer: A Rationale: Piloting instructions, procedures, and tests helps identify any ambiguities or issues that may arise during data collection, allowing researchers to refine and improve their materials for clarity and effectiveness. 19) Problems in administration of procedures A) occur only once the data has been collected. B) should be solved in pretesting before data collection begins. C) do not occur if an established procedure is used. D) should be handled on a participant-by-participant basis. Answer: B Rationale: Pretesting procedures before data collection begins helps identify and address any problems or issues that may arise, ensuring smooth data collection and minimizing errors during the study. 20) Procedures and equipment should be A) flexible to allow the researcher to respond to the actions of each participant. B) identical to those used in previous studies. C) automated and computer controlled. D) pilot tested before any data are collected. Answer: D Rationale: Pilot testing procedures and equipment helps ensure that they are effective and appropriate for the study, allowing researchers to identify and address any potential issues or limitations before data collection begins. Test Bank for Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin 9780205900923, 9780205907694, 9780135705056

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