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This Document Contains Chapters 8 to 11 CHAPTER 8: Marriage, Family, and Kinship Multiple Choice Questions 1. Marriage includes two major factors. These are __________. a. economic and kinship considerations b. economic and land-ownership considerations c. sexual and economic considerations d. sexual and kinship considerations Answer: c 2. In a patrilocal residence, who leaves the household so that the married couple lives with or near the husband’s parents? a. son b. daughter c. sister d. brother Answer: b 3. Which of the following is not a stated explanation for marriage? a. gender division of labor b. prolonged infant dependency c. guaranteed sexual satisfaction d. sexual competition Answer: c 4. What is the least common form of residence pattern? a. matrilocal b. bilocal c. avunculocal d. neolocal Answer: c 5. Marriage is considered a __________ trait by anthropologists because it is practiced by all societies. a. dominant b. prescriptive c. sensible d. universal Answer: d 6. What factor has been discovered by Elman Service to explain bilocal residence? a. A drastic loss of population because of infectious disease. b. Population increase due to increased health-care delivery since World War II. c. An indifference to social change by the married couple. d. A complete breakdown of social customs so that the married couple can make the choice on its own. Answer: a 7. Bride __________ is a gift of money or goods from the groom or his kin to the bride’s kin. a. price b. service c. exchange d. treasure Answer: a 8. __________ descent affiliates an individual with kin related to him or her through men or women. a. Patrilineal b. Matrilineal c. Unilineal d. Ambilineal Answer: d 9. Of the following, which is the more common distribution of economic marriage transactions among societies that have them? a. bride service b. bride price c. indirect dowry d. gift exchange Answer: b 10. What percentage of the societies known to anthropologists includes one or more explicit economic transactions that take place before or after a marriage? a. about 15 b. about 75 c. about 45 d. about 25 Answer: b 11. Which of the following societies is more likely to practice bride service? a. Asian horticulturalists b. African agriculturalists c. Native North and South American societies d. European industrialists Answer: c 12. Most people in the United States practice which kinship system? a. ambilineal b. double unilineal descent c. bilateral d. unilineal Answer: c 13. A __________ is a set or kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor or ancestress, but the links back to that ancestor are not specified. a. kindred b. moiety c. lineage d. clan Answer: d 14. Which is the second most common form of economic transaction at marriage? a. dowry b. bride price c. gift exchange d. bride service Answer: d 15. In which group were incestuous marriages permitted? a. poor urban African Americans b. the Nuer of East Africa c. the Manbikwara Indians of Brazil d. royal Egyptian families Answer: d 16. If a society is divided into two unilineal descent groups, anthropologists call each group a __________. a. moiety b. phratry c. lineage d. parsimony Answer: a 17. Which kinship system is ego-centered; hence it varies with different points of reference (except for brothers and sisters)? a. unilineal b. bilateral c. double-descent d. ambilineal Answer: b 18. Most societies __________. a. encourage marriages between parallel cousins b. disapprove of marriages between first cousins c. encourage marriages between first cousins d. encourage marriages between cross cousins Answer: b 19. Cousin marriage is most common in __________. a. moderately stratified societies b. relatively large and densely populated societies c. nomadic societies d. societies with medium-sized populations Answer: b 20. Of the following forms of marriage, the rarest is __________. a. polygyny b. group marriage c. the levirate d. polyandry Answer: b 21. The custom of allowing a man to marry more than one woman is __________. a. found in most of the societies anthropologists have studied b. found in only a small minority of the world’s societies c. unlikely to engender jealousy among co-wives d. strictly forbidden by the Muslim religion Answer: c 22. A long post-partum sex taboo is most likely to occur __________. a. where there are more males than females in the society b. in societies with a high proportion of monogamous marriages c. where people depend on crops that are low in protein d. in egalitarian societies Answer: c 23. Polygyny is least likely in societies __________. a. with more women than men b. with a long post-partum sex taboo c. suffering from a high male mortality rate in warfare d. with balanced sex ratios Answer: d 24. In many Western countries there has been a dramatic __________ recently in the percentage of one-parent families. a. decrease b. drop c. change d. increase Answer: d 25. The form of marital residence in which the married couple lives apart from the relatives of both spouses is __________. a. patrilocality b. matrilocality c. neo locality d. avunculocality Answer: c 26. Which is the most common form of marital residence? a. matrilocal b. patrilocal c. bilocal d. neolocal Answer: b 27. Neolocality is most likely to occur in which type of society? a. a society with extended-family households b. a society with a money economy c. a food-collecting society d. a horticultural society Answer: b 28. With matrilineal descent, a man belongs to the same descent group as his __________. a. uncle’s mother b. daughter c. brother’s daughter d. sister’s son Answer: d 29. Because of its ego-centered nature, which of the following is least likely to serve as a permanent or persistent group? a. a matrilineage b. a patrilineage c. a kindred d. an ambilineal descent group Answer: c 30. In societies with unilineal descent, __________. a. the kin group rarely acts as a unit b. all individuals who reside together are considered kin c. some very close biological relatives are excluded from one’s kin group d. no biological relatives are excluded from the kin group Answer: c Essay Questions 31. Define the terms bride price, dowry, and gift exchange. Of the three, which is the most common? What is its purpose? Answer: 1. Bride Price: A payment made by the groom or his family to the bride's family before marriage. It is common in many cultures as a symbol of respect and gratitude towards the bride's family. 2. Dowry: Property or money brought by a bride to her husband at marriage. It is more common historically but still practiced in some societies today. It serves as financial security for the bride in her new household. 3. Gift Exchange: Reciprocal giving of gifts between families of the bride and groom, often during weddings or other ceremonies. It signifies goodwill and strengthens social bonds between families. Most Common: Bride price is more widespread globally, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. Purpose: Bride price aims to acknowledge the bride's value to her family, ensure stability in marital relations, and establish social alliances between families. 32. Describe the family disruption theory by Malinowski, and Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. What are the flaws in both arguments? Answer: Malinowski's Family Disruption Theory: • Description: Malinowski proposed that the nuclear family structure evolved to meet the practical needs of food production and childcare. He argued that the family unit serves to stabilize society by providing essential functions. • Flaws: Critics argue it oversimplifies the diversity of family structures across cultures and ignores non-functional aspects of family life, such as emotional bonds and cultural practices. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: • Description: Freud emphasized the Oedipus complex (boy's desire for his mother and rivalry with his father) and Electra complex (girl's desire for her father). He viewed family dynamics as crucial to personality development. • Flaws: Criticized for being overly focused on early childhood experiences and parental influence, neglecting broader social and cultural factors that shape individuals. Both theories have been criticized for their limited scope in explaining the complexities of family dynamics and the diversity of human experience across cultures. 33. Compare exogamy and endogamy. How are these rules applied in India? Answer: Exogamy: Practice of marrying outside one's social group, tribe, or community. It promotes social ties between different groups and prevents inbreeding. Endogamy: Practice of marrying within a specific social, cultural, or religious group. It reinforces group identity and cultural continuity. Application in India: • Exogamy: Commonly seen in India through practices like village exogamy (marrying outside one's own village) or caste exogamy (marrying outside one's own caste), which help maintain social harmony and exchange alliances between communities. • Endogamy: Widely practiced within castes and religious communities to preserve cultural traditions, ensure social status, and maintain familial lineage. Caste endogamy is particularly prevalent, where marriages are restricted within the same caste to preserve purity and identity. India's marriage rules reflect a complex interplay of social, cultural, and religious factors that vary across regions and communities, influencing both exogamous and endogamous practices. 34. Describe polyandry and polygyny. What explanations are there for these behaviors? Answer: Polyandry: Practice where a woman has multiple husbands concurrently. This rare form of marriage can be found in certain societies, such as parts of Tibet and Nepal. Explanations include: • Resource Sharing: Practical response to scarce resources, ensuring economic stability and joint property management. • Population Control: Limits population growth in regions with limited resources. • Social Cohesion: Strengthens bonds within close-knit communities. Polygyny: Practice where a man has multiple wives concurrently. It is more common globally than polyandry. Explanations include: • Social Status: Demonstrates wealth and power, enhancing social standing. • Economic Advantage: Increases household labor and productivity. • Fertility and Lineage: Enhances reproductive success and ensures lineage continuity. Both polyandry and polygyny reflect cultural norms, economic factors, and social structures that vary widely across societies and historical contexts. 35. What are the advantages to the extended-family household? The disadvantages? Answer: Advantages of Extended-Family Household: • Economic Support: Pooling of resources allows for greater financial stability and shared expenses. • Childcare and Elder Care: Shared responsibility for caregiving reduces individual burdens. • Social Support: Built-in network provides emotional support and companionship. • Cultural Continuity: Preserves traditions, values, and intergenerational knowledge. Disadvantages of Extended-Family Household: • Conflict: Increased potential for disagreements and tension due to close proximity. • Lack of Privacy: Limited personal space and autonomy. • Dependency: Risk of dependency on other family members for decision-making and financial support. • Generational Differences: Clash of values and differing lifestyles can lead to friction. The benefits and drawbacks of extended-family households vary depending on cultural norms, economic conditions, and individual relationships within the family unit. 36. Why do men tend to be more violent than women in situations of jealousy? Answer: Men tend to be more violent than women in situations of jealousy due to evolutionary and social factors: • Evolutionary: Male aggression may stem from competition over reproductive opportunities and ensuring genetic continuity. • Socialization: Cultural norms and expectations often emphasize male dominance, protecting honor, and assertiveness. • Psychological: Men may feel more threatened by perceived loss of status or control, leading to aggressive responses. These factors contribute to higher rates of violent behavior in men during jealousy-triggered situations compared to women. 37. What social functions do both the levirate and sororate play in the societies that have this type of second marriage? Answer: Levirate and Sororate Social Functions: Levirate: • Social Stability: Ensures continuity of lineage and family structure. • Economic Support: Protects widowed women and children by maintaining household and inheritance rights. • Social Cohesion: Strengthens bonds between families and maintains community solidarity. Sororate: • Family Continuity: Provides for the care of children and continuation of family lineage. • Social Support: Helps widowers and their families adjust to new circumstances. • Alliance Strengthening: Enhances social ties and cooperation between families or clans. These practices are found in various societies and serve to maintain social order, economic stability, and familial obligations across generations. 38. In what situations does polyandrous marriage occur? What are the economic advantages of this behavior? Answer: Polyandrous marriage, where a woman has multiple husbands concurrently, occurs in societies facing specific economic and environmental conditions: • Scarcity of Resources: In regions with limited land or resources, polyandry ensures equitable distribution among brothers. • Population Control: Limits population growth in resource-constrained environments. Economic Advantages: • Resource Management: Efficient utilization of land and property. • Labor Pool: Increases household productivity through shared labor. • Inheritance: Prevents fragmentation of land and wealth among heirs. These economic advantages contribute to the practice's sustainability in certain cultural contexts, particularly in mountainous regions like parts of Tibet and Nepal. 39. Distinguish between sororal polygyny and nonsororal polygyny. Answer: Sororal Polygyny: • Involves a man marrying multiple wives who are sisters. • Creates a closer familial bond among wives, potentially reducing marital conflict. • Often seen in societies where lineage and family ties are highly valued, reinforcing familial alliances. Nonsororal Polygyny: • Involves a man marrying multiple wives who are not sisters. • Wives may come from different families or backgrounds. • Less likely to create intense familial ties among wives compared to sororal polygyny. Both forms of polygyny vary in cultural significance and implications for family dynamics and social structure. CHAPTER 9: Political Life Multiple Choice Questions 1. Political life includes all of the following except __________. a. party politics b. the various branches of government c. the issuing of parking tickets d. the resolution of disputes Answer: c 2. A __________ is politically autonomous and is comprised of the local group or community. a. band b. tribe c. chiefdom d. state Answer: a 3. Societies with tribal political organization are similar to band societies in their tendency to be __________. a. caste-based b. egalitarian c. ranked d. open caste-based Answer: b 4. What is the mode of subsistence for chiefdoms? a. horticulture b. shifting agriculture c. food collecting d. intensive agriculture Answer: d 5. Of the following, which is not a power of the state? a. tax collection b. drafting men for the military c. establishing marriage patterns d. decree and enforce laws Answer: c 6. __________ is a short-term use of force, planned and organized, to realize a limited objective. a. Individual violence b. Feuding c. Raiding d. Large-scale confrontation Answer: c 7. Of the following, which is a characteristic trait necessary to be the big man of Kumdi-Engamoi, of New Guinea? a. good looking b. good writer c. good speaker d. the father of several sons Answer: c 8. A(n) __________ is a means used to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under supernatural control. a. ritual b. gauntlet c. resolution d. ordeal Answer: b 9. __________ are used where political officials lack sufficient power to make and enforce judicial decisions. a. Resolutions b. Oaths c. Courts d. Conflicts Answer: b 10. When no regular, effective means of resolving a conflict are available, __________. a. violence is commonly used to settle a dispute b. ordeals are arranged for the opposing parties c. wars are the common result d. men must pick sides and battle until the dispute is resolved Answer: a 11. Which of the following is not considered a classification of political organization? a. bands b. tribes c. clans d. states Answer: c 12. In discussing political groups, anthropologists generally focus on groups organized on the basis of __________. a. age b. kinship c. territory d. sex Answer: c 13. A society composed of a number of politically autonomous, small, and unusually nomadic groups is classified as a __________. a. band society b. tribal society c. state society d. chiefdom society Answer: a 14. What distinguishes tribal from band political organization is __________. a. the presence of some multilocal, but not usually society-wide, integration b. permanent multi-local integration c. formal multi-local integration d. smaller local groups Answer: a 15. Among the Tiv of northern Nigeria, political organization is based on __________. a. lineage organization b. agricultural organization c. religious organization d. wealth Answer: a 16. Complementary opposition is typical of which kind of group? a. secret societies b. age-sets c. clans d. segmentary lineages Answer: d 17. The Karimojong of northeast Uganda use what type of system as the basis of their political organization? a. age-set b. ethnic association c. regional association d. unisex organization Answer: a 18. In contrast to tribes, chiefdoms have all of the following except __________. a. generally denser populations b. some formal multi-community authority structure c. more nomadic communities d. greater economic production Answer: c 19. Which of the following is not generally characteristic of leaders in a chiefdom? a. inheritance of the chiefly position b. high status c. leader gains position because of personal qualities d. chiefly position is held permanently Answer: c 20. Which of the following is not generally an important role of chiefs? a. coordinating labor b. collecting taxes c. supervising religious ceremonies d. redistributing goods Answer: b 21. A set of explicit, usually written rules stipulating what is permissive and what is not is a(n) __________. a. oath b. codified law c. ordeal d. ritual Answer: b 22. States generally have all of the following except __________. a. monopoly on the use of physical force to coerce people b. complex, centralized political structure c. egalitarian distribution of wealth d. large bureaucracy Answer: c 23. State-level societies generally get most of their food from __________. a. pastoral activities b. food collecting c. plundering of conquered territories d. intensive agriculture Answer: d 24. __________ is a state of recurring hostilities between families or groups of kin. a. Individual violence b. Feuding c. Raiding d. Large-scale confrontation Answer: b 25. Cross-cultural research shows that the higher the level of political organization, the __________. a. more egalitarian the society b. more class distinctions are present in the society c. less dense the population d. greater the dependence on collected foods Answer: b 26. Which form of distribution do anthropologists link to chiefdoms? a. balanced reciprocity b. generalized reciprocity c. commercial exchange d. redistribution Answer: d 27. Oaths and ordeals are most likely in __________. a. complex societies with strong centralized authority b. smaller and simpler societies with little formal legal authority c. theocratic societies d. complex societies where political leaders lack the power to enforce judicial decisions Answer: d 28. Warfare in preindustrial societies is most likely __________. a. in societies suffering from chronic food shortages b. in societies smaller than 21,000 people c. between nations that are militarily more unequal d. where people fear unpredictable natural disasters Answer: d 29. Societies with only local political institutions are not likely to depend on __________. a. hunting b. fishing c. gathering d. agriculture Answer: d 30. Violence can often be avoided if the parties in a dispute voluntarily avoid each other or are separated until emotions cool down. This technique is particularly used by __________. a. industrialists b. farmers c. foragers d. family members Answer: c Essay Questions 31. What factors have led to the almost complete conversion of the world to the state system in such a short time? Answer: The conversion of the world to the state system was driven by factors like the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which established sovereignty and non-interference, colonialism's spread of European governance models, and decolonization movements in the 20th century affirming self-rule and statehood. 32. Why is it that small-scale societies and democratic nation-states have high levels of political participation while feudal states and preindustrial empires do not? Answer: Small-scale societies and democratic nation-states have higher political participation due to factors like greater accessibility to decision-making processes, inclusiveness of diverse voices, and a sense of civic engagement fostered by democratic principles. Feudal states and preindustrial empires typically had centralized power structures, limited citizenship rights, and hierarchical governance that restricted widespread participation. 33. Why is it that foragers use the avoidance technique to resolve hostilities? Answer: Foragers often use avoidance to resolve hostilities because conflict can threaten group cohesion and survival, making it beneficial to maintain harmony and minimize risks rather than engage in potentially harmful confrontations. 34. What types of societies have capital punishment? Why? Answer: Capital punishment is often found in hierarchical and authoritarian societies where centralized authority enforces strict social control. This includes traditional societies with rigid social hierarchies, authoritarian regimes, and some modern nation-states where it serves as a deterrent and a tool of social order and justice. 35. What is the function of ceremonial apologies? How is it applied by the Fijians? Answer: Ceremonial apologies serve to restore social harmony and reaffirm relationships. In Fiji, apologies are crucial for resolving conflicts and maintaining community cohesion. They involve rituals that include formal acknowledgment of wrongdoing, expressions of remorse, and gestures of reconciliation, all aimed at repairing social bonds and restoring trust among individuals or groups involved. 36. What are the major differences between raiding and warfare? Answer: Raiding typically involves small-scale, opportunistic attacks aimed at acquiring resources or prestige, often without the intent to fully conquer or annihilate. Warfare, on the other hand, is larger in scale, organized, and systematic, involving prolonged conflict with strategic objectives such as territorial expansion, dominance, or control over resources. 37. What is the relationship between the use of capital punishment by a society and the homicide rate? Can you suggest a reason? Answer: The relationship between the use of capital punishment and the homicide rate is debated. Some argue that capital punishment deters homicides by instilling fear of severe punishment. However, others suggest it may not significantly reduce homicides due to factors like socioeconomic conditions, cultural norms, and effectiveness of legal systems in deterring crime. 38. How do the village courts of Papua, New Guinea reflect the merger of values of the former colonial government and earlier New Guinean legal practices? Answer: The village courts of Papua New Guinea reflect a merger of colonial values, such as formal legal procedures and justice administration, with traditional New Guinean practices, including customary laws and community-based dispute resolution. This blend aims to maintain cultural identity while incorporating modern governance structures. 39. How is the practice of “scalding” related to the concept of ordeal? Why do some societies practice ordeals in their legal-justice system, while others do not? Answer: The practice of "scalding" is related to the concept of ordeal in that it involves a painful or risky trial to determine innocence or guilt. Some societies incorporate ordeals into their legal systems as they believe in supernatural intervention or divine judgment to reveal the truth. Others abandon ordeals due to advancements in legal reasoning, reliance on empirical evidence, and the influence of modern legal principles that prioritize fairness, human rights, and due process over traditional, potentially harmful practices. CHAPTER 10: Religion and Magic Multiple Choice Questions 1. Religion deals with the __________. a. existential b. dialectic c. supernatural d. non-existent Answer: c 2. After their efforts at creation, many creator gods __________. a. die b. retire c. watch their creation d. demand to be worshiped Answer: b 3. According to Clifford Geertz, it is when faced with ignorance, pain, and the unjustness of life that a person explains events __________. a. as capricious b. based on scientific knowledge c. as supernatural d. by the intervention of the gods Answer: d 4. Anthony Wallace distinguishes taboo from mana by pointing out that __________. a. things containing taboo can be touched b. things containing taboo cannot be touched c. taboo is an evil, hideous force quite able to destroy all people who touch it d. taboo is a premeditated form of evil Answer: b 5. A polytheistic religion recognizes __________ gods, not one of which is __________. a. many important, supreme b. two, unimportant c. three, important d. potential, important Answer: a 6. People tend to be punished by gods for immoral behavior __________. a. in most societies b. in only some rare societies c. when there are considerable differences in wealth in a society d. when the rulers of a society receive their power from the gods Answer: c 7. __________ seeks practical answers from the supernatural about anything that is troublesome. a. Divination b. Magic c. Mana d. Sorcery Answer: a 8. When an individual compels the gods to act on his or her behalf, __________. a. divination is being performed b. sorcery is being performed c. witchcraft is being performed d. magic is being performed Answer: d 9. One explanation of the witchcraft phenomenon in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 was that __________. a. many women were involved in a coven b. the men wanted the unusual women of the community removed c. ergot poisoning was causing the effects d. the women who were accused were unfit mothers Answer: c 10. __________ are generally full-time male specialists who officiate at public events. a. Shamans b. Mediums c. Sorcerers d. Priests Answer: d 11. Gods are often anthropomorphic, that is, conceived in the image of __________. a. a person b. an animal c. a celestial body d. a geologic entity Answer: a 12. To either divert anger or to attract goodwill, some societies __________ to/for a god in order to influence the god’s action. a. perform seances b. make sacrifices c. ingest hallucinogens d. practice magic Answer: b 13. One factor suggested in __________ is political turmoil, which may give rise to widespread distrust and a search for scapegoats. a. revitalization movements b. taboos c. shamanism d. witch hunts Answer: d 14. Richard Antoun suggests that fundamentalist movements have the following elements in common, except __________. a. the selective use of scripture to inspire and assert proof of particular certainties b. the quest for purity and traditional values in what is viewed as an impure world c. the active opposition to what is viewed as a permissive secular society d. a nation-state that combines religion and the state Answer: d 15. For anthropologists, the term mana refers to __________. a. a supernatural force residing in some people and objects b. polluting and dangerous qualities that reside in certain activities such as menstruation c. the souls of living things as they are exhibited in dreams, trances, and apparitions of the dead d. food given by gods to humans Answer: a 16. In most societies, ghosts resemble __________. a. distant relatives b. unknown strangers c. close relatives d. known animals Answer: c 17. People are most likely to believe their ancestors play an active role in their lives in societies __________. a. where many people live to an extremely old age b. where mortality rates are high c. with a pastoral or food-collecting economy and nuclear family households d. where descent groups are important decision-making groups Answer: d 18. In which kinds of society are gods most likely to be viewed as aggressive and malevolent? a. societies with external war b. societies with hunting and gathering technologies c. societies with punitive or hurtful child-rearing practices d. societies with nuclear-family households Answer: c 19. Monotheistic religions generally have beliefs in __________. a. a supreme supernatural being together with lower ranked supernatural beings b. only one supernatural being c. a dual existence for all living things d. forces of nature, rather than anthropomorphized gods Answer: a 20. In the ranked society of Palau, the gods __________. a. are associated with different clans and are ranked like the clans b. have little to do with human actions c. are not thought to be permanent, but may die and be born again, just like the clans d. are all considered of equal power Answer: a 21. Which type of society is most likely to have a monotheistic religion? a. a society with hierarchical political systems b. a society that is located near the equator c. a relatively small society in which most members know each other well d. a society in which children are harshly disciplined Answer: a 22. In which type of society are the gods most likely to take an active interest in the moral behavior of humans? a. a food-collecting society b. pastoral societies c. a society with inequality of wealth d. an egalitarian society Answer: c 23. Human sacrifices are most likely in societies with __________. a. high mortality in warfare b. simple hunting and gathering economies c. gods that do not concern themselves with human morality d. full-time craft specialists, slavery, and the corvée Answer: d 24. The nonresponse of the gods will be explained by a __________ in terms of the people’s unworthiness of supernatural favor, while retaining his position. a. sorcerer b. shaman c. medium d. priest Answer: d 25. Sorcerers and witches of both sexes tend to have __________. a. very high social and economic status in their societies b. very low social and economic status in their societies c. about the same status as a shaman might have d. much more status than a shaman might have Answer: b 26. Which type of religious practitioner is most likely to be female? a. sorcerer b. shaman c. medium d. priest Answer: c 27. A “revitalization movement” is __________. a. the process of resurrection in tribal eschatology b. the return from the dead on ritual occasions, such as the Ghost Dance c. an effort to save a culture by infusing it with new purpose and life d. a religious movement characterized by miracles Answer: c 28. Which of the following is not a revitalization movement? a. a messianic movement b. a cargo cult c. the witchcraft accusations of Salem, Massachusetts d. the religious movement of Handsome Lake, which convinced the Seneca to stop drinking Answer: c 29. Evidence of __________ can never be found. a. sorcery b. witchcraft c. divination d. taboos Answer: b 30. __________ tend to have more types of religious or magical practitioners. a. Agricultural societies b. Hunter-gatherer societies c. Pastoral societies d. More complex societies Answer: d Essay Questions 31. What is Tylor’s idea of animism? How does it compare to animatism? Answer: Edward Tylor's concept of animism proposes that early humans attributed souls or spirits to natural phenomena and objects. This belief system suggests that everything, including animals, plants, and even inanimate objects, possesses a spiritual essence. Animatism, on the other hand, focuses on a belief in a powerful impersonal force that resides in objects or natural elements, often considered as a sacred or supernatural power. Unlike animism, animatism doesn't necessarily involve attributing souls or spirits to entities but rather acknowledges a generalized spiritual force. 32. Compare Freud’s views of religion with those of Bronislaw Malinowski. Answer: Sigmund Freud viewed religion as an illusion and a projection of human wishes and fears, serving psychological functions such as providing comfort and explaining the unknown. Bronislaw Malinowski, in contrast, saw religion as a practical response to life's uncertainties, providing emotional support and addressing practical needs, such as reducing anxiety and promoting social cohesion within communities. Freud emphasized the psychological origins and functions of religion, while Malinowski focused on its social and practical roles in human societies. 33. Describe how simulation is used in Voodoo. Explain the link between simulation and divination. How is Holy Communion a simulation of the Last Supper? Answer: In Voodoo, simulation involves rituals and practices that mimic desired outcomes or events. This can include symbolic actions, chants, and offerings that simulate connections with spirits or ancestors. Simulation in Voodoo is closely linked to divination, where rituals simulate communication with spirits to seek guidance or predict future events. Holy Communion in Christianity simulates the Last Supper through ritualistic elements: bread and wine represent the body and blood of Christ, commemorating the Last Supper. Participants simulate the act of sharing a meal with Christ and each other, reinforcing communal and spiritual connections to the event and its significance. 34. What is magic? How does it differ from prayer? Answer: Magic typically involves rituals or practices believed to manipulate supernatural forces to achieve desired outcomes. It often involves spells, charms, or incantations to influence events or people. Prayer, on the other hand, is a form of communication with a deity or spiritual entity, usually seeking guidance, blessings, or forgiveness. Unlike magic, prayer emphasizes a supplicant's relationship with the divine and often aligns with religious or spiritual beliefs rather than attempts to control outcomes through supernatural means. 35. How does magic differ from sorcery? What is the purpose of witchcraft and witch-hunts according to Beatrice Whiting? Answer: Magic typically refers to rituals or practices aimed at influencing supernatural forces or events. Sorcery specifically involves the use of magic to harm others intentionally. According to Beatrice Whiting, witchcraft serves social functions such as maintaining norms and enforcing societal rules. Witch-hunts, in her view, serve to scapegoat individuals who are seen as disrupting societal harmony or threatening established norms, helping to reinforce social order and control. 36. What are the basic uses of a taboo or a good luck charm? Answer: Taboos are social prohibitions or restrictions on certain behaviors, actions, or objects, often considered sacred or dangerous. They serve to maintain social order, protect individuals or communities from harm, and reinforce cultural values and beliefs. Good luck charms are objects or symbols believed to bring good fortune or ward off bad luck. They are used to invoke positive outcomes, provide psychological comfort, and reinforce beliefs in supernatural or spiritual protection. 37. What social problems motivated the witch craze in Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Answer: During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Europe, the witch craze was motivated by social upheavals such as economic instability, religious tensions, political rivalries, and cultural anxieties about the unknown and perceived threats to societal norms. Accusations of witchcraft often targeted marginalized individuals, particularly women, as scapegoats for crop failures, epidemics, or other misfortunes, reflecting broader anxieties and power struggles within communities. 38. List and describe the various types of religious practitioners. How does social complexity relate to this? Answer: Various types of religious practitioners include: 1. Shamans: Typically found in tribal or indigenous societies, shamans communicate with spirits, often through trance states, to heal, divine, or guide their communities. 2. Priests/Priestesses: Found in organized religions, priests perform rituals, lead worship, and interpret religious texts. They often hold positions of authority within religious hierarchies. 3. Prophets: Individuals believed to have direct communication with divine beings or insight into the future. They deliver messages, often of moral or spiritual guidance, to their communities. 4. Witch Doctors/Healers: Practitioners of traditional medicine and spiritual healing, often combining herbal remedies with rituals to cure ailments or protect against malevolent forces. Social complexity relates to these practitioners by influencing their roles and functions within societies. In more complex societies, with hierarchical structures and differentiated roles, religious practitioners may specialize more narrowly (e.g., priests in organized religions) or have distinct roles (e.g., prophets as moral guides). The complexity of social organization can also affect the perceived legitimacy and influence of different types of religious practitioners within their communities. CHAPTER 11: The Arts Multiple Choice Questions 1. Most societies do not have a word for art. Perhaps that is because art, particularly in societies with relatively little __________, is often an integral part of religious, social, and political life. a. specialization b. artistic ability c. invention d. unconscious invention Answer: a 2. From the viewpoint of the person who creates it, art __________ feelings and ideas; from the viewpoint of the observer or participant, it __________ feelings and ideas. a. determines, creates b. provokes, explains c. expresses, evokes d. allows, provides Answer: c 3. Artistic activities are always __________ in part; involving shared and learned patterns of behavior, belief, and feeling. a. social b. religious c. academic d. cultural Answer: d 4. Of the following which is not a quality of art? a. stimulates the senses b. affects emotions c. wastes capital resources d. evokes ideas Answer: c 5. In what percentage of societies do people adorn their bodies? a. 100 b. 85 c. 67 d. 50 Answer: a 6. Earrings and lipstick both work to __________. a. cover unattractive parts of the female body form b. attract attention to erogenous zones c. signal high-status in many societies d. create an illusion of beauty Answer: b 7. What is particularly meaningful to anthropologists is the realization that, although the materials available to a society may to some extent limit or influence what it can do artistically, the materials by no means __________ what is done. a. predict b. determine c. create d. assign Answer: b 8. __________ of a simple element, for example, tends to be found in the art of egalitarian societies, which have little political organization and few authority positions. a. Creation b. Repetition c. Extinction d. Production Answer: b 9. The musical refrain line “tra-la-la-la” would more likely be found in what type of society? a. commercial agricultural b. culturally complex c. foraging d. intensive agricultural Answer: c 10. Alan Lomax discovered that in societies in which women’s work is responsible for at least half of the food, songs are likely to contain more than _________ simultaneous melody, with the higher tunes usually sung by women. a. two b. three c. one d. four Answer: c 11. Barbara Ayres suggested that the importance of regular rhythm in the music of a culture is related to the rhythm’s __________—that is, its associations with feelings of security or relaxation in infancy. a. devaluation b. diffusion c. evolution d. acquired reward value Answer: d 12. __________ is a broad category comprising all the myths, legends, folktales, ballads, riddles, proverbs, and superstitions of a cultural group. a. Folklore b. Folklife c. Folkways d. The written story Answer: a 13. The “Star Husband Tale”, a common Native American story probably originated in the __________. a. Southwest b. Southeast c. Plains d. Northwest Answer: c 14. A cross-cultural study by Alex Cohen found that unprovoked aggression is likely in folktales of societies that are/were __________. a. war-like b. repressed c. colonized by European powers d. subject to unpredictable food shortages Answer: d 15. The expression “garbage in – garbage out”, is a modern example of __________. a. folkways b. folklore c. folktales d. urban legend Answer: b 16. __________ raised some critical questions about how Western museums and art critics look at the visual art of less complex cultures. a. Margaret Mead b. Mary Leakey c. Ruth Benedict d. Sally Price Answer: d 17. The Navajo, who are well known for their rug weaving, probably obtained their weaving technology from the _________ and then began to weave wool and herd sheep. a. Zuni b. Puebloans c. Hopi d. Crow Answer: c 18. Each Plains warrior stressed his individual accomplishments by painting representations of those accomplishments on __________. a. war shields b. animal hides c. rock faces d. cave walls Answer: b 19. __________ is often evaluated negatively, perhaps because of its association with money. a. Western art b. Asian art c. Native American art d. Tourist art Answer: d 20. Clyde Kluckhohn suggested that __________ themes occur in the myths and folktales of all societies a. one b. three c. five d. seven Answer: c Essay Questions 21. Why is it that we insist that art must be original? Answer: The insistence on originality in art stems from the value placed on creativity and innovation, which are seen as essential for pushing boundaries, expressing unique perspectives, and contributing to cultural evolution. 22. How does art stimulate the senses and evoke ideas? Answer: Art stimulates the senses by engaging sight, sound, touch, and even emotions through colors, forms, textures, and compositions. It evokes ideas by prompting reflection, sparking imagination, and challenging perceptions, offering new perspectives and interpretations of the world. 23. How is music a form of art that can have meaning? Why is it that you may not understand the music of another society? Answer: Music is a meaningful art form because it can convey emotions, cultural values, and stories through melodies, rhythms, and lyrics. Understanding music from another society can be challenging due to differences in cultural contexts, musical traditions, and the meanings assigned to musical elements like instruments, scales, and rhythms. 24. Explain the various functions of body art. Why are some permanent, while others are temporary? Answer: Body art serves various functions, including cultural expression, identity assertion, ritualistic purposes, and aesthetic enhancement. Some body art forms, like tattoos, are permanent to signify lifelong commitments or personal statements. Others, such as body painting or temporary tattoos, are temporary to allow for change, flexibility, or ceremonial use without permanent alteration. 25. What conclusions did John Fischer demonstrate about visual art? Give examples. Answer: John Fischer explored how visual art can challenge perceptions and stimulate thought beyond what is immediately visible. For example, he discussed how abstract art like Picasso's "Guernica" can provoke deep emotional responses and convey powerful messages about war and suffering, despite its non-representational style. Fischer highlighted that visual art's significance lies in its ability to transcend literal representation and evoke complex meanings and emotions. 26. What are the major differences found between the artistic styles of egalitarian societies compared to stratified societies? Answer: In egalitarian societies, artistic styles often emphasize communal values, simplicity, and shared symbolism, reflecting social equality and collective identity. In contrast, in stratified societies, artistic styles tend to showcase hierarchy, luxury, and individual status, reflecting divisions in wealth and social rank through more elaborate and exclusive artistic expressions. 27. Songs with phrases such as “tra-la-la-la” are more likely than not the creation of hunter gatherer bands. Why? Answer: Songs with phrases like "tra-la-la-la" are likely creations of hunter-gatherer bands because they often feature repetitive, simple melodies and nonsensical or vocable-based lyrics. These elements are common in cultures where music serves social bonding, storytelling, and communication, reflecting a more communal and informal style of musical expression. 28. Paul Ekman and Carroll Izard both studied masks cross-culturally. What were their conclusions as to whether masks show emotion in universal ways? Answer: Paul Ekman and Carroll Izard concluded that masks can convey emotions in universal ways across cultures. They found that certain facial expressions associated with basic emotions, such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and surprise, are recognizable even when partially obscured by masks. This suggests that fundamental emotional expressions can transcend cultural boundaries, making them recognizable despite variations in cultural context and mask design. Test Bank for Human Culture: Highlights of Cultural Anthropology Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember 9780205924783

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