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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 4 CHAPTER 1: The Importance of Anthropology Multiple Choice Questions 1. Anthropology takes a(n) __________ approach that includes a wide geographic and historical range. a. personal b. cultural c. topical d. holistic Answer: d 2. What explanation did American educators give when they discovered African American schoolchildren rarely drank milk? a. milk intolerance b. a lack of money or education c. a dislike for the flavor of milk d. milk was only drunk at home Answer: b 3. A human paleontologist would be least interested in __________. a. primates b. cultural systems c. fossil evidence of humans d. sociological relationships Answer: d 4. Archaeology is a subfield of __________. a. cultural anthropology b. linguistics c. primatology d. history Answer: a 5. The study of how languages change through time and how they may be related is __________. a. structural linguistics b. historical linguistics c. sociolinguistics d. ethnolinguistics Answer: b 6. The study of how language is used in social contexts is called __________. a. historical linguistics b. descriptive linguistics c. structural linguistics d. sociolinguistics Answer: d 7. An ethnographer would __________. a. work in the field for long periods of time b. work with applied anthropologists in developing foreign aid projects c. make many cross-cultural comparisons d. work directly with historians on various projects Answer: a 8. An ethnohistorian would __________. a. work in the field for long periods of time b. study the way in which cultures have changed over time c. study only past cultures, much as archaeologists do d. prepare lengthy reports on extinct cultures Answer: b 9. Which of the following may be trained in any or all of the subfields of anthropology? a. applied or practicing anthropologist b. biological anthropologist c. ethnologist d. political anthropologist Answer: a 10. Prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans are all members of the order of __________. a. primates b. humans c. Homo sapiens d. primatologists Answer: a 11. Anthropology is literally the study of __________. a. human history b. human population patterns c. humans d. the products of human societies Answer: c 12. Applied anthropologists practice __________. a. in the field of cultural anthropology b. in the field of ethnology c. in the field of paleontology d. in all subfields of anthropology Answer: d 13. The __________ seeks to understand how and why peoples of today and the recent past differ in their customary ways of thinking and acting. a. archaeologist b. ethnologist c. ethnographer d. primatologist Answer: b 14. Anthropology includes all of the following except __________. a. why contemporary peoples have different cultures b. how humans vary biologically c. how insect colonies are organized d. when humans first appeared on the earth Answer: c 15. Compared to anthropologists of previous years, an anthropologist today is more likely to __________. a. specialize in one certain topic or area b. investigate many different aspects of life of the people studied c. study a geographically more distant society d. do fieldwork alone Answer: a 16. The belief that it is impossible to account for human behavior scientifically is _________. a. an accepted generality b. impossible to quantify c. theoretically implausible d. a self-fulfilling notion Answer: d 17. Which of the following is not usually considered one of the four main subfields of anthropology? a. archaeology b. biological anthropology c. anthropological linguistics d. applied anthropology Answer: d 18. The _______ is interested in what people speak about and how they interact conversationally. a. sociolinguist b. anthropological linguist c. historical linguist d. ethnologist Answer: a 19. Which of the following would not be considered part of cultural anthropology? a. archaeology b. anthropological linguistics c. ethnology d. human paleontology Answer: d 20. Compared to the archaeologist, the historian is __________. a. more likely to study how societies change over time b. less likely to analyze written records c. more likely to analyze written records d. more likely to study cultures older than 5000 years Answer: c 21. Which of the following is least likely to interest an archaeologist? a. ancient garbage heaps b. ancient temples c. pieces of ancient pottery d. dinosaur bones Answer: d 22. The study of anthropology may be useful for all of the following except __________. a. giving us a sense of humility about our own culture’s failings b. helping us avoid misunderstandings between people c. giving us a better understanding of humankind d. helping us determine which culture traits are the best Answer: d 23. How does anthropology differ from other fields that also study humans (e.g., sociology, psychology, etc.)? a. it is broader in scope, geographically b. it is narrower in scope, historically c. it is broader in scope, both geographically and historically d. it is narrower in scope, geographically Answer: c 24. Traditionally anthropologists concentrated on _________ and left the study of __________ to other disciplines. a. non-Western cultures, Western civilization b. Western civilization, non-Western cultures c. primitive cultures, primates d. archaeological remains, language Answer: a 25. In the past anthropologists tried to cover as many subjects as possible, but today many anthropologists __________. a. focus on non-Western cultures b. specialize in biological anthropology c. specialize in one of the four subfields d. focus on archaeological remains Answer: c 26. The following subfields are considered part of cultural anthropology except __________. a. biological anthropology b. archaeology c. linguistics d. ethnology Answer: a 27. The study of human paleontology and human variation are included in what subfield of anthropology? a. biological anthropology b. archaeology c. linguistics d. ethnology Answer: a 28. The study of living prosimians, monkeys, and apes is called ____________, which is part of the subfield of _______________. a. paleoanthropology, biological anthropology b. archaeozoology, archaeology c. primatology, biological anthropology d. ethnography, ethnology Answer: c 29. Which subfield of anthropology draws from human genetics, population biology, and epidemiology to better understand the biological variations observable among contemporary human populations? a. paleoanthropology b. primatology c. human variation d. ethnography Answer: c 30. The term _____________ refers to the customary ways that a particular population or society thinks and behaves. a. ethnology b. ethnography c. sociolinguistics d. culture Answer: d 31. Archaeologists do all of the following except __________. a. reconstruct the daily life and customs of peoples who lived in the past b. reconstruct prehistoric languages c. trace cultural changes d. offer possible explanations for why culture changed Answer: b 32. How far do the earliest written languages date back? a. 15,000 years ago b. 10,000 years ago c. 5,000 years ago d. 2,000 years ago Answer: c 33. A linguist studying the American Samoa language determined that the letters t and k can be interchanged in words without changing the meaning. What type of linguist would this be? a. historical b. descriptive (or structural) c. cultural d. social Answer: b 34. What type of anthropologist uses written documents (such as missionary reports and government records) to study how life has changed over time for a particular group? a. physical anthropologist b. sociolinguist c. archaeologist d. ethnohistorian Answer: d 35. Today, more than half of all professional anthropologists are __________. a. biological anthropologists b. applied, or practicing anthropologists c. ethnologists d. archaeologists Answer: b Essay Questions 36. Describe the four fields of anthropology. How do they relate to the holistic approach taken by the field of anthropology? Answer: The four fields of anthropology are: 1. Cultural Anthropology: Studies contemporary human cultures, focusing on customs, social structures, and norms. 2. Archaeology: Examines past human societies through material remains, artifacts, and environmental data. 3. Biological (or Physical) Anthropology: Investigates human biological diversity, evolution, and the relationship between biology and culture. 4. Linguistic Anthropology: Analyzes language and its social and cultural contexts, including how language shapes communication and identity. These fields relate to the holistic approach in anthropology by providing a comprehensive understanding of humans, integrating cultural, biological, historical, and linguistic perspectives to study humanity as a whole. 37. What is archaeology? How does it differ from ethnohistory? Answer: Archaeology is the study of past human societies through their material remains, such as artifacts, structures, and landscapes. Ethnohistory differs from archaeology in that it combines historical records and oral traditions to understand cultures and societies, often focusing on more recent pasts and incorporating written documents. While archaeology relies on physical evidence from excavations, ethnohistory emphasizes documentary and oral sources to reconstruct historical narratives. 38. Describe applied anthropology. Give an example of it from each of the four fields of anthropology. Answer: Applied anthropology uses anthropological methods and knowledge to address real-world problems and issues. 1. Cultural Anthropology: Implementing community health programs by understanding local beliefs and practices. 2. Archaeology: Assisting in cultural resource management to preserve archaeological sites during construction projects. 3. Biological Anthropology: Applying forensic anthropology techniques to help solve criminal cases and identify remains. 4. Linguistic Anthropology: Working on language preservation projects with indigenous communities to document and revitalize endangered languages. 39. How can an understanding of anthropology help all of us understand each other? Answer: An understanding of anthropology helps us appreciate cultural diversity, recognize common human experiences, and foster empathy by providing insights into different ways of life, beliefs, and practices. It encourages open-mindedness and reduces ethnocentrism, promoting better communication and mutual respect among people from varied backgrounds. 40. How is anthropology different from other behavioral disciplines? Answer: Anthropology differs from other behavioral disciplines by its holistic approach, examining human behavior across all cultures and throughout history. It integrates biological, archaeological, linguistic, and cultural perspectives to provide a comprehensive understanding of humanity, emphasizing both the diversity and commonalities of human experiences. 41. How is anthropology relevant to modern life (perhaps your own)? Answer: Anthropology is relevant to modern life by enhancing our understanding of cultural diversity, which aids in navigating global interactions, promoting inclusivity, and addressing social issues. For example, in business, it can improve consumer insights and marketing strategies; in healthcare, it can lead to more culturally sensitive practices; and in personal life, it fosters greater empathy and adaptability in multicultural environments. 42. As archaeology deals with the past, what can archaeological knowledge do for humanity in the present and future? Answer: Archaeological knowledge helps humanity by preserving cultural heritage, providing insights into past human behaviors and societal changes, and informing present and future decision-making. It aids in understanding long-term human-environment interactions, offering lessons for sustainable living and resilience against contemporary challenges. 43. Why does simplicity of technology by a particular group not necessarily imply backwardness? Use an example of a group you have read about. Answer: Simplicity of technology doesn't imply backwardness because it often reflects adaptation to specific environmental and cultural needs. For example, the !Kung San people of the Kalahari Desert use simple tools suited to their nomadic lifestyle and resource-scarce environment, demonstrating sophisticated ecological knowledge and sustainable living practices rather than technological inferiority. 44. How can historical linguistics help us understand human migration patterns? Answer: Historical linguistics helps us understand human migration patterns by tracing the evolution and spread of languages over time. By analyzing linguistic similarities and differences, we can reconstruct ancestral languages and map the movements and interactions of ancient populations, revealing how cultures and societies have spread and influenced each other. CHAPTER 2: Culture and Culture Change Multiple Choice Questions 1. The anthropological attitude that a society’s customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society’s problems and opportunities is called __________. a. ethnocentrism b. cultural relativism c. humanistic d. empathetic Answer: b 2. Why would San individuals of the Kalahari Desert give away all of the animals they kill every day? a. They are really nice people who care for each other. b. They have learned the true meaning of life. c. To keep the meat to one’s self would be wasteful, as it would rot. d. Spiritual beings show them the true way to live in communal harmony. Answer: c 3. A group within a society that holds commonly shared customs is a __________. a. subculture b. sodality c. sub society d. subgroup Answer: a 4. Anthropologists, as well as other social scientists, feel that culture is __________. a. inherited b. learned and shared c. transmitted only from one group to another d. only a small part of how people learn their behaviors Answer: b 5. The most powerful transmitter of culture is probably __________. a. parents b. the elders of a society c. the school system d. language Answer: d 6. Because a word or phrase can represent what it stands for, whether or not that thing is present, we say that language is __________. a. interpretive b. adaptive c. symbolic d. naturalistic Answer: c 7. Variations in individual behavior are confined within __________ acceptable limits. a. legally b. a group’s c. socially d. normally Answer: c 8. A ________ is a group of people who occupy a particular territory and speak a common language. a. family b. culture c. society d. subculture Answer: c 9. Standards or rules about what is acceptable behavior are referred to by social scientists as __________. a. major rules b. laws c. mores d. norms Answer: d 10. In discovering cultural patterns, it is sometimes necessary to conduct surveys. What sampling technique is necessary to guarantee a representative sample? a. population sampling b. redundant sampling c. random sampling d. marginal sampling Answer: c 11. Why are maladaptive customs likely to disappear from a society? a. No one likes them. b. They diminish the chances of survival and reproduction. c. They are immediately destructive of the group. d. They are too unique for the group. Answer: b 12. Participant observation refers to the __________. a. observation of how people interact in carefully contrived situations b. use of a laboratory to standardize measurements c. practice of living among the people being studied d. employment of natives to gather information from their peers for the anthropologists to study Answer: c 13. The concept of cultural integration means that __________. a. cultural elements or traits are adjusted to or constant b. various subgroups in the society work together c. cultural traits that are maladaptive can be made to work with adaptive traits d. cultural elements relate only in certain ways Answer: a 14. Known as accidental juxtaposition or ________, Ralph Linton suggests these were the result of literally dozens of tiny initiatives. a. unconscious invention b. conscious invention c. diffusion d. migration Answer: a 15. In the Asch experiment, ___________ of the subjects retained their independent opinions. a. 2/3 b. 1/2 c. 1/3 d. 5/8 Answer: c 16. Emile Durkheim stressed that culture is something __________ us exerting a strong __________ power on us. a. inside, coercive b. outside, limiting c. inside, limiting d. outside, coercive Answer: d 17. A person who judges other cultures solely in terms of his or her own culture is said to be _________. a. integrated b. maladaptive c. ethnocentric d. prejudiced Answer: c 18. In anthropology, the term “culture” refers to __________. a. the care of plant and animal resources b. the artistic heritage of any society, including painting and sculpture, music and the performing arts c. the long-standing traditions of a particular society d. all the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or other social group Answer: d 19. For something to be cultural it must be __________. a. traditional b. learned and commonly shared c. part of a society’s ideals d. unchanging Answer: b 20. __________ may differ from actual behavior because the ___________ is/are based on the way society used to be. a. Ideal cultural traits, ideal b. Accepted cultural traits, ideal c. Ideal cultural traits, accepted traits d. Norms, mores Answer: a 21. The term “subculture” refers to __________. a. the conscious behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals of a society b. the unconscious behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals of a society c. a cultural pattern considered inferior by members of a society d. the variant culture of a group of people within a larger society Answer: d 22. The fact that monkeys and apes can learn new behaviors from each other __________. a. does not necessarily mean that they have culture, since their social life may be purely instinctual b. suggests that they have a culture c. suggests that they are ancestral to modern humans d. suggests that they are classified as more cultural than many mammals that spend their lives in isolation Answer: b 23. Anthropologists can generate interpretations on the basis of worldwide comparisons by looking for differences between those societies having, and those lacking, a particular characteristic. This type of research is called __________. a. nonhistorical controlled comparison b. within-culture comparison c. cross-cultural d. historical research Answer: c 24. A complex system of spoken, symbolic communication, which we call “language,” __________. a. probably originated in a few societies 20,000 years ago b. has existed in all people known to anthropologists c. does not exist among many of the world’s simpler societies d. probably originated about the same time as agriculture Answer: b 25. Which of the following is a behavior that would most likely be subject to direct cultural constraints in American society? a. choosing to wear nothing b. a young man’s attempt to kiss his girlfriend c. a woman carrying her child in a soft basket hung from her head d. dancing in the street before going to work Answer: a 26. The ideal cultural patterns of a society __________. a. generally reflect the way a society was in the past b. consist of the cultural patterns that most people always exhibit c. consist of the ideas people have about how they ought to behave d. are usually followed by the most respected members of a community, though not necessarily by others Answer: c 27. Which of the following is an example of an ideal cultural pattern in the United States? a. the belief that God is full of anger and vengeance b. the belief that students go on to college to get away from their parents c. the belief that everybody is equal before the law d. the high value given to apple pie in American society Answer: c 28. One example of a(n) _______ is how far apart people stand when they are having a conversation. a. custom b. random sample c. integration d. cultural pattern Answer: d 29. The frequency distribution of behavior patterns in a group very often takes the form of __________. a. a bell-shaped curve b. a straight line graph c. an S-shaped curve d. a Poisson curve Answer: a 30. Which type of behavior would most appropriately be studied with a random sample of individuals? a. public behavior b. unconscious behavior c. private behavior d. both b and c Answer: d Essay Questions 31. Define ethnocentrism. What forms does it take in our own society? What can be done to reduce attitudes of ethnocentrism between various groups? Answer: Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own culture, ethnicity, or nationality is superior to others. In our society, it manifests as prejudice, discrimination, or stereotyping based on cultural differences, often seen in attitudes towards immigrants, minority groups, or foreign customs. To reduce ethnocentrism, education on cultural diversity, promoting inclusive policies, encouraging intercultural interactions, and fostering empathy and open-mindedness are effective strategies. 32. How are the two statements “culture is adaptive” and “culture is always changing” related? Answer: The statements "culture is adaptive" and "culture is always changing" are related because they both describe how cultures respond to internal and external influences over time. Adaptation implies that cultures adjust to new circumstances, while constant change acknowledges that cultural norms, values, and practices evolve in response to various factors such as technology, migration, and globalization. 33. Why may it be necessary for anthropologists to abandon the strong form of cultural relativism in favor of the weaker form? Answer: Anthropologists may need to abandon the strong form of cultural relativism, which asserts that all cultural practices are equally valid and should not be judged, in favor of the weaker form to address ethical concerns. The weaker form allows for critical evaluation of cultural practices in contexts such as human rights violations, ensuring that ethical standards and universal values are upheld without dismissing cultural diversity. 34. Describe an action that would lead to imprisonment. How does prison act as a constraint to an individual? Why do some people violate norms (and end up in prison)? Answer: An action leading to imprisonment could be committing a serious crime such as robbery or murder. Prison acts as a constraint by removing individuals' freedom, limiting their movement, autonomy, and access to resources. Some people violate norms and end up in prison due to various reasons, including socio-economic factors, psychological issues, lack of opportunities, peer influence, or personal beliefs that justify their actions outside societal norms. CHAPTER 3: Explanation and Evidence Multiple Choice Questions 1. Associations and theories are two kinds of __________. a. scientific reasoning b. explanations c. scientific methods d. hypotheses Answer: b 2. A __________ is something that almost all physical scientists accept. a. hypothesis b. cultural norm c. law d. cultural practice Answer: c 3. When two or more variables tend to be related in a predictable way and the observed relationship is unlikely to be due to chance, scientists propose a __________. a. hypothesis b. theory c. statistical association d. correlational association Answer: c 4. An explanation of a law and/or a statistical association is called a(n) __________. a. theory b. correlation c. variable d. association Answer: a 5. A prediction of what might be found in a scientific experiment is a(n) __________. a. theory b. hypothesis c. educated guess d. anomaly Answer: b 6. Falsification means that a theory __________. a. seems to be wrong and has been rejected b. seems to be correct but has been rejected c. has not been developed by scientists d. is not false Answer: a 7. Scientific theories can never be __________. a. disproved b. disassociated c. proved d. published Answer: c 8. In a scientific experiment, a(n) __________ is a description of the procedure that is followed to measure the variable. a. associational definition b. operational definition c. hypothesis d. theoretical paradigm Answer: b 9. The anthropologist who studied the postpartum sex taboo as it related to protein deficiencies was __________. a. Carol Ember b. Carol Whiting c. John Ember d. John Whiting Answer: d 10. Scientists use __________ to see if the relationship they predicted indeed exists in the data. a. contingency tables b. correlations charts c. statistics d. statisticians Answer: c 11. Probabilities, or p values, are used in __________. a. statistical tests of significance b. only the hard social sciences c. statistical tests of contingency d. variable testing Answer: a 12. When change in one aspect of culture takes time to produce change in another aspect, __________ has occurred. a. cultural tradition b. cultural conflict c. cultural lag d. cultural jetlag Answer: c 13. The description and in-depth analysis of a culture or society is known as __________. a. ethnology b. participant observation c. ethnography d. fieldwork Answer: c 14. Which ethnographic method is best in understanding the things that are the most public, most readily talked about, and most widely agreed upon? a. participant observation b. regional controlled comparison c. cross-cultural research d. ethnology Answer: a 15. It is generally considered ethical to give informants __________. a. lots of money b. food and medical care c. your opinion about their cultural traditions d. pseudonyms Answer: d 16. The comparison of individuals, families, households, communities, or districts is known as a(n) __________. a. within-culture comparison b. regional controlled comparison c. cross examination comparison d. cross-cultural comparison Answer: a 17. Conclusions drawn from cross-cultural research can be applied to __________. a. only one society b. all societies c. the society from which the anthropologist comes d. academic circles Answer: b 18. Ethnohistorical data consists of all of the following except __________. a. accounts by explorers b. government documents c. a missionary’s account d. fossil evidence Answer: d 19. A study based on descriptive materials about a single society at more than one point in time is known as __________. a. ethnology b. ethnography c. ethnohistory d. ethnoanthropology Answer: c 20. An important goal of ethnohistory is to __________. a. explain differing historical accounts b. explain variation in cultural patterns c. justify transgressions throughout history and prehistory d. shed light on prejudice and racism Answer: b 21. The types of research in anthropology can be classified according to two criteria: the __________ scope and the __________ scopes of the study. a. spatial; temporal b. historical; prehistorical c. spatial; situational d. temporal; historical Answer: a 22. Anthropologists accept a theory when __________. a. it has been tested and there is sufficient reason to accept it b. other scientists accept it c. its persuasiveness gives them no other option d. it has been proven correct Answer: a 23. Aspects of a scientific experiment that can vary are __________. a. theories b. quantities c. variables d. observations Answer: c 24. A statement a scientist formulates to help explain his/her observations is a(n) __________. a. law b. association c. theory d. statistical association Answer: c 25. Babies born in areas where the major food staples are low in protein are susceptible to __________. a. scurvy b. rickets c. hunger d. kwashiorkor Answer: d 26. A(n) __________ contains a series of statements and is generally considered more complex than a(n) __________, which usually states that there is a relationship between two or more measured variables. a. theory, association b. theory, statistic c. association, theory d. association, explanation Answer: a 27. To be verified, the concepts and ideas in theories must be __________. a. true b. false c. observable d. invisible Answer: c 28. An aspect of a theory that cannot be directly observed or verified is a theoretical __________. a. paradigm b. construct c. division d. error Answer: b 29. Theories that are not falsified are __________. a. accepted b. proven c. disproven d. ridiculous Answer: a 30. John Whiting predicted that societies with a __________ would have a long postpartum sex taboo. a. high-protein diet b. high-fat diet c. low-protein diet d. low-fat diet Answer: c 31. Two variables in Whiting’s study were amount of protein and __________. a. length of first marriage b. length of postpartum sex taboo c. amount of fat d. amount of Vitamin D Answer: b 32. Science depends on the repetition of results, or __________. a. observation b. tests c. hypotheses d. replication Answer: d 33. A researcher who fails to describe how variables were measured in a particular experiment is subject to __________. a. hate mail b. fame c. skepticism d. a redo Answer: c 34. A sample in which all cases selected have an equal chance of being included in the sample or subset is a __________. a. random sample b. regional controlled sample c. selected sample d. cross-cultural sample Answer: a 35. Researchers may construct a(n) __________ to see if the variables are associated as predicted. a. statistical program b. contingency table c. statistical table d. contingency bar graph Answer: b Essay Questions 36. Discuss several ethical dilemmas anthropologists might face. Answer: Anthropologists can face ethical dilemmas such as: 1. Informed Consent: Balancing the need for research with the rights of participants, especially in sensitive cultural contexts where consent norms may differ. 2. Cultural Sensitivity: Navigating the line between respecting cultural practices and intervening in cases of human rights violations or harmful traditions. 3. Representation and Power Dynamics: Ensuring accurate and respectful portrayal of communities without reinforcing stereotypes or exploiting vulnerable populations. 4. Data Ownership: Addressing who owns and benefits from research data, particularly when it involves indigenous knowledge or traditional practices. 5. Environmental Impact: Assessing the impact of research on the environment and local ecosystems, especially in studies involving ecological anthropology or conservation efforts. 37. Why is it considered questionable to create pseudonyms for entire communities? Is there another solution that does not include “fake names” yet protects anonymity and privacy? Answer: Creating pseudonyms for entire communities can be questionable because it may oversimplify and homogenize diverse groups, potentially misrepresenting their identities and cultural nuances. Instead of using fake names, researchers can protect anonymity and privacy by using broader descriptors or geographic identifiers that maintain the community's distinctiveness without reducing it to a single pseudonym. This approach respects the community's identity while safeguarding individual privacy. 38. What is the danger in accepting scientific theories outright? Answer: Accepting scientific theories outright can be dangerous because it can lead to complacency and hinder critical thinking. Science evolves through skepticism, testing, and refinement of theories based on new evidence. Blind acceptance may perpetuate errors or prevent exploration of alternative explanations, limiting scientific progress and understanding. 39. How can historical research be integrated into the anthropological sciences? Answer: Historical research can enrich anthropological sciences by providing context, continuity, and understanding of cultural changes over time. It helps anthropologists trace cultural evolution, analyze long-term trends, and interpret the impact of historical events on societies and their practices. Integrating historical research allows for a deeper understanding of cultural dynamics and enhances the interdisciplinary approach in anthropology. 40. List the benefits and caveats associated with cross-cultural research. Answer: Benefits of cross-cultural research: 1. Broadened Perspective: Offers insights into diverse cultural practices, beliefs, and behaviors. 2. Comparative Analysis: Allows for comparisons to identify universalities and variations in human behavior. 3. Theory Development: Helps in developing theories that are more robust and applicable across cultures. 4. Applied Insights: Provides practical knowledge for addressing global issues and improving intercultural communication. Caveats of cross-cultural research: 1. Ethical Challenges: Cultural sensitivity and ethical considerations vary, requiring careful navigation. 2. Validity and Reliability: Ensuring that findings are valid and reliable across different cultural contexts can be challenging. 3. Translation Issues: Language and conceptual translation may distort meanings and interpretations. 4. Research Bias: Cultural biases of researchers can influence study design, data collection, and interpretation. 41. Discuss falsification and how it applies to cultural anthropological research. Answer: Falsification in cultural anthropological research involves actively seeking evidence that contradicts or challenges existing theories or interpretations. It promotes critical analysis and ensures that conclusions are based on robust evidence rather than confirming preconceived ideas. This approach helps maintain scientific rigor, encourages open inquiry, and guards against bias or oversimplification in understanding cultural phenomena. 42. Participant observation is considered a preferred research method for cultural anthropologists. Are there any drawbacks to engaging in participant observation? Can it skew results in any way? If so, what is an appropriate substitute? Answer: Participant observation in cultural anthropology allows researchers to gain deep insights into cultures but has drawbacks: 1. Bias and Subjectivity: Researchers' presence can influence behavior, skewing results. 2. Ethical Concerns: Balancing observation with respect for privacy and cultural norms. 3. Time and Cost: Intensive fieldwork can be time-consuming and expensive. Substitutes include: 1. Structured Interviews: Systematic questioning to gather specific cultural insights. 2. Archival Research: Analyzing existing records and documents for historical context. 3. Surveys: Collecting quantitative data on cultural attitudes and behaviors. CHAPTER 4: Language and Communication Multiple Choice Questions 1. A person’s ____________, or pronunciation, can tell a lot about the person’s background. a. lexicon b. syntax c. grammar d. accent Answer: d 2. When we say that a communication is __________, we mean at least two things. First, the communication has meaning even when the referent is not there, and second, the meaning is arbitrary. a. understandable b. symbolic c. representative d. rhetorical Answer: b 3. To a linguist, __________ consists of the actual, often unconscious principles that predict how most people talk. a. dialect b. lexicon c. grammar d. syntax Answer: c 4. The earliest writing systems are about __________ years old. a. 5,000 b. 10,000 c. 3,500 d. 6,000 Answer: d 5. How many mutually unintelligible languages have been identified? a. none b. 2,000 c. 4,000-5,000 d. 8,000-10,000 Answer: c 6. A __________ language is one which developed from a pidgin language. a. dialect b. creole c. native d. dominant Answer: b 7. ___________ is/are variant forms of language. a. Syntax b. Inductive c. Dialects d. Descriptive grammar Answer: c 8. Children the world over tend to progress to two-word sentences by what age? a. 12 months b. 16 months c. 12 to 18 months d. 18 to 24 months Answer: d 9. A __________ is a sound to a linguist. a. phone b. phoneme c. morph d. morpheme Answer: a 10. A set of sounds that make a difference in language is a __________. a. phone b. phoneme c. morph d. morpheme Answer: b 11. The smallest unit of language that has meaning is a __________. a. phone b. phoneme c. morph d. morpheme Answer: c 12. One way a society may reflect its corresponding culture is in its lexical content, or ________. a. syntax b. linguistics c. terminology d. vocabulary Answer: d 13. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that __________. a. societies are heavily influenced by their languages b. language is a force in its own right, that affects how individuals in a society perceive and conceive reality c. culture is the molder of language; languages reflect the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the society d. language is neutral to society. It is the society that forms the language Answer: b 14. The word “communicate” comes from the Latin word meaning __________. a. to transmit b. to share c. equality d. to travel Answer: b 15. With which animal have researchers demonstrated the symbolic meaning of vocal communication used naturally in the wild? a. ants b. bees c. hyenas d. vervet monkeys Answer: d 16. One explanation for gender differences, particularly with regard to pronunciation, is that women in many societies may be more concerned with being “__________.” a. exact b. right c. perfect d. correct Answer: d 17. Children learn spoken language __________. a. at a relatively later age in simpler societies b. at about the same age in all cultures c. at a surprisingly wide range of ages, but with no observable correlation with societal complexity d. at a relatively later age in more complex societies Answer: b 18. A pidgin language __________. a. is a symbolic system of communication used by certain birds b. resembles language spoken by early humans c. is a simplified language based on the language of a dominant group d. is a creole language to which additional, key grammatical forms have been added Answer: c 19. __________ refers to a language that is reconstructed by comparing its derived languages. a. Body language b. Lexicon c. Symbolic language d. Protolanguage Answer: d 20. The language family that English belongs to is called __________. a. Indo-European b. Indo-Iranian c. Latin d. Sanskrit Answer: a 21. The use of more than one language in the course of conversation is referred to as _________. a. spanglish b. code-switching c. annoying d. bilingual Answer: b 22. The roles that determine how phrases and sentences are formed make up a language’s __________. a. morphology b. descriptive grammar c. syntax d. phonology Answer: c 23. About 50 percent of the English general vocabulary originated in __________. a. Finnish b. Norman c. German d. French Answer: d 24. Historical linguists reconstruct changes that have occurred __________. a. primarily through the study of children’s speech b. primarily through the use of written records c. by noting how modern languages are undergoing change and extrapolating these tendencies into the past d. by comparing contemporary languages that are similar Answer: d 25. The lexicon of a language approximates a __________ of the language a. phoneme b. dictionary c. morpheme d. syntax Answer: b 26. About ___________ of the world’s people speak Indo-European languages. a. 5% b. less than 1% c. 50% d. 10% Answer: c 27. If a language has a basic color term for “yellow” it is most likely also to have a color term for __________. a. green b. chartreuse c. brown d. red Answer: d 28. Which society would probably have the fewest basic color terms? a. a society that lacks a written language b. a society located near the north pole c. a society whose people have darker eyes d. an industrialized agricultural society Answer: c 29. Compared to people in simpler societies, people in complex societies __________. a. commonly have fewer terms for basic colors b. commonly can give a larger number of general or life-form terms for plants and animals c. commonly have the same number of general terms for plants, but more terms for specific plants d. usually have more names for specific plants, but the same number of general plant terms Answer: b 30. The idea that language influences culture __________. a. has been rejected by most anthropologists b. is accepted by most anthropologists, but not by linguists c. is supported by a comparative study of gender identity learning among Hebrew, Finnish, and American children d. is accepted by most linguists Answer: c 31. __________ argues that all humans have an innate language-acquisition device, leading to a basic, “universal” grammar. a. Roger Fouts b. Noam Chomsky c. Cecil Brown d. Derek Bickerton Answer: b 32. In which language would you expect children to develop a concept of gender permanence at the earliest age? a. one in which many nouns are clearly defined as either masculine or feminine b. one in which relatively few words have a gender c. one in which no generalized words have a gender d. there is no difference in the development of this concept based on language Answer: a 33. What is the difference between an open and a closed communication system? a. open systems have no grammar or syntax, while closed systems are more formal b. open systems are found only in written languages, while closed systems do not require writing c. open systems allow for sounds to be combined in unique ways, while closed systems are more limited d. open systems are vocal or gestural, while closed systems are gestural only Answer: c 34. Which of the following is an example of a phoneme in English? a. the suffix –es b. the word dog c. the sound /b/ d. the root word –lit- Answer: c 35. What cultural pattern predicts whether a language will alternate consonant and vowel sounds more or less regularly? a. whether or not the language is written b. how old the language is c. whether the language developed from Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Bantu d. how many native speakers the language has Answer: a 36. Which of the following statements is true of dialects? a. dialects are a good predictor of a person’s education and intelligence b. dialects are improper variants of a standardized language c. dialects are very similar to each other, and unlikely to develop into different languages d. dialects are equally viable variations of a single language Answer: d Essay Questions 37. State the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in your own words. Give an example of how this hypothesis may be applied using the concept of time as your model. Give an example of how you use speech in various social contexts. Answer: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that the language we speak shapes our perception of the world and influences our thought patterns. For example, if a language lacks specific words for certain concepts related to time (like past, present, and future), speakers of that language may perceive time differently than speakers of a language with rich temporal vocabulary. In social contexts, I adapt my speech depending on the situation. For instance, in formal settings like meetings or presentations, I use precise language and structured sentences to convey information clearly. In casual conversations with friends, I might use more relaxed speech patterns and informal expressions to connect more personally. Adjusting speech based on social context helps maintain effective communication and builds rapport. 38. How does human communication differ from chimpanzee communication? Answer: Human communication differs from chimpanzee communication primarily in complexity and versatility. While both species use vocalizations and gestures to convey basic needs and emotions, humans have developed language—a complex system of symbols and rules that allows for abstract thought, storytelling, and transmitting detailed information across time and space. Chimpanzee communication, while sophisticated among primates, lacks the structured grammar and symbolic depth found in human languages. 39. How do languages change over time? Explain how dialects and language variants are likely to develop. Answer: Languages change over time through processes such as phonetic shifts (changes in pronunciation), lexical borrowing (adopting words from other languages), and grammatical evolution (alterations in sentence structure and rules). Dialects and language variants develop when groups of speakers are geographically or socially isolated, leading to unique pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar patterns. These variations can become distinct dialects or even separate languages over time due to continued divergence in usage and cultural influences. 40. How does a creole language develop? Answer: A creole language develops when speakers of different languages come into prolonged contact and need a simplified means of communication. Initially, pidgin languages emerge as basic communication tools with simplified grammar and vocabulary. Over time, if pidgin languages become the native tongue of a community and acquire more complexity and structure, they evolve into creole languages capable of expressing a full range of human experiences and thoughts. 41. Why are differences in pronunciation difficult to hear for native speakers and yet simple for non-native speakers? Answer: Differences in pronunciation can be difficult for native speakers to hear because they are accustomed to their language's specific sounds and variations. Non-native speakers, however, often approach pronunciation with a more analytical perspective, focusing on distinct sounds and patterns they're learning. This fresh perspective can make differences easier for them to discern compared to native speakers who might gloss over subtle variations they consider insignificant. 42. Do you believe that preservation of language is important to human cultures? Why or why not? Answer: Yes, the preservation of language is crucial to human cultures. Language embodies a society's identity, history, values, and worldview. It allows for the transmission of cultural heritage, traditions, and knowledge across generations. Without language preservation, unique cultural expressions and perspectives could be lost, impacting diversity and understanding among societies globally. Test Bank for Human Culture: Highlights of Cultural Anthropology Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember 9780205924783

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