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This Document Contains Chapters 12 to 13 CHAPTER 12: Global Problems Multiple Choice Questions 1. Why do climatic and other events in the physical environment become disasters? a. because people are killed b. because of the lack of medical knowledge c. because of conditions in the natural environment d. because of conditions in the social environment Answer: d 2. What is the major cause of China’s Hwang River floods? a. burst dams b. deforestation c. farming on floodplains d. too few dams Answer: b 3. Which did not contribute to the famine in the African Sahel in 1974? a. drought b. deforestation c. civil war d. floods Answer: b 4. Which social problem does cross-cultural research suggest that societies with individual property rights, rather than shared rights are more likely to suffer? a. malnutrition b. drought c. famine d. homelessness Answer: c 5. In India, what may be the cause of the uneven distribution of food and other supplies provided to flood victims by the government? a. rules of social and gender stratification b. rules of descent c. ethnic biases d. retribution Answer: a 6. Who, in socially stratified societies, are most likely to be forced to over cultivate, overgraze, and deforest their land, making it susceptible to degradation? a. the elite b. the poor c. the minority population d. the elderly Answer: b 7. As of the 2000s, what percentage of the people lived in inadequate housing worldwide? a. 40 b. 57 c. 32 d. 72 Answer: c 8. The deliberate policy to reduce the number of people hospitalized for mental illness and other disabilities was a factor of homelessness in which country? a. El Salvador b. Mexico c. Australia d. United States Answer: d 9. The contrast between homelessness in the United States and Australia makes it clear that the cause or causes of homelessness is/are __________. a. mental illness b. poverty and disability c. social and medical policies d. social and political policies Answer: d 10. Many researchers focus their studies on variations in the frequencies of specific behaviors to avoid having to decide what is or is not __________. a. mental illness b. abuse c. culturally appropriate d. discipline Answer: b 11. What percent of the violence against women comes from a male intimate partner, such as a husband? a. 50% b. 65% c. 75% d. 90% Answer: c 12. The reasons for infanticide are similar to those given for __________. a. murder b. abortion c. wife battering d. physical abuse Answer: b 13. Cross-culturally, what is the most common form of family violence? a. murder b. child abuse c. wife beating d. husband beating Answer: c 14. Societies that have violent methods of conflict resolution within communities, physical punishment of criminals, high frequency of warfare, and cruelty toward enemies generally have more __________. a. homicide b. child abuse c. wife beating d. husband abuse Answer: c 15. What is the most reliably reported crime in official records? a. homicide b. child abuse c. wife beating d. husband abuse Answer: a 16. One of the clearest findings to emerge from comparative studies of crime is that war is associated with higher rates of __________. a. homicide b. child abuse c. wife beating d. capital punishment Answer: a 17. What legitimizes violence just as war seems to? a. homicide b. defending territory c. unemployment d. capital punishment Answer: d 18. Property crimes increase with increases in __________. a. homicide b. child abuse c. unemployment d. capital punishment Answer: c 19. What is a cause of socialization for aggression? a. homicide b. child abuse c. war d. capital punishment Answer: c 20. People in nonindustrial societies mostly go to war __________. a. out of self-defense b. for religious reasons c. as an unconscious means of population control d. as a hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters Answer: d 21. What type of national political systems rarely fight each other? a. totalitarian dictatorships b. participatory governments c. government by tribunal d. fascist dictatorships Answer: b 22. What is one marker of the difference between most crime and terrorism? a. Criminals rarely take credit for their activities. b. Terrorists have higher motives than simple criminals. c. One country’s terrorism is another country’s salvation. d. Terrorists are not criminals, just misunderstood freedom-fighters. Answer: a 23. R. J. Rummel estimates that nearly __________ million people have been killed by governments in the twentieth century. a. 50 b. 262 c. 35 d. 130 Answer: b 24. Observations and interviews with homeless individuals suggest that they do not want to go to municipal shelters because of __________. a. violence b. pride c. disease d. drug abuse Answer: a 25. The income inequality in the United States is more like that of __________. a. Japan b. Italy c. Germany d. Cambodia and Morocco Answer: d 26. In over __________ of the world’s societies, physical punishment of children occurs at least sometimes. a. 50% b. 60% c. 70% d. 80% Answer: c 27. State terrorism is responsible for __________ times more deaths than all the wars, civil and international, that occurred during the twentieth century. a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 6 Answer: b 28. Terrorists usually have __________ than the average person. a. more education b. less education c. more siblings d. less social status Answer: a 29. A __________ government is a predictor of state terrorism against one’s own people. a. democratic b. socialist c. totalitarian d. communist Answer: c 30. In Melbourne, Australia, __________ of the people living in marginal accommodations were diagnosed as having some form of mental illness. a. 10% b. 30% c. 50% d. 70% Answer: c Essay Questions 31. Why do anthropologists feel that they can solve social problems? Answer: Anthropologists often believe they can solve social problems because their research methods provide deep cultural insights that can inform effective, culturally sensitive solutions. 32. What constitutes a natural disaster? What can we do to alleviate these types of problems? (You may take just one example and expand on it.) Answer: A natural disaster is a sudden and severe event caused by natural forces, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods, that leads to significant damage, loss of life, and disruption to communities. To alleviate these problems, such as flooding, communities can implement measures like building flood barriers and levees, improving drainage systems, and enforcing land use planning to avoid building in flood-prone areas. Additionally, educating communities on emergency preparedness and early warning systems can help mitigate the impact of natural disasters. 33. What is the problem of homelessness? How does this problem continue, even though we are clearly aware of it? Answer: The problem of homelessness persists despite awareness due to complex factors like lack of affordable housing, economic inequality, mental health issues, and inadequate social support systems. Efforts to address homelessness often require coordinated policies, funding, and community support to provide stable housing and comprehensive support services. 34. Why are homicide rates associated with war? What happens after a war? Answer: Homicide rates can increase during war due to heightened violence, lawlessness, and weapon availability. After a war, rates may remain elevated due to social disruption, trauma, weakened institutions, and proliferation of weapons, requiring long-term efforts in reconciliation, rebuilding infrastructure, and restoring social order. CHAPTER 13: Applied and Practicing Anthropology Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which is not a phase of applied anthropology? a. Research into the life ways of a particular group. b. Assembling relevant knowledge. c. Assessing the likely social and environmental impact of particular plans. d. Implementing and monitoring the program and its effects. Answer: a 2. One out of two anthropologists in the United States is employed __________. a. outside of the field of applied anthropology b. outside of the field as ethnographic researchers and archaeologists c. outside of colleges, universities, and museums d. in fields outside of pure anthropology Answer: c 3. In a cross-cultural study of 139 societies, only two did not believe that illnesses are caused by __________. a. supernatural forces b. physiological causes c. natural causes d. bacteria Answer: a 4. The ethics of applied anthropologists require that __________. a. only pure research can be applied to a particular problem b. the anthropologist must not take any action that is harmful to the interests of the community c. the anthropologist in charge of the project balances the needs of his employer with those of the local community d. the anthropologist working with a community must answer to the needs of his or her employer Answer: b 5. The concept that a body must be kept in balance appears in the many cultures, illustrated by all the following notions except for __________. a. yin and yang b. light and dark c. wet and dry d. hot and cold Answer: b 6. Of the following, which is not a difficulty in instituting planned change? a. resistance by the target population b. psychological barriers to the planned change c. social barriers to planned change d. the use of local channels of influence Answer: d 7. What is the major reason anthropologists are hired by non-academic organizations? a. To enlighten others about different cultures. b. To help people get along with each other. c. To help solve practical problems. d. To help solve environmental problems. Answer: c 8. What do many researchers in anthropology and the other social sciences do about social problems? a. conduct surveys b. conduct basic research c. make hypotheses d. test hypotheses Answer: b 9. As a profession, applied or practicing anthropology is explicitly concerned with __________. a. conducting basic research b. testing hypotheses c. making anthropological knowledge useful d. suggesting solutions to social problems Answer: c 10. Which term refers to the type of applied work required in connection with many programs funded by government or private agencies? a. forensic anthropology b. social impact studies c. cultural resource studies d. basic research Answer: b 11. Applied or practicing anthropologists may be involved in all of the following except __________. a. assembling data relevant to a program b. assessing the likely social and environmental impact of particular plans c. monitoring the effects of a program d. applied anthropologists may be involved in all of the above Answer: d 12. Applied anthropology in the United States developed __________. a. out of anthropologists’ personal experience with disadvantaged people in other cultures b. as a result of a directive by the American Anthropological Association c. as younger scholars with a more developed sense of social responsibility replaced the older generation d. with the creation of the Society of Applied Anthropology Answer: a 13. __________ are shared behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs that tend to impede acceptance of an innovation. a. Concepts of balance b. Local channels of influence c. Cultural resources d. Cultural barriers Answer: d 14. Most medical anthropologists use the term __________ to refer to the dominant medical paradigm in Western cultures today. a. relativistic medicine b. universalistic medicine c. ethnomedicine d. biomedicine Answer: d 15. Applied anthropologists who were trained in physical anthropology would probably not work in which area? a. medicine b. public health c. forensic investigations d. agricultural investigations Answer: d 16. According to the code of ethics adopted by the Society of Applied Anthropology in 1948, __________. a. there is no need to include the target community in planning a study b. anthropologists should not do research on applied questions unless specifically asked to do so by the people affected c. the first responsibility of the anthropologist in the field is to his sponsors, second to himself or herself, and third to the people being studied d. the target community should be included as much as possible in the formulation of policy Answer: d 17. Decisions about whether a proposed change would benefit a target population __________. a. are normally made by a project’s sponsors, with little or no input from consulting anthropologists b. are not ethically required before a program is implemented c. are entirely up to the target population d. are not always easy Answer: d 18. Practicing anthropologists often work on specific projects that aim to improve people’s lives, usually by trying to __________. a. convince governments to adopt specific programs b. convince the target population of the benefits of the project c. improve the economy of the target population d. change behavior or the environment Answer: d 19. The changeover from mother’s milk to formula and powdered milk in many underdeveloped areas resulted in increased malnutrition and misery for the following reasons except __________. a. the bottles and water needed to be sterilized b. the mothers needed to dilute the formula when without cash c. the formula and powdered milk is more nutritious than mother’s milk d. the mother’s own milk would dry up and she could not return to breast-feeding Answer: c 20. Large-scale programs of planned change can also have an impact on the archaeological record. Recovering and recording the archaeological record before programs of planned change disturb or destroy it is called __________. a. archaeological management (AM) b. cultural repository excavation (CRE) c. cultural resource management (CRM) d. archaeological resource management (ARM) Answer: c 21. CRM firms complete what type of anthropological projects? a. biological b. forensic c. contract archaeology d. residual Answer: c 22. Which field of anthropology is devoted to solving crimes? a. forensic b. archaeology (but only crimes of the past) c. biological anthropology d. ethnology Answer: a 23. CRM work is carried out by “contract archaeologists” who typically work under contract to __________. a. a government agency b. a private developer c. a native group d. all of the above Answer: d 24. __________ is the health-related beliefs, knowledge, and practices of a cultural group. a. Sociomedicine b. Ethnomedicine c. Biomedicine d. Forensics Answer: b 25. One question that medical anthropologists would ask of a cultural group about its views on health and illness would not be: __________ a. What are your theories about the cause of illness? b. Are there specialized medical practitioners? c. How are special medicines administered? d. Why do you continue to believe in primitive methods? Answer: d 26. __________ appears to focus on specific diseases and cures for those diseases, while not treating the whole body, with the body being partitioned into different specialties. a. Sociomedicine b. Ethnomedicine c. Biomedicine d. Forensics Answer: c 27. An Otomi Indian shaman uses his powers to remove “evil” illnesses caused by __________, yet refers other patients to medical doctors to treat those illnesses. a. wizards b. shamans c. sorcerers d. physicians Answer: c 28. For many diseases, health problems, and death rates, incidence or relative frequency varies directly with __________. a. social class b. age c. education level d. occupation Answer: a 29. Many people think of __________ as only a medical problem that requires only a medical solution, without realizing that there are behavioral, cultural, and political issues that need to be addressed. a. malnutrition b. AIDS c. influenza d. voodoo Answer: b 30. E. Fuller Torrey concluded that shamans use the same mechanisms and techniques to cure patients as __________. a. anthropologists b. sorcerers c. psychiatrists d. physicians Answer: c Essay Questions 31. How did the Bureau of Indian Affairs and then World War II result in the new field of applied anthropology? Answer: The Bureau of Indian Affairs, seeking solutions for social issues among Native Americans, and World War II's need for cultural understanding in military operations, catalyzed applied anthropology. This field applied anthropological methods to address practical problems in diverse settings, fostering its development. 32. What are the ethical standards that applied anthropologists follow? Why? Answer: Applied anthropologists adhere to ethical standards such as informed consent, cultural sensitivity, confidentiality, and minimizing harm. These standards ensure respectful and responsible research practices, maintaining trust and safeguarding the well-being of studied communities. 33. How did the spraying of DDT in Mauritius affect the population and economy of that island nation? Answer: The spraying of DDT in Mauritius led to severe environmental damage, including the decline of bird populations like the Mauritius kestrel due to bioaccumulation. Economically, it harmed tourism, as the damage to biodiversity affected the island's appeal as a natural habitat. 34. What are the difficulties that anthropologists can encounter in trying to institute planned change? Answer: Anthropologists face challenges such as resistance from communities to external interventions, cultural misunderstandings, conflicting goals with local values, and unintended consequences that can arise from well-intentioned interventions. 35. Describe the results of Gerald Murray’s Haitian project. Answer: Gerald Murray's Haitian project focused on community development through agricultural improvements and health initiatives. It resulted in increased crop yields, improved nutrition, better health outcomes, and strengthened community resilience against environmental challenges. 36. Describe how cultural, social, and psychological barriers may hinder acceptance of beneficial projects by a society. Answer: Cultural barriers such as traditional beliefs and practices, social barriers like power dynamics and local hierarchies, and psychological barriers such as resistance to change or fear of the unknown can hinder acceptance of beneficial projects by a society. These factors influence perceptions, attitudes, and willingness to adopt new ideas or practices. 37. What are the social causes of famine? How do they relate to physical causes? Answer: Social causes of famine include poverty, political instability, conflict, inadequate governance, and social inequality. These factors often exacerbate physical causes such as drought, crop failure, and environmental degradation, leading to food scarcity and starvation in affected populations. Test Bank for Human Culture: Highlights of Cultural Anthropology Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember 9780205924783

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