Preview (9 of 30 pages)

Preview Extract

This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 7 CHAPTER 5: Economics Multiple Choice Questions 1. Why do members of food-collecting societies not own land individually? a. Land has no intrinsic value to collectors. b. No system of surveying existed in these types of societies. c. Food-collectors were not interested in land because they needed family more. d. Land was an unknown commodity. Answer: a 2. Of the following economic activities, which finds the individual ownership of land most important? a. food-collecting b. horticulture c. pastoralism d. intensive agriculture Answer: d 3. Most of the Ngatatjara’s food supply is gathered by __________ and is __________. a. men, meat b. men, fruit c. women, meat d. women, fruit or other plant food Answer: d 4. Which of the following statements best describes the land ownership situation among the Basseri of southern Iran? a. Individuals may only use the land that they have purchased. b. The political leaders decide who owns specific parcels of land. c. Individuals have rights to pass through certain areas, like cities and agricultural areas, but they do not own the entire territory. d. The government owns all the land, and individuals rent pastures to use for grazing land. Answer: c 5. In general, which type of economic activity provides the most leisure time? a. food-collecting b. pastoralism c. intensive agriculture d. industrial agriculture Answer: a 6. An indirect form of __________ is taxation. a. redistribution b. reciprocity c. forced labor d. voluntary labor Answer: c 7. All societies divide labor by __________ and __________. a. value, service b. service, custom c. value ,productivity d. gender, age Answer: d 8. Of the following, which is not a consequence of horticulture? a. denser populations b. more sedentary way of life c. strict egalitarianism d. the beginning of social differentiation Answer: c 9. When goods or services are given to another without any apparent expectation of a returned gift, we call it __________. a. negative reciprocity b. redistribution c. generalized reciprocity d. balanced reciprocity Answer: c 10. __________ is the accumulation of goods by a particular person, or in a particular place, for the purpose of subsequent distribution. a. Reciprocity b. Redistribution c. Commercial exchange d. Balanced reciprocity Answer: b 11. __________ occurs when prices are subject to supply and demand and do not necessarily involve money. a. Redistribution b. Reciprocity c. Commercial exchange d. Balanced reciprocity Answer: c 12. The concept of private ownership of land is least likely among __________. a. intensive agriculturalists b. food collectors c. horticulturalists d. pastoralists Answer: b 13. Under the Homestead Act of 1862, how long did a person need to farm a 160-acre piece of land before the federal government would consider that person the owner of the land? a. 5 months b. 5 years c. 10 months d. 10 years Answer: b 14. In contrast to food collectors, horticulturalists __________. a. usually grant permanent ownership of land to individual families b. generally grant individual families the exclusive right to land while in use c. rarely defend group territories d. usually grant individuals fewer claims to the land Answer: b 15. Among pastoral nomads, wealth is usually measured in __________. a. animals b. the amount of land people own c. the number of children people have d. the number of wives a man has Answer: a 16. Private ownership of land would most likely be found where people make their living through __________. a. horticulture b. specialized pastoralism c. shifting agriculture d. intensive agriculture Answer: d 17. The subsistence strategy that characterized most of human history was __________. a. horticulture b. irrigation agriculture c. food collection d. pastoralism Answer: c 18. Which of the following characterizes horticulture? a. Working land for short periods and then leaving it idle for some years. b. Permanently cultivating fields. c. Gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing for wild plant and animal resources. d. Domesticating herds of animals that feed on natural pastures. Answer: a 19. What is considered by anthropologists to be somewhat more commercialized than transitional subsistence economies? a. balanced reciprocity b. market economies c. generalized reciprocity d. peasant economies Answer: d 20. The Yanomamö do all of the following except __________. a. plant manioc b. shrink the heads of their enemies killed in battle c. use slash and burn horticulture d. hunt monkeys with bow and arrow Answer: b 21. People are most likely to be forced to work in __________. a. societies dependent on tree crops b. food collector societies c. complex societies d. societies dependent on shifting agriculture Answer: c 22. This is a form of commercialization that took place in Tikopia and involved the movement of people to neighboring islands to find employment. a. non-agricultural commercial production b. production of supplementary cash crops c. migratory labor d. introduction of commercial and industrial agriculture Answer: c 23. Once taxes are taken into consideration, how many months out of the year does the average person in the United States work for the various levels of government? a. 1 month b. 2 months c. 3 months d. 4 months Answer: d 24. Compared to food-collectors, horticulturalists generally __________. a. are more sparsely populated b. are more nomadic c. get more food from a given area d. have fewer differences in prestige between people Answer: c 25. The worldwide trend for intensive agriculturalists to produce for a market is called _______. a. production b. sales c. commercialization d. foraging Answer: c 26. By “food collection,” anthropologists mean the obtaining of food from __________. a. wild plants and animals b. wild plants c. domesticated plants and animals d. plants, wild and domesticated Answer: a 27. Generalized reciprocity is most likely between __________. a. friendly neighboring groups b. close kin c. strangers and enemies d. friends in modern societies Answer: b 28. By “market exchange,” anthropologists mean __________. a. money has been set aside for “a rainy day” b. transactions in which prices are subject to supply and demand, whether or not the transaction takes place in the marketplace c. money is always used in economic transactions d. food items are being exchanged Answer: b 29. Individual families in pastoral societies are most likely to own __________. a. animals b. grazing lands c. permanent dwelling places d. land for cultivating crops Answer: a 30. The changeover to food production occurred about __________ years ago. a. 2,000 b. 4,000 c. 6,000 d. 10,000 Answer: d 31. Anthropologists must be cautious in drawing inferences about the past from observations on contemporary foragers for all of the following reasons except __________. a. the environments most foragers live in today may not be representative or comparable to the environments foragers lived in the past b. contemporary foragers have evolved and are not relics of the past c. there is considerable interaction between contemporary foragers and societies that did not exist in the past d. contemporary foragers generally do not maintain a nomadic lifestyle, but instead form permanent settlements Answer: d 32. The Saami exemplify which type of subsistence strategy? a. foraging b. pastoralism c. horticulture d. intensive agriculture Answer: b 33. Which of the following is not classified as a food producer? a. foragers b. pastoralists c. horticulturalists d. agriculturalists Answer: a 34. Evidence for the initial changeover to food production is associated with which region of the world? a. Southeast Asia b. Africa c. the Near East d. Mexico Answer: c 35. Which of the following is a defining feature of general-purpose money? a. it is perishable b. it cannot be stored c. it is generally transportable d. it is not divisible Answer: c 36. What generally results from the introduction of commercial agriculture in a society? a. class polarization develops b. manufactured items are restricted to urban areas increasing social inequality c. laborers migrate to rural areas d. an immediate improvement in standards of living for all members of society Answer: a Essay Questions 37. Describe the three forms of reciprocity. Which one would most likely be used by a used car salesperson? Why? Answer: The three forms of reciprocity are positive reciprocity (giving something to receive something in return), negative reciprocity (using aggression or coercion to gain compliance), and generalized reciprocity (giving without expecting an immediate return). A used car salesperson would most likely use positive reciprocity, offering something of value (like a discount, free service, or added features) to encourage the customer to make a purchase. This tactic aims to create a sense of obligation in the customer to reciprocate by buying the car. 38. Define market exchange. What are the factors that lead to it? Answer: Market exchange refers to the process where goods, services, or resources are traded between buyers and sellers at mutually agreed prices. Factors that lead to market exchange include: 1. Demand and Supply: When buyers want a product or service and sellers are willing to provide it. 2. Price Mechanism: Establishing a fair price based on supply and demand. 3. Market Infrastructure: Facilities and systems that enable transactions (e.g., marketplaces, online platforms). 4. Legal Framework: Laws and regulations that govern transactions and protect rights. 39. How is special-purpose money utilized? Answer: Special-purpose money is utilized for specific, designated purposes rather than general transactions. It's often restricted to particular goods, services, or locations, ensuring it's used only for its intended use. Examples include gift cards, vouchers, and tokens used at specific venues or for specific products. 40. What is a leveling device? How is this practiced in commercial economies? How can reciprocity be used as a leveling device? Answer: A leveling device in sociology refers to mechanisms that reduce inequalities among individuals or groups within a society. In commercial economies, leveling devices can include policies or practices aimed at redistributing wealth, providing equal opportunities, or promoting fairness in transactions. Reciprocity, where favors or goods exchanged are expected to be returned in kind, can function as a leveling device by fostering mutual obligations and balancing power dynamics between parties. This helps maintain social cohesion and reduce disparities in economic relationships. 41. How is taxation a form of forced labor? Answer: Taxation can be seen as a form of forced labor because it requires individuals to contribute a portion of their income or resources to the government without their direct consent. This compulsory contribution is enforced by law, and failure to comply can lead to penalties or legal consequences. Therefore, taxation obliges individuals to work to earn income, a portion of which is taken away for public purposes, which some argue resembles forced labor in the sense that it mandates labor for the benefit of others (i.e., government and society). 42. Why do children in horticultural and agricultural societies work? Why do you think that children of foragers apparently do not work as much? Answer: Children in horticultural and agricultural societies often work because these societies rely heavily on manual labor for food production. Children contribute to household subsistence by helping with tasks such as planting, harvesting, and tending to crops or livestock. In contrast, foraging societies typically have abundant natural resources available with minimal effort required for food procurement. Therefore, children in foraging societies may not need to work as much because food gathering is less labor-intensive and more communal, allowing them more time for play and socialization. 43. What defines the value of general-purpose money (such as the dollar)? Answer: The value of general-purpose money, like the dollar, is defined by its widespread acceptance as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account within an economy. This acceptance is backed by the confidence of users in its stability, reliability, and the ability to facilitate transactions and store wealth effectively. 44. What is commercialization? Why do you think most if not all large societies are commercialized now? Answer: Commercialization refers to the process of introducing goods, services, or activities into the marketplace for profit-making purposes. Most large societies are commercialized now because commercial activities generate economic growth, improve standards of living, and drive innovation. As societies develop, they tend to adopt commercial practices to meet diverse needs, enhance efficiency, and facilitate trade both domestically and internationally. This shift is often driven by market demand, technological advancements, and globalization. 45. Why might the transition to food production have taken place in the Near East 10,000 years ago? Describe the theories explaining the development of food production. Answer: The transition to food production in the Near East around 10,000 years ago likely occurred due to environmental changes such as climate shifts that favored the cultivation of certain plants and the domestication of animals. Theories explaining this development include: 1. Population Pressure: Increasing population densities may have led to intensified food procurement strategies. 2. Climate Change: Shifts in climate may have made hunting and gathering less reliable, prompting experimentation with agriculture. 3. Resource Stability: Cultivating crops and domesticating animals provided more reliable food sources compared to hunting and gathering. 4. Social Complexity: Agricultural surpluses allowed for specialization, leading to the development of complex societies. These factors contributed to the gradual adoption of food production as a sustainable way of life in the Near East. CHAPTER 6: Social Stratification: Class, Ethnicity, and Racism Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Mbuti people practice which form of social stratification? a. egalitarian b. caste c. class d. rank Answer: a 2. A society is practicing which form of stratification when the members of the society have equal access to economic resources but not to prestige? a. egalitarian b. caste c. class d. rank Answer: d 3. Modern industrial societies are noted for having disparate access to economic resources and power. What type of stratification exists in these societies? a. egalitarian b. caste c. class d. rank Answer: c 4. Which of the following societies is not considered to be egalitarian? a. Nimpkish Native Americans b. Mbuti c. the Yanomamö d. the !Kung Answer: a 5. Which of the following is considered a rank society? a. Nimpkish Native Americans b. Mbuti c. the Yanomamö d. the !Kung Answer: a 6. A __________ is a category of persons in which all have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige. a. social group b. class c. open class d. caste Answer: b 7. Attending a university and gaining an education can result in the upward __________ of a student. a. re-education b. training c. restructuring d. mobility Answer: d 8. The probability that an individual will change class levels in an open class system is __________. a. high b. extremely low c. about even d. impossible Answer: b 9. A __________ is a ranked group in which membership is determined at birth and marriage is restricted to members of one’s own group. a. class b. caste c. social group d. open class Answer: b 10. In the United States, college-educated individuals have on average __________ percent more income than those with a high school diploma. a. 40 b. 75 c. 80 d. 100 Answer: b 11. Without exception, recent and modern industrial and post-industrial societies are __________. a. caste systems b. ranked c. egalitarian d. socially stratified Answer: d 12. __________ are persons who do not own their own labor, and as such they represent a class. a. Peasants b. Serfs c. Slaves d. Prisoners Answer: c 13. If all social groups in a society have equal access to wealth, prestige, and power, then anthropologists call that society __________. a. socialistic b. communistic c. a chiefdom d. egalitarian Answer: d 14. A society with equal access to wealth and power, but unequal access to prestige, is called __________. a. egalitarian b. ranked c. a closed class society d. a caste system Answer: b 15. Egalitarian societies are least likely to be found among __________. a. pastoralists b. food collectors c. societies with tree agriculture d. societies with intensive agriculture Answer: d 16. In egalitarian societies, people may differ in prestige, but these differences are not related to __________. a. personal abilities b. age c. the economic status of one’s parents d. sex Answer: c 17. Sharing is most common in __________. a. egalitarian societies b. societies suffering from severe famine c. stratified societies d. pastoral societies Answer: a 18. In ranked societies, chiefs are never __________. a. granted more prestige than others in the society b. considered the “owners” of the group’s land c. allowed to accumulate significantly more wealth than commoners d. set off from the others by special markings or clothes Answer: d 19. Which of the following is not characteristic of the chief? a. His people invest him with “ownership” of the land. b. His position may be hereditary. c. He is set apart from the others by the special regalia he wears. d. His position carries considerable prestige. Answer: c 20. Manumission – the granting of freedom to slaves – was built into which system? a. United States b. Egypt c. Rome d. Nupe Answer: d 21. How is chiefly status obtained among the Faulk culture? a. war b. purchase c. genealogically in the female line d. genealogically in the male line Answer: c 22. Racial classifications are __________. a. biological categories b. cultural categories c. economic categories d. social categories Answer: d 23. Which of the following would anthropologists not consider a caste? a. the Eta of Japan b. blacks in the American South in segregation days c. the Camar (leather-workers) of India d. Anthropologists would classify all of these groups as castes Answer: d 24. Before the caste system in Rwanda was overthrown, which was the ruling caste? a. Hutu b. Tutsi c. Twa d. none of the above Answer: b 25. Slavery __________. a. is most common in societies with intensive agriculture b. is extremely rare in the anthropological record c. has been found most often in horticultural societies d. has existed in various forms in many times and places Answer: d 26. __________ is a form of slavery practiced by the Nupe of Nigeria. a. Manumission b. Taxation c. Forced labor d. Child labor Answer: a 27. Which of the following would a male Nupe slave of central Nigeria not be permitted to do? a. will his belongings to his children b. acquire slaves of his own c. have children who could become free men and women d. acquire property and wealth Answer: a 28. Anthropologists are reasonably certain that social stratification __________. a. emerged relatively recently in human history b. is as old as Homo sapiens c. does not exist in the United States d. has occurred only in industrial societies Answer: a 29. Social stratification may be less likely in societies with __________. a. fixed settlements b. agriculture or herding economies c. at least some full time craft specialization d. egalitarianism Answer: d 30. __________ usually separates a group of people with common origins and language, shared history, and selected cultural differences such as difference in religion. a. Class b. Caste c. Prestige d. Ethnicity Answer: d Essay Questions 31. Define social stratification. How does it come about? How are the barriers between classes in the United States maintained? Answer: Social stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of individuals or groups within a society based on social, economic, or other criteria. It comes about through processes such as wealth accumulation, education, occupation, and social status. In the United States, barriers between classes are maintained through factors like access to quality education, employment opportunities, income disparities, discrimination, and social networks that perpetuate advantages for certain groups while disadvantaging others. 32. In open class systems, which class is difficult to move into from a lower class? Why? Answer: In open class systems, the upper class is often difficult to move into from a lower class. This is because it typically requires significant wealth, education, and social connections, which are less accessible to those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. 33. How does the role of chief or headman differ from such roles as Congressman or President? Answer: The role of a chief or headman typically involves local leadership within a community or tribe, focusing on traditional governance and community welfare. In contrast, roles like Congressman or President in modern democratic systems involve national or legislative governance, shaping laws, policies, and representing broader constituencies beyond a single community or tribe. 34. What is a caste? What social mechanisms are used to block mobility in these types of societies? How successful are they at maintaining the social order? Answer: A caste is a rigid social hierarchy found in traditional societies, where individuals are born into specific hereditary social groups with prescribed roles and status. Social mechanisms such as endogamy (marrying within one's caste), occupational restrictions, and religious sanctions block mobility between castes. These mechanisms are generally successful at maintaining the social order by enforcing strict boundaries and norms that limit opportunities for social mobility. 35. How did ancient Greek slavery differ from eighteenth and nineteenth century American slavery? Answer: Ancient Greek slavery differed from eighteenth and nineteenth-century American slavery primarily in terms of the legal and social status of slaves. In ancient Greece, slaves could sometimes earn their freedom, participate in economic activities, and hold skilled positions. American slavery, however, was racialized, hereditary, and legally enforced, with slaves treated as property, lacking rights, and facing severe restrictions on freedom and opportunities for liberation. 36. What social and economic mechanisms keep egalitarian societies egalitarian? Answer: Egalitarian societies maintain equality through social norms that emphasize sharing, cooperation, and mutual aid. Economic mechanisms include redistributive practices, where surplus resources are shared among community members, and leveling mechanisms that prevent accumulation of wealth or power disparities. These societies often value consensus-building and communal decision-making, reinforcing equality through cultural norms and social structures. 37. What forces (economic, social, and technological) have led to the almost complete elimination of slavery worldwide? Answer: Several forces have led to the near elimination of slavery worldwide: • Economic: Industrialization shifted labor needs away from agricultural and manual labor reliant on slavery. • Social: Abolitionist movements and changing moral attitudes viewed slavery as a violation of human rights. • Technological: Advances in transportation and communication enabled global scrutiny and enforcement against slavery, reducing its economic viability and increasing awareness of its injustices. 38. What forces led to the emergence of stratification? Answer: The emergence of stratification is primarily driven by factors such as economic inequalities, access to resources (land, wealth), political power dynamics, technological advancements affecting productivity and specialization, and social norms that justify hierarchical arrangements based on status, class, or other criteria. These factors interact to create and reinforce systems of social stratification within societies. CHAPTER 7: Sex and Gender Multiple Choice Questions 1. Humans display __________. That is, the females and males of the species exhibit fairly marked differences in size and appearance. a. physiological differences b. chromosomal differences c. genotypic differences d. sexually dimorphic characteristics Answer: d 2. Which of the following statements best describes humans as they grow taller? a. Females achieve their ultimate height shortly after puberty, but boys continue to grow for years after puberty. b. Boys achieve their ultimate height shortly after puberty, but females continue to grow for years after puberty. c. Both sexes continue to grow for years after puberty. d. Both sexes achieve their ultimate height shortly after puberty. Answer: a 3. Which of the following theories explains the differences between male and female roles based on the greater aerobic capacity of males? a. compatibility with child care theory b. economy of effort theory c. expendability theory d. strength theory Answer: d 4. According to the __________ theory, men may produce musical instruments from wood because men are the ones who collect the wood in the first place and probably understand its physical properties better. a. compatibility with child care b. economy of effort c. expendability d. strength Answer: b 5. Of the following, which is not a primary subsistence activity? a. gathering b. corn grinding c. fishing d. herding Answer: b 6. In most societies, what is the average length of time for a mother to breast feed her child? a. 12 months b. 18 months c. 24 months d. 30 months Answer: c 7. What percentage of societies do not allow women to participate in warfare? a. 87 b. 75 c. 67 d. 92 Answer: a 8. Which may explain why men generally have higher status than women in most societies? a. economy of effort theory b. political warfare theory c. Women’s status will be high when they contribute substantially to primary subsistence. d. Women’s status will be highest when they contribute mostly to secondary subsistence activities Answer: c 9. Many Agta women of the Philippines regularly hunt wild pig and deer. What percent of wild game is killed by Agta women? a. almost 20% b. almost 30% c. almost 40% d. almost 80% Answer: b 10. In Oman there is a third gender role called __________. a. two-spirits b. Berache c. homosexual d. Xanith Answer: d 11. Of the following societies, which is the most lenient about restrictions dealing with the timing of sexual intercourse inside of marriage? a. the Yapese b. the Chenchu c. American d. the Lesu Answer: c 12. Of the following societies, which is the most pro-homosexual? a. American b. the Etoro c. the Siwans d. the Papago Answer: b 13. Societies that frown on sexual expression by young children __________. a. allow premarital and extramarital sexual relations b. do not condone premarital sexual relations but allow extramarital relations c. also punish premarital and extramarital sex d. condone some premarital sexual expression but not extramarital sex Answer: c 14. Variation in gender contribution to primary subsistence relates directly to the type of ______. a. food getting b. warfare c. social stratification d. gender roles Answer: a 15. In all human societies yet examined, males generally have __________. a. greater grip strength than females b. lower aerobic work capacity than females c. proportionately smaller lungs than females d. proportionately smaller hearts than females Answer: a 16. In societies with a high female contribution to primary subsistence, __________. a. infants are fed solid foods earlier, girls are likely to be trained to be industrious, and baby girls are more valued b. infants are fed solid foods later, girls are likely to be trained to be industrious, and baby girls are less valued c. infants are fed solid foods later, girls are not likely to be trained to be industrious, and baby girls are more valued d. infants are fed solid foods earlier, girls are likely to be trained to be industrious, and baby girls are less valued Answer: a 17. In ________ of surveyed societies, only men were leaders. a. 65% b. 55% c. 88% d. 75% Answer: c 18. Of the following, the best explanation for why men typically make musical instruments is __________. a. men are usually more musical than women b. men normally collect the hard materials involved, and so may be more familiar with their properties and how to work them c. making a musical instrument requires long concentration, which is impossible for women engaged in child-care d. many musical instruments require a great deal of strength to make them Answer: b 19. In which type of society are women most likely to contribute more than men to primary subsistence? a. pastoral b. hunter-gatherer c. horticultural d. intensive agriculture Answer: c 20. Mbuti women __________. a. are highly valued, but have few personal rights and virtually no influence in political decision-making b. have practically no rights, and very little influence c. have more political power than men, due in part to fear and being awe-inspired by menstrual taboos d. have unusually high status Answer: d 21. Cross-cultural studies show that which of the following factors is related to higher status for women in many areas of life? a. being a member of an intensive agriculture society b. less hunting c. the presence of religions with many female deities, or a female high god d. kin groups and marital residence organized around women Answer: d 22. Among the Iroquois, women __________. a. had a great deal of say over who the group’s leaders were b. participated alongside the men as warriors in battle c. had little say over how the goods they produced were distributed d. lived in their husband’s home Answer: a 23. Colonial influence in various parts of the world seems to have __________. a. only slightly affected the status of women b. lowered the status of women c. generally resulted in greater sexual antagonism between men and women d. raised the status of women Answer: b 24. Among the Lepcha, a man was believed to become homosexual if he __________. a. engaged in intercourse with another male b. ate the flesh of an uncastrated pig c. did not marry d. did not engage in premarital sex Answer: b 25. One sex difference that appears very early in American children as well as in children in all societies for which systematic data is available is __________. a. greater sociability in girls b. greater nurturance in boys c. greater responsibility in boys d. greater aggressiveness in boys Answer: d 26. Which of the following personality traits did not differentiate between boys and girls in the Six Cultures project? a. a tendency to seek help and interpersonal contact b. aggressiveness c. a tendency to play in larger groups d. seeking and offering friendship Answer: d 27. Premarital sex is __________. a. considered abhorrent by most of the world’s societies b. discouraged in all of the societies for which we have information c. encouraged in some societies as a form of trial marriage d. severely punished among the Hopi Answer: c 28. Premarital sex is __________. a. considered good for boys in some societies but is apparently universally discouraged for girls b. frowned upon by almost all of the world’s societies c. actively encouraged in some societies d. accepted in some societies but apparently never actively encouraged Answer: c 29. Extramarital sex is __________. a. common in only a small minority of the world’s cultures b. considered unacceptable in virtually all of the world’s societies c. permissible for women in most of the world’s societies d. generally more acceptable for men than for women Answer: d 30. Male homosexual behavior __________. a. is frowned upon in all known human societies b. is severely punished by the Papago Indians of the Southwest c. although accepted in some societies, is always considered inferior to heterosexual behavior d. is considered superior to heterosexual behavior among the Etoro of New Guinea Answer: d Essay Questions 31. What are the misconceptions about the differences in behavior between boys and girls? What needs to be done to clarify some of these misconceptions? Answer: Misconceptions about gender differences often stem from stereotypes rather than biological or psychological evidence. To clarify these misconceptions, it's crucial to: 1. Challenge Stereotypes: Highlight that behavioral differences are often exaggerated or influenced by societal expectations rather than innate differences. 2. Promote Diversity: Emphasize that individual differences within genders are larger than average differences between genders. 3. Education and Awareness: Encourage education that focuses on understanding each child's unique characteristics and needs, regardless of gender. 4. Support for Authenticity: Create environments where children can express themselves authentically without conforming to rigid gender norms. 32. Why are women more restricted in their sexual behavior than men in most societies? Answer: Women are often more restricted in their sexual behavior than men due to traditional gender norms and societal expectations that enforce double standards regarding sexual activity. These norms typically emphasize control over women's sexuality to preserve perceived moral standards, while men's sexual behavior is often more socially accepted or even encouraged. Economic, cultural, and religious factors also play significant roles in reinforcing these restrictions. 33. Of the few, what restrictions exist about sexual relations inside of marriage? Answer: Within marriage, common restrictions on sexual relations can include cultural, religious, and legal norms that dictate: 1. Consent: Both partners must give mutual and ongoing consent. 2. Exclusivity: Expectation of sexual fidelity and exclusivity. 3. Safety and Health: Considerations for safe and consensual practices. 4. Respect: Mutual respect and consideration for each other's boundaries and preferences. 34. Define primary subsistence and secondary subsistence activities. Why are men apparently more involved in primary activities? Answer: Primary subsistence activities involve directly obtaining food and resources from the environment (e.g., hunting, fishing, gathering), while secondary subsistence activities involve processing, storing, and distributing these resources (e.g., cooking, preserving). Men are often more involved in primary activities due to historical roles shaped by physical strength, societal expectations, and division of labor based on traditional gender norms and responsibilities. 35. How does the economy of effort theory explain why men tend to be the producers of such items as musical instruments and boats? Answer: The economy of effort theory suggests that men tend to be the producers of items like musical instruments and boats because these items require physical strength and skills traditionally associated with men. Historically, tasks requiring strength and endurance were allocated to men, aligning with their perceived roles as hunters, warriors, and providers within many societies. Thus, men's involvement in crafting these items reflects their historical and cultural roles in primary subsistence activities. 36. What influences did women have in Iroquois society? Do these powers make the Iroquois a matriarchal society? Answer: In Iroquois society, women held significant influence in clan matters, including decisions on land use, agriculture, and social matters. They controlled property and had a say in the selection and removal of chiefs. However, this influence did not establish the Iroquois as a matriarchal society. Instead, it was a matrilineal society where lineage and clan membership passed through the maternal line, but political power was shared and balanced between genders. 37. How is male homosexuality expressed in Papago society? What function might this behavior play in the overall society? Answer: In Papago society, male homosexuality was traditionally recognized and accepted within specific cultural contexts. It often involved men taking on roles and behaviors associated with women, such as dressing and living as women, and engaging in relationships with other men. This behavior served cultural and social functions, including spiritual roles in ceremonies and contributing to the balance of gender roles within the community, which was essential for maintaining harmony and social cohesion. 38. Explain the major factors related to the gender division of labor found in almost all societies. Answer: The gender division of labor in societies is influenced by several major factors: 1. Biological Differences: Physical characteristics often lead to roles perceived as more suitable for men or women, such as physical strength for heavy labor versus nurturing roles. 2. Cultural Norms and Traditions: Societal beliefs and customs dictate acceptable roles for each gender, influencing career choices and household responsibilities. 3. Economic Factors: Historical roles in agriculture or industry may have shaped traditional divisions, affecting modern job segregation and wage disparities. 4. Political and Legal Structures: Laws and policies concerning employment, education, and family rights can reinforce gender roles and access to opportunities. 5. Technological Advancements: Technological changes can shift labor demands and redefine gender roles in both productive and reproductive domains. These factors interact differently across cultures but generally contribute to the persistence of gender-based divisions in labor. Test Bank for Human Culture: Highlights of Cultural Anthropology Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember 9780205924783

Document Details

person
Elijah Adams View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right