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Chapter 7 Correlational and Differential Methods of Research 7.1 Correlational Research Methods 1) In correlational research, variables are A) not usually manipulated. B) always manipulated. C) measured at two points in time. D) causally related to one another. Answer: A Rationale: Correlational research is concerned with identifying relationships between variables without manipulation. Instead, researchers observe and measure naturally occurring variables to determine if there is a relationship between them. 2) Ptolemy's theory of planetary movements across the sky was based on A) naturalistic research. B) basic research. C) a correlation implying causality. D) an observed correlation between variables. Answer: D Rationale: Ptolemy's theory was based on observations of the apparent movements of celestial bodies, implying a correlation between their positions in the sky. However, this correlation did not imply causality but rather led to a descriptive model of planetary motion. 3) According to Spearman (1904), the dominating intellectual trait is called the A) s (Spearman) factor. B) g (general) factor. C) x-y (chromosomal) factor. D) S (specific) factor. Answer: B Rationale: Spearman proposed the existence of a general factor, denoted as "g," which represents a person's general intellectual ability. This factor influences performance on various cognitive tasks. 4) In correlational research, the researcher ________ the variables of interest. A) manipulates B) draws causal conclusions from C) does not manipulate D) measures and manipulates Answer: C Rationale: Correlational research involves observing and measuring naturally occurring variables without manipulation by the researcher. This allows for the examination of relationships between variables as they naturally exist. 5) One of the most important uses of a correlation is its potential use in A) causal inferences. B) determining differences between groups. C) enhancing internal validity. D) the prediction of future events. Answer: D Rationale: Correlation allows researchers to predict future events based on the relationship between variables. For example, if there is a strong positive correlation between studying hours and exam scores, one can predict higher exam scores for students who study more. 6) In ________ research, the strength of a relationship between two or more variables is quantified. A) psychological B) correlational C) naturalistic D) case-study Answer: B Rationale: Correlational research quantifies the strength and direction of relationships between variables, allowing researchers to assess the degree of association between them. 7) The correlational research design always measures A) human beings. B) the behavior of organisms. C) at least three variables. D) at least two variables. Answer: D Rationale: Correlational research involves measuring at least two variables to determine the extent to which they are related to each other. These variables can be characteristics of individuals, behaviors, or any other measurable constructs. 8) In a correlational research design, plans for measuring variables are A) designed before any measurement takes place. B) made after the data are collected. C) strictly avoided, since planning results in measurement error. D) unnecessary because correlations contain their own controls. Answer: A Rationale: Planning for measuring variables in correlational research is essential to ensure the reliability and validity of the data collected. Researchers typically design their measurement procedures before data collection to minimize measurement error and ensure consistency. 9) One of the uses of an observed correlation is to A) impute causality. B) establish a thorough theoretical basis for a phenomenon. C) predict future events. D) apply for a research grant. Answer: C Rationale: Observing a correlation allows researchers to predict future events or behaviors based on the relationship between variables. This predictive ability is valuable in various fields, including psychology, economics, and sociology. 10) One of the uses of an observed correlation is to A) establish the validity of past events. B) determine the truthfulness of witnesses. C) imply causality. D) provide data to either fortify or refute a currently held scientific theory. Answer: D Rationale: Observing a correlation provides data that can be used to either support or challenge existing scientific theories. By examining the relationship between variables, researchers can refine theories or develop new ones based on empirical evidence. 11) Research geared to quantifying the relationship between two variables is called A) case study research. B) correlational research. C) differential research. D) experimental research. Answer: B Rationale: Correlational research aims to explore the relationship between two variables without manipulating them. Instead, it measures how changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable. This makes option B the correct choice. 12) The relationship between variables in correlational research can be described as A) unpredictive. B) basic. C) predictive. D) causal. Answer: C Rationale: In correlational research, the relationship between variables is described as predictive because it assesses the degree to which changes in one variable can be predicted by changes in another variable. It doesn't imply causation, but it does allow for predictions based on observed associations. 13) It is very important to note that a correlation A) is sufficient but not necessary in implying causality. B) cannot imply causality. C) is necessary and sufficient in implying causality. D) serves no useful function. Answer: B Rationale: Correlation does not imply causality. Just because two variables are correlated does not mean that one causes the other. Correlation simply indicates that there is a relationship between the variables, but it does not specify the direction or nature of that relationship. 14) One function of correlational research is to A) provide data that are consistent with a theory. B) provide data negating a theory. C) prove a theory correct. D) Both A and B Answer: D Rationale: Correlational research can serve multiple functions. It can provide data that support a theory (option A) or data that contradict a theory (option B), depending on the observed relationships between variables. 15) Charles Spearman's concept of intelligence emphasized A) genetic differences between the sexes. B) a general factor of intelligence. C) highly constrained experimental procedures. D) research with chimpanzees. Answer: B Rationale: Spearman's concept of intelligence, as expressed in his theory of general intelligence or the "g" factor, emphasized the existence of a single, underlying factor influencing performance on diverse cognitive tasks. This factor represents general intelligence rather than specific abilities or skills. 16) Spearman's "g" factor refers to A) a general psychological theory. B) a factor of general intelligence. C) the genetic theory of schizophrenia. D) gamma-globulin injections used to prevent hepatitis. Answer: B Rationale: Spearman's "g" factor refers to the factor of general intelligence proposed in Spearman's theory. It represents the common variance underlying performance on various cognitive tasks. 17) If performance on math and verbal tests were found to be highly correlated, Spearman's theory of a general intelligence factor would A) be proven. B) be disproved. C) be neither proved nor disproved. D) not be relevant. Answer: C Rationale: If math and verbal tests were found to be highly correlated, it would support Spearman's theory of a general intelligence factor. However, correlation alone cannot prove the theory, but it would be consistent with it, hence it remains neither proven nor disproven. 18) A correlation cannot prove a theory, A) but it can negate a theory. B) unless it has been found many times. C) nor can it negate a theory. D) because it does not use representative samples. Answer: A Rationale: Correlation alone cannot prove a theory because it does not establish causation. However, it can provide evidence that supports or refutes a theory based on the observed relationships between variables. Therefore, option A is correct. 19) Even though a correlational study can negate a theory, it CANNOT A) prove a theory correct. B) prove a theory incorrect. C) help in predicting future events. D) serve to stimulate future research on a new phenomenon. Answer: A Rationale: Correlational studies can provide evidence against a theory if they find no association between variables that the theory predicts should be related. However, they cannot definitively prove a theory correct because correlation does not imply causation. 7.2 Differential Research methods 1) The correlational research approach is conceptually similar to A) mathematical research. B) experimental research. C) differential research. D) archival research. Answer: C Rationale: Differential research methods aim to compare groups or conditions to assess differences. Correlational research, while not involving manipulation like experimental research, focuses on understanding relationships between variables, making it conceptually similar to differential research. 2) Men and women are compared on their knowledge of political events. This is an example of A) differential research. B) correlational research. C) cross-sectional research. D) experimental research. Answer: A Rationale: Differential research involves comparing groups based on preexisting variables, such as gender in this case. It seeks to identify differences between groups without manipulating any variables. 3) An example of a qualitative dimension on which groups are differentiated is the A) sex of the participant. B) number of participants in a category. C) time it takes to respond to a task. D) age of the participant. Answer: A Rationale: Qualitative dimensions refer to categorical distinctions, such as sex (male/female), as opposed to quantitative dimensions like age or response time. 4) In differential research, the classification variable is the A) stimulus variable. B) response variable. C) independent variable. D) dependent variable. Answer: C Rationale: In differential research, the variable that categorizes or differentiates the groups is the independent variable because it is not manipulated by the researcher. 5) Which of the following is always used in differential research? A) random assignment of participants to groups B) the Pearson r or the Spearman r C) random selection of participants to ensure a representative sample D) groups differentiated on the basis of preexisting variables Answer: D Rationale: Differential research always involves groups being differentiated based on preexisting variables, which distinguishes it from experimental research where random assignment is used. 6) Differences between groups defined by preexisting variables is the focus of A) naturalistic and case-study research. B) correlational research. C) differential research. D) experimental research. Answer: C Rationale: Differential research specifically examines differences between groups based on preexisting variables, while correlational research focuses on the relationship between variables without manipulation. 7) In ________ research, we observe two or more groups that are distinguished on the basis of one or more preexisting variables. A) correlational B) random sampling C) differential D) experimental Answer: C Rationale: Differential research involves observing groups that are distinguished based on preexisting variables, contrasting with experimental research where groups are typically created through manipulation. 8) In differential research, the variable that differentiates the groups A) can be established after the start of the research. B) must be a quantitative variable. C) must be a qualitative variable. D) can be either qualitative or quantitative. Answer: D Rationale: The variable that differentiates groups in differential research can be either qualitative (e.g., gender) or quantitative (e.g., income level), providing flexibility in study design. 9) In differential research, the classification variable is termed the A) independent variable. B) dependent variable. C) a priori variable. D) category variable. Answer: A Rationale: In differential research, the classification variable that differentiates groups is akin to the independent variable in experimental research. 10) Differential and correlational research are similar because A) the independent variable is manipulated. B) the dependent variable is manipulated. C) both study the relationship between variables. D) Both A and B Answer: C Rationale: Both differential and correlational research study the relationship between variables, although they differ in how they approach this relationship—differential research focuses on differences between groups, while correlational research examines associations between variables. 11) Which of the following interpretations CANNOT be made in differential research? A) conclude that there are differences between groups B) groups are differentiated on the classification variable C) draw causal inferences D) conclude that there is not sufficient evidence of differences between the groups Answer: C Rationale: Differential research does not allow for causal inferences because it does not involve manipulation of variables; therefore, conclusions about causality cannot be drawn from this type of study. 12) The same general principles are used in interpreting the results of A) experimental and correlational research. B) correlational and differential research. C) differential and experimental research. D) case-study and differential research. Answer: B Rationale: Correlational research involves examining the relationship between variables without manipulating them, while in differential research, variables are also measured without manipulation. Both types of research focus on understanding relationships between variables rather than manipulating them, thus sharing similar principles of interpretation. 13) What is the reason for this statement: "In differential research, we are actually studying relationships between variables?" A) Correlation coefficients are calculated. B) The strength of the relationship between dependent variables is measured. C) Differential research involves only measuring variables and not manipulating them. D) Contingent relationships are carefully measured. Answer: C Rationale: Differential research entails measuring variables without manipulation. This means that researchers are studying the relationships between variables as they naturally occur, rather than manipulating them as in experimental research. 14) Independent variables in differential research are A) experimental independent variables. B) nonmanipulated independent variables. C) manipulated independent variables. D) randomly-assigned independent variables. Answer: B Rationale: In differential research, independent variables are not manipulated by the researcher. They are simply measured as they naturally occur, hence they are referred to as nonmanipulated independent variables. 15) In differential research, neither the independent variable nor the dependent variable A) is known by the researcher. B) is a true variable. C) is directly manipulated by the researcher. D) show any group differences before the research is conducted. Answer: C Rationale: In differential research, variables are measured but not manipulated by the researcher. This means that neither the independent nor the dependent variable is directly manipulated by the researcher. 16) Comparing the visual responses of a group of autistic children and a group of normal children is an example of A) naturalistic research. B) case-study research. C) differential research. D) experimental research. Answer: C Rationale: Differential research involves comparing groups based on existing differences. In this example, the researcher compares visual responses between two pre-existing groups (autistic children and normal children) without manipulating any variables. 17) In differential research, A) the differences between the groups existed prior to the study. B) the experimenter creates different groups. C) the participants are randomly assigned to groups. D) participants are always observed unobtrusively. Answer: A Rationale: In differential research, the differences between the groups being compared already exist before the study begins. The researcher does not create these differences or manipulate variables to create groups. 18) The variable that is manipulated or assigned by the researcher is known as A) the dependent variable. B) the independent variable. C) the organismic variable. D) the assigned variable. Answer: B Rationale: The independent variable is the variable manipulated or assigned by the researcher. It is what the researcher changes to observe its effect on the dependent variable. 19) Since differential research involves measuring variables rather than manipulating them, differential research is conceptually similar to A) experimental research. B) laboratory measurement. C) biomedical research. D) correlational research. Answer: D Rationale: Differential research, like correlational research, involves measuring variables without manipulation. Both types of research focus on understanding relationships between variables as they naturally occur. 20) Since differential research is conceptually similar to correlational research, A) interpretation of the results will be based on the same general principles. B) both types of studies will be published in the same journals. C) neither is an appropriate type of research for psychology. D) they can both be used to imply causality. Answer: A Rationale: Because both differential and correlational research involve measuring variables without manipulation, the interpretation of results in both cases relies on similar general principles, despite differences in methodology. 21) Differential research is conceptually most similar to A) naturalistic research. B) basic research. C) case study research. D) correlational research. Answer: D Rationale: Correlational research examines the relationship between variables without manipulating them, which is conceptually similar to how differential research looks at the relationship between pre-existing variables without intervention or manipulation. 22) In differential research, assignment of participants is A) random. B) pre-destined. C) on the basis of a preexisting variable. D) by participant choice. Answer: C Rationale: In differential research, participants are assigned to conditions based on pre-existing characteristics or variables, making option C the correct choice. 23) Differential research is similar to both A) experimental and case study research. B) correlational and experimental research. C) naturalistic and case study research. D) correlated and mathematical research. Answer: B Rationale: Differential research shares similarities with both correlational and experimental research. Like correlational research, it examines relationships between variables, and like experimental research, it involves the manipulation of independent variables to observe effects on dependent variables. 24) Differential research is structurally most similar to what type of research? A) correlational B) case study C) experimental D) laboratory Answer: C Rationale: Structurally, differential research resembles experimental research because it involves manipulation of variables to observe their effects on other variables. 25) Since differential research is structurally similar to experimental research, A) neither type of research can be used to imply causality. B) both types of research constitute low-constraint research. C) both types of research can be used to imply causality. D) the data can be analyzed using essentially the same statistical procedures. Answer: D Rationale: Both experimental and differential research involve manipulation of variables, allowing for causal inferences. Additionally, since they share structural similarities, similar statistical procedures can be applied to analyze the data. 26) Differential research is conceptually similar to ________ research and structurally similar to ________ research. A) correlational; experimental B) experimental; correlational C) correlational; naturalistic D) correlational; case study Answer: A Rationale: Conceptually, differential research shares similarities with correlational research in examining relationships between variables. Structurally, it resembles experimental research in its manipulation of variables. 27) In which of the following ways are differential and experimental research similar? A) Causality can be inferred from both. B) All variables are manipulated variables. C) The same statistical procedures can be used for both. D) They are both ex post facto designs. Answer: C Rationale: Both differential and experimental research can use the same statistical procedures for data analysis since they share structural similarities in terms of manipulation of variables. 28) Which research designs can look the same on the surface, but are actually very different? A) correlational and experimental B) experimental and differential C) correlational and differential D) case study and differential Answer: B Rationale: Experimental and differential research can appear similar on the surface because both involve manipulation of variables. However, they differ in their assignment of participants and research design. 29) In differential designs, participants are A) assigned randomly to conditions. B) assigned to conditions based on pre-existing characteristics. C) allowed to choose their own testing condition. D) rejected if more than two participants have the same pre-existing characteristics. Answer: B Rationale: Participants in differential designs are assigned to conditions based on pre-existing characteristics or variables, making option B the correct choice. 30) Causality can be inferred from A) experimental research. B) differential research. C) correlational research. D) naturalistic research. Answer: A Rationale: Experimental research allows for causal inferences because it involves the manipulation of variables to observe their effects on other variables, establishing cause-and-effect relationships. 31) In experimental designs, the researcher A) assigns participants to conditions based on participants' pre-existing characteristics. B) manipulates the conditions. C) studies a single group or condition. D) computes the direction and strength of relationships among variables. Answer: B Rationale: In experimental designs, the researcher manipulates the conditions to observe the effect on the dependent variable. This manipulation allows for causal inference regarding the impact of the independent variable on the outcome. 32) A major difference between differential and experimental research is that, A) in experimental research, the independent variable is not manipulated. B) in differential research, the independent variable is manipulated. C) in differential research, only the dependent variable is manipulated. D) in experimental research, the independent variable is manipulated. Answer: D Rationale: Experimental research involves manipulating the independent variable to observe its effect on the dependent variable, while in differential research, the independent variable is not manipulated. 33) The textbook discusses some early naturalistic research with autistic children. If we modify that research by adding a comparison group of normal children, we would change the type of research from naturalistic to A) experimental. B) correlational. C) differential. D) case-study. Answer: C Rationale: Adding a comparison group of normal children to naturalistic research changes it to differential research because it introduces a comparison between two groups without manipulation of variables. 34) Differential research uses essentially the same statistical analyses as A) correlational research. B) experimental research. C) case study research. D) nominal research. Answer: B Rationale: Differential research involves comparing groups or conditions, similar to experimental research, which also compares groups based on manipulated variables. 35) In a differential research study, differences in the dependent variable are the result of A) manipulation of the dependent variable. B) group differences and whatever factors the group differences represent. C) nonmanipulation of the dependent variable. D) Both A and B Answer: B Rationale: In differential research, differences in the dependent variable are due to inherent group differences and any factors those differences represent, rather than manipulation of the dependent variable itself. 36) To say that two variables are confounded means that A) they both vary at the same time. B) as one variable changes, the other stays the same. C) both of the variables have been held constant. D) both variables are equally responsible for observed changes in the dependent variable. Answer: A Rationale: Confounding occurs when two variables vary together, making it difficult to determine which variable is causing changes in the dependent variable. 37) The only way to avoid confounding two variables is to make sure that A) they vary independently of one another. B) all variables are held constant. C) all variables are allowed to vary freely. D) all variables are properly labeled. Answer: A Rationale: By ensuring that variables vary independently of each other, researchers can avoid confounding and accurately determine the relationship between variables. 38) The cohort effect can lead to substantial confounding in A) correlational research using a cross-sectional design. B) differential research using a cross-sectional design. C) longitudinal research designs. D) time-series research designs. Answer: B Rationale: The cohort effect, where individuals from different generations may have different experiences, can confound results in differential research, especially when using a cross-sectional design. 39) Time-series designs A) are variations of longitudinal designs. B) are cross-sectional designs. C) are the opposite of longitudinal designs. D) cannot be longitudinal designs. Answer: A Rationale: Time-series designs involve collecting data on the same variables repeatedly over time, making them a variation of longitudinal designs. 40) The main drawback of a longitudinal design is A) the cohort effect. B) the amount of time to complete the study. C) that variables are easily confounded. D) that it is not particularly useful in measuring variables over time. Answer: B Rationale: Longitudinal designs require a significant amount of time to complete the study due to the need to collect data from the same participants over an extended period. 41) Artifactual findings are a result of A) overconstraint. B) confounding. C) scientific methodology. D) real differences in participants' behavior. Answer: B Rationale: Artifactual findings occur when observed results are not true reflections of reality but rather are influenced by extraneous variables, such as confounding variables. Confounding variables are factors that are not the focus of the study but can influence the relationship between the variables being studied, leading to misleading conclusions. 42) A researcher studies the relationship between political attitudes and income. The researcher finds that those with higher income are more conservative. The most likely confounding variable is A) income. B) age. C) weight. D) health status. Answer: B Rationale: Age is the most likely confounding variable in this scenario because it is correlated with both income and political attitudes. Age can influence both income (as people generally earn more as they grow older due to career progression) and political attitudes (as attitudes can change over time). 43) A researcher studies the relationship between political attitudes and income. The researcher finds that those with higher income are more conservative. However, income tends to vary with age (i.e., the older one is, the higher the income on average). The results of the study are A) scientifically proven. B) valid. C) confounded. D) an example of an ex post facto fallacy. Answer: C Rationale: The results of the study are confounded because the relationship between income and political attitudes is influenced by age. Therefore, the observed association between income and political attitudes may not accurately represent a direct causal relationship. 44) A researcher studies the relationship between political attitudes and income. The researcher had to conduct telephone interviews with higher income participants while interviews with lower income participants were conducted in person. The researcher finds that those with higher income are more conservative. The results of the study are A) scientifically proven. B) valid. C) possibly confounded. D) an example of an ex post facto fallacy. Answer: C Rationale: The results of the study are possibly confounded because the method of data collection differed between higher and lower income participants. This difference in data collection method could introduce bias or confounding variables, affecting the validity of the results. 45) Failure to constrain research procedures can result in A) the reduction of confounding. B) researcher bias. C) archival findings. D) artifactual findings. Answer: D Rationale: Failure to constrain research procedures can lead to artifactual findings, where observed results are not reflective of reality but are instead influenced by extraneous variables. Constraining research procedures helps minimize the influence of confounding variables and enhances the validity of the findings. 46) Confounding can result in A) artifacts. B) participant attrition. C) loss of flexibility. D) statistical errors in the calculations. Answer: A Rationale: Confounding can lead to artifactual findings or artifacts, where observed results are influenced by extraneous variables rather than the variables of interest. These artifacts can distort the interpretation of data and lead to erroneous conclusions. 47) The way to avoid confounding two variables is to A) vary measurement procedures throughout. B) hold constant the variable the researcher is most interested in. C) be especially aware of possible cohort effects. D) make sure the variables vary independently. Answer: D Rationale: To avoid confounding two variables, researchers should ensure that the variables being studied vary independently of each other. This means controlling for other factors that could influence the relationship between the variables of interest, thus reducing the risk of confounding. 48) When a researcher standardizes the observational methods, the researcher is adding A) degrees of freedom. B) a constraint. C) a confounding variable. D) a dependent variable. Answer: B Rationale: Standardizing observational methods adds a constraint to the research process. By ensuring consistency in how data are collected and measured, researchers can minimize the influence of extraneous variables and enhance the internal validity of their study. 49) Which of the following is a possible source of confounding in differential research? A) measuring each variable B) failing to manipulate the independent variable C) using the Pearson r instead of the Spearman r D) using different observation procedures in each group Answer: D Rationale: Using different observation procedures in each group introduces a possible source of confounding in differential research. Differential research aims to compare groups, and if different observation procedures are used, it can lead to biased results or confounding variables affecting the outcomes. 50) If we use different methods to observe and measure a phenomenon in two groups, we run the risk of introducing A) a constraint. B) an additional degree of freedom. C) researcher bias. D) a confounding factor. Answer: D Rationale: Using different methods to observe and measure a phenomenon in two groups increases the risk of introducing confounding factors. Consistency in measurement methods is crucial for ensuring the validity and reliability of research findings, as different methods can introduce bias or confounding variables. 51) Detailed planning of research is possible only if A) there is plenty of money. B) the phenomenon under study is already reasonably well understood. C) the study is the first study conducted on a particular topic. D) there are several dependent variables. Answer: B Rationale: Detailed planning of research requires a solid understanding of the phenomenon being studied. When the phenomenon is well understood, researchers can develop clear hypotheses, select appropriate methodologies, and anticipate potential challenges or confounding variables. Without a clear understanding of the phenomenon, planning research becomes significantly more difficult and less effective. 52) What price is paid for using high-constraint research? A) loss of internal validity B) loss of flexibility C) measurement precision is decreased D) replicability is reduced Answer: B Rationale: High-constraint research, while providing more control over variables, often sacrifices flexibility. This means that researchers may be limited in their ability to adapt to unforeseen circumstances or explore alternative hypotheses during the course of the study. This loss of flexibility can constrain the research process and potentially limit the insights gained from the study. 7.3 Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods 1) Which of the following research types represents the highest level of constraint? A) case study B) correlational C) archival D) differential Answer: D Rationale: Differential research involves the manipulation of an independent variable, thus providing the highest level of control over experimental conditions. This manipulation allows researchers to determine causality more effectively compared to other research designs such as correlational or archival studies. 2) One constraint used in differential research that is NOT used in correlational research is A) unobtrusive observation. B) carefully constructed measures. C) carefully trained research assistants. D) the selection of one or more specific control groups. Answer: D Rationale: In differential research, the researcher selects specific control groups to compare with the experimental group, allowing for the isolation of the effect of the independent variable. This control over the selection of control groups is a unique constraint to differential research and is not present in correlational studies, where variables are observed without manipulation. 3) Differences in hearing acuity between a group of chronic schizophrenics and a control group of hypertensive patients are A) most likely averaged out during data analysis. B) most likely due to the peculiar dependent measure. C) not difficult to interpret. D) most likely confounded with several other variables. Answer: D Rationale: Differences in hearing acuity between two groups are likely confounded with several other variables, such as age, medication effects, comorbidities, or environmental factors. Without controlling for these variables, it's challenging to attribute the observed differences solely to the condition being studied. 4) In correlational and differential research, the researcher is NOT able to use powerful procedures such as A) examining preexisting variables. B) randomly assigning participants to groups. C) holding an extraneous variable constant. D) controlling for gender of participants. Answer: B Rationale: Random assignment of participants to groups is a hallmark of experimental research, allowing researchers to minimize the effects of confounding variables and establish causal relationships between variables. However, correlational and differential research designs lack this capability, as they typically involve observing or manipulating preexisting variables without random assignment. 5) Why can't we study the effects of prolonged separation in infancy in an experimental way? A) The design would be too cumbersome. B) It is unethical to separate infants from their parents for an extended period of time for the purpose of research. C) Animal models are sufficient for this purpose. D) The research is not likely to get funded. Answer: B Rationale: Conducting experiments that involve separating infants from their parents for prolonged periods of time raises serious ethical concerns regarding the well-being and psychological development of the infants. Such practices would violate principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence, making it ethically unacceptable to conduct such studies. 6) Suppose we designed a study to test experimentally the effects of mother/child separation during the first six months of life on future educational achievement. What would be the main concern with such a study? A) the time and expense needed with longitudinal studies B) ethical considerations in participant selection and assignment C) the cohort effect D) the lack of basic research done in this area Answer: B Rationale: The main concern with such a study would be ethical considerations related to participant selection and assignment. Separating infants from their mothers for an extended period of time could have significant negative consequences for their development and well-being, raising ethical issues regarding informed consent, harm avoidance, and the overall welfare of the participants. 7) Differential research designs are used most often in A) situations in which the manipulation of an independent variable is impractical, impossible, or inappropriate. B) research on lower socioeconomic groups. C) prisons. D) developmental psychology. Answer: A Rationale: Differential research designs involve the manipulation of an independent variable to assess its impact on a dependent variable. They are commonly used when it is impractical, impossible, or inappropriate to manipulate variables in an experimental setting, such as in studies involving naturally occurring conditions or ethical constraints. 8) Due to ethical considerations, the area of clinical neuropsychology primarily uses which type(s) of research design(s)? A) correlational and differential research B) naturalistic research C) experimental research D) factorial research Answer: A Rationale: Clinical neuropsychology often deals with vulnerable populations and ethical considerations that preclude the use of experimental research designs involving manipulation of variables. Therefore, correlational and differential research designs, which allow for the observation and manipulation of preexisting variables without direct intervention, are primarily used in this field to address research questions while adhering to ethical guidelines. 9) The main goal of correlational research is A) contributing knowledge to the field. B) prediction. C) establishing causality. D) None of the above Answer: B Rationale: Correlational research aims to identify relationships or associations between variables without establishing causality. While contributing knowledge to the field may be a byproduct, the primary goal of correlational research is typically prediction. Researchers seek to understand how changes in one variable are associated with changes in another, allowing for predictive modeling. 10) In a study of the development of noun usage, an investigator is interested in the relationship of the number of nouns in a child's vocabulary to the number of adults in the household. This type of project is A) correlational in nature. B) experimental in nature. C) naturalistic. D) high-constraint research. Answer: A Rationale: This project involves examining the relationship between the number of nouns in a child's vocabulary and the number of adults in the household, without manipulating any variables. Thus, it falls under correlational research, which aims to identify and analyze relationships between variables without intervention or manipulation. 11) By mapping the relationships between brain functioning and behavior, the neuropsychologist is essentially employing A) unethical research. B) experimental research. C) correlational research. D) naturalistic research. Answer: C Rationale: Neuropsychologists often investigate the relationship between brain functioning and behavior through correlational research methods. They seek to identify patterns or associations between brain activity and observable behaviors without manipulating variables. Correlational research allows them to examine these relationships in natural settings without experimental manipulation. 12) The field of clinical neuropsychology uses which types of research designs almost exclusively? A) experimental and differential B) correlational and differential C) correlational and naturalistic D) naturalistic and experimental Answer: B Rationale: Clinical neuropsychology primarily employs correlational and differential research designs. These approaches allow researchers to explore the relationships between various cognitive functions, brain structures, and behavioral outcomes without direct manipulation of variables. Such designs are well-suited for studying complex interactions within clinical populations. 7.4 Conducting Correlational Research 1) One major difference between correlational and naturalistic research is that in correlational research we always A) apply constraints only to the researcher. B) seek a causal inference. C) seek high positive correlations. D) measure at least two variables. Answer: D Rationale: In correlational research, the primary aim is to measure and analyze the relationship between two or more variables without intervening or manipulating them. Therefore, the distinguishing feature of correlational research is the measurement of at least two variables and examining their associations, while in naturalistic research, the focus is on observing behavior in its natural context without necessarily quantifying relationships between variables. 2) Problem statements for correlational research are A) more specific than problem statements in naturalistic research. B) less specific than problem statements in naturalistic research. C) more specific than problem statements in experimental research. D) difficult to operationalize. Answer: A Rationale: Problem statements in correlational research tend to be more specific compared to those in naturalistic research. Correlational studies involve identifying relationships between variables and often require clear, well-defined hypotheses about the expected associations between these variables. This specificity helps guide the research process and data analysis. 3) A typical problem statement in correlational research is A) "What is the strength and direction of the relationship between variables X and Y?" B) "What is the best equation for predicting variable Y from variable X?" C) "What is the correlation of each of the demographic variables with the dependent measures?" D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Problem statements in correlational research can encompass various inquiries, including assessing the strength and direction of relationships between variables, developing predictive models, or examining correlations between demographic variables and dependent measures. These types of inquiries are common in correlational research where understanding associations between variables is the primary objective. 4) Multivariate designs employ A) fewer than two variables. B) only two variables. C) two or more variables. D) more than two variables. Answer: D Rationale: Multivariate designs involve the analysis of relationships among multiple variables simultaneously. Unlike bivariate designs which focus on the relationship between two variables, multivariate designs consider the interplay between three or more variables. These designs allow researchers to explore complex relationships and interactions among multiple factors. 5) The best equation for predicting variable Y from variable X is called the A) regression equation. B) succession equation. C) coefficient of determination. D) coefficient of least squares. Answer: A Rationale: The equation used for predicting one variable (dependent variable) based on another variable (independent variable) in a linear relationship is called the regression equation. This equation is derived through regression analysis, a statistical method used in correlational research to model the relationship between variables. 6) In which level of research is there usually a single group of participants that is a representative sample of a larger population? A) naturalistic B) correlational C) differential D) experimental Answer: B Rationale: Correlational research often involves gathering data from a single group of participants that is intended to be representative of a larger population. Researchers seek to identify relationships between variables within this sample and then generalize their findings to the broader population from which the sample was drawn. This approach allows for broader insights into the associations between variables across populations. 7) The regression equation is part of A) naturalistic research. B) case-study research. C) differential research. D) correlational research. Answer: D Rationale: The regression equation is a statistical tool used in correlational research to analyze the relationship between variables and to make predictions based on that relationship. Correlational research aims to examine the extent to which variables are related to each other without manipulating them, making option D the correct choice. 8) _____ research seeks to quantify the strength and direction of relationships among two or more variables. A) Experimental B) Differential C) Correlational D) Naturalistic Answer: C Rationale: Correlational research specifically aims to quantify relationships between variables, determining the strength and direction of those relationships. Options A, B, and D do not focus on quantifying relationships between variables, making option C the correct choice. 9) Demographic variables A) cannot be measured. B) are usually measured on nominal scales. C) are characteristics of the sample. D) are constraints imposed by the particular statistics used. Answer: C Rationale: Demographic variables are characteristics of the sample population, such as age, gender, education level, etc. These variables are not constraints imposed by statistics or unmeasurable; rather, they are characteristics used to describe the participants in a study, making option C the correct choice. 10) It is common to compute the correlations between demographic variables and A) the independent variable. B) the extraneous variables. C) the dependent variable. D) the organismic variables. Answer: C Rationale: In correlational research, it is common to compute correlations between demographic variables and the dependent variable to examine how demographic factors might relate to the outcome of interest, making option C the correct choice. 11) It is critical in correlational research to A) develop effective operational definitions. B) randomly assign participants to conditions. C) test the difference between experimental conditions. D) compute t-tests. Answer: A Rationale: Developing effective operational definitions ensures that variables are measured accurately and reliably, which is critical in correlational research to accurately assess the relationships between variables. Random assignment and testing differences between experimental conditions are more relevant to experimental research designs, making option A the correct choice. 12) The tendency for experimenters to "see what they expect to see" is called A) experimenter reactivity. B) experimenter latency. C) experimenter sight. D) experimenter expectancy. Answer: D Rationale: Experimenter expectancy refers to the phenomenon where experimenters unintentionally bias their observations or results in line with their expectations. It is a common issue in research, particularly in experimental settings, making option D the correct choice. 13) Precise measurement in correlational research depends primarily on A) the number of variables used. B) the type of measurement scale used. C) the number of data chunks in the measure. D) the adequacy of operational definitions. Answer: D Rationale: Precise measurement in correlational research depends primarily on the adequacy of operational definitions, ensuring that variables are accurately and reliably measured. Options A, B, and C are less directly related to the precision of measurement in correlational research, making option D the correct choice. 14) In collecting data in correlational research, it is important to minimize which two effects? A) the tendency of investigators to find what they expect to find and to influence the behavior of participants B) the politeness effect and the social desirability effect C) the Hawthorne effect and the social desirability effect D) experimenter reactivity and the Hawthorne effect Answer: A Rationale: In correlational research, it is crucial to minimize the tendency of investigators to find what they expect to find (experimenter expectancy) and to minimize their influence on the behavior of participants. Options B, C, and D mention other effects that are important in research but are not specifically related to the issues of expectation bias and participant influence in correlational research, making option A the correct choice. 15) The tendency of investigators to influence the behavior of participants is termed A) social desirability. B) experimenter reactivity. C) measurement bias. D) the standard error. Answer: B Rationale: Experimenter reactivity refers to the phenomenon where investigators inadvertently influence the behavior of participants, often due to their own expectations or behavior during the study. It is a common concern in research settings, making option B the correct choice. 16) Experimenter reactivity is particularly likely when A) the experimenter is tired. B) the participants have not been paid. C) the participant is asked to give a voluntary response in the presence of the researcher. D) participants are being tested in a group. Answer: C Rationale: Experimenter reactivity is particularly likely when participants are asked to give a voluntary response in the presence of the researcher because the experimenter's expectations or behavior can unintentionally influence the participants' responses. Options A, B, and D are less directly related to the likelihood of experimenter reactivity, making option C the correct choice. 17) Which of the following is the term that means the tendency for an experimenter to influence the behavior of the participants? A) experimenter validity B) experimenter reactivity C) double-blind D) reification Answer: B Rationale: Experimenter reactivity refers to the phenomenon where the experimenter's expectations or actions unintentionally influence the participants' behavior, leading to biased results. 18) The problem of experimenter reactivity in correlational research may be solved by A) performing no manipulations. B) holding an extraneous variable constant. C) using two independent experimenters, one to measure each variable. D) using involuntary participants. Answer: C Rationale: Using two independent experimenters, each responsible for measuring one variable in correlational research, helps to minimize experimenter reactivity by reducing the likelihood of experimenter bias affecting both variables simultaneously. 19) In a research study, a participant's desire to be consistent is an example of A) participant reactivity. B) measurement reactivity. C) cohort effect. D) experimenter reactivity. Answer: B Rationale: Participant's desire to be consistent on self-report measures demonstrates measurement reactivity, wherein participants alter their responses to align with what they perceive as consistent or socially desirable. 20) Which of the following terms refers to the tendency for an experimenter to influence the behavior of the participants? A) experimenter validity B) experimenter reactivity C) double-blind D) reification Answer: B Rationale: Experimenter reactivity captures the concept of the experimenter inadvertently influencing participants' behavior due to their expectations or actions. 21) The problem of participants' contrived consistency on self-report measures can be reduced by A) including fewer items. B) using appropriate statistical controls. C) making the participant aware of what the researcher is interested in. D) adding filler items. Answer: D Rationale: Adding filler items to self-report measures disrupts the pattern of contrived consistency, as participants cannot easily predict the purpose of each item and are less likely to tailor their responses accordingly. 22) Contrived consistency on self-report measures is a type of A) measurement reactivity. B) researcher reactivity. C) researcher bias. D) measurement bias. Answer: A Rationale: Contrived consistency on self-report measures represents a form of measurement reactivity, wherein participants modify their responses to conform to perceived expectations or societal norms. 23) Two ways of reducing contrived consistency on self-report measures are A) to use filler items and to make the participants aware that they are being observed. B) to separate the measures from one another and to rely on unobtrusive measures. C) to give all measures at the same time and to give the participant more control. D) to tell the participant what the purpose of the measure is and to make the measurement obvious. Answer: B Rationale: Separating measures from each other and utilizing unobtrusive measures minimize participants' awareness of the researcher's specific interests, thereby reducing the likelihood of contrived consistency. 24) In correlational studies, it is generally better for participants to A) be unaware of the investigator's hypotheses. B) be assigned to groups based on their knowledge of the experiments. C) be knowledgeable about the area being studied. D) have some insight into the researcher's hypotheses. Answer: A Rationale: It is preferable for participants in correlational studies to be unaware of the investigator's hypotheses to prevent their responses from being influenced by demand characteristics or experimenter bias. 25) Which of the following is NOT used to control measurement reactivity? A) including filler items B) using unobtrusive measures C) separating the measures D) using measures that the participants can control Answer: D Rationale: Measures that participants can control do not help in controlling measurement reactivity; instead, they might exacerbate it by allowing participants to manipulate their responses to align with perceived expectations. 26) In a study using correlational methodology, we find that the relationship between self-esteem and body image is greater for females than males. Therefore, we should A) treat males and females as different subpopulations. B) treat the finding as error variance. C) repeat the study without taking sex of the participant into account. D) be aware of the difference and account for it in the data analysis part of the study by using an analysis of variance. Answer: A Rationale: Since the relationship between self-esteem and body image differs between males and females, it's appropriate to treat them as different subpopulations to analyze the data accurately and account for potential gender differences. 27) A variable that modifies the relationship between two variables is A) an internal variable. B) a dependent variable. C) a moderator variable. D) a confounding interactive variable. Answer: C Rationale: A moderator variable is a variable that influences the strength or direction of the relationship between two other variables. It doesn't necessarily represent an outcome or a variable influenced by others, making options B and D incorrect. Option A, internal variable, is a vague term that doesn't specifically describe the role of a variable in modifying relationships between other variables. 28) In a correlational study, the relationship between self-esteem and body image is greater for females than males. In this case, gender is A) an internal variable. B) a dependent variable. C) an interactive variable. D) a moderator variable. Answer: D Rationale: Gender in this scenario influences the strength of the relationship between self-esteem and body image, making it a moderator variable. It doesn't represent an outcome (dependent variable) or a variable influenced by others (interactive variable), thus options B and C are incorrect. Option A, internal variable, is too general and doesn't specifically describe the role of gender in this context. 29) A variable that seems to change the relationship between other variables is termed A) a potentiating variable. B) a mediating variable. C) a moderator variable. D) a catalytic variable. Answer: C Rationale: A moderator variable alters the relationship between other variables. It does not necessarily act as a mediator (option B), a potentiating variable (option A), or a catalytic variable (option D), all of which may describe different roles in a relationship, but not specifically modifying it as a moderator does. 30) The gender of a participant is an example of one of the most commonly used A) catalytic variables. B) dependent variables. C) randomized variables. D) moderator variables. Answer: D Rationale: Gender often serves as a moderator variable in studies, influencing the relationship between other variables. It is not typically a dependent variable (option B), a randomized variable (option C), or a catalytic variable (option A) which aren't as commonly used or may not fit the context of the study. 31) If a researcher wanted to determine the correlation between two variables, and both are measured on at least an interval scale, he/she would use the A) Spearman partial correlation. B) canonical correlation. C) Pearson product-moment correlation. D) Spearman rank-order correlation. Answer: C Rationale: The Pearson product-moment correlation is used to measure the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two interval-scale variables. Spearman's methods (options A and D) are used for ordinal data, while canonical correlation (option B) is used to examine the relationship between two sets of variables. 32) In computing a correlation coefficient, if both variables are measured on at least an interval scale, then the appropriate coefficient is A) a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. B) a multiple correlation coefficient. C) a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. D) a canonical correlation coefficient. Answer: A Rationale: The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is appropriate for interval-scale variables when assessing the strength and direction of their linear relationship. Options B, C, and D refer to different types of correlations that are not specifically designed for interval-scale variables. 33) In computing a correlation coefficient, if one variable is measured on an ordinal scale and the other variable is at least ordinal, then the appropriate coefficient would be A) a canonical correlation coefficient. B) a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. C) a partial correlation coefficient. D) a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Answer: B Rationale: The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient is suitable for assessing the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables when at least one is measured on an ordinal scale. Options A, C, and D refer to different types of correlations that are not specifically designed for ordinal-scale variables. 34) A correlation of -1.00 would show that A) no linear relationship exists. B) a perfect positive correlation exists. C) as one variable increases, the other decreases. D) as one variable increases, the other would also increase. Answer: C Rationale: A correlation coefficient of -1.00 indicates a perfect negative correlation, meaning that as one variable increases, the other decreases. Options A, B, and D are incorrect interpretations of correlation coefficients. 35) A Pearson product-moment correlation of ________ indicates a positive relationship. A) -1.00 B) 0.00 C) +1.00 D) + or -0.50 Answer: C Rationale: A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient of +1.00 indicates a perfect positive correlation, where both variables increase together. Options A, B, and D represent different scenarios or values for correlation coefficients. 36) A Pearson product-moment correlation of ________ indicates that no linear relationship exists. A) -1.00 B) -2.00 C) -3.00 D) 0.00 Answer: D Rationale: A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient of 0.00 indicates no linear relationship between the variables. Options A, B, and C represent different types of linear relationships or incorrect interpretations of correlation coefficients. 37) A correlation of +0.50 would indicate that A) no linear relationship exists. B) a negative relationship exists. C) a less than perfect positive relationship exists. D) a relationship may exist in either direction. Answer: C Rationale: A correlation coefficient of +0.50 indicates a positive relationship, but it's less than perfect, meaning it's not +1.00. The closer the correlation coefficient is to +1.00, the stronger the positive relationship. 38) Multiple correlation refers to correlating A) a set of variables. B) one variable with a set of variables. C) one set of variables with another set of variables. D) all variables in a study with all other variables in that study Answer: B Rationale: Multiple correlation involves correlating one variable with a set of variables. It measures the degree to which a single variable is related to a set of other variables. 39) Path analysis refers to A) testing the strength of evidence for a specific causal model using only correlational data. B) interpreting correlational data. C) analyzing linear relationships. D) interpreting multiple correlations. Answer: A Rationale: Path analysis involves testing the strength of evidence for a specific causal model using correlational data alone. It helps in understanding the direct and indirect effects of variables in a causal network. 40) Correlating one variable with another after statistically removing the effects of a third is termed a A) multiple correlation. B) simple correlation. C) partial correlation. D) canonical correlation. Answer: C Rationale: Partial correlation involves examining the relationship between two variables while controlling for the influence of a third variable. It allows researchers to assess the unique association between two variables. 41) Correlating one variable with an entire set of variables is termed a A) canonical correlation. B) partial correlation. C) Spearman operation. D) multiple correlation. Answer: D Rationale: Multiple correlation involves correlating one variable with an entire set of variables. It assesses how well a single variable is predicted by a combination of other variables. 42) Correlating one set of variables with another set of variables is termed A) a canonical correlation. B) a partial correlation. C) a multiple correlation. D) regression to the mean. Answer: A Rationale: Canonical correlation involves examining the relationship between two sets of variables. It identifies linear combinations of variables from each set that have maximum correlation with each other. 43) The range of a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient is A) different from that of a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. B) the same as that of a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. C) truncated. D) from 0 to +1.00. Answer: B Rationale: The range of both Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is from -1.00 to +1.00, indicating the strength and direction of the relationship between variables. 44) In interpreting a correlation, it is important to A) take one variable at a time. B) ignore its direction and size. C) test the null hypothesis that there is a zero correlation between the variables in the population. D) test the research hypothesis. Answer: C Rationale: Interpreting a correlation involves considering its significance, strength, and direction. Testing the null hypothesis helps determine if the observed correlation is statistically significant or occurred by chance. 45) If an obtained correlation was 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be A) 0.50. B) 0.25. C) -0.50. D) 0.00. Answer: B Rationale: The coefficient of determination (r-squared) represents the proportion of variance shared by two variables. In this case, if the correlation coefficient is 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be 0.50 * 0.50 = 0.25. 46) The coefficient of determination should only be used when the sample size is at least A) 30 participants. B) 5 participants. C) 10 participants. D) 20 participants. Answer: A Rationale: A larger sample size provides more reliable estimates of population parameters. Typically, a sample size of at least 30 participants is recommended for using the coefficient of determination to ensure statistical reliability. 47) The coefficient of determination is computed by A) squaring the correlation coefficient. B) dividing correlation coefficient by two. C) doubling the correlation coefficient. D) taking the square root of the correlation coefficient. Answer: A Rationale: The coefficient of determination (r2) represents the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable(s). It is obtained by squaring the correlation coefficient (r), hence option A is correct. 48) When using correlation coefficients, it is useful to calculate the coefficient of determination by A) squaring the obtained correlation. B) multiplying the obtained correlation by 2. C) squaring the alpha level. D) adding the obtained correlation to the alpha level. Answer: A Rationale: The coefficient of determination (r2) is calculated by squaring the obtained correlation coefficient (r) to determine the proportion of variance in the dependent variable accounted for by the independent variable(s). Hence, option A is the correct choice. 49) By squaring the obtained correlation, we are calculating A) degrees of freedom. B) the coefficient of determination. C) the critical value. D) the absolute value. Answer: B Rationale: Squaring the obtained correlation coefficient calculates the coefficient of determination (r2), which represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable explained by the independent variable. Therefore, option B is the correct answer. 50) It is appropriate to take the coefficient of determination seriously only if the A) sample size is under 30. B) alpha level is high enough. C) alpha level is low enough. D) sample size is large enough. Answer: D Rationale: The coefficient of determination becomes more reliable as the sample size increases because larger samples provide more accurate estimates of population parameters. Hence, option D is correct. 51) If the correlation between income level and verbal ability is .80, what is the coefficient of determination? A) .40 B) .64 C) .16 D) .20 Answer: B Rationale: The coefficient of determination (r2) is obtained by squaring the correlation coefficient (r). In this case, (0.80)2 = 0.64. Hence, option B is correct. 52) The coefficient of determination is useful in A) computing the correlation coefficient. B) computing the degrees of freedom. C) indicating the proportion of variance accounted for. D) determining the critical value. Answer: C Rationale: The coefficient of determination (r2) represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable(s). Therefore, it is useful in indicating the extent to which changes in the independent variable(s) explain variability in the dependent variable. 7.5 Conducting Differential Research 1) Typical problem statements for differential research ask A) "What is the correlation between Group A and Group B?" B) "Does Group A predict Group B?" C) "Is Group A statistically significant?" D) "Does Group A differ from Group B?" Answer: D Rationale: Differential research aims to identify differences between groups, so the typical problem statement would involve assessing whether Group A differs from Group B. Options A, B, and C do not directly address group differences. 2) A researcher decides to examine "road rage". Her problem statement might be A) Does "road rage" occur more often during rush hour traffic? B) Does "road rage" occur more often in males? C) Does the age of the driver affect the likelihood of "road rage"? D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: All of the provided options are relevant questions that could be explored in a study on road rage, indicating that the problem statement could encompass any or all of these inquiries. 3) When we add comparison groups in research, we add the ability to identify group differences but lose ________. A) power B) credibility C) flexibility D) degrees of freedom Answer: C Rationale: Adding comparison groups enhances the ability to identify group differences but can reduce flexibility in the design and analysis of the study. 4) In differential research, the independent variable is typically a A) manipulated variable. B) converted dependent variable. C) discrete variable. D) continuous variable. Answer: C Rationale: In differential research, the independent variable is often categorical or discrete, representing different groups or conditions being compared for differences. Therefore, option C, a discrete variable, is the most appropriate choice. 5) The most challenging part of creating problem statements for differential research is A) determining which comparisons have theoretical significance. B) checking past research areas. C) solving the ethical problem of using preexisting groups. D) determining which statistical tests are appropriate. Answer: A Rationale: Determining which comparisons have theoretical significance is challenging because it requires a deep understanding of the research domain and the theoretical frameworks involved. It involves identifying which group comparisons are meaningful and relevant to the research question being addressed. 6) Problem statements for differential research should focus on comparing groups that A) differ on as many variables as possible. B) differ on only one variable. C) do not differ on any variables. D) None of the above Answer: B Rationale: Problem statements for differential research should focus on comparing groups that differ on only one variable to isolate the effect of that variable on the dependent measure. This allows for a clearer understanding of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. 7) We are interested in male/female differences in a differential research study. Gender would be the A) manipulated independent variable. B) dependent variable. C) determinant variable. D) nonmanipulated independent variable. Answer: D Rationale: Gender in this context is typically considered a nonmanipulated independent variable because it cannot be manipulated by the researcher. It is a characteristic inherent to the participants being studied. 8) In differential research, the nonmanipulated independent variable is typically A) a discrete variable. B) a continuous variable. C) difficult to measure. D) not operationalized. Answer: A Rationale: Nonmanipulated independent variables in differential research are typically discrete variables because they involve categorical distinctions such as gender, ethnicity, or treatment condition. 9) It is possible to convert a correlational research design into a differential research design by A) using the appropriate post hoc statistical analyses. B) taking a continuous variable and breaking it into discrete intervals. C) adjusting the degrees of freedom. D) adjusting the alpha level. Answer: B Rationale: By taking a continuous variable and breaking it into discrete intervals, researchers can create groups that differ on that variable, thus transforming a correlational design into a differential one. 10) Problem statements for differential research should A) focus on comparing groups that differ on only one variable. B) have several comparisons for the factors of interest. C) focus on group differences in theoretically significant dependent measures. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Problem statements for differential research should encompass all the options provided. They should focus on comparing groups that differ on only one variable, involve multiple comparisons for the factors of interest, and center on theoretically significant dependent measures to address research questions effectively. 11) The minimum number of groups required in differential research is A) one. B) three. C) two. D) four. Answer: C Rationale: Differential research involves comparing at least two groups to examine the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Therefore, the minimum number of groups required is two. 12) In differential research, any group selected as a basis of comparison with the primary group is called A) a differential group. B) a correlational group. C) an experimental group. D) a control group. Answer: D Rationale: In differential research, the group selected as a basis of comparison with the primary group is termed a control group. This group helps to isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable by providing a baseline for comparison. 13) A variable can have a confounding effect in a differential study only if A) it affects the scores on the dependent variable(s). B) there is no difference between the groups on the variable. C) there are at least three groups in the study. D) there are several levels of the variable in question. Answer: A Rationale: A variable can have a confounding effect in a differential study if it affects the scores on the dependent variable(s), thereby influencing the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. 14) In attempting to reduce confounding in differential research, the variable that should be held constant is A) the variable we are most interested in. B) the variable we have no interest in. C) the dependent variable. D) the independent variable. Answer: B Rationale: To reduce confounding in differential research, the variable that should be held constant is the variable researchers have no interest in. This ensures that any observed effects are due to the variables of interest and not to extraneous variables. 15) To select an appropriate control group, we must first identify factors that A) cannot be operationalized. B) will affect the dependent measures. C) have not been adequately researched. D) will affect the independent variable. Answer: B Rationale: The purpose of a control group in an experiment is to isolate and neutralize the effects of variables other than the independent variable on the dependent variable. Therefore, an appropriate control group should account for factors that may influence the dependent measures to ensure that any observed differences are due to the independent variable and not other extraneous variables. 16) In differential research, some potentially confounding variables may be controlled with A) manipulation of the dependent variable. B) manipulation of the independent variable. C) use of a carefully selected control group. D) use of more rigorous statistical analyses. Answer: C Rationale: By using a carefully selected control group, researchers can control for potentially confounding variables, ensuring that any observed differences between groups are due to the independent variable and not other factors. 17) Using more than one control group in differential research studies is often necessary A) to prevent confounding other variables with the independent measure. B) to make sure there are enough participants. C) to prevent confounding other variables with the dependent measure. D) because it is the current trend in psychological research. Answer: A Rationale: Having more than one control group allows researchers to assess the impact of different variables on the dependent measure, thereby preventing the confounding of other variables with the independent measure. 18) The ideal control group in differential research is identical to the experimental group on all variables EXCEPT A) sex. B) the independent variable that defines the groups. C) the dependent variable that defines the groups. D) the performance variable. Answer: B Rationale: The purpose of a control group is to serve as a baseline against which the experimental group is compared. Therefore, the ideal control group should be identical to the experimental group on all variables except for the independent variable, which defines the groups. 19) The ideal control group in differential research A) is identical to the experimental group in all ways. B) is different from the experimental group on all variables except the dependent variable. C) has more participants than the experimental group. D) is identical to the experimental group on all variables except the independent variable. Answer: D Rationale: The ideal control group should be identical to the experimental group on all variables except the independent variable. This ensures that any differences in the dependent variable can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable. 20) A confounding variable is powerful if it is likely to A) have a minimal effect on the dependent measure. B) have a large effect on the independent variable. C) correlate minimally with the dependent measure. D) have a large effect on the dependent measure. Answer: D Rationale: A confounding variable is considered powerful if it has a substantial impact on the dependent measure, thereby potentially masking the true effects of the independent variable. 21) A powerful confounding variable is likely to have A) a large effect on the independent measure. B) a negative effect on the dependent measure. C) no effect on the dependent measure. D) a large effect on the dependent measure. Answer: D Rationale: A powerful confounding variable is expected to have a significant impact on the dependent measure, potentially confounding the results by influencing the outcome variable. 22) One of the major reasons why it is important to perform multiple studies when employing differential designs is that A) it is necessary to use a huge sample size. B) it is necessary to test and retest one ideal comparison group. C) there is no one ideal comparison group. D) it is necessary to rule out researcher biases. Answer: C Rationale: Multiple studies are necessary in differential research because there may not be a single ideal comparison group that adequately accounts for all potential confounding variables. Conducting multiple studies with different comparison groups helps to ensure the robustness and generalizability of the findings. 23) In differential research designs, A) ideal comparison groups are easy to find. B) it is impossible to find good comparison groups. C) comparison groups are unnecessary. D) it is difficult to find ideal comparison groups. Answer: D Rationale: Finding ideal comparison groups in differential research designs can be challenging due to the need to control for various confounding variables. Therefore, it is often difficult to find comparison groups that adequately match the experimental group on all relevant characteristics. 24) Differential research studies that use multiple comparisons have more than one A) control group. B) naturalistic group. C) correlation group. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: Differential research studies that utilize multiple comparisons typically involve more than one control group to account for various confounding variables and provide a more robust analysis of the effects of the independent variable. 25) Without experimentation A) no conclusions can be drawn. B) strong causal conclusions can still be drawn. C) drawing strong conclusions is difficult. D) drawing strong conclusions is easy. Answer: C Rationale: Without experimentation, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between variables or draw strong conclusions because experimentation allows researchers to manipulate variables and observe their effects, which is essential for establishing causality. 26) Issues of sampling A) are never the same from one study to the next. B) are the same regardless of the type of research. C) are seldom of importance in research. D) are important only in differential research designs. Answer: B Rationale: Issues of sampling are fundamental in all types of research because the quality of the sample affects the generalizability and validity of the research findings. Regardless of the research design, sampling issues must be carefully considered. 27) Random sampling A) is necessary in order to generalize from a sample to a larger population. B) is a convenient but unnecessary procedure in research. C) has no impact on the ability to generalize to a larger population. D) is necessary in order to protect internal validity. Answer: A Rationale: Random sampling is crucial for generalizing findings from a sample to a larger population because it helps to minimize selection bias and ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. 28) Random assignment of participants in experiments generally A) ensures equality of the groups on all variables except the independent variable. B) does not enable confident interpretations of findings. C) produces confounding variables that cannot easily be identified. D) produces participant bias effects. Answer: A Rationale: Random assignment of participants in experiments helps to ensure that groups are comparable at the outset, except for the manipulation of the independent variable. This increases the likelihood that any differences observed between groups can be attributed to the independent variable rather than pre-existing differences between participants. 29) Participant attrition in a study on self-esteem in male sociopaths versus normal males would affect generalizability because A) the participants who dropped out may be different in some critical way than those who remained in the study. B) it would call into question the diagnostic category of sociopathy. C) there would not be a large enough sample size. D) the results could only be generalized to the population of male sociopaths and not to all males. Answer: A Rationale: Participant attrition can introduce bias if those who drop out differ systematically from those who remain in the study, impacting the generalizability of findings. It's essential to consider the reasons for attrition and whether it introduces any systematic biases. 30) The statistical test(s) most often used for comparing two groups is (are) the A) X-test. B) t-test and ANOVA. C) Mann-Whitney U-test. D) chi-square. Answer: B Rationale: The t-test and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) are commonly used for comparing means between two or more groups, respectively. These tests are appropriate when the dependent variable is continuous and the independent variable has two or more levels. 31) If we were doing a study in which we wanted to apply the findings to the whole population of the United States, it would be necessary to A) draw a nonrandom sample from the entire U.S.A. B) take a random sample from the entire U.S.A. C) use only participants from our local area. D) use a nonstratified local sample. Answer: B Rationale: To generalize findings to the entire population of the United States, it's necessary to take a random sample from the entire population. Random sampling ensures that every individual in the population has an equal chance of being included in the study, enhancing the generalizability of results. 32) One of the reasons it is NOT possible to obtain a random sample from all patients with schizophrenia is that A) medication is a source of confounding. B) it would be unethical to do so. C) schizophrenia does not really differ from depression. D) it would be prohibitively expensive. Answer: D Rationale: Obtaining a random sample from all patients with schizophrenia would be prohibitively expensive due to the logistical challenges and costs associated with identifying and recruiting a representative sample from a potentially large and diverse population of individuals with schizophrenia. 33) Having limited access to only one type of psychiatric patient, for example, poses a serious threat to A) generalizability. B) replicability. C) believability. D) measurement accuracy. Answer: A Rationale: Limited access to only one type of psychiatric patient poses a threat to the generalizability of findings because it restricts the ability to apply the results to a broader population of psychiatric patients. Generalizability is compromised when the sample is not representative of the population of interest. 34) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used A) when random sampling is not possible. B) to compare the means of two or more groups. C) when the dependent measures yield nominal data. D) when the experimental and control group do not vary. Answer: B Rationale: ANOVA is used to compare the means of two or more groups when the independent variable consists of categorical levels. It is appropriate for continuous dependent variables and is used to test whether there are statistically significant differences among the means of the groups. 35) In analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and two groups, we would typically use: A) a t-test for independent groups. B) an analysis of variance (ANOVA). C) a Mann-Whitney U-Test. D) Either A or B. Answer: D Rationale: When analyzing data with score data and two groups, both a t-test for independent groups and ANOVA are suitable options. A t-test is appropriate when comparing means between two groups, while ANOVA is used when comparing means between more than two groups. Thus, either option A or B would be appropriate for this scenario. 36) In analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and more than two groups, we would typically use: A) a Mann-Whitney U-Test. B) an analysis of variance (ANOVA). C) a chi-square test. D) a correlated t-test. Answer: B Rationale: When dealing with score data and more than two groups, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) is typically used. ANOVA is specifically designed to analyze the differences among means when there are more than two groups. 37) Sampling biases pose a serious threat to: A) replicability. B) generalizability. C) credibility. D) measurement accuracy. Answer: B Rationale: Sampling biases threaten the generalizability of research findings. A biased sample may not accurately represent the population, thus limiting the ability to generalize the findings to the broader population. 38) In differential research studies of psychiatric patients, a factor that often affects generalizability is: A) the intelligence of participants. B) the number of participants that drop out. C) the diagnostic system used. D) the psychiatric training of the researcher. Answer: C Rationale: The diagnostic system used in psychiatric research can significantly affect generalizability. Different diagnostic systems may classify individuals differently, leading to variations in the characteristics of the studied population and limiting the generalizability of findings. 7.6 Limitations of Correlational and Differential Methods 1) Assuming self-esteem and grade point average are correlated, which of the following could NOT be true? A) Self-esteem causes grade point average. B) Grade point average causes self-esteem. C) Intelligence causes self-esteem and grade point average. D) Self-esteem and grade point average are not related. Answer: D Rationale: If self-esteem and grade point average are correlated, it means there is a relationship between them, thus option D, stating they are not related, could not be true. 2) One limitation of both correlational and differential research is that: A) it is difficult to make accurate observations in each approach. B) there are often problems in determining causation. C) statistical analyses is often difficult or impossible. D) the random assignment of participants produces potential confounding. Answer: B Rationale: One of the limitations of both correlational and differential research is the difficulty in determining causation. While these methods can identify relationships between variables, they do not establish causation. 3) Causal conclusions: A) can be drawn from correlational research. B) cannot be drawn from correlational and differential research. C) are established by differential research, but not correlational research. D) are established by correlational research, but not differential research. Answer: B Rationale: Causal conclusions cannot be drawn from correlational and differential research because these methods do not involve manipulation of variables or control over extraneous factors, which is necessary for establishing causation. 4) A major limitation in the use of correlational and differential methods is: A) getting participants. B) the type of conclusions that can be drawn. C) planning confounding factors. D) doing the literature review. Answer: B Rationale: A major limitation of correlational and differential methods is the type of conclusions that can be drawn. These methods are limited in their ability to establish causation and can only identify relationships between variables. 5) A correlation between reading ability and arithmetic ability: A) implies that there is no relationship between these abilities. B) is due solely to a general factor of intellectual abilities. C) may be an artifact of the phenomenon that reading ability is required in both tests. D) None of the above Answer: C Rationale: A correlation between reading ability and arithmetic ability may be an artifact of the phenomenon that reading ability is required in both tests. This common requirement could inflate the observed correlation between the two abilities. 6) In most differential research, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions on the basis of a single research study because of: A) the possible confounding variables. B) the difficulty in drawing the proper conclusion from the null hypothesis. C) the difficulty in choosing the appropriate statistical test. D) inadequate sampling strategies. Answer: A Rationale: In most differential research, it's challenging to draw solid conclusions based on a single study due to the presence of possible confounding variables. These variables can obscure the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, making it difficult to determine causality. 7) A strong relationship between two variables A) can imply causality in differential research. B) cannot imply causality in differential research. C) can imply causality in differential research but not in correlational research. D) is entirely meaningless. Answer: B Rationale: A strong relationship between two variables does not necessarily imply a causal relationship. Correlation does not equal causation, and there could be other variables at play that influence both variables simultaneously without one causing the other. 8) When we say that the relationship between two variables may be caused by a third variable, we are A) specifying what the third variable is. B) employing faulty reasoning. C) specifying that there can be only three interpretations. D) often not specifying what that third variable is. Answer: D Rationale: When we suggest that the relationship between two variables might be influenced by a third variable, we are acknowledging the possibility of confounding variables. However, we may not always know or specify what that third variable is, especially if it has not been identified or measured in the study. 9) Confounding of variables is more the rule than the exception in which type of research? A) differential research B) experimental research C) psychological research D) mathematical research Answer: A Rationale: Confounding variables are factors that can affect the outcomes of a study by interacting with the independent variable. In differential research, where researchers compare existing groups rather than manipulating variables, confounding variables are more likely to occur because the groups may differ in ways beyond the variable of interest. 10) Two variables are said to be confounded when A) they vary independently. B) they do not vary. C) they vary together. D) they vary as a result of manipulation. Answer: C Rationale: Two variables are considered confounded when their variations are intertwined or occur together. In other words, the changes in one variable are associated with changes in the other variable due to the influence of a third variable, making it difficult to determine the independent effect of each variable on the outcome. 7.7 Ethical Principles 1) An experiment is a test of the A) causal relationship between two variables. B) difference between existing groups. C) correlation between two variables. D) natural flow of behavior. Answer: A Rationale: Experiments are designed to determine causality by manipulating one variable (independent variable) and observing the effect on another variable (dependent variable), thus testing for causal relationships between variables. 2) A natural disaster, such as a flood, A) would make an excellent independent variable in an experimental study. B) could not be manipulated by an experimenter. C) is unlikely to have psychological effects. D) would make an excellent dependent variable in an experimental study. Answer: B Rationale: Natural disasters cannot be manipulated by researchers, making them unsuitable as independent variables in experimental studies. They are external events that occur independently of experimental control. 3) The best way to test the hypothesized link between mercury poisoning and autism would be with A) an experiment. B) a differential research study because an experiment would be unethical. C) either an experiment or a differential research study. D) a case study. Answer: B Rationale: Testing the link between mercury poisoning and autism may involve ethical concerns, making experimentation potentially unethical. Therefore, a differential research study, which compares existing groups without manipulation, might be a more appropriate approach in such cases. 4) Correlational and differential research methods A) are better than experiments at determining causality. B) can be better than experiments at determining causality. C) should never be used if it is technically possible to run an experiment. D) may be an ethical or practical alternative to experiments. Answer: D Rationale: While experiments are the gold standard for determining causality, correlational and differential research methods can still provide valuable insights, especially when experimentation is not feasible or ethical. These methods offer alternatives for investigating relationships between variables and making inferences without experimental manipulation. Test Bank for Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin 9780205900923, 9780205907694, 9780135705056