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Chapter 6 Field Research: Naturalistic and Case Study Research 6.1 The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research 1) The term field research refers to A) a very specific method of research. B) a variety of research methods. C) a rarely-used laboratory methodology. D) a non-statistical way to gather data. Answer: B Rationale: Field research encompasses a range of methodologies conducted outside of controlled laboratory settings, including naturalistic observation, surveys, interviews, and ethnography. This breadth of methods falls under the umbrella of "field research." 2) Archival research is an example of A) single-subject designs. B) an ANOVA. C) low-constraint field research. D) high-constraint laboratory research. Answer: C Rationale: Archival research involves analyzing existing records, documents, or data collected from natural settings or historical sources, making it an example of low-constraint field research due to its reliance on pre-existing information rather than controlled experiments. 3) Observing chimpanzees in their wild habitat A) is an example of laboratory research. B) is an example of naturalistic research. C) can provide little information. D) has yet to be done. Answer: B Rationale: Observing chimpanzees in their natural habitat involves studying their behavior without interference, making it a classic example of naturalistic research, which aims to understand behavior in its natural context. 4) Naturalistic observation, archival studies, and case studies are examples of types of ________ constraint field research. A) lower B) higher C) maximal D) Both A and C Answer: A Rationale: Naturalistic observation, archival studies, and case studies are all examples of low-constraint field research because they involve studying behavior in real-world settings with minimal manipulation or control by the researcher. 5) In the field work context, archival research would involve A) direct observation of participants in natural settings. B) looking at records made in natural settings. C) searching out previous research in libraries. D) talking to participants about the past. Answer: B Rationale: Archival research in the field context involves examining records, documents, or data collected from natural settings or historical sources, rather than directly observing participants or conducting experiments. 6) What is the principle advantage(s) of low-constraint research? A) It is much easier to conduct than high-constraint research. B) You can maintain tighter controls on extraneous variables. C) You have the flexibility to adjust your focus depending on what you find. D) All of the above Answer: C Rationale: The primary advantage of low-constraint research is the flexibility it offers to adapt to emerging findings or changes in the research context, allowing researchers to explore and adjust their focus based on observed phenomena. 7) Low-constraint field work is ________ than high-constraint laboratory research. A) more flexible B) less flexible C) less valuable D) more valuable Answer: A Rationale: Low-constraint field work provides greater flexibility compared to high-constraint laboratory research, as it allows researchers to study behavior in natural settings with fewer restrictions, enabling a broader range of observations and data collection. 8) A researcher wants to look at birth rates in different parts of the United States. The quickest and easiest way to do this would be to use A) case-study methodology. B) naturalistic research methodology. C) archival research methodology. D) longitudinal design methodology. Answer: C Rationale: Archival research methodology would be the quickest and easiest way to study birth rates in different parts of the United States, as it involves analyzing existing records or data already collected, such as birth certificates or census records. 9) Field research focuses on A) observation of natural behavior. B) archival research. C) case studies. D) All of the above. Answer: D Rationale: Field research encompasses a variety of methods, including observation of natural behavior, archival research, and case studies, making it inclusive of all the options provided. 10) At the lowest constraint levels, the researcher looks for A) the effects of one variable on another. B) predictability of variable A from knowing variable B. C) causal relationships. D) the natural flow of behavior. Answer: D Rationale: At the lowest constraint levels, researchers aim to observe and understand the natural flow of behavior in its context without manipulating variables or seeking specific causal relationships, making option D the most appropriate choice. 11) When a researcher asks standardized questions of a sample of participants, it is termed a(n) A) ethnograph. B) parametric observation. C) survey. D) tabulation. Answer: C Rationale: A survey involves asking standardized questions of a sample of participants to gather data about their opinions, attitudes, behaviors, or characteristics. This method allows researchers to collect information efficiently from a large number of people. 12) Low-constraint research is A) easier because of lack of constraint. B) sometimes more burdensome. C) almost always more difficult and time consuming. D) generally much more expensive. Answer: B Rationale: Low-constraint research refers to research methodologies that involve fewer constraints on variables or participants. While this may seem easier due to fewer restrictions, it can often be more burdensome because of the challenges associated with managing uncontrolled variables and interpreting results in the absence of strict controls. 13) In naturalistic and case study research, A) no controls are needed. B) the controls are primarily on the observer. C) the controls are primarily on the participant in order to specify and delimit their behavior. D) the highest level of control possible is imposed on both the participant and the observer. Answer: B Rationale: In naturalistic and case study research, controls are primarily placed on the observer to ensure unbiased and accurate observations. This involves training observers, using standardized protocols, and minimizing observer bias to maintain the integrity of the data collected. 14) Naturalistic and case-study methods A) apply few constraints on the participants. B) apply extensive controls, especially on the participants. C) are commonly used in the laboratory. D) should always be analyzed using ANOVA procedures. Answer: A Rationale: Naturalistic and case-study methods typically involve observing behavior in real-world settings with minimal interference or manipulation. This approach allows researchers to capture the natural behaviors of participants without imposing artificial constraints, making it suitable for studying phenomena as they occur in their natural context. 15) If a researcher were interested in observing mating behavior in polar bears, what kind of research would be most appropriate? A) experimental research B) case-study research C) naturalistic observation D) high-constraint research Answer: C Rationale: Observing mating behavior in polar bears would best be achieved through naturalistic observation, as it involves studying the behavior of animals in their natural habitat without interference or manipulation by the researcher. This method allows for the observation of natural behaviors as they occur in the wild. 16) A researcher decides to study the dating patterns of college students. To do this he goes to a college party and observes the students. This is an example of A) archival research methodology. B) naturalistic observation methodology. C) field experimentation methodology. D) case-study methodology. Answer: B Rationale: Observing the dating patterns of college students at a college party involves naturalistic observation methodology, as the researcher is observing the behavior of individuals in their natural environment without intervention or manipulation. 17) The work of Charles Darwin is an example of A) naturalistic observation. B) archival investigation. C) program research. D) field experimentation. Answer: A Rationale: Charles Darwin's work, particularly his observations of plants and animals in their natural habitats, exemplifies naturalistic observation. Darwin's observations formed the basis of his theory of evolution by natural selection, which was largely derived from his meticulous observations of nature. 18) Naturalistic research is most likely to reveal A) the strength of relationships among two or more variables. B) individual personal adjustment. C) laboratory controlled behavior. D) the natural flow of behavior. Answer: D Rationale: Naturalistic research is designed to capture the natural flow of behavior in real-world settings. Unlike laboratory-controlled experiments, naturalistic research allows researchers to observe behaviors as they naturally occur, providing insights into the genuine interactions and dynamics of individuals or groups. 19) Which of the following is a good example of naturalistic research? A) Charles Darwin's observations of plants and animals. B) Jane Goodall's study of the chimpanzee in Tanzania. C) Adeline Levine's study of the residents of the Love Canal. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: All options provided are examples of naturalistic research. Charles Darwin's observations of plants and animals, Jane Goodall's study of chimpanzees, and Adeline Levine's study of the residents of the Love Canal involved observing phenomena in their natural environments without manipulation by the researcher. 20) Research showing that children with autism uttered more spontaneous verbalizations during social conflict situations would be conducted using A) naturalistic observation. B) archival investigation. C) program research. D) field experimentation. Answer: A Rationale: Studying the spontaneous verbalizations of children with autism during social conflict situations would best be conducted using naturalistic observation. This method allows researchers to observe the behavior of interest in its natural context without manipulation, providing insights into how individuals with autism naturally respond in social situations. 21) Of the following, which is NOT an example of naturalistic research? A) Charles Darwin's work on natural selection B) Jane Goodall's work on chimpanzees C) Sigmund Freud's clinical work D) Rosenhan's study of mental hospital admissions. Answer: C Rationale: Sigmund Freud's clinical work involved controlled settings and therapeutic interventions rather than observation of phenomena in natural settings, which is characteristic of naturalistic research. 22) Naturalistic methods have been used primarily by A) ethologists. B) psychoanalysts. C) cognitive psychologists. D) laboratory scientists. Answer: A Rationale: Ethologists study animal behavior in their natural habitats, making use of naturalistic methods to observe and analyze behavior without manipulation. This aligns with the use of naturalistic methods primarily by ethologists, making option A the correct choice. 23) Jane Goodall studied A) natural vegetation. B) dolphins. C) chimpanzees. D) the African elephant. Answer: C Rationale: Jane Goodall is renowned for her groundbreaking study of chimpanzees in their natural habitat. Her extensive research contributed significantly to our understanding of chimpanzee behavior and their social structures, making option C the correct choice. 24) Jane Goodall's study of chimpanzees in the wild is representative of A) naturalistic research. B) experimental research. C) cross-sectional research. D) laboratory research. Answer: A Rationale: Jane Goodall's study of chimpanzees in their natural environment involved observing and documenting their behavior without manipulation, which is characteristic of naturalistic research. Thus, option A is the correct choice. 25) Ethologists study the behavior of animals in their natural environment. Which of the following constraint levels would be used most frequently by ethologists? A) naturalistic B) correlational C) differential D) experimental Answer: A Rationale: Ethologists primarily utilize naturalistic methods to study animal behavior in their natural environment, focusing on observing and documenting behavior without experimental manipulation. Therefore, option A, naturalistic constraint level, is most frequently used by ethologists. 26) A scientific contemporary of Darwin was A) Wallace. B) Einstein. C) Krik. D) Skinner. Answer: A Rationale: Alfred Russel Wallace was a contemporary of Charles Darwin and independently developed a theory of evolution by natural selection. Their parallel work led to the concept of natural selection being presented jointly by Darwin and Wallace. Therefore, option A is the correct choice. 27) Darwin's great discovery was also made by his contemporary, A) Einstein. B) Skinner. C) Wallace. D) Bandura. Answer: C Rationale: Alfred Russel Wallace, a contemporary of Charles Darwin, independently formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection, which paralleled Darwin's own work. Both Darwin and Wallace arrived at similar conclusions about the process of evolution. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 28) Both Darwin and Wallace found that species A) show little or no change over time. B) occur randomly. C) do not occur randomly. D) change significantly from one generation to another. Answer: C Rationale: Both Darwin and Wallace found that species do not occur randomly but rather change over time through the process of natural selection. This discovery was central to the development of the theory of evolution. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 29) Over 150 years of research studies based on the Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution A) have failed to support the theory. B) have upheld the predictions from the theory in the vast majority of the studies. C) have supported few of the predictions from the theory. D) have led scientists to become increasingly skeptical of the theory. Answer: B Rationale: The vast majority of research studies based on the Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution have supported its predictions, providing evidence for its validity and contributing to its acceptance within the scientific community. 30) The Darwin-Wallace evolutionary theory has been A) only weakly supported by research. B) subjected to very little scientific testing. C) scientifically tested more thoroughly than any other scientific theory. D) lacking in scientific support. Answer: C Rationale: The Darwin-Wallace evolutionary theory has undergone extensive scientific testing and scrutiny over the years, making it one of the most thoroughly tested scientific theories in history. 31) Ethologists and comparative psychologists studying animals in natural habitats are most likely to engage in which type of research? A) case-study research B) naturalistic research C) experimental research D) correlational research Answer: B Rationale: Ethologists and comparative psychologists studying animals in their natural habitats are interested in observing behaviors as they naturally occur, without interference or manipulation. Naturalistic research allows researchers to observe animals in their natural environment, providing insights into their behaviors, social structures, and interactions with their surroundings. 32) When Darwin and Wallace asked what kinds of processes would account for their observations, they were using A) deductive reasoning. B) inductive reasoning. C) the method of authority. D) the intuitive method. Answer: B Rationale: Darwin and Wallace observed patterns in nature and then formulated general principles or theories based on these observations. This process, where specific observations lead to broader generalizations or theories, is known as inductive reasoning. 33) Ethologists, who study animal behavior, often employ A) naturalistic methods. B) survey research. C) archival investigations. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: Ethologists studying animal behavior typically utilize naturalistic methods, observing animals in their natural habitats to understand their behaviors, social interactions, and adaptations to their environment. 34) Which of the following researchers did NOT employ case study methodology? A) Witmer B) Piaget C) Freud D) Boesch and Boesch-Ackerman Answer: D Rationale: Case study methodology involves an in-depth examination of a single individual or a small group of individuals. While Witmer, Piaget, and Freud all employed case study methodology in their research, Boesch and Boesch-Ackerman were known for their work in primatology, which typically involves observational and field studies rather than case studies. 35) In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Adeline Levine studied A) the use and misuse of psychiatric diagnoses. B) the sociological effects of discovering that your neighborhood was built over a toxic waste dump. C) elephant behavior in Tanzania. D) the cultural behavior of primates. Answer: B Rationale: Adeline Levine's study focused on the sociological effects of environmental issues, specifically the impact on individuals and communities upon discovering that their neighborhood was built over a toxic waste dump. 36) Adeline Levine's study of Love Canal residents A) could only have used naturalistic methodology. B) was an example of a program evaluation methodology. C) was an example of experimentation. D) primarily used archival research. Answer: A Rationale: Adeline Levine's study utilized naturalistic methodology by observing and documenting the experiences and reactions of Love Canal residents to their environmental circumstances without intervention or manipulation. 37) Adeline Levine's (1982) study of the Love Canal disaster provided an example of A) biological sociology. B) naturalistic methods used in sociological research. C) experimental research in sociology. D) a controlled longitudinal research design. Answer: B Rationale: Adeline Levine's study employed naturalistic methods, observing and documenting the sociological impacts of the Love Canal disaster on the affected community without intervening or manipulating variables. 38) Phillip Davis (1997) used naturalistic observation of children being hit in shopping malls because A) surveys asking "how often and how severely do you hit your children" are not answered accurately. B) parents hit their children more often in shopping malls. C) mall managers encouraged him to observe parent and non-parent caregivers D) asking participants to come into the lab was too expensive. Answer: A Rationale: Phillip Davis opted for naturalistic observation because surveys might not accurately capture the frequency and severity of children being hit in shopping malls due to potential response biases or inaccuracies in self-reporting. 39) In the early 1970s, David Rosenhan studied A) the social and psychological effects of a disaster. B) the abuse of animals in experiments. C) ethical issues in psychological research. D) the use of psychiatric diagnosis. Answer: D Rationale: David Rosenhan's study focused on the reliability and validity of psychiatric diagnosis, particularly exploring the implications and consequences of misdiagnosis within psychiatric institutions. 40) David Rosenhan's study was a good example of A) unethical behavior. B) an anthropological study. C) a naturalistic study. D) basic research. Answer: C Rationale: David Rosenhan's study employed naturalistic methods by observing and documenting the behaviors and interactions within psychiatric institutions without manipulating variables, making it a good example of naturalistic research. 41) Rosenhan investigated the experiences of psychiatric patients in mental hospitals by A) asking patients to describe their experiences. B) unobtrusively observing the behavior of patients on psychiatric hospital wards. C) asking normal people to admit themselves to mental hospitals by feigning symptoms. D) asking psychiatrists to describe the environment of a typical mental hospital. Answer: C Rationale: Rosenhan's study involved sending normal individuals to mental hospitals, where they feigned symptoms of mental illness. This approach allowed him to observe firsthand the experiences of psychiatric patients within the hospital environment. 42) Rosenhan's (1973) study of the experiences of mental "pseudopatients" is an interesting example of A) pseudoscience. B) experimental research. C) correlational research. D) naturalistic research. Answer: D Rationale: Rosenhan's study can be categorized as naturalistic research because it involved observing and documenting the behaviors and experiences of individuals within their natural environment, namely psychiatric hospitals. 43) Rosenhan conducted A) naturalistic research in mental hospitals. B) case study research in mental hospitals. C) participant-observer research in college classes. D) correlational research on the mentally ill. Answer: A Rationale: Rosenhan's study involved naturalistic research in mental hospitals, where he observed the behaviors and interactions of psychiatric patients without interfering with their environment. 44) A case study is A) an example of a highly constrained method. B) naturalistic, but more constrained than simple naturalistic observation. C) basic research. D) carried out in natural environments using high technology equipment. Answer: B Rationale: Case studies involve in-depth examination and analysis of a single individual or group within their natural environment. While they are naturalistic in nature, they are more constrained than simple observation because they focus on specific cases and often involve detailed data collection methods. 45) Jean Piaget A) studied abnormal behavior in children. B) used high-constraint experimentation in his research. C) studied cognitive development in children. D) studied the aging process in the elderly. Answer: C Rationale: Jean Piaget was a developmental psychologist known for his extensive research on cognitive development in children, focusing on how they acquire knowledge and understanding of the world around them. 46) In both case study and naturalistic research, the investigator A) does not manipulate independent variables. B) does not care about dependent variables. C) manipulates independent variables. D) manipulates dependent variables. Answer: A Rationale: In both case study and naturalistic research, the investigator primarily observes and describes phenomena as they naturally occur without intervening to manipulate independent variables. 47) Case study research is ________ research with more constraint imposed on the procedures. A) experimental B) naturalistic C) high-constraint D) inflexible Answer: B Rationale: Case study research involves studying individuals or small groups within their natural environment, but it imposes more constraints on the procedures compared to simple naturalistic observation by focusing on specific cases in detail. 48) A researcher decides she wants to study the families of adolescents. To do this she extensively studies one family that has an adolescent. This is an example of A) archival research. B) naturalistic observation. C) a case study. D) field experimentation. Answer: C Rationale: This scenario describes a case study where the researcher closely examines one particular family to gain insights into the dynamics and experiences of families with adolescents. 49) Freud used ________ in his research on psychoanalytic concepts. A) tightly constrained interviews B) the methodology of Socrates C) patient interviews D) focused questionnaires Answer: C Rationale: Freud primarily relied on patient interviews to gather data and develop his psychoanalytic theories and concepts, such as the interpretation of dreams and the structure of the human mind. 50) One of the most famous examples of case study research was conducted by A) Alfred Russel Wallace. B) Lowell Thomas. C) Sigmund Freud. D) Charles Darwin. Answer: C Rationale: Sigmund Freud conducted numerous case studies, such as the famous case of "Little Hans," which he used to develop and illustrate his psychoanalytic theories regarding childhood development and the Oedipus complex. 51) Compared with naturalistic research, case study research is A) more constrained. B) less constrained. C) equally constrained. D) not at all constrained. Answer: A Rationale: Case study research typically focuses on a single individual or a small group, allowing for indepth exploration of specific phenomena. This focus on a narrow scope makes it more constrained compared to naturalistic research, which typically involves observing behavior in broader, natural settings with less control over variables. 52) E. L. Witmer was an early proponent of A) euthanasia. B) gerontological research. C) biofeedback. D) the case study method. Answer: D Rationale: E. L. Witmer was known for his advocacy and use of the case study method in psychology, particularly in his work with children with learning difficulties. 53) Which of the following employed case-study methodology solely for research, as opposed to treatment? A) E. L. Witmer B) Jean Piaget C) Sigmund Freud D) Wilhelm Wundt Answer: B Rationale: Jean Piaget primarily used case-study methodology for his research on cognitive development in children, rather than for therapeutic purposes. 54) Jean Piaget's research efforts primarily employed A) case study methods. B) electrophysiological measures. C) cognitive experiments. D) laboratory experiments. Answer: A Rationale: Piaget extensively used case study methods to observe and analyze individual children's cognitive development over time. 55) Piaget's case study methods were used to A) solve practical problems. B) conduct research on development. C) conduct research to find solutions to practical problems. D) study abnormal emotional development. Answer: B Rationale: Piaget's case study methods were primarily aimed at conducting research on the development of cognitive abilities in children, rather than focusing on practical problem-solving or abnormal emotional development. 56) Piaget's major contribution to research with children has been in the area of A) dysfunctional children. B) functional children in dysfunctional families. C) cognitive development in children. D) play techniques in children. Answer: C Rationale: Piaget's significant contribution lies in his extensive research on cognitive development in children, which revolutionized the understanding of how children construct knowledge and understand the world around them. 57) Case study research looks at A) the total context and natural flow of behaviors. B) highly constrained naturalistic behaviors. C) limited classes of behavior, rather than the total context and natural flow of behavior. D) all classes of behavior. Answer: C Rationale: Case study research often focuses on specific aspects or limited classes of behavior within a narrow context, rather than examining the total context and natural flow of behaviors, as in naturalistic research. 58) Case study research methods would most likely be used to study A) the social order of elephants. B) individual personal adjustment. C) the relationship between watching TV and aggression. D) performance on a memory task. Answer: B Rationale: Case study research is well-suited for investigating individual experiences, behaviors, and personal adjustments, making it suitable for studying topics such as individual personal adjustment. 59) The research of Jean Piaget on the cognitive development of children is an example of A) naturalistic research. B) case study research. C) differential research. D) experimental research. Answer: B Rationale: Jean Piaget's research on cognitive development extensively utilized case study methods, focusing on individual children's cognitive processes and their development over time. 60) Case studies focus typically on A) groups. B) individuals. C) environments. D) collective environments. Answer: B Rationale: Case studies primarily concentrate on individual cases or small groups, allowing for in-depth analysis and understanding of specific individuals or phenomena rather than broad groups or environments. 61) Which of the following people did NOT carry out case study research? A) Freud B) Piaget C) Witmer D) Darwin Answer: D Rationale: Charles Darwin was primarily known for his work in evolutionary biology, including his theory of natural selection. While he conducted extensive observations and experiments to support his theories, he did not carry out case study research in the same manner as Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, or Lightner Witmer, who are known for their contributions to psychology through case studies. 62) Katherine Phillips' descriptions of individuals with body dysmorphic disorder is an example of A) naturalistic research. B) case study research. C) differential research. D) experimental research. Answer: B Rationale: Katherine Phillips' descriptions of individuals with body dysmorphic disorder would typically involve in-depth examinations of individual cases, focusing on specific details of the disorder's manifestations and its impact on individuals' lives. This aligns with the characteristics of case study research, which delves deeply into particular cases to gain insights into specific phenomena. 63) Case studies A) are no longer used in psychology. B) are limited to clinical questions. C) are used only in sociology. D) None of the above. Answer: D Rationale: Case studies are still widely used across various fields, including psychology. They are not limited to clinical questions but can encompass a wide range of topics and disciplines. Sociology may also utilize case studies, but they are not exclusive to that field. 6.2 The Value of Low-Constraint Methods 1) The case-study level of constraint is used to study A) differences between psychopathological populations. B) the effects of treatment on psychological problems. C) any behavior of any kind of participant in a relatively unconstrained setting. D) Either A or B Answer: C Rationale: The case-study level of constraint allows researchers to observe behavior in relatively unconstrained settings, enabling them to study various behaviors across different types of participants without imposing strict controls or manipulating variables. 2) Low-constraint research is appropriate in A) the initial stages of research in a new area. B) established areas of study. C) all areas of research at all levels of scientific inquiry. D) differential studies. Answer: A Rationale: Low-constraint research, which allows for greater flexibility and exploration, is particularly suitable in the initial stages of research in a new area where little is known and where researchers need the freedom to observe and explore without imposing strict controls. 3) When a new research area is first studied, A) it is critically important to use the highest constraint research procedures in order to maximize control over the unknown confounding variables. B) the researcher should specify exactly what causal relationships he/she is expecting to observe. C) the research variables should all be clearly specified before any observations are made. D) the researcher should use low-constraint procedures because of the greater flexibility they offer. Answer: D Rationale: In the early stages of studying a new research area, low-constraint procedures are preferred because they offer flexibility, allowing researchers to explore and observe without rigidly defining variables or imposing strict controls. This flexibility is essential when little is known about the phenomenon being studied. 4) When is low-constraint research appropriate? A) At the beginning stages of a new area of research. B) At the later stages of testing a new drug. C) At the beginning stages of any experiment. D) During replication studies, even if the original study was conducted at a high-constraint level. Answer: A Rationale: Low-constraint research is most appropriate at the beginning stages of a new area of research when exploration and flexibility are needed to understand the phenomenon being studied before imposing stricter controls or testing specific hypotheses. 5) A researcher wants to study bonding behavior in chimpanzees. Unfortunately, the researcher has no real knowledge about chimpanzees, and there is no information on bonding in the literature. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to begin to study the topic? A) archival research B) ex post facto methodology C) experimental research D) naturalistic observation Answer: D Rationale: Naturalistic observation would be the most appropriate way to begin studying bonding behavior in chimpanzees in this scenario. It allows the researcher to observe the animals in their natural habitat without imposing artificial constraints, providing insights into their behavior without preconceived notions. 6) For which of the following conditions would low-constraint research techniques be appropriate? A) When the research area is new and the researcher has little idea what to expect. B) When the researcher is interested in the behavior of a single participant and is not interested in generalizing the findings beyond that single participant. C) When the researcher wants to demonstrate the feasibility of a new research or treatment procedure. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Low-constraint research techniques are appropriate in various conditions, including when the research area is new and exploratory, when focusing on individual behavior without generalizing findings, and when demonstrating the feasibility of new procedures due to their flexibility and openness to exploration. 7) An area of concern that is more problematic in laboratory research than in low-constraint field work in psychology is A) scientific validity. B) generalizability of findings. C) that lab experiments are unethical. D) that most human behavior can only be evaluated in naturalistic environments. Answer: B Rationale: While laboratory research offers greater control over variables, a potential limitation is the reduced generalizability of findings to real-world settings. In contrast, low-constraint fieldwork in psychology often provides more ecologically valid results that are directly applicable to real-life situations, enhancing the generalizability of findings. 8) A researcher wants to look at the effects of stress on ability to function in college students. He brings students into his laboratory, induces stress in some students, and then measures ability to perform a task. A problem with this study is A) it lacks scientific validity. B) that stress is induced in some students and not others. C) it is unethical. D) the findings may not generalize. Answer: D Rationale: The problem with inducing stress in some students and not others is that it introduces variability in the experimental conditions, which can affect the generalizability of the findings. The study may not accurately represent how stress impacts all college students in real-life situations, limiting its external validity or generalizability. 9) Case-study research with individuals A) is generally applicable to the wider society. B) is similar to high-constraint research. C) can be used to predict future results with a high degree of accuracy. D) may not predict behavior in the wider society. Answer: D Rationale: Case-study research often involves a small sample size and focuses intensely on specific individuals or cases, making it difficult to generalize findings to the wider population. Therefore, it may not predict behavior in the wider society accurately. 10) The most useful laws of behavior are those that A) predict behavior in the real world. B) can be replicated in laboratory conditions. C) are statistically accurate. D) aid basic research. Answer: A Rationale: Laws of behavior that predict behavior in real-world settings are considered the most useful because they have practical applications and relevance to everyday life, making them valuable for understanding and addressing behavioral phenomena. 11) Researchers who conduct all their research in highly constrained laboratory settings often overlook the potential contributions to ________ made by case-study and naturalistic research. A) posterity B) generalizability C) internal validity D) charity Answer: B Rationale: Case-study and naturalistic research provide valuable insights into real-world behavior and contexts, contributing to the generalizability of findings beyond the controlled environment of the laboratory. Researchers focused solely on highly constrained laboratory settings may miss the broader applicability of their findings. 12) In the research process used by therapists, the analysis phase relies A) less on statistics, and more on logic. B) more on statistics, and less on logic. C) on statistics and logic in equal proportion. D) on the suspension of disbelief. Answer: A Rationale: Therapists often rely less on statistical analysis and more on logical reasoning during the analysis phase of their research process. This approach allows them to interpret and understand complex human behaviors and experiences in therapeutic contexts effectively. 13) The most widely accepted model for the training of clinical psychologists is the A) clinical-therapy model. B) psychiatric-research model. C) scientist-practitioner model. D) scientific-research model. Answer: C Rationale: The scientist-practitioner model is widely accepted for the training of clinical psychologists. It emphasizes the integration of scientific research and clinical practice, ensuring that practitioners are well-equipped to apply evidence-based interventions in their work. 14) Low-constraint research procedures can contribute to the generalizability of findings if A) the researcher begins his/her research with extensive low-constraint observations. B) high-constraint findings from the laboratory are tested by making observations in naturalistic settings. C) the sample sizes are kept small so that careful observation of all participants is possible. D) None of the above Answer: B Rationale: Low-constraint research procedures, such as observations in naturalistic settings, can contribute to the generalizability of findings by validating high-constraint findings from laboratory settings in real-world contexts. This helps ensure that research findings accurately reflect behavior outside of controlled environments. 15) Graziano and Kean's relaxation training program for autistic children A) established that autistic children were too high-strung to be taught to relax. B) yielded equivocal results. C) established a general proposition that relaxation training is effective for children. D) successfully negated the general proposition that relaxation training cannot be taught to children. Answer: D Rationale: Graziano and Kean's study successfully refuted the general proposition that relaxation training cannot be taught to children with autism. By demonstrating the effectiveness of their relaxation training program, they provided evidence to the contrary. 16) Graziano and Kean studied A) emotional disturbance in children. B) autistic children. C) the aftermath of the Niagara Falls disaster. D) emotional disturbance in adults. Answer: B Rationale: Graziano and Kean's study focused on autistic children and the effectiveness of relaxation training as a behavior therapy for this specific population. 17) Graziano and Kean studied ________ in autistic children. A) relaxation as a behavior therapy B) electric shock therapy C) institutionalization D) memory Answer: A Rationale: Graziano and Kean's study specifically investigated the use of relaxation training as a behavior therapy for autistic children, aiming to assess its efficacy in improving their relaxation skills and potentially reducing stress or anxiety. 18) Low-constraint research A) can negate a general proposition, but cannot establish a general proposition. B) can establish a general proposition, but cannot negate a general proposition. C) can only establish causal relationships. D) none of the above Answer: A Rationale: Low-constraint research typically involves observing phenomena without imposing strict controls or manipulating variables. While it can provide evidence that contradicts a general proposition (such as "all swans are white"), it cannot definitively establish a general proposition because it lacks the rigor and control necessary for drawing broad conclusions. 19) Jane Goodall observed chimpanzees fighting and killing each other. Which of the following methodologies would be most useful in telling us what caused the chimpanzees' behavior? A) case study research B) naturalistic research C) quasi-experimental research D) higher-constraint research Answer: D Rationale: Higher-constraint research involves more controlled experiments where variables are manipulated to determine causality. In this case, understanding the cause of chimpanzees' behavior, such as fighting and killing each other, would require experimental designs that allow researchers to manipulate variables and establish causation. 20) "If X occurs, Y will probably occur" is an example of a(n) A) contingency. B) hypothetical scientific probability. C) observation. D) hypothesis. Answer: A Rationale: A contingency refers to a relationship where the occurrence of one event (X) is dependent on the occurrence of another event (Y). The statement "If X occurs, Y will probably occur" suggests a contingent relationship between X and Y. 21) The type of relationship that is best described by the phrase, "If X occurs, then Y is very likely to occur," is a A) causal relationship. B) probability relationship. C) contingency. D) linear relationship. Answer: C Rationale: A contingency describes a relationship where the occurrence of one event (X) is highly associated with the occurrence of another event (Y), indicating a strong likelihood of Y happening if X occurs. 22) A probability statement such as "given that event X occurred, then the probability of event Y occurring is high" is referred to as A) an event notation. B) a corollary. C) a certainty statement. D) a contingency. Answer: D Rationale: In the context of probability, a statement indicating the high likelihood of event Y occurring given the occurrence of event X describes a contingency, where the events are dependent on each other. 23) A baby chimpanzee grunts a specific way and shortly after its mother provides food. This is an example of a A) contingent relationship. B) noncontingent relationship. C) semi-contingent relationship. D) nonexistent relationship. Answer: A Rationale: The behavior of the baby chimpanzee (grunting) is contingent upon the mother providing food. The occurrence of the grunt is dependent on the provision of food, indicating a contingent relationship between the two events. 24) An example of a contingency from naturalistic research is provided in the textbook by A) Tinbergen's observation of the feeding behavior of herring gulls. B) Graziano and Kean's research on disruptive behavior in autistic children. C) Darwin's research on natural selection. D) Margaret Mead's work on marriage rituals in the Trobriand Islands. Answer: A Rationale: Tinbergen's observation of the feeding behavior of herring gulls likely involves instances where the behavior of the gulls is contingent upon certain environmental factors or stimuli, demonstrating a contingent relationship within naturalistic research. 25) Low-constraint research can A) negate a general proposition. B) establish a general proposition. C) establish a specific proposition. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: Low-constraint research, by allowing for diverse observations and experiences, can potentially provide evidence that contradicts a general proposition, although it cannot definitively establish one due to its lack of rigorous controls. 26) A researcher uses naturalistic methodology to study dating behavior in college students. He/she finds the behavior on dates is strongly affected by alcohol (i.e., the more students drink alcohol, the more uninhibited they become during dates). With this information he/she can A) establish a specific proposition that alcohol affects dating behavior. B) establish a general proposition that alcohol affects dating behavior. C) state that the behavior of college students on dates is related to how much alcohol they drink. D) negate a general proposition that alcohol affects dating behavior. Answer: C Rationale: Based on the naturalistic observation, the researcher can make a statement about the relationship between alcohol consumption and dating behavior without claiming generality across all situations or populations, thus establishing a relationship between variables without asserting a universal proposition. 27) Low-constraint research enables us to obtain useful information about A) techniques for manipulating variables. B) causality. C) relationships among variables. D) making and testing predictions. Answer: C Rationale: Low-constraint research allows for the exploration and understanding of relationships among variables without imposing strict controls or manipulation of variables, thus providing valuable insights into the connections between different phenomena. 28) One use of low-constraint research is in A) experimentation. B) high-constraint research designs. C) qualitative research. D) the experimental level of constraint. Answer: C Rationale: Low-constraint research, such as qualitative research, allows for flexibility in the exploration of phenomena without strict adherence to predetermined variables or methodologies. Qualitative methods enable researchers to delve into the complexities of human behavior, experiences, and perceptions, which may not be easily captured through high-constraint designs like experimentation. 29) We rely on formalized procedures in A) high-constraint research. B) low-constraint research. C) qualitative research D) all research. Answer: A Rationale: High-constraint research typically involves formalized procedures and strict control over variables to ensure replicability and validity of results. This formality helps maintain consistency and reliability across experiments, making high-constraint research reliant on standardized protocols and methodologies. 30) We rely on formalized control procedures A) in qualitative research. B) in low-constraint research. C) to decrease reliability. D) to increase validity. Answer: D Rationale: Formalized control procedures are essential in maintaining the validity of research findings by minimizing the influence of confounding variables. While low-constraint research, such as qualitative studies, allows for more flexibility, formalized control procedures are still necessary to ensure the validity and trustworthiness of the findings. 31) In lower-constraint research, validity depends more upon A) reliability. B) statistical analyses. C) the researcher's clarity of thought. D) internal validity. Answer: C Rationale: In low-constraint research, such as qualitative studies, the researcher's clarity of thought and understanding of the phenomenon under investigation play a crucial role in determining validity. Since there may be fewer formal controls, the researcher's ability to accurately interpret and analyze data becomes paramount in establishing the validity of the findings. 32) The major goal of ________ is to describe and analyze functioning in everyday settings. A) experimentation B) modern psychology C) qualitative research D) biology Answer: C Rationale: Qualitative research aims to provide detailed descriptions and analyses of phenomena within their natural contexts, often focusing on understanding behaviors, experiences, and social interactions as they occur in everyday settings. This approach allows researchers to explore the complexities and nuances of human behavior that may not be captured in controlled laboratory settings. 33) In qualitative research projects, ________ quantitative research. A) A) the goals are precisely the same as in B) there are no goals as in C) the goals are unspecified as in D) the goals are different from Answer: D Rationale: Qualitative research typically differs from quantitative research in its goals and methodologies. While both aim to contribute to knowledge, qualitative research often emphasizes understanding meanings, contexts, and processes, whereas quantitative research focuses on quantifying relationships, variables, and outcomes. 34) Low-constraint research methods are frequently used in A) education. B) ethology. C) business management. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Low-constraint research methods, which allow for flexibility and exploration without strict limitations or predefined hypotheses, are applicable across various disciplines. In education, researchers often employ low-constraint methods to explore teaching and learning processes. Ethologists use these methods to study animal behavior in natural environments. Similarly, in business management, researchers may use low-constraint methods to explore organizational behavior and decision-making processes. Therefore, option D is the correct choice. 35) Much of the research discussed in Chapter 6 (Naturalistic and Case Study Research) is A) qualitative research. B) highly experimental. C) differential research. D) high-constraint research. Answer: A Rationale: Chapter 6 discusses naturalistic and case study research, both of which are forms of qualitative research that emphasize understanding phenomena within their natural contexts. These approaches involve in-depth exploration and analysis of real-life situations, making them well-suited for investigating complex behaviors and phenomena. 6.3 Using Low-Constraint Methods 1) At the naturalistic and case-study levels of constraint, problem statements are primarily focused on A) determining the strength and direction of relationships between two or more variables. B) identifying contingencies. C) questions of causality. D) determining differences between groups. Answer: B Rationale: Naturalistic and case-study research typically involves observing and analyzing real-life situations without manipulating variables. In such studies, researchers aim to identify contingencies, or specific circumstances or conditions that influence outcomes, rather than focusing on determining causality or measuring relationships between variables. Therefore, option B is the most appropriate choice. 2) Low-constraint research A) must rigidly adhere to only one area of research. B) can flexibly move from one research area to another. C) does not allow changes in procedures. D) is used only in sociology. Answer: B Rationale: Low-constraint research refers to research that is not bound by strict methodological or theoretical constraints. It allows researchers to explore various research areas and topics flexibly, rather than being limited to a single area. This flexibility enables researchers to move from one research area to another as needed, making option B the correct choice. 3) Problem statements at the naturalistic and case study levels of constraint are focused on A) identifying contingencies. B) quantifying the direction and strength of a relationship between two or more variables. C) issues of causality. D) determining differences between groups. Answer: A Rationale: At the naturalistic and case study levels of constraint, the focus is primarily on identifying contingencies or patterns within the observed phenomena. Naturalistic and case study research involves observing and describing behaviors or events as they occur in their natural settings, without manipulating variables or imposing constraints. Therefore, the emphasis is on identifying relationships, patterns, or contingencies rather than quantifying the direction and strength of relationships (option B), establishing causality (option C), or determining differences between groups (option D). 4) Which level of constraint allows us to draw causal inferences with confidence? A) differential B) naturalistic C) case-study D) experimental Answer: D Rationale: Experimental research, characterized by the highest level of constraint, involves manipulating variables and random assignment, which allows researchers to draw causal inferences with confidence. This is because experimental designs control for extraneous variables, enabling researchers to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Options A, B, and C involve lower levels of constraint and do not provide the same degree of control over variables, making it more difficult to establish causality with confidence. 5) Which of the following would NOT be found in low-constraint research? A) sophisticated measurement instruments B) observation of more than one participant C) random assignment of participants to conditions D) any sort of statistical analysis Answer: C Rationale: Low-constraint research typically lacks random assignment of participants to conditions, as this method is associated with experimental designs that involve higher levels of constraint. Random assignment helps control for potential confounding variables and strengthens the internal validity of the study. Therefore, in low-constraint research, random assignment of participants to conditions would not be found. Options A, B, and D are common features of low-constraint research, as they do not necessarily require high levels of experimental control or manipulation. 6) Which of the following studies used a participant observer approach? A) Darwin's study of natural selection B) Levine's study of the Love Canal Home Owner's Association C) Goodall's study of chimpanzees D) All of the above Answer: B Rationale: Levine's study of the Love Canal Home Owner's Association involved a participant observer approach, where the researcher actively participated in the community while observing and gathering data. Darwin's study of natural selection and Goodall's study of chimpanzees utilized different methods, making option B the correct choice. 7) Low-constraint research tends to A) focus on experimentation. B) start with refined operational definitions. C) start with general questions. D) emphasize statistical analyses. Answer: C Rationale: Low-constraint research typically begins with general questions and allows for exploration and flexibility in the research process. It does not impose strict limitations or predefined hypotheses, making option C the correct choice. 8) In low-constraint research, problem statements A) are developed only at the conclusion of the study. B) are not necessary. C) should begin at a highly defined level. D) can gradually evolve into specific hypotheses. Answer: D Rationale: In low-constraint research, problem statements can gradually evolve into specific hypotheses as the research progresses and new insights are gained. This flexible approach allows for exploration and refinement of research questions, making option D the correct choice. 9) Problem statements in low-constraint research A) can change readily. B) are not needed. C) cannot be altered. D) focus on causality. Answer: A Rationale: In low-constraint research, problem statements can change readily as new information is gathered and insights are gained. This flexibility allows researchers to adapt their focus and direction based on emerging findings, making option A the correct choice. 10) The two ways of making observations in naturalistic research are by becoming either A) an obtrusive observer or a participant observer. B) a scientist-practitioner or an unobtrusive observer. C) an unobtrusive observer or a participant observer. D) an observational listener or a scientist-practitioner. Answer: C Rationale: In naturalistic research, observations are typically made either as an unobtrusive observer, where the researcher does not interfere with the natural setting, or as a participant observer, where the researcher actively engages with the environment being studied. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 11) The central phase of any research project is A) statistical analyses. B) report writing. C) interpretation. D) observation. Answer: D Rationale: Observation is the central phase of any research project as it involves gathering primary data and information directly related to the research questions or objectives. Statistical analyses, report writing, and interpretation come after the data has been collected. Therefore, option D is the correct choice. 12) To determine causality, the researcher needs to A) use qualitative research methods. B) develop high-constraint hypotheses. C) use correlations. D) always use t-tests. Answer: B Rationale: To determine causality, researchers need to develop high-constraint hypotheses that establish clear relationships between variables and allow for controlled experimentation. This rigorous approach helps identify causal relationships between variables, making option B the correct choice. 13) The researcher who is part of the situation being observed A) has lost all objectivity. B) should not interpret the data obtained. C) is a participant observer. D) should rely on high-constraint statistical procedures. Answer: C Rationale: In participant observation, the researcher actively engages with the subjects being studied, allowing for a deeper understanding of the context and behaviors. This involvement doesn't necessarily imply loss of objectivity if managed properly. Instead, it offers insights that might not be possible through other methods. 14) Measuring the wear on the floor around a museum exhibit to determine how interesting people find the exhibit is an example of A) unethical research. B) inaccurate measurement. C) reactive measurement. D) unobtrusive measurement. Answer: D Rationale: Unobtrusive measurement involves assessing phenomena without directly interfering or influencing the subjects being studied. Measuring the wear on the floor around a museum exhibit is a subtle way to gauge interest without directly interacting with visitors, making it an example of unobtrusive measurement. 15) Measuring the degree of wear on floor tiles as an index of interest in an art exhibit is a clever example of A) an unobtrusive measure. B) an independent variable. C) a reactive measure. D) an obtrusive measure. Answer: A Rationale: The described method is unobtrusive because it doesn't disrupt or alter the natural behavior of the visitors. It relies on passive observation of a non-intrusive indicator (floor wear) to infer interest, making it an example of an unobtrusive measure. 16) One of the advantages of being a participant observer is that A) you can test hypotheses by creating situations that may not occur naturally. B) it is more scientifically valid if you can contribute more directly to your own research. C) participating reduces bias. D) it allows greater controls to be placed on participants, which is highly desirable. Answer: A Rationale: By immersing oneself in the setting under study, a participant observer can introduce interventions or provoke reactions to test hypotheses that might not naturally occur. This proactive engagement is a distinct advantage of participant observation. 17) A researcher wants to examine flirting behavior in young adults. To do this she goes to a bar and observes participants from behind a one-way mirror. This is an example of A) unobtrusive participant observation. B) unobtrusive observation. C) semi-obtrusive observation. D) participant observation. Answer: B Rationale: In this scenario, the researcher observes without direct interaction or intrusion into the environment. The use of a one-way mirror allows for discreet observation, making it an example of unobtrusive observation. 18) A researcher wants to examine jealousy in mating behavior in young couples who are dating. To do this he goes to a bar to observe participants. After no jealousy behavior spontaneously appears he begins talking to the girlfriends of men that have left for certain amounts of time. This is an example of A) obtrusive observation. B) unobtrusive observation. C) asking for trouble. D) participant observation. Answer: D Rationale: The researcher actively engages with the subjects (girlfriends) and the environment (the bar) to understand jealousy behavior. This level of involvement characterizes participant observation. 19) Measurement reactivity refers to A) reactions of participants to the experimenter's lab coat. B) the reaction of the experimenters to the obtained data. C) participant observer bias. D) participants responding differently because they are being observed. Answer: D Rationale: Measurement reactivity occurs when the act of observation itself alters the behavior of participants, leading them to respond differently due to awareness of being observed. 20) A researcher wants to study the effects of attention on ability to perform a task. The participant's attention is recorded by a research assistant that the participant knows is watching. A problem with this design is A) measurement reactivity. B) participant observer bias. C) unobtrusive measurement. D) obtrusive participant measurement. Answer: A Rationale: The awareness of being observed can influence the participant's behavior, leading to measurement reactivity where their performance might not represent their typical ability. 21) Which of the following procedures would help to control measurement reactivity? A) using an unobtrusive observational procedure B) using a participant observer C) either A or B D) None of the above Answer: C Rationale: Both unobtrusive observation and participant observation can help mitigate measurement reactivity by minimizing the participants' awareness of being observed or by integrating them into the observation process. 22) When participants who are aware of being observed behave differently than they might normally, they are demonstrating the phenomenon of A) measurement reactivity. B) paranoia. C) archival reactivity. D) observational phobia. Answer: A Rationale: This phenomenon aligns with measurement reactivity, where participants modify their behavior due to the awareness of being observed, rather than behaving naturally. 23) Measures that are prone to distortions because of participants' awareness of being observed are termed A) obtrusive measures. B) unobtrusive measures. C) reactive measures. D) nonreactive measures. Answer: C Rationale: Reactive measures are those in which participants' behavior may be altered due to the awareness of being observed, leading to potential distortions in the data collected. 24) Measuring and observing tile wear as an index of interest level of museum exhibits can be described as an A) unobtrusive measure. B) obtrusive measure. C) example of obtrusive measurement in highly-constrained research. D) example of highly-constrained research. Answer: A Rationale: Tile wear observation is an unobtrusive measure because it doesn't interfere with the participants or their behavior, making it less likely to affect their responses or actions. 25) Behavioral measures that are not obvious to the person being measured are termed A) two-way mirrors. B) unobstructive measures. C) unobtrusive measures. D) biased measures. Answer: C Rationale: Unobtrusive measures are those that do not interfere with or alter the behavior of the participants being observed, thus ensuring more natural responses. 26) Obtaining "nose prints" on glass in an art exhibit was a clever and ________ way to measure ________. A) obtrusive; interest in art B) unobtrusive; interest in art C) archival; patrons' height D) unobtrusive; patrons' height Answer: B Rationale: Nose prints on glass in an art exhibit are obtained without the participants' knowledge or interference, making it an unobtrusive way to measure interest in art. 27) Information about phenomena that have already occurred can be obtained by consulting A) unobtrusive measures. B) the index of leading economic indicators. C) a parapsychologist. D) archival records. Answer: D Rationale: Archival records provide historical data about past events or phenomena, making them valuable sources of information for researchers. 28) Such things as historical documents, newspaper reports, TV and radio broadcasts, when used in research, represent the use of A) unscientific methods. B) case-study methods. C) archival methods. D) unreliable sources. Answer: C Rationale: Historical documents and other sources mentioned are part of archival methods, which involve the systematic collection and analysis of historical records for research purposes. 29) ________ records have allowed government officials to track down and identify new diseases like AIDS or Toxic Shock Syndrome. A) Archival B) Unobtrusive C) Missing D) Archetypal Answer: A Rationale: Archival records, such as medical records and reports, provide valuable data for tracking and identifying diseases like AIDS or Toxic Shock Syndrome. 30) In low-constraint studies, A) analysis is only possible if we use complex statistical software. B) coding of data is generally necessary before analysis. C) direct analysis can always be undertaken. D) there is often no data to analyze. Answer: B Rationale: In low-constraint studies, where data collection is less controlled, coding of data is typically required before analysis to organize and make sense of the collected information. 31) In low-constraint studies, statistical analysis usually takes place A) after interpreting the data. B) after coding of the data. C) before observation has begun. D) immediately after the first participants have been run. Answer: B Rationale: Statistical analysis in low-constraint studies often occurs after the data has been coded, allowing researchers to analyze patterns and relationships within the collected data. 32) Wender, Kety, Rosenthal, Schulsinger, Ortmann, and Lunde (1986) used primarily ________ in the study of genetic influences in psychopathology. A) naturalistic methods B) participant observation C) archival material D) people's own experiences Answer: C Rationale: The researchers primarily utilized archival material to study genetic influences in psychopathology, indicating their reliance on historical records and data for their research. 33) Sampling refers to the A) testing of hypotheses. B) selection of analyses. C) recording of observations. D) selection of participants. Answer: D Rationale: Sampling refers to the process of selecting participants from a larger population for inclusion in a research study. It involves choosing a subset of individuals who are representative of the population under study. 34) A sample of clients going for therapy is likely to A) be representative of the general population. B) be unrepresentative of the general population. C) include only rich people due to the cost of therapy. D) be representative of the amount of pathology in society. Answer: B Rationale: Clients seeking therapy may not be representative of the general population as they are likely to have specific issues or concerns that lead them to therapy, making them different from the general population. 35) In doing low-constraint research, we must address the issue of the sample's A) validity. B) representativeness. C) randomness. D) generalizability. Answer: B Rationale: Low-constraint research refers to research designs that allow for flexibility and exploration. In such cases, ensuring the representativeness of the sample becomes crucial to draw valid conclusions about the broader population. 36) When the sample is ________, the findings are ________. A) generalizable; representative B) large; valid C) random; replicable D) representative; generalizable Answer: D Rationale: If the sample is representative of the population, then the findings from the study can be generalized to the broader population, making the findings generalizable. 37) To the extent that there are differences between the sample and the general population, the sample is said to be A) unbiased. B) unusable. C) unrepresentative of the population. D) generalizable to the population. Answer: C Rationale: If there are significant differences between the sample and the general population, the sample is considered unrepresentative of the population, which limits the generalizability of the findings. 38) Generalization of research findings can only occur if A) the research has been done using a large sample size. B) the sample is truly representative of the population of interest. C) the research has been performed in a well-equipped laboratory. D) the data have been analyzed using sophisticated statistical methods. Answer: B Rationale: For research findings to be generalized to the broader population, it's essential that the sample used in the study is representative of the population of interest. 39) Researchers do NOT usually have the opportunity to select their own samples in A) experimental research. B) correlational research. C) case-study and naturalistic research. D) differential research. Answer: C Rationale: In case-study and naturalistic research, researchers often do not have control over the selection of participants as they observe individuals in their natural settings, limiting their ability to choose their own samples. 40) The results of a study on nightmares in a sample of psychotherapy patients can be A) generalized to all medical patients. B) generalized to the general population. C) generalized only to other psychotherapy clients. D) generalized only to psychotherapists. Answer: C Rationale: The findings of a study on nightmares in psychotherapy patients may only be applicable to similar populations undergoing psychotherapy, as the sample may not be representative of the broader population or even all medical patients. 41) Generalization of research findings can occur only when A) what is observed in the research sample would also be observed in any other sample from the population. B) the research is published. C) the phenomenon of interest is important enough for a research team to undertake its measurement. D) replication studies have verified the original findings on a similar group of participants. Answer: A Rationale: Generalization of research findings relies on the ability to extend observations made in a research sample to the broader population. This can only occur if the characteristics and behaviors observed in the sample are likely to be found in any other sample from the population. 42) The selection of appropriate research participants is termed A) random sampling. B) generalization. C) subjectivity. D) sampling. Answer: D Rationale: The process of selecting participants for a research study is referred to as sampling. It involves choosing individuals who are relevant to the research question and representative of the population under study. 43) In selecting a sample of participants for a study, our main goal of the research is to: A) keep observations limited in order to ensure accuracy of the data in at least one setting. B) make sure observations are always representative. C) allow confident generalization of findings. D) rule out any behavior that was different from expected patterns. Answer: C Rationale: The main goal in selecting a sample for research is to ensure that the findings can be confidently generalized to a larger population. This enhances the external validity of the study, making the results applicable beyond the specific sample studied. 44) In low-constraint research, we should be concerned with: A) sampling of participants. B) sampling of behaviors. C) sampling of situations. D) All of the above. Answer: D Rationale: In low-constraint research, where there are minimal restrictions or constraints on the variables being studied, it's important to be concerned with the sampling of participants, behaviors, and situations to ensure the findings are robust and applicable across various contexts. 45) Generalizability of research findings can be affected by: A) how well the study is received by the scientific establishment. B) the sophistication of the instruments. C) the type of journal in which the study is published. D) the sampling of situations. Answer: D Rationale: Generalizability of research findings can be influenced by various factors, including the sampling of situations. If the situations sampled are not representative of the broader context, the generalizability of the findings may be limited. 46) Three research phenomena that can affect generalizability of results are: A) the sampling of participants, the sampling of situations, and the sampling of behaviors. B) the sampling of participants, the sampling of situations, and the sampling of instruments. C) measurement error, the sampling of situations, and the sample size. D) the sampling of participants, the sampling of behaviors, and measurement error. Answer: A Rationale: The generalizability of research results can be influenced by the sampling of participants, situations, and behaviors. Ensuring diversity and representativeness in these aspects enhances the external validity of the findings. 47) By taking measures of attention from children at various times of the day during different activities, we would be: A) sampling a truncated range of behaviors. B) skewing our sample. C) decreasing generalizability by the sampling of situations. D) increasing generalizability by the sampling of situations. Answer: D Rationale: Sampling attention from children across various times and activities increases the generalizability of the study by capturing a broader range of situations, thus enhancing the applicability of the findings. 48) Sampling of behaviors refers to: A) sampling the same situation repeatedly to observe the range of behaviors shown. B) sampling at various times of day. C) increasing one's behavioral repertoire. D) the teaching of more effective coping behaviors to troubled adolescents. Answer: A Rationale: Sampling of behaviors involves observing a variety of behaviors within the same situation or across different situations to understand the range of behaviors exhibited by individuals or groups. 49) The limitations of low-constraint research usually restrict our conclusions. These limitations: A) involve the lack of highly technological measurement devices. B) can be corrected by using more complex statistical analyses. C) cannot be corrected by using more complex statistical analyses. D) None of the above Answer: C Rationale: The limitations of low-constraint research, such as limited control over variables, often restrict the conclusions that can be drawn. These limitations cannot be fully addressed by simply employing more complex statistical analyses. 50) The purpose of control is to: A) make it possible to draw several conclusions from the data. B) encourage a variety of explanations. C) eliminate alternative explanations for results. D) make the research less expensive to conduct. Answer: C Rationale: The purpose of control in research is to eliminate or minimize the influence of alternative explanations for results, thereby increasing the internal validity of the study. 51) Which of the following statements is accurate? A) We need not be cautious when interpreting data from a low-constraint study. B) No statistical analysis will create the controls that were not part of the original study. C) One of the important uses of statistical analyses is to create controls that were missing from the original study. D) The purpose of control is to uncover alternative explanations for results. Answer: B Rationale: Statistical analysis cannot create controls that were not part of the original study design. Control measures must be incorporated during the research process to ensure the validity of the findings. 6.4 Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods 1) One of the major weaknesses of low-constraint methods is their: A) flexibility. B) costliness. C) difficulty in getting participants. D) poor representativeness. Answer: D Rationale: One major weakness of low-constraint methods is their tendency to have poor representativeness due to the lack of constraints on variables, which can limit the applicability of findings to broader populations. 2) One of the problems with replicating low-constraint research is that A) researchers often don't clearly state all details of their procedures. B) researchers fear that their theories will be stolen if they give too many details. C) there is not enough money available for replications. D) replication studies are viewed as low-prestige research. Answer: A Rationale: Low-constraint research often lacks detailed procedures, making replication challenging. Clear documentation is essential for other researchers to reproduce the study's conditions and results accurately. 3) Ex post facto reasoning refers most directly to A) reasoning "after the fact." B) begging the question. C) refuting arguments on the basis of who makes them. D) smuggling premises. Answer: A Rationale: Ex post facto reasoning involves making judgments or drawing conclusions after the events have occurred or the data have been collected, rather than based on a priori reasoning or established principles. 4) In case-study research, we can A) have confidence in causal inferences drawn. B) draw causal inferences, which can be applied to the general population. C) speculate on causal connections that could be tested with higher-constraint research. D) rule out the effect of extraneous variables. Answer: C Rationale: Case-study research allows for speculation on causal connections, which can then be tested through higher-constraint research methods. However, causal inferences drawn from case studies alone should be viewed with caution due to limitations such as small sample size and lack of control over variables. 5) If we draw causal inferences from case-study research and we claim to have confidence in that relationship, we are A) interpreting high-constraint research as if it were low-constraint research. B) establishing a scientific fact. C) interpreting low-constraint research as if it were high-constraint research. D) contributing valuable scientifically proven material for higher-constraint research. Answer: C Rationale: Drawing causal inferences from case-study research and claiming confidence in that relationship without further verification through higher-constraint research methods is interpreting low-constraint research as if it were high-constraint research, which may not be justified due to the limitations inherent in case studies. 6) Case studies are by their nature are A) quid pro quo approaches. B) ad hoc approaches. C) ex post facto approaches. D) post hoc approaches. Answer: C Rationale: Case studies are often conducted after events have occurred, making them ex post facto approaches to research. 7) Which of the following is an example of an ex post facto fallacy? A) Since A and B are related, you assume that A caused B. B) Since the manipulation of the independent variable A results in a consistent change in the dependent variable B, you assume that the change in A causes the change in B. C) Since no correlation between A and B is found, you assume that there is no causal relationship between A and B. D) Since only a contingency between A and B is established, you assume that there is no causal connection between A and B. Answer: A Rationale: An ex post facto fallacy occurs when causality is inferred from a temporal relationship without considering other potential factors or evidence. 8) Aggressive children watch a great deal of television. Therefore, watching a great deal of television leads to aggressive behavior in children. This statement is an example of A) a logical statement, which the researcher could test with confidence. B) an ex post facto fallacy, which could lead to misinterpretation of data. C) a hypothesis, which has been tested with mixed results. D) a true and verifiable statement of a predictive relationship. Answer: B Rationale: This statement presents an ex post facto fallacy, assuming causality based solely on observed correlation without considering other factors or conducting controlled experiments to establish causality. 9) Which of the following research approaches most frequently uses ex post facto approaches? A) field experimentation B) differential research C) experimental designs D) case study research Answer: D Rationale: Case study research frequently employs ex post facto approaches, as it often involves studying events or phenomena after they have occurred. 10) An example of an ex post facto fallacy is A) "If we let this defendant off easy, then we'll have to let everybody else off, too." B) "This statement is untrue, because it was made by a man who is a mental patient." C) "All psychologists drive Volvos; therefore, every time I see a Volvo, it must be driven by a psychologist." D) "Juvenile delinquents carry knives; therefore, carrying a knife leads to juvenile delinquency." Answer: D Rationale: Option D presents an ex post facto fallacy by assuming causality based solely on correlation without considering other potential factors. 11) If a researcher was doing a study on the effect of TV violence on children's behavior and wanted to test out inferred causality from previous case-study research, he would A) use higher constraint research procedures. B) use multiple case study research techniques. C) take inferences at face value; no further research is necessary. D) disregard previous case-study research. Answer: A Rationale: To test out inferred causality from previous case-study research, the researcher should use higher constraint research procedures, such as controlled experiments, to establish a more rigorous and generalizable understanding of the relationship between TV violence and children's behavior. 12) When participants respond to cues from the experimenter, the study is affected by A) measurement reactivity. B) unobtrusive measurement reactivity. C) participant reactivity. D) experimenter reactivity. Answer: D Rationale: Experimenter reactivity occurs when the behavior of participants is influenced by cues or expectations from the experimenter. This can lead to biased results or alterations in participant behavior, affecting the validity of the study. Therefore, option D is the correct choice. 13) If a researcher emits uncontrolled verbalizations during research, it is likely to lead to A) the ex post facto fallacy. B) the quid pro quo fallacy. C) experimenter reactivity. D) a recording contract. Answer: C Rationale: Uncontrolled verbalizations by the researcher during research can lead to experimenter reactivity, where the behavior of participants is influenced by the actions or remarks of the researcher. This can introduce bias or alter participant behavior, potentially compromising the validity of the study. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 14) Rosenhan may have made the error of A) drawing high-constraint conclusions from low-constraint research. B) inferring causality from high-constraint research. C) using a nonrepresentative sample. D) using inappropriate statistical tests. Answer: A Rationale: Rosenhan may have made the error of drawing high-constraint conclusions from lowconstraint research, as his study involved naturalistic observation of psychiatric hospitals, which typically does not allow for controlled manipulation of variables or establishment of clear causality. Therefore, option A is the correct choice. 15) Rosenhan (1973) concluded that in order to gain admission to a psychiatric hospital, a person has only to A) show proof of adequate insurance. B) report hearing voices. C) refuse to speak to intake personnel. D) request admission stating "I don't feel right." Answer: B Rationale: Rosenhan concluded that individuals could gain admission to a psychiatric hospital by reporting symptoms such as hearing voices, regardless of the veracity of their claims. This finding highlighted issues with the diagnostic process and reliability of psychiatric evaluations. Therefore, option B is the correct choice. 16) Most of the pseudopatients in Rosenhan's (1973) classic study were diagnosed with schizophrenia. This diagnosis was A) inconsistent with the symptoms presented by the pseudopatients. B) given to 90% of patients admitted to that hospital. C) consistent with the symptoms presented by the pseudopatients. D) inconsistent with the treatment (e.g., psychopharmacology) given to the pseudopatients. Answer: C Rationale: The diagnosis of schizophrenia given to most pseudopatients in Rosenhan's study was consistent with the symptoms they presented during their simulated admissions to psychiatric hospitals. This diagnosis underscored issues with the reliability and accuracy of psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 17) Rosenhan's (1973) conclusions may have been A) too strong for the constraint level of the study. B) too weak for the constraint level of the study. C) based on data collected in the lab, not in a natural setting. D) the result of improperly used statistical tests. Answer: A Rationale: Rosenhan's conclusions may have been too strong for the constraint level of the study, as his research involved naturalistic observation rather than controlled experimentation, making it difficult to establish definitive causality or draw high-constraint conclusions. Therefore, option A is the correct choice. 6.5 Ethical Principles 1) In which of the following research areas would naturalistic observation be difficult? A) school children's behavior on playgrounds B) marital conversation during intercourse C) visitor behavior at football games D) basketball court usage at hospitals Answer: B Rationale: Naturalistic observation involves studying behavior in its natural setting without interference or manipulation by the researcher. Marital conversation during intercourse would likely be difficult to observe naturally due to the private and intimate nature of the behavior. 2) Why is there less concern about the nature of the manipulation in low-constraint research than there would be in experimental research A) Because the informal low-constraint research does not require approval from the IRB. B) Because the participants in low-constraint research have to right to withdraw. C) Because the researcher controls the environment in low-constraint research. D) Because there is no manipulation in low-constraint research. Answer: D Rationale: Low-constraint research typically involves minimal manipulation or control over variables, as it seeks to observe behavior in natural settings without interference. Therefore, there is less concern about the nature of manipulation compared to experimental research, where manipulation of variables is central to the study design. 3) What is the primary ethical concern in low-constraint research? A) confidentiality B) researcher's access to sensitive information C) informed consent D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Low-constraint research can raise ethical concerns related to confidentiality, researcher access to sensitive information, and informed consent. These issues arise due to the observational nature of the research and the potential intrusion into participants' lives without their explicit consent. 4) Why is informed consent sometimes a problem in naturalistic research? A) The participants may not even know they are part of a study because the study uses archival data or unobtrusive measures. B) Many of the people who are part of naturalistic studies cannot read the informed consent form. C) Naturalistic research requires deception, and therefore the participants are not given the information necessary for informed consent. D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: Informed consent can be challenging in naturalistic research because participants may not be aware that they are being observed or studied, especially if the research involves unobtrusive measures or uses archival data. This lack of awareness can make it difficult for researchers to obtain informed consent from participants before collecting data. 5) In order to justify the use of unobtrusive measures in a study, a researcher must show that A) the participants have waived their rights. B) nondeceptive measures would not work. C) the research is of potential benefit to humanity. D) the participants will be paid for their efforts. Answer: B Rationale: Unobtrusive measures are employed when using direct measures would be intrusive or impractical. Therefore, the researcher must demonstrate that nondeceptive measures, which involve direct interaction with participants, are not feasible or effective for the study's objectives. 6) In order to justify the use of unobtrusive measures in a study, the researcher must show that A) no one will ever find out that an unobtrusive measure has been used. B) deceptive measures just won't work. C) no significant harm to the participant will result from the use of the measure and that nondeceptive measures would not work. D) the participants will be paid for their service. Answer: C Rationale: Unobtrusive measures should not cause harm to participants, and it must be demonstrated that nondeceptive measures are not suitable for achieving the research goals. 7) One of the drawbacks of using unobtrusive measurement techniques in a study could be A) unreliable data. B) participant bias. C) measurement reactivity. D) ethical difficulties. Answer: D Rationale: Ethical difficulties can arise when using unobtrusive measures, such as infringing on participants' privacy or autonomy without their knowledge or consent. 8) Which of the following issues complicate the use of unobtrusive measures? A) There is no way to establish clearly the reliability of such measures. B) There is no way to establish clearly the validity of such measures. C) A person's behavior will be distorted by the use of unobtrusive measures, making generalizability to other settings impossible. D) There is a potential ethical problem in measuring a person's behavior without their knowledge or permission. Answer: D Rationale: The primary complication in using unobtrusive measures is the ethical concern regarding measuring individuals' behavior without their awareness or consent. 9) Who gives informed consent in naturalistic research? A) The researcher must always get the participant's informed consent. B) The Institutional Review Board gives the consent. C) Consent must be obtained from the parents of the participants. D) It depends on the nature of the research. Answer: D Rationale: In naturalistic research, the need for informed consent may vary depending on factors such as the nature of the study and the expectations of privacy involved. 10) To justify the use of unobtrusive measures, the research must show that A) there is no harm associated with using the unobtrusive measure. B) that non-deceptive measures have also been included in the study. C) non-deceptive measures would not work. D) Both A and C Answer: D Rationale: Justification for using unobtrusive measures involves demonstrating both the absence of harm associated with these measures and the ineffectiveness of nondeceptive measures. 11) When might a researcher legitimately avoid the process of getting informed consent in a naturalistic study? A) When the study is so innocuous that there is no risk of harm. B) When the study focuses on public behavior that could be observed by anyone, so that participants would have no expectation of privacy. C) When the IRB has reviewed the proposal and agreed that informed consent is not necessary. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: In some cases, informed consent may be waived in naturalistic studies, particularly when there is minimal risk of harm or when the behavior under study occurs in public settings without an expectation of privacy. 12) Davis studied the use of corporal punishment by parents in shopping malls. What type of informed consent would he have needed for that study? A) He would have to get the consent of each parent before beginning his observations. B) He would have to get the consent of each parent after his observations or he would have to exclude those observations from the data set. C) He did not need informed consent because he was observing public behavior in a public place in which there was no expectation of privacy. D) He would have to get informed consent from the mall manager, who has the legal right to act on behalf of the shoppers. Answer: C Rationale: Observing public behavior in a public place where there is no expectation of privacy generally does not require obtaining informed consent from individuals being observed. 13) A therapist who believes that a particular case is particularly informative and wants to publish the case study needs to A) get blanket permission from an IRB to publish clinical cases. B) wait until the client dies to publish C) get the permission of client to publish the case. D) None of the above Answer: C Rationale: The therapist must obtain the client's permission before publishing a case study to ensure confidentiality and respect for the client's autonomy. 14) When publishing a clinical case study, the therapist should A) not use the name of the client and distort the background of the client sufficiently so that the client is not identifiable. B) include a copy of the informed consent form in the published article. C) get the permission of family members as well as the client. D) All of the above Answer: A Rationale: Protecting client confidentiality is crucial in publishing clinical case studies, which may involve anonymizing details and ensuring that the client cannot be identified. Test Bank for Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin 9780205900923, 9780205907694, 9780135705056

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