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Chapter 6
Empiricism, Associationism, and Utilitarianism
1. The term empiricism is roughly equivalent to the English term
a. knowledge.
b. experience.
c. observation.
d. experiment.
Answer: b. experience.
Rationale:
Empiricism emphasizes the role of experience, particularly sensory experience, as the
foundation of knowledge and understanding. It prioritizes observation and experimentation to
gain knowledge about the world.
2. In his later years, Bacon studied science and philosophy. He was primarily interested in the
problems of
a. human knowledge.
b. axiology.
c. ethics.
d. rationalism.
Answer: a. human knowledge.
Rationale:
Bacon's later interests focused on understanding the nature of human knowledge, particularly
how knowledge is acquired and validated through empirical means.
3. The Idols of the Tribe, according to Francis Bacon, are
a. errors in knowledge based on faulty deduction.

b. errors in knowledge resulting from faulty definitions.
c. objects that are commonly worshipped.
d. inherent limitations based on weaknesses human nature.
Answer: d. inherent limitations based on weaknesses human nature.
Rationale:
Bacon described the Idols of the Tribe as inherent limitations in human thinking and
perception, arising from human nature itself, such as biases, tendencies to generalize, and
other cognitive limitations.
4. According to Bacon, human beings sometimes rely too much on authority. He referred to
excessive reliance on authority as the
a. Idols of the theater.
b. Idols of the marketplace.
c. Idols of the cave.
d. Idols of the tribe.
Answer: a. Idols of the theater.
Rationale:
Bacon categorized excessive reliance on authority as the Idols of the Theater, referring to
beliefs and ideas that are widely accepted but lack empirical evidence or sound reasoning.
5. According to Bacon, human beings sometimes follow strongly preferred theories or
prejudices. He referred to this excessive reliance on a favored explanatory mode as
a. Idols of the theater.
b. Idols of the marketplace.
c. Idols of the cave.
d. Idols of the tribe.

Answer: c. Idols of the cave.
Rationale:
Bacon described the Idols of the Cave as personal biases or prejudices that individuals hold,
influencing their interpretation of information and leading them to favor certain theories or
explanations.
6. A politician may frame his or her position as “liberal” or “conservative.” According to
Francis Bacon, if one decides to endorse the politician because of the name of the label he or
she applies to his or her position, one may be falling victim to the
a. Idols of the theater.
b. Idols of the marketplace.
c. Idols of the cave.
d. Idols of the tribe.
Answer: b. Idols of the marketplace.
Rationale:
Bacon categorized the tendency to blindly follow labels or names without critical evaluation
as the Idols of the Marketplace, reflecting how individuals can be influenced by popular
trends or labels rather than empirical evidence.
7. Hermann believes there are no new scientific truths that are not already set forth in a holy
book written hundreds of years ago. According to Francis Bacon, Hermann may be falling
victim to the
a. Idols of the theater.
b. Idols of the marketplace.
c. Idols of the cave.
d. Idols of the den.
Answer: a. Idols of the theater.

Rationale:
Bacon classified the tendency to rely solely on traditional beliefs or authorities, such as
religious texts, as the Idols of the Theater, reflecting how entrenched beliefs can limit the
pursuit of new knowledge.
8. Francis Bacon placed the most value in which of the following epistemological methods?
a. induction
b. deduction
c. intuition
d. logic
Answer: a. induction
Rationale:
Bacon emphasized the importance of induction as a method of acquiring knowledge, wherein
general principles are inferred from specific observations and experiences, aligning with his
empirical approach to understanding the world.
9. Bacon believed that
a. most psychological topics could not be treated scientifically.
b. the senses could be explored scientifically, but other topics such as emotions and memory
could not be treated scientifically.
c. society should support a great range of empirical studies on psychological subjects.
d. most psychological topics should be approached deductively.
Answer: c. society should support a great range of empirical studies on psychological
subjects.
Rationale:

Bacon advocated for the empirical study of psychological subjects, including emotions and
memory, as he believed that scientific investigation, supported by observation and
experimentation, could uncover knowledge about the mind and behavior.
10. Most of Locke's philosophical interests related in one way or another to the problem of
a. ontology.
b. theology.
c. epistemology.
d. free will and determinism.
Answer: c. epistemology.
Rationale:
Locke's philosophical inquiries primarily revolved around the nature, origins, and limits of
human knowledge, placing his interests squarely within the domain of epistemology, the
study of knowledge and belief.
11. “Nothing is in the intellect that was not previously in the senses.” This statement sets
forth the essential theme of the so-called “white paper” doctrine of
a. John Locke.
b. George Berkeley.
c. David Hartley.
d. Jeremy Bentham.
Answer: a. John Locke.
Rationale:
John Locke's concept of the mind as a "tabula rasa" or blank slate, where all knowledge
originates from sensory experience, aligns with the statement provided. This notion is often
referred to as Locke's "white paper" doctrine.
12. John Locke argued aggressively

a. against innate ideas.
b. in favor of the idea that all knowledge comes from sensory information.
c. in favor of the formation of ideas through empirical association.
d. all of the above.
Answer: a. against innate ideas.
Rationale:
Locke vehemently opposed the notion of innate ideas, arguing that the mind is devoid of any
inherent knowledge and that all ideas are derived from sensory experience.
13. Qualities presumed to reside in, or inhere in an object, are called________ qualities.
a. primary
b. material
c. secondary
d. tertiary
Answer: a. primary
Rationale:
Primary qualities are those attributes of objects that exist inherently in the objects themselves,
such as shape, size, and motion.
14. Which of the following, according to John Locke, would qualify as a secondary quality?
a. color
b. taste
c. solidity
d. a and b
Answer: d. a and b

Rationale:
Locke classified secondary qualities as those that exist in the perception of the observer, such
as color and taste, as opposed to primary qualities which exist inherently in the object.
15. Solidity and shape might properly be regarded as ________, whereas color and taste are
better regarded as ________.
a. secondary qualities . . . primary qualities
b. primary qualities . . . secondary qualities
c. categorical imperatives . . . subjective qualities
d. subjective qualities . . . categorical imperatives
Answer: b. primary qualities . . . secondary qualities
Rationale:
Primary qualities, like solidity and shape, are inherent properties of objects, while secondary
qualities, like color and taste, are dependent on the observer's perception.
16. The book entitled Some Thoughts Concerning Education marks________ as one of the
earliest pioneers in educational psychology.
a. George Berkeley
b. David Hume
c. John Locke
d. Francis Bacon
Answer: c. John Locke
Rationale:
John Locke's work "Some Thoughts Concerning Education" delved into the psychology of
learning and child development, making significant contributions to the field of educational
psychology.

17. According to Berkeley, the distinction between primary qualities and secondary qualities
is
a. basically untenable because all qualities must be experienced.
b. the clearest distinction in all philosophy.
c. to be resolved by reducing all qualities to primary qualities.
d. unimportant.
Answer: a. basically untenable because all qualities must be experienced.
Rationale:
George Berkeley argued that the distinction between primary and secondary qualities was
ultimately untenable because all qualities are perceived and experienced by the observer.
18. “To be, is to be perceived.” Such a contention is most consistent with the brand of
empiricism advanced by
a. Francis Bacon.
b. John Locke.
c. George Berkeley.
d. Michael Montaigne.
Answer: c. George Berkeley.
Rationale:
George Berkeley's philosophy of subjective idealism asserts that existence is dependent on
perception. According to Berkeley, things only exist insofar as they are perceived by minds.
19. In the Modern period, empiricism seems to begin with a deep interest in ________, but
soon that interest turns to the problem of ________.
a. induction . . . deduction.
b. ontology . . . epistemology.

c. epistemology . . . ontology.
d. axiology . . . epistemology
Answer: c. epistemology . . . ontology.
Rationale:
Empiricism in the Modern period initially focused on the epistemological question of how
knowledge is acquired through sensory experience but later extended to ontological questions
concerning the nature of reality.
20. In his classic Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, Berkeley hoped to
a. provide support for Descartes' contention that there are geometric principles that we know
innately and that contribute to depth perception.
b. advance a new theory of color vision based on three primary colors.
c. demonstrate similarities between vision and audition.
d. clearly demonstrate the role of experience in depth perception.
Answer: d. clearly demonstrate the role of experience in depth perception.
Rationale:
Berkeley aimed to show how sensory experience, particularly vision, shapes our perception
of the world, emphasizing the role of experience in understanding depth perception and visual
phenomena.
21. How did Berkeley account for the consistency of our perceptions (e.g., your house is
always where you left it)?
a. Material objects exist whether we perceive them or not.
b. God, the ultimate perceiver, and see everything all the time.
c. Objects continue to exist if we believe that they will do so.
d. All of the above
Answer: b. God, the ultimate perceiver, and see everything all the time.

Rationale:
Berkeley proposed that the consistency of our perceptions is ensured by the constant
perception of all things by God, who is omnipresent and observes everything at all times.
22. Our lives are a string of unrelated events with no causal connections between them. Who
would be most likely to support this view?
a. Francis Bacon
b. John Locke
c. David Hume
d. George Berkeley
Answer: c. David Hume
Rationale:
David Hume's philosophy emphasizes the idea of causality and argues that our perceptions of
cause and effect are based on habitual associations rather than inherent connections in the
external world.
23. Which of the following would be most consistent with David Hume’s position on the
question of personal identity?
a. We have a sense of personal identity because there is a substantive self.
b. The sense of personal identity is based on objective causality.
c. We may exaggerate the continuity of the self.
d. Hume did not address the problem of personal identity.
Answer: c. We may exaggerate the continuity of the self.
Rationale:
Hume's position on personal identity suggests that our sense of self is based on a series of
connected but distinct perceptions, and that we may mistakenly perceive a continuous and
unified self where there is none.

24. According to David Hume, our sense of a personal identity is to result of
a. imagination
b. rational deduction
c. emotional passion
d. a stable psyche
Answer: a. imagination
Rationale:
Hume argued that our sense of personal identity is constructed by the imagination, which
connects various perceptions and experiences into a coherent narrative of selfhood.
25. _____ is a central figure in the history of psychology because he, more than any other
empiricist, focused attention on the role of emotions in human intellectual life.
a. George Berkeley
b. John Locke
c. James Mill
d. David Hume
Answer: d. David Hume
Rationale:
Hume's emphasis on the role of emotions and passions in shaping human behavior and
thought processes contributed significantly to the development of psychology, particularly in
understanding the interplay between emotion and cognition.
26. According to the text, _____ demonstrated that empiricism, when driven to its ultimate
conclusions, provides a sandy foundation for the new sciences.
a. David Hume
b. John Locke

c. George Berkeley
d. Francis Bacon
Answer: a. David Hume
Rationale:
Hume's skepticism about the reliability of sensory experience and causal inference
highlighted the limitations of empiricism in providing a secure basis for scientific knowledge.
27. _____ attempted to show how all intellectual activity could be derived from sensation
alone.
a. John Locke
b. Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
c. George Berkeley
d. David Hartley
Answer: b. Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
Rationale:
Condillac, a French philosopher, proposed a theory known as sensationalism, which posited
that all mental processes, including intellectual activity, could be traced back to sensations
and sensory experiences.
28. According to _____, language provides a set of symbols in part to represent needs and
desires
a. John Locke
b. Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
c. George Berkeley
d. David Hartley
Answer: b. Étienne Bonnot de Condillac

Rationale:
Condillac argued that language serves as a means to represent and communicate human
needs, desires, and sensations, playing a crucial role in shaping human thought and behavior.
29. This early empiricist was a radical environmentalist who denied hereditary influence. In
his view, even genius is a product of proper education. He was
a. John Stuart Mill.
b. Jeremy Bentham.
c. Claude-Adrien Helvétius.
d. Alexander Bain.
Answer: c. Claude-Adrien Helvétius.
Rationale:
Helvétius was known for his radical views on education and human nature, advocating for
environmental influences over hereditary factors in shaping human abilities and intelligence.
30. The person commonly regarded as the founder of modern associationism was also
concerned with the problems of motivation and with the physiological basis of associations.
He was
a. Jeremy Bentham.
b. David Hartley.
c. James Mill.
d. John Stuart Mill.
Answer: b. David Hartley.
Rationale:
David Hartley, an English philosopher, is often considered the founder of modern
associationism due to his work on the association of ideas and its physiological basis, as
outlined in his influential work "Observations on Man."

31. _____ provided a physiological view of associationism, arguing that connections between
stimuli can be triggered through vibrations carried through nerves
a. Jeremy Bentham.
b. David Hartley.
c. James Mill.
d. John Stuart Mill.
Answer: b. David Hartley.
Rationale:
David Hartley proposed a physiological theory of associationism, suggesting that mental
associations are formed through vibrations carried by nerves, laying the groundwork for
modern theories of neurological association and conditioning.
32. According to utilitarianism, moral decisions should be based on
a. our intuitive grasp of what is right and what is wrong.
b. the doctrine of accountability that grows directly out of a belief in free will.
c. the concept of the greatest good for the greatest number.
d. the doctrine we encounter in nature, namely that might makes right.
Answer: c. the concept of the greatest good for the greatest number.
Rationale:
Utilitarianism, as advocated by philosophers like Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill,
posits that moral decisions should aim to maximize overall happiness or utility, often
interpreted as the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
33. According to the doctrine of psychological hedonism, human beings seek
a. knowledge above all things.
b. homeostatic equilibrium above all things.

c. to gain pleasure and avoid pain.
d. sensory pleasure above all other types.
Answer: c. to gain pleasure and avoid pain.
Rationale:
Psychological hedonism asserts that human behavior is ultimately driven by the pursuit of
pleasure and the avoidance of pain, suggesting that individuals seek to maximize their overall
pleasure and minimize discomfort or pain.
34. An active advocate for the rights of women and the author of A Vindication of the Rights
of Women was
a. Harriet Taylor.
b. Harriet Burrow.
c. Mary Wollstonecraft.
d. Elizabeth Dixon.
Answer: c. Mary Wollstonecraft.
Rationale:
Mary Wollstonecraft was a prominent advocate for women's rights and authored "A
Vindication of the Rights of Women," one of the earliest works advocating for gender
equality and women's education.
35. The belief that the intrinsic nature of men is qualitatively different from the intrinsic
nature of women is
a. psychophysical parallelism.
b. mechanism.
c. psychological hedonism.
d. essentialism.
Answer: d. essentialism.

Rationale:
Essentialism refers to the belief that certain characteristics or qualities are inherent and
immutable to individuals or groups, such as the belief in inherent differences between men
and women based on their biological or essential nature.
36. James Mill created a conception of the mind based on
a. mechanics.
b. hedonism.
c. rationalism.
d. chemistry.
Answer: a. mechanics.
Rationale:
James Mill, a philosopher and economist, developed a mechanistic conception of the mind
influenced by associationism, viewing mental processes as analogous to mechanical
operations governed by the principles of association.
37. John Stuart Mill argues that many sciences including meteorology must couch their
results in terms of probabilities. With respect to psychology, he believed
a. that there could be a basic psychology, but not an applied psychology.
b. there could be both a basic and an applied psychology.
c. we could make probabilistic statements, but they would not be sufficiently exact to be
helpful.
d. it could really never be a science.
Answer: b. there could be both a basic and an applied psychology.
Rationale:

John Stuart Mill advocated for the development of both a theoretical (basic) psychology
concerned with understanding mental processes and an applied psychology aimed at practical
applications and interventions based on psychological principles.
38. “The principle which regulates the existing social relations between the sexes--the legal
subordination of one sex to the other--is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances
to human improvement.” Such a statement came from __________ who was probably
influenced with respect to his feminist perspectives by ___________.
a. John Stuart Mill . . . his father, James Mill
b. John Stuart Mill . . . his wife, Harriet Taylor
c. James Mill . . . his wife, Harriet Burrow
d. James Mill . . his mother, Isabel Fenton
Answer: b. John Stuart Mill . . . his wife, Harriet Taylor
Rationale:
John Stuart Mill, influenced by his wife Harriet Taylor, was an outspoken advocate for
women's rights and equality, as reflected in his writings on gender equality and the
subordination of women in society.
39. The first psychological journal Mind was founded by a philosopher who has great
influence on many early psychologists. He was
a. Jeremy Bentham.
b. John Stuart Mill.
c. James Mill.
d. Alexander Bain.
Answer: d. Alexander Bain.
Rationale:

Alexander Bain, a Scottish philosopher, founded the journal "Mind" in 1876 and had a
significant influence on early psychologists through his contributions to psychology and
philosophy, particularly in the areas of associationism and the psychology of emotions.

Test Bank for A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context
Brett D. King, Wayne Viney, William Douglas Woody
9780205987184

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