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Chapter 15
Gestalt Psychology
1. The term Gestalt is close in meaning to
a. molar behavior.
b. pattern or configuration.
c. dynamics.
d. the unconscious.
Answer: b. pattern or configuration.
Rationale:
Gestalt psychology focuses on the perception of patterns or configurations rather than
individual elements. It emphasizes the holistic nature of perception and cognition.
2. The Gestalt system advanced by Wertheimer was
a. concerned largely with applied psychology.
b. limited essentially to the fields of thinking and perception.
c. a worldview with implications for psychology, philosophy, science, and education.
d. restricted to the field of philosophical psychology.
Answer: c. a worldview with implications for psychology, philosophy, science, and
education.
Rationale:
Wertheimer's Gestalt system had broad implications beyond psychology, influencing various
disciplines due to its emphasis on holistic perception and cognition.
3. Some of Wertheimer's views undoubtedly grew directly out of the physical theories set
forth by
a. Isaac Newton.

b. Albert Einstein.
c. Hermann von Helmholtz.
d. Thomas Hobbes.
Answer: b. Albert Einstein.
Rationale:
Wertheimer was influenced by Albert Einstein's theories, particularly in the context of spacetime perception and the relationship between the observer and the observed.
4. _______ preceded Wertheimer in arguing that there are form qualities given immediately
in experience and that the form qualities may persist even when all the elements change.
a. Thomas Hobbes
b. Christian von Ehrenfels
c. John Locke
d. James Mill
Answer: b. Christian von Ehrenfels
Rationale:
Christian von Ehrenfels proposed the idea of Gestalt qualities in perception, suggesting that
the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
5. Michael Wertheimer stated the radical Gestalt view that the whole is not equal to the sum
of its parts, but
a. the whole is equal to the sum of its parts.
b. no whole emerges from an aggregate of parts.
c. the whole is prior to and radically other than the parts.
d. the whole emerges after the parts.
Answer: c. the whole is prior to and radically other than the parts.

Rationale:
This statement reflects the core idea of Gestalt psychology, emphasizing that perception
involves the organization of elements into meaningful wholes that transcend the sum of their
parts.
6. The Phi Phenomenon provides a particularly elegant demonstration of the idea that
a. short-term and long-term memory are different things.
b. insight is itself conditioned.
c. productive thinking can be learned.
d. the quality of the whole is different from the sum of the parts.
Answer: d. the quality of the whole is different from the sum of the parts.
Rationale:
The Phi Phenomenon demonstrates how the perception of motion is created by the rapid
succession of static images, illustrating Gestalt principles of perception where the whole
(motion) is perceived differently from its individual parts (static images).
7. The classic work on figure and ground was reported by
a. Max Wertheimer.
b. Wolfgang Köhler.
c. Edgar Rubin.
d. Kurt Lewin.
Answer: c. Edgar Rubin.
Rationale:
Edgar Rubin's work on figure-ground perception contributed significantly to Gestalt
psychology, particularly in understanding how visual perception organizes elements into
distinct figures against a background.
8. Which of the following is NOT a Gestalt principle of perceptual organization?

a. good continuation
b. proximity
c. orthography
d. similarity
Answer: c. orthography
Rationale:
Orthography refers to the correct spelling or writing system of a language and is not a
principle of perceptual organization within Gestalt psychology.
9. Perceptual organization tends to be as good as it can under prevailing conditions. This is a
statement of the
a. Law of closure.
b. Principle of isomorphism.
c. Law of Prägnanz.
d. Principle of good continuation.
Answer: c. Law of Prägnanz.
Rationale:
The Law of Prägnanz, also known as the Principle of Prägnanz or the Law of Simplicity,
states that perceptual organization tends to be as good as possible under prevailing
conditions, emphasizing simplicity and regularity in perceptual experiences.
10. The earliest Gestalt orientation of Max Wertheimer is found in the psychology of
a. thinking.
b. learning.
c. motivation.
d. the unconscious.

Answer: a. thinking.
Rationale:
Max Wertheimer's earliest contributions to Gestalt psychology were in the study of thinking,
particularly in understanding how the mind organizes elements into meaningful patterns or
configurations.
11. If one went to Max Wertheimer for advice about how to become a productive thinker,
Wertheimer would most likely encourage the individual to
a. take a course in formal logic.
b. stick with the tried and true principles of association and begin always with simple things
before working to more complex problems.
c. become aware of unconscious conflicts.
d. work on the capacity to grasp structural organizations within the larger context and attempt
to see the whole problem.
Answer: d. work on the capacity to grasp structural organizations within the larger context
and attempt to see the whole problem.
Rationale:
Wertheimer emphasized the importance of perceiving the whole problem or situation rather
than focusing solely on its parts, advocating for insight and understanding of the structural
organization.
12. Learning, from a Gestalt perspective, involves
a. the connection of a response with an absolute stimulus value.
b. connections that are “hard wired” between stimuli and responses.
c. cognitive structures and the patterns of relationships.
d. trial and error acquisitions of complex relationships.
Answer: c. cognitive structures and the patterns of relationships.

Rationale:
Gestalt psychologists view learning as the establishment of cognitive structures and the
recognition of patterns of relationships between elements, emphasizing understanding over
simple stimulus-response connections.
13. A major challenge to S-R theories of learning and to the concept of blind trial and error
came out of the work done by on the Island of Tenerife.
a. Kurt Koffka
b. Wolfgang Köhler
c. Kurt Lewin
d. Max Wertheimer
Answer: b. Wolfgang Köhler
Rationale:
Wolfgang Köhler's work with chimpanzees on the Island of Tenerife challenged S-R theories
by demonstrating instances of insight learning, where animals appeared to solve problems
suddenly rather than through gradual trial and error.
14. In his book The Mentality of Apes, Kohler describes observing chimpanzees learning to
solve a problem through
a. trial and error
b. approximation
c. incremental learning
d. insight
Answer: d. insight
Rationale:

Köhler's observations of chimpanzees solving problems in his book demonstrated instances
of insight learning, where the solution appears suddenly without prior trial and error attempts,
supporting the Gestalt perspective on learning.
15. The Gestalt psychologist most noted for extending Gestalt principles into the field of
development was
a. Kurt Koffka.
b. Max Wertheimer.
c. Wolfgang Köhler.
d. Kurt Lewin.
Answer: a. Kurt Koffka.
Rationale:
Kurt Koffka extended Gestalt principles into the field of development, emphasizing the role
of perception and organization in understanding cognitive development.
16. Three kinds of learning, according to Koffka, include
a. S-R Learning, Operant Conditioning, and Insightful Learning
b. Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning and Insightful Learning
c. S-R Learning, S-S Learning, and S-O-R Learning
d. Sensorimotor Learning, Imitation, and Ideational Learning
Answer: d. Sensorimotor Learning, Imitation, and Ideational Learning
Rationale:
Koffka classified learning into sensorimotor learning (involving motor responses), imitation
(learning through observation and imitation), and ideational learning (learning through
mental representation), reflecting the Gestalt perspective on various forms of learning.
17. The Gestalt approach to methodology was
a. pluralistic.

b. based on exclusive use of field studies.
c. similar to Titchener's with a powerful emphasis on introspection.
d. similar to Watson's with an emphasis on wet lab studies.
Answer: a. pluralistic.
Rationale:
Gestalt methodology was pluralistic, incorporating various approaches such as experimental
studies, field observations, and introspective analysis to understand perception and cognition.
18. The Gestalt view of the mind-brain problem is called
a. interactionism
b. isomorphism
c. epiphenomenalism
d. material monism
Answer: b. isomorphism
Rationale:
Isomorphism in Gestalt psychology refers to the structural correspondence between brain
processes and subjective experiences, suggesting a relationship between mental phenomena
and underlying neural activity.
19. Isomorphism, in Gestalt psychology, refers to structural correspondence between _____
and_____.
a. brain processes . . . behaviors
b. brain processes . . . experience
c. behaviors . . . experience
d. behaviors . . . environment
Answer: b. brain processes . . . experience

Rationale:
Isomorphism in Gestalt psychology refers to the parallelism between brain processes and
subjective experiences, highlighting the relationship between physiological mechanisms and
psychological phenomena.
20. __________ broadened the base of Gestalt psychology into the fields of motivation,
personality, and social psychology
a. Kurt Koffka
b. Kurt Goldstein
c. Rudolf Arnheim
d. Kurt Lewin
Answer: d. Kurt Lewin
Rationale:
Kurt Lewin expanded Gestalt psychology into areas such as motivation, personality, and
social psychology, introducing field theory and emphasizing the importance of the
environment in shaping behavior.
21. Kurt Lewin viewed behavior as a function of
a. the individual.
b. environmental effects on the individual.
c. the person and the environment.
d. reinforcement.
Answer: c. the person and the environment.
Rationale:
Lewin emphasized that behavior is determined by the interaction between the individual and
the environment, highlighting the importance of considering both personal factors and
external influences in understanding behavior.

22. The expression life space refers to
a. the physical area within which a social group is free to operate.
b. the span of life.
c. every psychological fact that is influential in the life of an individual at a given time.
d. estimated time that the earth will support human life.
Answer: c. every psychological fact that is influential in the life of an individual at a given
time.
Rationale:
Life space, according to Lewin, encompasses all psychological factors that influence an
individual at a given time, including perceptions, motivations, and environmental influences.
23. According to Kurt Lewin, the task of education is to
a. reinforce a more socially acceptable repertoire of behaviors.
b. build general skills by teaching specific disciplines.
c. extend the life space so that we can strive for goals further and further into the future.
d. increase the educator's ability to control the educated.
Answer: c. extend the life space so that we can strive for goals further and further into the
future.
Rationale:
Lewin believed that education should focus on expanding individuals' life space, enabling
them to pursue goals and adapt to changing environments more effectively.
24. Better recall for uncompleted compared with completed tasks came to be known as the
a. Zeigarnik effect
b. Prägnanz effect
c. illumination effect

d. Koffka effect
Answer: a. Zeigarnik effect
Rationale:
The Zeigarnik effect refers to the phenomenon where uncompleted tasks are better
remembered than completed ones, suggesting that interrupted or unfinished activities create a
cognitive tension that enhances memory.
25. The expression Group Dynamics characterizes some of the social psychological work of
a. Muzafer Sherif.
b. Kurt Lewin.
c. Kurt Koffka.
d. Karl Duncker.
Answer: b. Kurt Lewin.
Rationale:
Kurt Lewin is known for his work in group dynamics, emphasizing the influence of group
interactions and social forces on individual behavior and attitudes.
26. The Karl Duncker's work on functional fixedness demonstrated that many people seem to
have
a. an inability to find productive solutions to new problems.
b. the capacity for truly productive thinking.
c. symptoms of minimal brain damage.
d. astigmatism.
Answer: a. an inability to find productive solutions to new problems.
Rationale:

Duncker's research on functional fixedness showed that individuals often struggle to find
innovative solutions to problems due to mental rigidity and an inability to see objects or
concepts in unconventional ways.
27. Isolated or unusual items in a list are typically recalled better than homogeneous items.
This has been called the
a. Zeigarnik Effect.
b. von Restorff Effect.
c. Phi Phenomenon.
d. law of heterogeny.
Answer: b. von Restorff Effect.
Rationale:
The von Restorff effect refers to the phenomenon where distinctive or unusual items in a list
are more easily remembered than items that are similar or homogeneous, highlighting the role
of distinctiveness in memory.
28. _____ assisted with the editing of Productive Thinking and helped bring Gestalt theory to
social psychology with his classic studies on judgment of line length.
a. Muzafer Sherif
b. Solomon Asch
c. Kurt Koffka
d. Karl Duncker
Answer: b. Solomon Asch
Rationale:
Solomon Asch contributed to the dissemination of Gestalt theory in social psychology
through his research on conformity and perception, which aligned with Gestalt principles.
29. According to the text

a. Gestalt therapy grew directly and logically out of Gestalt psychology.
b. The Gestalt psychologists had no interest in psychotherapy.
c. there is probably no conceptual relationship between Gestalt therapy as advanced by Fritz
Pearls and Gestalt psychology as advanced by Wertheimer, Köhler. and Koffka.
d. a true Gestalt psychotherapy would have many similarities with psychoanalysis.
Answer: c. there is probably no conceptual relationship between Gestalt therapy as advanced
by Fritz Pearls and Gestalt psychology as advanced by Wertheimer, Köhler. and Koffka.
Rationale:
While Gestalt therapy shares the name with Gestalt psychology, there are significant
conceptual differences between the two approaches, and Fritz Perls' Gestalt therapy is not a
direct extension of the principles developed by Wertheimer, Köhler, and Koffka.
30. Which of the following statements best characterizes the Gestalt position on scientific
analysis?
a. Analysis should never be performed.
b. Analysis should only be used in extremely rare cases.
c. Analysis should be used to investigate legitimate parts of a whole.
d. Analysis should always be used to investigate the smallest divisions our technology allows
us to create.
Answer: c. Analysis should be used to investigate legitimate parts of a whole.
Rationale:
Gestalt psychologists advocated for the use of analysis to study legitimate parts of a whole,
emphasizing the importance of understanding complex systems and relationships rather than
reducing phenomena to their smallest components.
31. In his book Organizing and Memorizing, _____ applied Gestalt problem solving research
to educational psychology.
a. Solomon Asch

b. Rudolf Arnheim
c. Catherine Stern
d. George Katona
Answer: d. George Katona
Rationale:
George Katona applied Gestalt problem-solving principles to educational psychology in his
book "Organizing and Memorizing," demonstrating the relevance of Gestalt psychology to
understanding learning and memory processes in educational settings.
32. The Gestalt position with regard to clinical psychology is best characterized by which of
the following statements.
a. Gestalt psychology is best expressed in the system of Gestalt therapy.
b. Gestalt psychology should not be applied to clinical settings.
c. The Gestalt model can serve as a fruitful resource for clinical psychology.
d. Gestalt psychology is primarily a clinical theory.
Answer: c. The Gestalt model can serve as a fruitful resource for clinical psychology.
Rationale:
Gestalt psychologists view their model as applicable beyond clinical settings, suggesting that
the principles of Gestalt psychology can provide valuable insights into human behavior and
experience in various contexts, including clinical psychology.
33. According to Gestalt psychology, natural events, left to themselves
a. show latent order within apparent disorder.
b. produce nothing but chaos.
c. show no semblance of order.
d. cannot even be said to act in lawful ways.

Answer: a. show latent order within apparent disorder.
Rationale:
Gestalt psychology proposes that natural events exhibit underlying order within what may
initially appear as disorder, emphasizing the organization and structure inherent in perceptual
experiences and phenomena.
34. The Gestalt views on science are
a. most consistent with the Newtonian views.
b. more consistent with 19th-century thought rather than 20th-century thought.
c. more consistent with the recent scientific worldview than with that advanced in the 1940s.
d. by now largely irrelevant.
Answer: c. more consistent with the recent scientific worldview than with that advanced in
the 1940s.
Rationale:
Gestalt views on science emphasize holistic approaches and the importance of understanding
wholes rather than reducing phenomena to their constituent parts, aligning more closely with
contemporary scientific perspectives that emphasize complexity, systems thinking, and
emergent properties.

Test Bank for A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context
Brett D. King, Wayne Viney, William Douglas Woody
9780205987184

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