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Chapter 9
Naturalism and Humanitarian Reform
1. Naturalism, as a philosophical perspective, is the doctrine that
a. scientific procedures and laws are applicable to all phenomena.
b. to be a scientist one must be an atheist.
c. science is applicable to the worlds of physics, chemistry, and biology, but not necessarily
to psychology.
d. origins are relatively unimportant, what is important is the here and now. The present must
be
Answer: a. scientific procedures and laws are applicable to all phenomena.
Rationale:
Naturalism asserts that scientific methods and principles can be applied to understand all
phenomena, rejecting supernatural explanations in favor of empirical evidence and natural
laws.
2. Cosmogony refers to
a. the study of the makeup of the universe
b. the study of the origin of the universe
c. the study of the organization of the universe
d. the study of the size of the universe
Answer: b. the study of the origin of the universe
Rationale:
Cosmogony specifically deals with the study of the origin and evolution of the universe,
focusing on theories and explanations about how the universe began.
3. The nebular hypothesis was a bold naturalistic account of the origin of the solar system.
Two names associated with the nebular hypotheses are

a. Pierre Simon de Laplace and Immanuel Kant.
b. Francis Bacon and John Locke.
c. David Hume and Baruch Spinoza.
d. Robert Whytt and Michele de Montaigne.
Answer: a. Pierre Simon de Laplace and Immanuel Kant.
Rationale:
Pierre Simon de Laplace and Immanuel Kant are renowned for their contributions to the
nebular hypothesis, proposing explanations about the formation of the solar system from a
primordial nebula.
4. _______ was one of the first to actually conduct an experiment designed to estimate the
age of the earth.
a. Immanuel Kant
b. Pierre Simon de Laplace
c. Comte de Buffon
d. Erasmus Darwin
Answer: c. Comte de Buffon
Rationale:
Comte de Buffon conducted pioneering experiments to estimate the age of the Earth, laying
the groundwork for geological inquiries into the planet's history.
5. _______, the author of Principles of Geology, is often regarded as the founder of modern
geology.
a. Sir Charles Lyell
b. Erasmus Darwin
c. Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier

d. Comte de Buffon
Answer: a. Sir Charles Lyell
Rationale:
Sir Charles Lyell's "Principles of Geology" revolutionized the field and established the
foundations of modern geology, emphasizing uniformitarianism and the gradual processes
shaping the Earth's surface.
6. _____ is the belief that changes on earth occur at a very slow pace over vast stretches of
time. This view is often contrasted with _____ which promotes the idea that all changes in
the earth are sudden and dramatic.
a. unilateralism . . . disaster theory
b. uniformitarianism . . . catastrophe theory
c. catastrophe theory . . . uniformism
d. linear theory . . . disaster theory
Answer: b. uniformitarianism . . . catastrophe theory
Rationale:
Uniformitarianism posits that geological changes occur gradually over long periods,
contrasting with catastrophe theory, which suggests sudden, dramatic events shape the Earth's
features.
7. Evolutionary theory developed
a. in an intellectual vacuum.
b. in the shadow of an unquestioned Biblical creation theory.
c. in the midst of a theological debates about the Biblical creation theory.
d. to elaborate on the details of Biblical creation theory.
Answer: c. in the midst of theological debates about the Biblical creation theory.
Rationale:

Evolutionary theory emerged amidst theological debates regarding Biblical creation
narratives, with scientists and theologians engaging in discussions about the compatibility of
evolutionary ideas with religious beliefs.
8. ______ was the first to propose that evolution is driven by the inheritance of acquired
characteristics.
a. Lamarck
b. Buffon
c. Erasmus Darwin
d. Charles Darwin
Answer: c. Erasmus Darwin
Rationale:
Erasmus Darwin proposed the inheritance of acquired characteristics as a mechanism for
evolution, suggesting that organisms could pass on traits acquired during their lifetime to
their offspring.
9. _______ was one of the first to argue that there are vanishing forms or extinction of entire
species. This was a bolder claim than it might appear to be because in that day Biblical
creationists claimed that God could not make mistakes and therefore there could be no
vanishing forms.
a. Lamarck
b. Buffon
c. Erasmus Darwin
d. Descartes
Answer: a. Lamarck
Rationale:

Lamarck was among the first to propose the idea of species extinction, challenging the
prevailing notion of species immutability and Biblical interpretations that suggested all
species were created and unchanged.
10. Progressionism, the idea that there is a steady, linear advance across species, was
advanced by
a. Lamarck
b. Buffon
c. Erasmus Darwin
d. Charles Darwin
Answer: a. Lamarck
Rationale:
Lamarck's theory of progressionism posited a linear advancement across species, suggesting
that organisms evolve toward higher states of complexity and perfection over time.
11. ________ argued that species are human constructions based partly on our need for
convenient classificatory schemes. He held that, in nature, plants and animals are simply
steps in an ongoing gradual process.
a. Descartes
b. Swammerdam
c. Kant
d. Lamarck
Answer: d. Lamarck
Rationale:
Lamarck proposed the idea that species are human constructs influenced by our need for
classification. He believed that in nature, organisms represent steps in an ongoing
evolutionary process, with each species gradually changing over time.

12. In Tierra del Fuego, Darwin speculated that “Nature by making habit omnipotent, and its
effects hereditary, has fitted the Fuegian to the climate and the productions of the miserable
country.” The significance of this statement is that it shows that
a. Darwin had the mechanism of evolution figured out in the early parts of the voyage of the
Beagle.
b. In his early thought, Darwin accepted the concept of the inheritance of acquired
characteristics.
c. Darwin was the first to elevate the importance of habit and this had a major impact on early
psychology.
d. it nicely summarizes the principle of natural selection.
Answer: b. In his early thought, Darwin accepted the concept of the inheritance of acquired
characteristics.
Rationale:
Darwin's statement reflects his early acceptance of the concept of the inheritance of acquired
characteristics, a key component of Lamarckian evolution, before he fully developed his
theory of natural selection.
13. After returning to England following the voyage of the Beagle, Darwin continued to
struggle with the mechanism of evolution. A breakthrough came when he read the work of
________ on the principle of _______.
a. Kant . . . Heteronomy
b. Kant . . . the synthetic a priori
c. Leibniz . . . petites perceptions
d. Malthus . . . population growth
Answer: d. Malthus . . . population growth
Rationale:

Darwin's breakthrough in understanding the mechanism of evolution came after reading
Thomas Malthus's work on population growth, which provided insights into the struggle for
existence and the role of competition in natural selection.
14. The theory of evolution based on the concept of natural selection was discovered
independently by
a. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace.
b. Charles Darwin and Charles Lyell.
c. Charles Darwin and Joseph Hooker.
d. Charles Darwin and Thomas Robert Malthus.
Answer: a. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace.
Rationale:
Both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace independently formulated the theory of
evolution by natural selection, with their joint contributions leading to the development of
evolutionary theory.
15. The first essential technical point in Darwin's original theory is that
a. a habit is omnipotent.
b. all species produce more offspring than can possibly survive.
c. change is sometimes gradual and sometimes catastrophic.
d. changes are often qualitative.
Answer: b. all species produce more offspring than can possibly survive.
Rationale:
Darwin's original theory emphasized the idea that all species produce more offspring than can
survive, leading to competition for limited resources and the differential survival of
individuals with advantageous traits.

16. According to the text, which of the following is NOT characteristic of evolutionary
psychology?
a. It challenges the idea that humans are born as “blank slates”
b. It emphasizes commonalities between humans and non-human animals
c. It provides a balanced treatment of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
d. It provides a distinction between psychology and other biological sciences
Answer: d. It provides a distinction between psychology and other biological sciences
Rationale:
Evolutionary psychology integrates principles of evolutionary theory into the study of human
behavior, emphasizing genetic and environmental influences and highlighting commonalities
between humans and other animals, rather than providing a distinction between psychology
and other biological sciences.
17. _____ was an English biologist inspired by Darwin who wrote a number of books in an
enthusiastic attempt to found a science of animal behavior based in evolutionary theory.
a. Lloyd Morgan
b. Herbert Spencer
c. George John Romanes
d. Joseph Jastrow
Answer: c. George John Romanes
Rationale:
George John Romanes was a prominent biologist who sought to establish a science of animal
behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, contributing numerous works to the field.
18. “In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher
psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands
lower in the psychological scale.” This extension of Ockham's Razor and principle of

parsimony was advanced by _______ as a means of countering the anthropomorphism of
early comparative psychologists.
a. Conwy Lloyd Morgan
b. Charles Darwin
c. William Thierry Preyer
d. Jacques Loeb
Answer: a. Conwy Lloyd Morgan
Rationale:
Conwy Lloyd Morgan proposed Morgan's Canon, emphasizing the principle of parsimony in
interpreting animal behavior and advocating for explanations based on lower psychological
faculties before attributing higher mental processes.
19. The debate between _____ and _____ centers on the nature of psychological explanations
and whether such explanations should emphasize adequate or concise measurement.
a. richness . . . precision
b. accuracy . . . development
c. fullness . . . emptiness
d. description . . . prediction
Answer: a. richness . . . precision
Rationale:
The debate between richness and precision in psychological explanations concerns whether
explanations should prioritize comprehensive understanding (richness) or precise
measurement (precision) of psychological phenomena.
20. Early evolutionary theorists were captivated by the idea that ontogeny recapitulates
phylogeny. This idea means that
a. there is no qualitative difference between animal and human consciousness.

b. all change is gradual.
c. the offspring will always resemble the parents.
d. each individual goes through the developmental stages that characterize the history of the
race.
Answer: d. each individual goes through the developmental stages that characterize the
history of the race.
Rationale:
The concept of ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny suggests that during development,
individuals pass through stages that reflect the evolutionary history of their species,
indicating a parallel between embryonic development and evolutionary history.
21. _____ wrote The Mind of the Child, a classic in developmental psychology.
a. Thierry Preyer
b. Sir Francis Galton
c. John Romanes
d. Joseph Jastrow
Answer: a. Thierry Preyer
Rationale:
Thierry Preyer authored "The Mind of the Child," which significantly contributed to the field
of developmental psychology by examining the cognitive development of children.
22. Following the work of Darwin, psychologists focused more of their attention on the
problems of
a. human consciousness
b. the normal adult mind
c. the pure science aspects of psychology
d. adaptation

Answer: d. adaptation
Rationale:
Darwin's theory of evolution emphasized adaptation and natural selection, leading
psychologists to focus more on understanding how organisms adapt to their environments,
rather than solely on human consciousness or the normal adult mind.
23. ______, the author of Hereditary Genius, emphasized the role of biology in individual
differences.
a. Charles Darwin
b. Sir Francis Galton
c. Herbert Spencer
d. Ernst Heinrich Haeckel
Answer: b. Sir Francis Galton
Rationale:
Sir Francis Galton, the author of "Hereditary Genius," emphasized the role of biological
factors in determining individual differences, pioneering the field of psychometrics and the
study of human intelligence.
24. In the work of _______ we encounter an attempt to apply evolution to all branches of
human knowledge.
a. Herbert Spencer
b. Comte de Buffon
c. Sir Charles Lyell
d. Jacob Sprenger
Answer: a. Herbert Spencer
Rationale:

Herbert Spencer attempted to apply evolutionary principles to various branches of human
knowledge through his concept of social Darwinism, which applied the idea of natural
selection to societal development and cultural evolution.
25. Explanations based on demonological beliefs probably reached their apogee
a. in the early Middle Ages.
b. in the late Middle Ages, around 1200.
c. in the early Renaissance, around 1400.
d. in the mid-seventeenth century.
Answer: d. in the mid-seventeenth century.
Rationale:
Explanations based on demonological beliefs, particularly regarding witch hunts, peaked in
the mid-seventeenth century, marked by widespread persecution and execution of alleged
witches.
26. The Malleus Maleficarum (translated as The Hammer against Witches) was written by
Dominican Friars Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger. First Published in 1486, it
a. was never very popular though somewhat influential in the Spanish inquisition.
b. was popular for about 50 years and then became a source of shame to those who practiced
its teachings.
c. was placed on the Index of Forbidden books by Pope Innocent VIII.
d. was one of the most influential books of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Answer: d. was one of the most influential books of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Rationale:
The Malleus Maleficarum, authored by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, was highly
influential during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, shaping attitudes and contributing to
the persecution of alleged witches.

27. Which of the following was NOT provided in the Malleus Maleficarum
a. Classification of witches and devils
b. Description of methods used by witches and devils
c. Procedures for bringing witches to justice
d. Methods to differentiate witchcraft from natural illness
Answer: d. Methods to differentiate witchcraft from natural illness
Rationale:
The Malleus Maleficarum provided classifications of witches and devils, descriptions of
alleged witchcraft methods, and procedures for prosecuting witches, but did not include
methods to differentiate witchcraft from natural illness.
28. There is now evidence that the witch hunts in Europe, at their height, resulted in the
executions of
a. about 100 women.
b. 800 women and a few men.
c. tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of victims, largely women.
d. about and equal number of men and women probably numbering around 2000 of each sex.
Answer: c. tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of victims, largely women.
Rationale:
Historical evidence suggests that the witch hunts in Europe led to the executions of tens of
thousands or even hundreds of thousands of victims, predominantly women, during their
height.
29. Profit was made from the witch hunts because
a. the property of the suspected witch was sold to pay for trials and thus profits were often
made from legal proceedings.

b. the people were so grateful to be rid of suspected witches that they made enormous
contributions to the inquisition.
c. people were charged a fee to watch the burning of witches.
d. people had to pay fees to witness trials.
Answer: a. the property of the suspected witch was sold to pay for trials and thus profits were
often made from legal proceedings.
Rationale:
During the witch hunts, profits were often made from legal proceedings as the property of
suspected witches was confiscated and sold to fund trials and other expenses associated with
the persecution.
30. As early as 1563, _____ challenged the belief in witches by suggesting that most women
accused were harmless individuals with mental disorders. He was then accused of witchcraft.
a. Martin Luther
b. Pope Innocent VIII
c. Baruch Spinoza
d. Johann Weyer
Answer: d. Johann Weyer
Rationale:
Johann Weyer challenged the belief in witches by proposing that most women accused of
witchcraft were harmless individuals suffering from mental disorders. However, he himself
faced accusations of witchcraft for his dissenting views.
31. _____ argued that belief in demons is pure nonsense because there could be only one
power and that is God.
a. Martin Luther
b. Pope Innocent VIII

c. Baruch Spinoza
d. Benjamin Rush
Answer: c. Baruch Spinoza
Rationale:
Baruch Spinoza rejected the belief in demons on the basis of his philosophical perspective,
which emphasized the existence of only one power, namely God, making the idea of demons
nonsensical.
32. In what ways did Descartes contribute to the demise of belief in demons?
a. He denied altogether that demons exist
b. He argued that God controlled all things and since God was the only real power, there was
really no work left for demons
c. he placed such a strong emphasis on the relationship between brain activity and
psychological processes, that there was no room left for other agencies
d. he pointed out that belief in demons had turned out to be sexist since most of those burned
at the stake were women
Answer: c. he placed such a strong emphasis on the relationship between brain activity and
psychological processes, that there was no room left for other agencies
Rationale:
Descartes' emphasis on the mechanistic explanation of psychological processes, particularly
through the interaction between the brain and mental phenomena, marginalized supernatural
explanations such as the existence of demons.
33. According to the text, which of the following clinicians introduced the “idea of
psychotherapy as theater?”
a. William Tuke
b. Phillipe Pinel
c. Franz Anton Mesmer

d. Benjamin Rush
Answer: c. Franz Anton Mesmer
Rationale:
Franz Anton Mesmer introduced the concept of psychotherapy as theater, emphasizing
dramatic and performative aspects in his therapeutic techniques, particularly in his use of
magnetism.
34. _____ developed a treatment for various illnesses based on his belief in the role of
magnetism as it interacts with the body.
a. William Tuke
b. Phillipe Pinel
c. Franz Anton Mesmer
d. Benjamin Rush
Answer: c. Franz Anton Mesmer
Rationale:
Franz Anton Mesmer developed a therapeutic approach known as mesmerism, which
involved the use of magnetism to treat various illnesses, based on his belief in the influence
of magnetic forces on bodily functions.
35. According to the text, what was the final ruling from the “Franklin Commission,” a
committee convened to investigate the medical practices of a well-known therapist?
a. Benjamin Rush was found guilty of malpractice relating to his use of bloodletting.
b. Franz Anton Mesmer’s therapy was found to be the product of deception or the power of
suggestion.
c. Phillipe Pinel was found to be negligent in his release of dangerous and deranged patients
from the Bicêtre Asylum.
d. Sigmund Freud was found to be in violation of the bylaws of the Vienna Medical
Academy.

Answer: b. Franz Anton Mesmer’s therapy was found to be the product of deception or the
power of suggestion.
Rationale:
The Franklin Commission concluded that Franz Anton Mesmer's therapy was primarily
influenced by suggestion and deception rather than any genuine therapeutic effect, casting
doubt on the validity of mesmerism.
36. The classic book A Treatise on Insanity written by _______ outlined a new classification
system for mental disorders, discussed etiology, and gave advice on hospital management
techniques and therapy.
a. Benjamin Rush
b. Jonathan Edwards
c. Phillipe Pinel
d. Dorthea Dix
Answer: c. Phillipe Pinel
Rationale:
Phillipe Pinel's "A Treatise on Insanity" is a seminal work in psychiatry, introducing a new
classification system for mental disorders, discussing their etiology, and providing
recommendations for the management and therapy of patients in psychiatric hospitals.
37. According to ________, mental disorders have their origin primarily in the blood vessels
of the brain. In his opinion, disturbances of circulation were involved in all disease and
mental disorders were no exception. He argued for humane treatment of people with mental
illnesses.
a. Benjamin Rush
b. René Descartes
c. Baruch Spinoza
d. Vincenzo Chiarugi

Answer: a. Benjamin Rush
Rationale:
Benjamin Rush proposed that mental disorders primarily originated from disturbances in the
blood vessels of the brain, advocating for humane treatment of individuals with mental
illnesses and emphasizing physiological factors in mental health.
38. Which of the following is NOT a contribution from Benjamin Rush?
a. The first psychiatrist to advocate the use of occupational therapy in the treatment of
emotional disorders.
b. Inventor of the “Tranquilizing Chair” and the “Gyrator.”
c. A famous advocate of bloodletting and the “circulation model” of mental disease
d. A pioneer in the study of “doubling” (today called “Dissociative Identity Disorder”) and
the first person
Answer: a. The first psychiatrist to advocate the use of occupational therapy in the treatment
of emotional disorders.
Rationale:
Although Benjamin Rush made significant contributions to psychiatry, he was not the first
psychiatrist to advocate the use of occupational therapy in the treatment of emotional
disorders.
39. Some of the most important reform movements in the care and treatment of people with
mental illnesses in England were carried on at the York Retreat. Important names associated
with the York Retreat are
a. Franz Joseph Gall and Benjamin Rush.
b. William Tuke and Daniel Hack Tuke.
c. Florence Nightingale and Franz Joseph Gall.
d. Florence Nightingale and Dorthea Lynde Dix.
Answer: b. William Tuke and Daniel Hack Tuke.

Rationale:
The York Retreat was associated with William Tuke and Daniel Hack Tuke, who played key
roles in advocating for humane treatment and reform in the care of individuals with mental
illnesses in England.
40. One of the first to employ psychodrama in therapy, ________ set up reforms in his
country remarkably similar to and sometimes more advanced than those employed by Pinel.
He also published many of his views prior to Pinel's publications. He was
a. Daniel Hack Tuke
b. David Hartley
c. Vincenzo Chiarugi
d. Johann Weyer
Answer: c. Vincenzo Chiarugi
Rationale:
Vincenzo Chiarugi, known for his pioneering use of psychodrama in therapy, implemented
reforms in mental healthcare in Italy similar to those of Phillipe Pinel in France. He also
published his ideas prior to Pinel's works, contributing significantly to the advancement of
psychiatric treatment
41. Considered a founder of modern psychotherapy, _____ used therapeutic techniques such
as psychodrama, music therapy, and occupational therapy in order to treat disorders he
thought arose from a disunity of psychological processes.
a. Daniel Hack Tuke
b. David Hartley
c. Vincenzo Chiarugi
d. Johann Christian Reil
Answer: d. Johann Christian Reil
Rationale:

Johann Christian Reil is considered a founder of modern psychotherapy for his pioneering
use of various therapeutic techniques aimed at treating disorders stemming from a disunity of
psychological processes.
42. According to the text, the great reformer Dorthea Lynde Dix may have done much to
create a climate friendly to the development of psychology because
a. she openly advocated a science of psychology.
b. of her great ability to mobilize public opinion about problems faced by people with mental
illnesses.
c. of her original studies on sensory processes.
d. of her psychiatric work in the Civil War as Superintendent of Union Army Nurses.
Answer: b. of her great ability to mobilize public opinion about problems faced by people
with mental illnesses.
Rationale:
Dorthea Lynde Dix played a significant role in mobilizing public opinion about the plight of
individuals with mental illnesses, thereby fostering a climate conducive to the development
of psychology by raising awareness and advocating for reforms.
43. Under the leadership of _____, reform in the care of people with mental illnesses became
a massive social movement in the United States
a. Johann Christian Reil
b. William Tuke
c. Dorthea Dix
d. Phillipe Pinel
Answer: c. Dorthea Dix
Rationale:

Dorthea Dix's leadership catalyzed a massive social movement in the United States aimed at
reforming the care of individuals with mental illnesses, leading to significant improvements
in mental healthcare practices.
44. The individual who treated the so-called “Wild Boy of Aveyron” is one of the great
pioneers in the study of the care and treatment of children with cognitive disabilities. This
person was
a. Dorthea Lynde Dix.
b. Daniel Hack Tuke.
c. Jean Itard.
d. Vincenzo Chiarugi.
Answer: c. Jean Itard.
Rationale:
Jean Itard treated the "Wild Boy of Aveyron" and is renowned for his pioneering work in the
study and treatment of children with cognitive disabilities, contributing significantly to the
development of special education.
45. Prior to the modern period, children with mental or physical disabilities were commonly
attributed to
a. “sinful parents” who had intercourse during menstruation.
b. an evil force that had substituted a changeling for a healthy child.
c. both a and b are true.
d. pure chance.
Answer: c. both a and b are true.
Rationale:
Before the modern period, various superstitions and beliefs attributed children with
disabilities to factors such as sinful parents or malevolent forces, reflecting societal attitudes
and lack of understanding about such conditions.

46. ________ was a French pioneer in the study and treatment of individuals with cognitive
disabilities. His efforts inspired the raising of funds for training facilities.
a. Edouard Sequin
b. Vincenzo Chiarugi
c. Jules Lequier
d. Phillipe Pinel
Answer: a. Edouard Sequin
Rationale:
Edouard Séguin was a French pioneer in the study and treatment of individuals with cognitive
disabilities, and his efforts led to the establishment of training facilities for individuals with
intellectual impairments.
47. ________ argued that woman’s health and social equality depended, in part, on the
possibility of birth control
a. Dorthea Lynde Dix.
b. Mary Wollstonecraft
c. Margaret Sanger
d. Susan B. Anthony
Answer: c. Margaret Sanger
Rationale:
Margaret Sanger advocated for women's health and social equality, highlighting the
importance of birth control as a means for women to control their reproductive health and
achieve greater autonomy.

Test Bank for A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context
Brett D. King, Wayne Viney, William Douglas Woody
9780205987184

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