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Chapter 6 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 6.1 Explain how situational factors are likely to influence the degree of consistency between attitudes and behavior. Although attitudes may be relatively consistent with behavior, they are influenced by situational factors, such as time, place, and social environment. A person’s attitudes may lead to one kind of behavior in one situation and a different behavior in a different time and place. For example, a person may have a strong preference for one brand but purchase a brand that is on “special” because of having to economize. 6.2 Because attitudes are learned predispositions to respond, why don’t marketers and consumer researchers just measure purchase behavior and forget attitudes? Knowledge of attitudes is valuable because attitudes can be used to predict behavior before it occurs. In addition, attitudes have several components, such as perceptions, evaluations, and intentions. By knowing the strength of these components, we can plan marketing strategies designed to affect these components. Therefore, measurement of behavior does not provide guidance for strategy development in the way that attitude measurement does. 6.3 Explain a person’s attitude toward visiting Disney World in terms of the tri-component attitude model. The first component of the tri-component attitude model consists of a person’s cognitions; that is, the knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude-object and related information. In the case of Disney World, this component reflects the person’s knowledge of the various theme parks, hotels, prices, and activities, as well as his or her beliefs about Disney. A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand constitute the affective component of an attitude. A person’s positive feelings about Disney ads might lead him/her to conclude that visiting Disney World will be a positive, pleasant, and good experience. Conation, the final component of the tri-component attitude model, is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude-object. In the context of visiting Disney World, this component reflects a person’s intention to visit the resort in the foreseeable future. 6.4 How can the marketer of a “nicotine patch” (a device which assists individuals to quit smoking) use the theory of trying to segment its market? Using this theory, identify two segments that the marketer should target and propose product-positioning approaches to be directed at each of the two segments. The theory of trying is designed to account for the many cases (including consumption situations) where the action or outcome is not certain, but instead reflects the consumer’s attempts to consume. According to this theory, a person who attempts to quit smoking combines personal impediments (i.e., liking the act of smoking) and environmental impediments (i.e., situations where others smoke) that might prevent the desired action or outcome from occurring. The model also proposes that the frequency of past trying, that is, the consumer’s prior experience with trying to quit smoking, impacts on both intention-to-try and on actually trying the nicotine patch. One segment for the nicotine patch are individuals who would adopt the product in order to overcome personal and/or environmental impediments to quitting smoking. To these consumers, the product should be positioned as a mechanism to overcome these impediments. Another segment are smokers who have tried to quit and failed. To them, the product should be positioned as a mechanism that is likely to succeed where many other methods had failed. 6.5 Explain how the product manager of a breakfast cereal might change consumer attitudes toward the company’s brand by: (a) changing beliefs about the brand; (b) changing beliefs about competing brands; (c) changing the relative evaluation of attributes; and (d) adding an attribute. (a) Changing brand beliefs is the most common advertising appeal. If this approach is used, the cereal ads should tell consumers that the product has more vitamins and fiber and/or less sugar than competing brands. (b) The use of comparative advertising, illustrating the brand’s superiority over other brands, along key product attributes, will effectively convey this message to consumers. (c) The marketer may also stress the importance of fiber in one’s diet (i.e., change the relative evaluation of an attribute) and, simultaneously, stress the cereal brand’s high fiber content, thus appealing to consumers whose primary concerns are health and nutrition. (d) Also, the marketer can add an attribute by stressing the previously ignored fiber content and by putting more fiber (or even creating a new “extra fiber” version) in the cereal. 6.6 The Department of Transportation of a large city is planning an advertising campaign that encourages people to switch from private cars to mass transit. Give examples of how the department can use the following strategies to change commuters’ attitudes: (a) changing the basic motivational function; (b) changing beliefs about public transportation; (c) using self-perception theory; and (d) using cognitive dissonance. (a) The functional approach will entail changing beliefs regarding mass transit along one or more of the basic motivational functions of attitudes; appealing to the knowledge function by showing how one might get to work faster by using mass transit rather than a private car. (b) According to the assimilation contrast theory, the Department of Transportation must be careful to avoid overkill or overselling their case. The users of private cars will assimilate (accept) only moderate changes between the mode of transportation they presently use and the mode they are encouraged to use (i.e., mass transit). If the change suggested by the mass transit ads is too extreme, the contrast will result in the rejection of mass transit as a transportation alternative. (c) The Department of Transportation can show the positive environmental outcomes of using mass transit, and position it as an ecologically sound transportation mode. According to self-perception theory, many people are likely to make inferences from the behavior portrayed in the ads (i.e., using mass transit helps the environment) and begin to like the object advertised. Also, many consumers may begin to view using mass transit as a chance to personally contribute toward improving the environment (i.e., internal attribution). (d) According to cognitive dissonance theory, the Department of Transportation should first induce behavior because a favorable attitude toward mass transit will follow. Thus, the ads for mass transit should be designed to induce behavior and encourage people to try mass transit by, for example, offering them free rides over a period of time. The department should reinforce this initial experience by providing good, dependable service as well as follow-up contacts (e.g., mail and phone) which include asking first-time riders for comments, thus making them feel important, involved, and comfortable about the experience. Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that an initial, effectively reinforced experience with mass transit will result in a favorable attitude toward this service and continued use of mass transit. 6.7 Should the marketer of a popular computer graphics program prefer consumers to make internal or external attributions? Explain your answer. Internal and external attribution indicates whether consumers assign the cause for successful or unsuccessful experiences with a product, to themselves, or to the product. For example, if consumers use external attribution to explain a good experience with a computer program, they “explain” the success as a result of the software package itself. Likewise, a poor experience would be blamed on the product. Although it seems that marketers would like to see their products given credit for consumers’ satisfaction, it is actually a greater benefit if consumers use internal attributions to explain a successful experience with a product. If consumers see themselves as skillful users of the computer graphics program rather than the users of an idiot-proof product, their self-image improves with respect to that behavior and they are more likely to repeat it. Consider the benefits—greater enjoyment of the product and greater self-esteem leads to greater product usage and greater engagement in positive word-of-mouth. 6.8 A college student has just purchased a new Apple iPad. What factors might cause the student to experience post-purchase dissonance? How might the student try to overcome it? How can the retailer who sold the iPad help reduce the student’s dissonance? How can the iPad’s manufacturer help? Although attitudes may be relatively consistent with behavior, they are influenced by situational factors, such as time, place, and social environment. A person’s attitudes may lead to one kind of behavior in one situation and a different behavior in a different time and place. For example, a person may have a strong preference for one brand but purchase a brand that is on “special” because of having to economize. Post-purchase dissonance is likely to occur here because a personal computer is an expensive product where many brands and models are available, and many of the brands that were not selected by the student have some unique features. After the purchase, the student may be exposed to ads depicting other brands with more features and more extensive software than the computer he or she selected. In order to reduce post-purchase dissonance, the student might seek out advertisements that support his or her choice (i.e., ads for the brand purchased), talk with satisfied brand owners and users and, maybe even join a club or a users group of that computer brand. The manufacturer should help reduce post-purchase dissonance by using advertising which includes messages reassuring purchasers that they made the “right” choice, offering strong, comprehensive warranties, and providing a toll-free user-information hotline. The retailer can help by backing the manufacturer’s warranty with a service contract and by mailing buyer’s information about new software packages for the computer when such products become available. HANDS-ON ASSIGNMENTS 6.9 Find two print ads, one illustrating the use of the affective component and the other illustrating the cognitive component. Discuss each ad in the context of the tri-component model. In your view, why has each marketer taken the approach it did in each of these ads? 1. Affective Component Ad: Imagine a print ad for a luxury perfume. The ad features a glamorous, beautiful model in a stunning setting, such as a beach at sunset, looking happy and carefree while wearing the perfume. The ad evokes emotions of desire, aspiration, and pleasure. In the tri-component model, this ad is targeting the affective component by appealing to consumers' emotions and feelings. The marketer likely took this approach to create a strong emotional connection with the brand and to associate positive emotions with the product, influencing consumers' attitudes and intentions to purchase. 2. Cognitive Component Ad: Let's imagine a print ad for a high-tech gadget, like a smartphone. The ad focuses on the features and specifications of the phone, highlighting its advanced technology, high-quality camera, and long-lasting battery life. The ad may include charts or comparisons with other phones to demonstrate its superiority. In the tri-component model, this ad is targeting the cognitive component by providing consumers with rational information to evaluate the product's attributes and benefits. The marketer took this approach to appeal to consumers who are more analytical and rely on information and reasoning to make purchasing decisions. In both cases, the marketers are targeting different aspects of consumer attitudes to influence their behavior. The affective component ad aims to create positive feelings and emotions, while the cognitive component ad aims to provide logical reasons for choosing the product. The approach taken in each ad is based on the understanding of their target audience and what influences their attitudes and behaviors. Instructor’s Discussion This assignment is designed to demonstrate that sometimes marketers try to form an overall favorable evaluation (i.e., appealing to the affective component) without reference to particular attributes or features, although at other times they provide detailed information that is organized around specific product or service benefits (i.e., appealing to the cognitive component). 6.10 What sources influenced your attitudes about this course before classes started? Has your initial attitude changed since the course started? If so, how? Before the course started, my attitudes about it were influenced by the course description, the reputation of the instructor or institution, feedback from previous students (if available), and my personal interest in the subject matter. Since the course started, my initial attitudes may have changed based on the actual content covered, the teaching style of the instructor, interactions with classmates, and my understanding and engagement with the material. For example, if the course content is more engaging and relevant than I initially expected, my attitude might become more positive. Conversely, if the course is more challenging or less interesting than I anticipated, my attitude might become more negative. If you're asking about your own experience, it would be great to hear more about how your attitudes have evolved since the course started! Instructor’s Discussion The sources of influence in attitude formation are: (a) personal experience with the product or service; (b) advertisements for various brands; (c) group influences (e.g., family, friends, word-of-mouth); (d) data from objective sources (e.g., Consumer Reports); (e) publicity in the media; and (f) information/advice provided by salespersons. In the case of a college course, students are likely to cite word-of-mouth and course evaluations by former students (if such scores are available and published) as the primary sources in attitude formation. More interesting discussion will develop when students talk about changes in their initial attitudes toward the course and the reasons for such changes. 6.11 Describe a situation in which you acquired an attitude toward a new product through exposure to an advertisement for that product. Describe a situation where you formed an attitude toward a product or brand on the basis of personal influence. 1. Acquiring an attitude through exposure to an advertisement: I recently saw an advertisement for a new brand of running shoes that claimed to be extremely lightweight and durable, perfect for long-distance runners. The ad featured professional athletes endorsing the shoes and showed them performing at their best while wearing them. The ad also highlighted the innovative technology used in the shoes to provide maximum comfort and support. After seeing the advertisement multiple times, I started to develop a positive attitude toward the brand and became interested in trying out the shoes for myself. 2. Forming an attitude based on personal influence: A few months ago, a close friend recommended a particular brand of skincare products to me. She praised the products for their effectiveness in improving skin texture and reducing acne. She even showed me before-and-after photos of her skin after using the products for a few weeks, which made a significant difference. Her personal recommendation and visible results influenced me to try the products myself. After using them and experiencing positive results, I developed a favorable attitude toward the brand and became a loyal customer. Instructor’s Discussion Students’ answers will vary. Their response regarding advertising influence should include several elements: (a) the advertising medium involved; (b) an indication of whether the attitude was positive or negative; (c) whether the advertisement was noticed as a result of passive (e.g., TV) or active (e.g., magazine) learning; or (d) whether the exposure led to the actual purchase of the item or to further information search. The answer regarding attitude formation through personal influence should include: (a) the degree of personal involvement with the purchase; (b) the type of the personal source and its importance to the receiver; (c) the perceived credibility of the personal source (e.g., a friend) versus that of impersonal sources (e.g., ads in the media); (d) whether the attitude was positive or negative; and (e) whether the exposure led to actual purchase of the item or to search for more information about the new product. 6.12 Find advertisements that illustrate each of the four motivational functions of attitudes. Distinguish between ads that are designed to reinforce an existing attitude and those aimed at changing an attitude. Let's imagine examples for each of the four motivational functions of attitudes: 1. Utilitarian Function: An advertisement for a household cleaning product could illustrate the utilitarian function by emphasizing its effectiveness in saving time and effort. The ad might show a busy parent easily cleaning a dirty kitchen with the product, implying that using this product can make cleaning tasks more efficient and easier. 2. Ego-Defensive Function: A skincare product ad could appeal to the ego-defensive function by suggesting that using the product will protect the skin from aging and damage, helping the consumer maintain a youthful and attractive appearance. The ad might imply that using the product is essential for preserving one's self-image and confidence. 3. Value-Expressive Function: An advertisement for a luxury car could target the value-expressive function by associating the car with status, success, and sophistication. The ad might show the car being driven in upscale settings, with a focus on its sleek design and advanced features, appealing to consumers who want to express their high social status and taste. 4. Knowledge Function: An ad for a new smartphone could target the knowledge function by highlighting its innovative features and advanced technology. The ad might compare the phone's specifications with other models, providing consumers with factual information to help them make an informed decision about purchasing the product. Regarding the distinction between ads designed to reinforce existing attitudes and those aimed at changing attitudes: • Ads designed to reinforce existing attitudes will likely use messaging and imagery that align with the consumer's current beliefs and values. For example, an ad for a favorite brand of sneakers might emphasize the brand's long-standing reputation for quality and style, reinforcing the consumer's positive attitude toward the brand. • Ads aimed at changing attitudes will often use persuasive tactics to challenge existing beliefs and encourage consumers to adopt new attitudes. For example, an ad for a new environmentally friendly cleaning product might challenge the belief that traditional cleaning products are more effective, aiming to change consumers' attitudes toward eco-friendly alternatives. Instructor’s Discussion The ad for the utilitarian function should stress the product’s usage-related benefits (e.g., durable shoes). The ego defensive function should reinforce the consumer’s self-concept and protect it from feelings of doubt (e.g., personal care products which offer the consumer reassurance and the likelihood of approval by others). The value-expression function shows how the product is consistent with the person’s values and lifestyles (e.g., advertising a fine, expensive fountain pen as an instrument of self expression). An ad using the knowledge function should indicate the brand’s advantages over competitive brands (e.g., a bar graph showing the comparative levels of saturated fat in several brands of butter). 6.13 Think back to the time when you were selecting a college. Did you experience dissonance immediately after you made a decision? Why or why not? If you did experience dissonance, how did you resolve it? I personally did not experience dissonance when selecting a college, as I was fairly confident in my decision based on factors such as the college's reputation, program offerings, location, and financial considerations. However, many people do experience dissonance after making such a significant decision. If I had experienced dissonance, it might have been due to conflicting thoughts or doubts about whether I had made the right choice. Resolving this dissonance could involve seeking out information or reassurance that supports the decision, such as researching the college's programs and alumni success stories, talking to current students or alumni, or discussing the decision with family and friends. It could also involve reframing the decision in a more positive light, focusing on the benefits of the chosen college and the opportunities it offers. Instructor’s Discussion Selecting a college is a personal, extensive, high-involvement decision which often results in post-purchase dissonance. Thus, most students probably experienced dissonance immediately after choosing a college. An interesting class discussion will develop when students compare their dissonance reduction processes. S.T.A.R. PROJECTS Ethical Issues in Consumer Behavior S.T.A.R. Project #1 The Tellus Institute (www.tellus.org) is sponsored by foundations, government agencies, multilateral organizations, non-governmental organizations, and business. The primary mission of this institute is to aid our country in navigating the transition toward ways of producing, consuming, and living that bequeath a sustainable world to future generations. Just exactly what does that noble goal mean? It means that business, industry, and other organizations that have influence in our country should adopt policies of environmental stewardship and provide for equitable development of resources and talents. The Tellus Institute conducts a diverse program of research, consulting, and communication to meet these ends. a. Visit the Tellus Institute Web site. Write a one-page paper that describes how this organization seeks to influence attitudes and opinions. b. What consumer and business ethics issues seem to be most important to this organization? c. Do organizations such as Tellus advance the cause of business ethics? Explain. a. The Tellus Institute seeks to influence attitudes and opinions by conducting research, providing consulting services, and engaging in communication efforts. On their website, they likely showcase their research findings, which could include reports, articles, and publications aimed at educating the public, policymakers, and businesses about sustainability issues. They may also offer consulting services to businesses and organizations interested in adopting more sustainable practices, helping them understand the benefits and implementation strategies. Additionally, their communication efforts could include outreach programs, events, and partnerships to raise awareness and promote sustainable practices among various stakeholders. b. The Tellus Institute likely focuses on a range of consumer and business ethics issues related to sustainability and equitable development. Some of the key issues may include environmental stewardship, resource management, social justice, corporate social responsibility, and sustainable development. They may also address issues such as fair labor practices, ethical sourcing, and transparency in business operations. c. Organizations like the Tellus Institute can advance the cause of business ethics by promoting sustainable and responsible business practices. By conducting research, providing guidance, and raising awareness, they can influence businesses to adopt ethical policies that benefit society and the environment. Additionally, by working with a diverse range of stakeholders, including foundations, government agencies, NGOs, and businesses, they can facilitate collaboration and dialogue on ethical issues, leading to positive change. Instructor’s Discussion The Tellus Institute is an interesting story. After students acquaint themselves with the historical data, discussion about areas of environmental stewardship and the attitudes necessary to move in this direction should be possible. Discussion can also focus on how organizations such as this aid the fostering and advancement of consumer and business ethics. Of particular interest will be the Tellus Business and Sustainability Group. Students from diverse backgrounds should find this information interesting and pertinent to the study of attitudes. Small Group Project S.T.A.R. Project #2 Opinions are formed from attitudes and beliefs. Part of the opinion process is the comparison of something. Have your group go to Epinions.com (www.epinions.com) to explore how comparisons are made in a variety of product fields. Divide the group into smaller groups and examine the rankings for the products and services found on the Epinions Web site (your group is free to pick subject evaluation areas). After this is done, relate how attitudes influence such ranking and comparison processes. Which attitude model(s) would be useful in making comparisons and formulating rankings such as those shown on this Web site? How might attitudes (opinions) change once a viewer has examined the rankings and comparisons? What bias might be present in this evaluation system? Have your group prepare a summary report that summarizes your group’s findings. To explore how attitudes influence rankings and comparisons on Epinions.com, your group can follow these steps: 1. Visit Epinions.com: Go to the website and explore the various product categories and rankings available. 2. Divide into Groups: Divide the group into smaller groups to focus on specific product categories or services for evaluation. 3. Examine Rankings: Each group should examine the rankings and reviews for their chosen category, noting the criteria used for comparison and the factors that seem to influence the rankings. 4. Relate to Attitudes: Discuss how attitudes might influence the ranking and comparison processes. For example, consumers' attitudes towards brand loyalty, price sensitivity, product features, and customer service may all play a role in how they evaluate and rank products. 5. Useful Attitude Models: The tri-component model of attitudes (affective, behavioral, and cognitive) could be useful in understanding how attitudes drive rankings. For example, affective attitudes (emotional responses) might influence how much consumers enjoy using a product, while cognitive attitudes (beliefs and thoughts) might influence perceptions of a product's quality or value. 6. Attitude Change: After examining the rankings and comparisons, consumers' attitudes (opinions) may change based on the new information they've gained. For example, if a consumer sees a product ranked highly for durability, they may revise their attitude towards the product to be more positive. 7. Potential Bias: There may be biases present in the evaluation system, such as selection bias (if only certain types of consumers are reviewing products), confirmation bias (if reviewers only seek out information that confirms their existing beliefs), or sample bias (if the sample of reviews is not representative of the overall consumer population). 8. Prepare Summary Report: Each group should prepare a summary report of their findings, including a discussion of how attitudes influence rankings and comparisons, which attitude model(s) are useful, how attitudes might change after viewing the rankings, and any biases present in the evaluation system. By following these steps, your group can gain insight into how attitudes influence rankings and comparisons on Epinions.com and how this relates to the broader concept of consumer attitudes and opinions. Instructor’s Discussion Epinions.com has a wealth of information. This group exercise is a good one to see how comparison and evaluation processes work and how these processes might impact attitudes. For example, let us say that a student did not know much about DVD players. He or she reads that a particular RCA player is ranked number one by 60 percent of respondents to the Epinions.com site. The student then has a positive attitude toward this player. What might be wrong with this evaluation method? First, how many evaluations were done, under what circumstances, were purchases made, how authentic were the evaluators, etc.? Several of the attitude models can be used. S.T.A.R. Project #3 Some marketing firms work toward forming attitudes in the minds of their consumers. Others work toward changing those attitudes. Strategies for attitude change are extremely interesting, especially if you consider how many attitudes might need to be changed to persuade a brand loyal consumer to switch brands. A perfect example of this is the ongoing struggle between Campbell’s Soup (www.campbellsoup.com) and industry rival Progresso Soup (www.progressosoup.com). Your assignment is to visit both Web sites and make a list of attitude change strategies being employed by both companies. Evaluate the success of each. Which competitor seems to be most adept with respect to change? Comment. To analyze the attitude change strategies employed by Campbell's Soup and Progresso Soup, follow these steps: 1. Visit Both Websites: Go to both www.campbellsoup.com and www.progressosoup.com to explore their websites. 2. List of Strategies: Make a list of the attitude change strategies being employed by both companies. These strategies could include: • Messaging that highlights the superior taste, quality, or ingredients of their soups. • Comparative advertising that directly contrasts their product with the competitor's. • Promotions or discounts to encourage trial and purchase. • Health-focused messaging, such as low-sodium or organic options. • Brand loyalty programs to reward frequent buyers. • Packaging innovations or redesigns to attract attention on shelves. • Celebrity endorsements or partnerships to enhance brand image. 3. Evaluate Success: Evaluate the success of each company's strategies based on various factors such as sales data, market share, consumer surveys, and brand perception. Look for evidence of attitude change among consumers, such as shifts in perceptions, preferences, or purchase behavior. 4. Which Competitor is Most Adept?: Determine which competitor seems to be most adept with respect to attitude change based on the effectiveness of their strategies. Consider factors such as the ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers, and increase market share. Also, consider the impact of their strategies on the overall brand perception and loyalty. 5. Comment: Provide a commentary on your findings, discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each competitor's approach to attitude change. Consider the long-term sustainability of their strategies and any potential challenges they may face in the future. By analyzing the attitude change strategies of Campbell's Soup and Progresso Soup, your group can gain valuable insights into the dynamics of competitive marketing and consumer behavior in the food industry. Instructor’s Discussion The rivalry between Campbell’s and Progresso is well known. Progresso has labeled Campbell’s as watery and consisting of small portions. Campbell’s has labeled Progresso as too spicy and too expensive. Both claims are built on fact and fiction. Students should review the section in the text on strategies for attitude change before attempting this exercise. The Web sites will provide several examples that match well with these strategies. Who is winning the war? This is not clear, however, Campbell’s has developed a new bigger-portion line that mimics the Progresso products. CASE COMMENTS Case: Procter & Gamble How did Febreze's "Breathe Happy Campaign Launch" aim to address consumer cynicism and reposition the brand in the odor-eliminating products market? Febreze “Breathe Happy Campaign Launch” Febreze lost its distinct positioning as THE odor-eliminating brand after the competition responded to its success with offerings of their own. Cynical consumers ceased to believe brand claims and Febreze growth declined. Research revealed that the company’s audience (25- to 65-year-old moms who want constant assurance that their homes are clean and fresh so they feel in control) had grown cynical about the category’s advertising. Cheap brands that did not live up to their promises increased the cynicism, and Febreze could not get consumers to spend three times more for a product that worked. Firsthand experience and the idea that a house must smell clean were important ideas. Target audience members had to be exposed to Febreze, attend to it, and interpret it based on a unique schema, independent of competitive brands. Students will recognize the brand repositioning and have opinions about the persuasiveness of the ads on YouTube, which were effective at increasing sales. Case: Lifebuoy/Unilever Asia Private Limited How did Unilever's "Superfast Handwash" campaign target higher-income mothers in India, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan, and what strategies did they use to overcome established competitors in the antibacterial handwash market? “Superfast Handwash” Unilever selected India, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan as markets for its liquid handwash because of their sizes and growth opportunities. In the three countries, antibacterial handwash was widely used, but there were established antibacterial liquids that have been household names for years. In each of the three markets, competitors offered “all powerful” antibacterial solutions. Lifebuoy had to create a unique image. Across the three countries, Unilever wanted to target higher-income mothers who were potential handwash users and convince them to use Lifebuoy Handwash for their families. Unilever promoted the fact that Lifebuoy killed even more germs and worked faster and used the latter as a selling point to higher-income mothers who wanted to protect their kids. The time savings were relevant because children wash in a hurry. The campaign, Superfast Handwash, helped overcome the competition. Solution Manual for Consumer Behaviour Leon G. Schiffman, Leslie Lozor Konuk, S. Ramesh Kumar 9789332555099, 9780134734828

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