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Chapter 11 Culture’s Influence on Consumer Behavior REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 11.1 Distinguish among beliefs, values, and customs. Illustrate how the clothing a person wears at different times or for different occasions is influenced by customs. Beliefs consist of the very large number of mental or verbal statements that reflect a person’s particular knowledge and assessment of something. Values are also beliefs, however, values differ from other beliefs because they must meet certain criteria: (a) they are relatively few in number, (b) they serve as a guide for culturally appropriate behavior, (c) they are enduring or difficult to change, (d) they are not tied to specific objects or situations, and (e) they are widely accepted by the members of a society. Customs are overt modes of behavior that constitute culturally approved or acceptable ways of behaving in specific situations. Students’ answers on clothing will vary based on their experiences. Listen for sexist or ethnic stereotyping as students share their opinions. You may want to review beliefs and customs prior to assigning this question. 11.2 A manufacturer of fat-free granola bars is considering targeting school-age children by positioning its product as a healthy, nutritious snack food. How can an understanding of the three forms of cultural learning be used in developing an effective strategy to target the intended market? Anthropologists have identified three distinct forms of cultural learning; formal learning, in which adults and older siblings teach a young family member how to behave; informal learning, in which a child learns primarily by imitating the behavior of selected others such as family, friends, TV heroes; and technical learning, in which teachers instruct the child in an educational environment about what should be done, how it should be done, and why it should be done. A marketer might target the child’s parents with informative/educational advertising so that they would tell their child the food is acceptable. They might use superhero role models from TV programs, enjoying the snack food and showing how it helps them defeat the bad guys. The marketer might use scenario or slice-of-life commercials to show the child how to use the product. 11.3 The Citrus Growers of America are planning a promotional campaign to encourage the drinking of orange and grapefruit juices in the late afternoons – an occasion when many people reach for a soft drink. Describe how the organization can use two measurements of culture (separately) to gather useful knowledge for planning its campaign. Terminal values are designed to measure the relative importance of end states of existence or personal goals. Instrumental values measure basic approaches (means) an individual might take to reach end-state values. Advertisers need to emphasize, by using symbols, that serving citrus drinks are a way to best provide for loved ones. They need to do so in an honest, trustworthy and believable way. The instructor should stress that there are links between cultural, consumption-specific, and product-specific values. The attitudes and values toward soft drinks and citrus juices are culturally derived, and given the popularity and diverse usage of soft drinks, the Citrus Growers of America are going to have difficulty luring consumers away from them. The Citrus Growers of America organization must convey the notion that the product-specific values of drinking citrus juices are congruent with consumption-specific and cultural values. Thus, the association should consider the links between culture and consumption of juices and soft drinks. Some of these possible links are: Cultural Consumption-Specific Product-Specific Values Values Values *An *physical health *natural drink exciting and *well being *the vitamins in the juice active life *nutritional content *Freedom *self identity *be different from the crowd *nonconformity *citrus juices are not only for breakfast *Pleasure *enjoying life *refreshing taste *cool *Friendship *being with others *drink juices with others 11.4 For each of the following products and activities listed below: a. List two relevant core values and explain your choices. b. Describe how each value either encourages or discourages buying the product or engaging in the activity. The products and activities are: 1. Donating blood 2. Visiting tanning salons 3. Buying an e-reader 4. Buying a GPS device 5. Drinking diet beverages 6. Travelling overseas 7. Using sun protection products regularly 8. Buying a new convection oven 9. Buying a new pair of sneakers online 10. Following the latest fashions Donating blood Humanitarianism Encourages Individualism Discourages Visiting tanning salons Time Encourages Health Discourages Buying an e-reader Achievement Encourages Progress Encourages Buying a GPS device Practicality Encourages Progress Encourages Drinking diet beverages Fitness Encourages Health Discourages Travelling overseas Individualism Encourages Activity Encourages Using sun protection products regularly Health Encourages Youthfulness Encourages Buying a new convection oven Time Encourages Progress Encourages Buying a new pair of sneakers online Fitness Encourages Efficiency Encourages Following the latest fashions Materialism Encourages Individualism Encourages 11.5 Why are companies increasingly introducing green products and engaging in ecologically friendly practices? Companies are more aware of global warming and its dire consequences for our planet. They also are responding to increased consumer awareness of global warming and desire to be more eco-conscious, which results in greater demand for green products. Green products and practices may be part of a societal marketing concept, which suggests that what is best for society is best for the firm in the long run, and can generate goodwill from consumers. 11.6 How did consumers react to green products? There is a discrepancy between what consumers say and what they do. Although many Americans claim to feel it is a societal and cultural priority to engage in more environmentally friendly behavior, consumer desire for quality products at low prices, lack of knowledge about how to be more eco-conscious, and confusion over environmental claims and labels have resulted in less pro-environmental behavior than predicted by attitudes. HANDS-ON ASSIGNMENTS 11.7 Identify a singer or singing group whose music you like and discuss the symbolic function of the clothes that person (or group) wears. One singer whose music I like is Lady Gaga. Her clothing choices often serve a symbolic function, reflecting her artistic expression and challenging traditional notions of fashion. Lady Gaga is known for her extravagant and sometimes avant-garde outfits, which often convey messages of empowerment, self-expression, and individuality. For example, her meat dress, worn at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards, was interpreted as a statement about the need for society to confront its "meat and bones," representing deeper issues such as human rights, equality, and justice. Similarly, her more elaborate and theatrical outfits often convey messages of creativity, freedom, and breaking boundaries. Lady Gaga's fashion choices can also be seen as a form of performance art, blurring the lines between fashion, music, and visual art. By wearing unique and unconventional clothing, she not only expresses herself but also challenges her audience to think differently about fashion and the role it plays in society. Overall, Lady Gaga's clothing serves as a symbolic extension of her music and persona, conveying messages of empowerment, individuality, and artistic expression. Instructor’s Discussion This exercise will illustrate how nonverbal symbols communicate cultural values. Depending on your current taste in music you might want to pick a couple of students to be the monitors of the accuracy of the students’ analysis. Or, videotape selected presentations on MTV or the like, show the clips in class, and have the students comment. 11.8 Thinking of your daily routines, identify one routine that you consider a ritual. Describe it and explain why it is a ritual. Assume that you allow a marketing researcher to come to your house and observe your entire ritual. Explain how the marketer of a product that you use during your routine can employ observation to design an ad aimed at getting you to switch brands. One daily routine that I consider a ritual is my morning coffee-making process. Every morning, I follow the same steps to prepare my coffee, and this routine has become a comforting and essential part of my day. First, I measure out the coffee grounds and water, ensuring the perfect ratio for a strong, flavorful brew. Then, I carefully grind the beans and start the brewing process, taking in the rich aroma as the coffee slowly drips into the pot. Finally, I pour myself a cup, savoring the first sip as I start my day. This ritual is important to me because it helps me ease into the day and sets a positive tone. It's a moment of calm and indulgence before the busyness begins, and it's something I look forward to each morning. If a marketer wanted to design an ad to get me to switch brands of coffee, they could observe my coffee-making ritual to understand what aspects of the process are important to me. For example, they might notice that I take care in measuring and grinding the beans, suggesting that I value freshness and quality. They could then tailor their ad to highlight how their brand offers superior freshness and quality compared to my current brand, appealing to my desire for a better coffee experience. Instructor’s Discussion Prepare to share a couple of your own or family rituals to prime the pump. Students’ responses will vary based on their backgrounds. This can be an exercise that provides students insights into how others live. 11.9 a. Summarize an episode of a weekly television series that you watched recently. Describe how the program transmitted cultural beliefs, values, and customs. b. Select and describe three commercials that were broadcast during the program mentioned in 11.9a. Do these commercials create or reflect cultural values? Explain your answer. a. One recent episode of a weekly television series I watched was an episode of "This Is Us." In this episode, the characters navigated various challenges in their personal and professional lives, highlighting themes of family, love, and resilience. The episode delved into the complexities of relationships and the importance of communication and understanding. It also addressed issues such as mental health and self-discovery, portraying these topics with sensitivity and depth. In terms of transmitting cultural beliefs, values, and customs, "This Is Us" often reflects American cultural values such as the importance of family, the strength of interpersonal connections, and the idea of overcoming adversity through unity and support. The show also touches on contemporary issues, offering commentary on topics like race, identity, and social justice. b. Three commercials that were broadcast during the episode of "This Is Us" were: 1. A commercial for a fast-food chain promoting a new burger. This commercial reflects cultural values related to convenience and indulgence, suggesting that quick and easy meals can bring pleasure and satisfaction. 2. A commercial for a car company showcasing a new model. This commercial creates cultural values related to status and success, implying that owning a luxury car is a symbol of achievement and sophistication. 3. A commercial for a household cleaning product emphasizing its ability to keep homes clean and safe. This commercial reflects cultural values related to cleanliness and health, suggesting that using this product can contribute to a healthier and more comfortable living environment. Overall, these commercials both create and reflect cultural values. They create values by presenting products or services as fulfilling desires or needs that are culturally relevant, such as convenience, status, and health. At the same time, they reflect cultural values by tapping into existing beliefs and norms, reinforcing the idea that these values are widely shared and desirable. Instructor’s Discussion In advance of the class, the professor should assign a TV program that all students must watch and analyze. The discussion of the programs’ content and commercials provides an excellent illustration of utilizing content analysis to explore cultural beliefs, values, and customs. 11.10 a. Find advertisements for two brands of deodorants. Do a content analysis of the written and pictorial aspects of each ad. Identify any core values portrayed in each ad and explain your choices. b. Describe how the symbols in each ad convey the deodorant’s characteristics and brand image. 1. Selecting Advertisements: Look for advertisements for two different brands of deodorants. You might find these in magazines, on websites, or on social media platforms. 2. Content Analysis: • Written Aspects: Analyze the written content of each ad. Look for slogans, taglines, or text that describes the product's features or benefits. Pay attention to language use and tone. • Pictorial Aspects: Examine the images used in each ad. Look at the people, settings, colors, and any other visual elements. Consider how these elements contribute to the overall message of the ad. 3. Identifying Core Values: • Based on your analysis, identify the core values portrayed in each ad. Core values are the fundamental beliefs or principles that a brand stands for. They often reflect the brand's personality and what it represents to consumers. • For example, a deodorant ad might portray values such as confidence, freshness, or freedom. Look for clues in the text and images that suggest these values. 4. Explaining Your Choices: • For each ad, explain why you believe certain core values are portrayed. Refer to specific elements of the ad that support your interpretation. Discuss how these values might resonate with the target audience. 5. Symbols and Brand Image: • Describe the symbols used in each ad and how they convey the deodorant's characteristics and brand image. Symbols can include logos, colors, imagery, and even the choice of models or celebrities. • Discuss how these symbols help create a unique brand image and differentiate the product from competitors. 6. Overall Analysis: • Conclude your analysis by comparing the two ads. Discuss similarities and differences in how they portray core values and convey brand image. Consider which ad you find more effective and why. Remember to support your analysis with specific examples from the advertisements. Instructor’s Discussion This exercise provides students with an opportunity to identify the presence of cultural values in advertising and analyze the ways that manufacturers of various brands within the same product category often employ different cultural values in their promotional efforts. 11.11 Find five ads promoting green products or activities and explain whether you believe each one is effective or not. To find ads promoting green products or activities, you can search online, look in magazines focused on sustainability or eco-friendly living, or explore social media platforms known for environmental activism. Once you have found five ads, you can evaluate their effectiveness based on their ability to convey their message and persuade the audience to take action. Here's a general approach to analyzing these ads: 1. Ad 1: Describe the ad and its message. Explain whether you believe it is effective in promoting green products or activities. Consider factors such as clarity of message, relevance to the target audience, and persuasive appeal. 2. Ad 2: Repeat the process for the second ad, describing its content and message, and assessing its effectiveness. 3. Ad 3, 4, and 5: Continue the analysis for the remaining ads, providing a brief description of each ad and your evaluation of its effectiveness. 4. Conclusion: Summarize your findings, discussing any common themes or strategies used in the ads and highlighting which ads you believe were the most effective in promoting green products or activities. Remember to support your evaluations with specific examples from the ads and explain your reasoning clearly. Instructor Discussion This exercise provides students with an opportunity to identify the products and services that are communicating that they minimize the harm associated with consumption and/or advocate for environmental protection. The ads may prompt discussions about the fit between the firms’ environmental claims/advocacy and the firms’ practices, whether or not the ads resulted in goodwill toward the advertiser, and whether or not the ad changed attitudes or resulted in behavioral intentions toward the firm (which may be integrated with a discussion of why consumers often have favorable attitudes toward green products but do not necessarily follow through with actions). S.TA.R. PROJECTS Ethical Issues in Consumer Behavior S.T.A.R. Project #1 Do a search of popular magazines that carry a number of clothing and consumer products ads. Select magazines that are clearly targeting an Anglo market, an African-American market, and a Hispanic market. Compare the ads in the different magazines for similarities and differences. How are the beliefs, values, and customs of the three American-cultural groups different and/or similar? What different symbols are used to convey messages within the different magazines? Are the predominant color schemes different? Once the preceding analysis is completed, comment on any ethical issues that you have observed during your research. Write a short paper that summarizes your findings. For this assignment, you'll first need to identify popular magazines targeting Anglo, African-American, and Hispanic markets. Once you have selected these magazines, you can compare the ads in each publication to analyze the differences and similarities in the beliefs, values, customs, symbols, and color schemes used. Here's a general approach you could take: 1. Selecting Magazines: • For the Anglo market, you might consider magazines like Vogue, Elle, or GQ. • For the African-American market, magazines such as Essence or Ebony could be suitable. • For the Hispanic market, magazines like People en Español or Latina Magazine could be relevant. 2. Comparing Ads: • Obtain copies of each magazine or access their online versions. • Look through the ads in each magazine and note any differences and similarities in the products advertised, the models used, the language used in the ads, and the overall visual presentation. 3. Analyzing Beliefs, Values, and Customs: • Based on the ads, consider how the beliefs, values, and customs of the three cultural groups are reflected. • Look for themes related to family, community, beauty standards, lifestyle, and cultural identity. 4. Examining Symbols and Color Schemes: • Identify the symbols used in each set of ads and consider how they convey messages to the target audience. • Note any differences in color schemes and how they might reflect cultural preferences or values. 5. Ethical Issues: • Consider any ethical issues related to the ads, such as stereotypes, cultural appropriation, or misleading claims. • Discuss how these issues may impact the target audience and society as a whole. 6. Writing Your Paper: • Begin your paper with an introduction that explains the purpose of your research. • Present your findings on the differences and similarities in the ads, beliefs, values, customs, symbols, and color schemes. • Discuss any ethical issues you observed and offer your analysis and insights. • Conclude with a summary of your findings and any recommendations for future research or practice. Make sure to support your analysis with specific examples from the ads and explain your reasoning clearly. Instructor’s Discussion This exercise asks students to review contemporary magazines and use these publications to observe cultural differences between the three primary ethnic subcultures in our society. Pick the best of the short papers and discuss the results with the class. Especially focus on any discovered ethical issues. S.T.A.R. Project #2 Review the material found in the chapter on American Core Values. As you read about the general features and relevance to consumer behavior of the American Core Values, consider the ethical responsibility that marketers must have when directing promotional efforts toward these values. Write a short paper that expresses what you perceive these ethical responsibilities to be. You may pick a particular company or product to use as an example or may discuss the issues generally. Be sure to consider using illustrations (advertisements) of your thoughts or position. In the context of American core values, marketers have a significant ethical responsibility to ensure that their promotional efforts are truthful, respectful, and contribute positively to society. One of the key American core values is freedom, which encompasses the freedom of choice and the right to pursue one's own goals and interests. Marketers must respect consumers' freedom of choice by providing accurate and transparent information about their products or services, allowing consumers to make informed decisions. Another important American core value is materialism, which emphasizes the importance of material possessions and wealth. Marketers must be careful not to exploit this value by promoting excessive consumption or encouraging consumers to buy products they do not need. Instead, marketers should focus on promoting products that genuinely add value to consumers' lives and fulfill their needs. Individualism is another core value that emphasizes the importance of independence and self-reliance. Marketers should respect consumers' individuality and not use deceptive tactics or manipulative techniques to persuade them to buy a product. Instead, marketers should focus on building genuine connections with consumers and offering products that align with their individual values and preferences. Overall, marketers have an ethical responsibility to ensure that their promotional efforts are honest, respectful, and contribute positively to society. By aligning their marketing strategies with American core values and ethical principles, marketers can build trust with consumers and create long-lasting relationships based on mutual respect and understanding. Instructor’s Discussion The primary purpose of this exercise is to get students to review material in the chapter on American Core Values. The exercise will give them the opportunity to once again review the material found in the chapter. Additionally, the exercise asks students to consider the values in light of ethical responsibility. For example, individualism (free speech) may give one the right of expression but it does not guarantee racism, bigotry, or harmful actions toward others. Or consider that although material comfort is great, everyone cannot afford this. What problems might be encountered by those that feel slighted by promotions that stress material acquisition? Small Group Projects S.T.A.R. Project #3 The learning of one’s own culture is called enculturation. How do we learn this culture? Members of society learn a great deal through communication in a common language. Your group’s assignment is to examine three different age groups with respect to communication. Examine children (aged 5–8), teens (aged 13–16), and young adults (aged 19–22) with respect to their slang language and symbols that convey messages. Devise a table that describes at least ten (10) language or symbols for communication illustrations for each group. Write a short paper that discusses what you have done and conclusions on the differences and similarities found. Present the information in class. For this assignment, you can start by researching common slang language and symbols used by children, teens, and young adults in communication. Here's a suggested approach: 1. Research Slang Language and Symbols: • Children (aged 5–8): Look for playful and imaginative language and symbols that are easy for young children to understand. For example, "cooties" for germs or "besties" for best friends. • Teens (aged 13–16): Explore slang terms and symbols that are popular among teenagers. This may include abbreviations like "LOL" (laugh out loud) or symbols used in texting, such as emojis. • Young Adults (aged 19–22): Look for slang language and symbols that are commonly used by young adults. This may include slang terms related to social activities, like "lit" (exciting or fun) or symbols used in social media, such as hashtags (#). 2. Create a Table: • Devise a table that describes at least ten language or symbols for communication illustrations for each age group. Include columns for the term or symbol, its meaning, and an example of its use. 3. Write a Short Paper: • In your paper, discuss the differences and similarities found among the three age groups. Consider how the language and symbols used by each group reflect their stage of development, social interactions, and cultural influences. • Discuss the role of communication in each age group's identity formation and socialization process. • Highlight any interesting trends or patterns you observed in the slang language and symbols used by each age group. 4. Presentation: • Present your findings in class, using the table and examples to illustrate your points. • Encourage discussion among your classmates about their own experiences with slang language and symbols at different stages of life. Remember to support your analysis with specific examples and explain the significance of the language and symbols in each age group's communication style. Instructor’s Discussion This exercise asks students to review three stages that they should have some familiarity with because each has been through these stages or is currently in the last stage. Slang language is an interesting cultural expression because it not only identifies age groups but ethnic formations as well. Put the best of these lists on the board and discuss how marketers might use this information. S.T.A.R. Project #4 “We all live in tribes.” Well, maybe not all of us, but those on the hit CBS TV series Survivor certainly do (see www.cbs.com). Your group’s assignment is to examine tribal (ritual) behavior and its impact on consumer behavior. Begin the assignment by examining the Survivor TV show’s history found on the CBS Web site. Next, do secondary research on tribal behavior (rituals). For example, review rituals in the military, sports, fraternities, sororities, clubs, and organizations and how these rituals are transferred to consumptive behavior. Once this has been completed, write a short position paper that summarizes your findings and indicates what you have learned about the relationship between tribal (ritual) behavior and consumer behavior. For your assignment on tribal (ritual) behavior and its impact on consumer behavior, you can start by examining the history of the Survivor TV show and then conduct secondary research on tribal behavior in various contexts. Here's a suggested approach: 1. Examine Survivor TV Show's History: • Visit the CBS website and explore the history of the Survivor TV show. • Note the format of the show, the concept of tribes competing against each other, and any rituals or traditions observed by the contestants. 2. Research Tribal Behavior (Rituals): • Conduct secondary research on tribal behavior, focusing on rituals in various contexts such as the military, sports teams, fraternities, sororities, clubs, and organizations. • Explore how these rituals are used to create a sense of identity, camaraderie, and belonging among group members. • Consider how these rituals might influence individuals' behavior, including their consumption patterns and brand preferences. 3. Write a Short Position Paper: • Summarize your findings on tribal (ritual) behavior and its impact on consumer behavior. • Discuss how the rituals observed in the Survivor TV show and in other contexts contribute to group cohesion and identity formation. • Explore how these rituals can influence consumer behavior, such as brand loyalty, product choices, and consumption habits. • Reflect on what you have learned about the relationship between tribal (ritual) behavior and consumer behavior, and draw conclusions based on your research. 4. Presentation: • Present your findings and conclusions to your group or class, using examples from the Survivor TV show and other contexts to support your points. • Encourage discussion about the role of tribal behavior in shaping consumer behavior and how marketers can leverage this knowledge in their strategies. Remember to support your analysis with specific examples and research findings, and to draw connections between tribal rituals and consumer behavior patterns. Instructor’s Discussion Most students really enjoy considering tribes and rituals. After reviewing the material in the chapter, most will have a good basis on which to build this project. By going to the CBS Web site, students can trace the history of the survivor series by going to the “select a show” feature and scrolling to the Survivor series. S.T.A.R. Project #5 Advertising symbols are important ways that companies communicate with consumers. We all know the logos for Kellogg’s, Chevrolet, and IBM. Your assignment in this question is to play a symbols game and see how you score. Mr. Joey Katzen has developed an excellent symbols recognition game to be found at www.joeykatzen.com/alpha. The Retail Alphabet Game takes letters (symbols) from well-known retail names or phrases and asks you to identify them. This trivia game helps us to understand how important symbols and names are to the marketing and communication effort. Play the game and tell us how you scored. What did you miss? What did you get right? What conclusions can you draw about your ability to recognize symbols? Write a short paper that expresses your thoughts. To begin, I would need to play the game at www.joeykatzen.com/alpha to see how well I score. Once I have completed the game, I can write a short paper that expresses my thoughts on my performance, including what I missed, what I got right, and conclusions about my ability to recognize symbols. Instructor’s Discussion The game is fun and informative. The students can play historical versions of the game at no cost. Mr. Katzen only charges for the most recent version. The Web site is also an excellent download site. Have fun with this one. S.T.A.R. Project #6 One of the easiest ways to examine one’s values is to observe how they dress. Specifically, jewelry says a lot about the man or woman. Your assignment is to find four (4) wrist watch Web sites and review the products found on these Web sites. Taking the American Core Values discussed in the chapter, write a short paper about how the companies you investigated appeal to American Core Values. Be sure to include examples to illustrate your feelings. Lastly, comment on how the opening Web pages of the sampled sites set the stage for value transmission to the consumer. What specific devices are used by the site marketers? To complete your assignment, you can start by searching for wristwatch websites and reviewing the products they offer. Here's a suggested approach: 1. Find Wristwatch Websites: • Look for reputable wristwatch brands and visit their official websites. • Choose four websites to review for your assignment. 2. Review the Products: • Explore the wristwatch collections offered by each website. • Note the styles, features, and price ranges of the watches. 3. Examine How Companies Appeal to American Core Values: • Consider the American Core Values discussed in your chapter, such as freedom, materialism, individualism, and achievement. • Identify how each company's marketing and product offerings appeal to these values. • Provide examples from the websites to illustrate your observations. 4. Analyze the Opening Web Pages: • Pay attention to the opening pages of the websites and how they set the stage for value transmission to the consumer. • Look for specific devices used by the site marketers, such as imagery, slogans, or brand messaging. • Consider how these devices appeal to American Core Values and influence consumer perceptions. 5. Write Your Paper: • Begin with an introduction that outlines the purpose of your paper. • Discuss each website's approach to appealing to American Core Values, providing examples and analysis. • Describe how the opening web pages of the sites contribute to value transmission, citing specific devices used by the marketers. • Conclude with a summary of your findings and any insights you gained from the assignment. Remember to support your analysis with specific examples and to consider how the companies' marketing strategies align with American Core Values. Instructor’s Discussion Students will find several illustrations in the chapter that can be used to begin the search (such as Citizen and Rolex). Students should next carefully examine the values included. Does the wrist watch appeal to the efficiency and practically value or the individualism value? Be sure that students are clear as to their conclusions. This subject is an easy one to discuss in class. Try pulling up several Web sites to illustrate. Solution Manual for Consumer Behaviour Leon G. Schiffman, Leslie Lozor Konuk, S. Ramesh Kumar 9789332555099, 9780134734828

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