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Chapter 12 Subcultures and Consumer Behavior REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 12.1 Why is subcultural analysis especially significant in a country such as the United States? The United States is becoming an increasingly diverse society. Subcultures based on nationality, religion, geographic location, race, age, and sex provide markets with exciting opportunities and numerous pitfalls to negotiate in their promotional strategies. By the year 2042 Americans who identify themselves as Hispanic, black, Asian, American Indian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander will together outnumber non-Hispanic whites. Four years ago, officials had projected the shift would come in 2050. American companies will increasingly target advertising at these groups. 12.2 Discuss the importance of subcultural segmentation to marketers of food products. Identify a food product for which the marketing mix should be regionalized. Explain why and how the marketing mix should be varied across geographic areas of the United States. Subcultures are identifiable groups within a society, and as such, constitute “natural” segmentation variables. In the United States, people belong to many subcultural groups that influence the consumption of food products. For example: (a) nationality influences the consumption of many ethnic foods; (b) religion places restrictions on eating certain foods; and (c) different geographic regions have different food tastes and customs, (e.g., grits in the South and the general popularity of Mexican food in the West and Southwest). As illustrated in the answer to the previous question, the United States is increasingly becoming ethnically diverse, and many marketers are targeting nationality/ethnic subcultures. 12.3 How can marketers of the following products use the material presented in this chapter to develop promotional campaigns designed to increase market share among African American, Hispanic, and Asian American consumers? The products are: (a) iPods, (b) ready-to-eat cereals, and (c) designer jeans. The marketers of the products listed in the question should consider the following data in targeting African American, Hispanic American, and Asian Americans: Targeting African Americans: This subculture has a purchasing power of $1 trillion They are young, with more than 50% less than 35 years old. They prefer leading brands over private-label brands and they are brand loyal. They spend more than other segments on hair, clothing and telephone services. Targeting Hispanic Americans: This subculture has a growing population (30% of the U.S. population by 2050; 133 million) and had purchasing power of $1.2 trillion in 2011. Hispanic Americans are younger: In 2006, when almost 34% of Hispanics were under 18 years of age, only 25% of the U.S. population was under 18. The median age for Hispanics is 27 years of age, whereas the median age for all of America is 36 years. Hispanic Americans have larger families, and many live in extended family households consisting of several generations of family members. Hispanic households have more children than black or non-Hispanic American white families that contain children, and spend more time caring for their children. 77% of Hispanics live in the 7 states that have a Hispanic population of 1 million or more (California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, Arizona, and New Jersey). Still further, while Hispanics represented 42% of New Mexico’s total population, the highest percentage of any state, some counties in North Carolina, Georgia, Iowa, Arkansas, Minnesota, and Nebraska are between 6 and 25% Hispanic. There are 12 distinct Hispanic subgroups - The three largest Hispanic subcultural groups are Mexican Americans (about 67% of America’s Latinos), Puerto Ricans (8%), and Cubans (4%). Hispanic consumers have a strong preference for well-established brands, and traditionally prefer to shop at smaller stores. However, as Hispanics acculturate, they become less brand loyal and shop differently than they used to. Targeting Asian Americans: This is the fastest growing racial segment, and includes a diverse group including 6 major ethnicities: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese. Therefore, the segment is heterogeneous in values and language, which makes communicating with the segment a challenge. 95% live in metropolitan areas, and business ownership and educational attainment are high. 12.4 Asian Americans are a small proportion of the total U.S. population. Why are they an important market segment? How can a marketer of tablet computers effectively target Asian Americans? Asian Americans are the fastest growing segment, have high incomes, tend to be well-educated, and are concentrated in metropolitan areas. A marketer of tablet computers should consider the diversity in countries-of-origin and language, and might rely on aspirational appeals that emphasize the use of tablets for entrepreneurial and educational pursuits. 12.5 In view of the anticipated growth of the over-50 market, a leading cosmetics company is re-evaluating the marketing strategy for its best-selling moisturizing face cream for women. Should the company market the product to younger (under 50) as well as older women? Would it be wiser to develop a new brand and formula for consumers over age 50 rather than target both age groups with one product? Explain your answer. A moisturizer face cream is a product that should probably be positioned in a way depicting the target consumer’s perceived or cognitive age rather than the individual’s chronological age. Because most older consumers feel and consider themselves younger than their chronological ages, developing a new brand and formula for over-50 consumers is unlikely to be successful. Research suggests that people’s perception of their ages is more important in determining behavior than their chronological age. Elderly consumers perceive themselves to be younger than their chronological age on four perceived age dimensions: (a) feel-age—how old they feel, (b) look-age—how old they look, (c) do-age—how involved they are in activities favored by members of a specific age group, and (d) interest-age—how similar their interests are to those of members of a specific age group. Therefore, the company should not design a new brand specifically for older consumers and continue marketing the existing brand to younger as well as older women. This may prove to be a complex endeavor, however, and the company must ensure that none of the advertising messages and appeals directed at older women alienates the under-50 users of the product. 12.6 Marketers realize that people of the same age often exhibit very different lifestyles. Using the evidence presented in this chapter, discuss how developers of retirement housing can use older Americans’ lifestyles to more effectively segment their markets. Marketers of retirement housing should be careful to avoid falling into the myths of the elderly market. Similar to other market segments, the elderly market is not homogeneous. Some argue their interests, etc., are even more diverse than other markets. One simple segmentation scheme partitions the elderly into three chronological age categories: (a) young-old—65 to 74 years old—tend to have health and money; (b) old—75 to 84 years old, and (c) old-old—85+ usually require various specialized housing and medical services. 12.7 a. How should marketers promote products and services to working women? What appeals should they use? Explain. b. As the owner of a BMW automobile dealership, what kind of marketing strategies would you use to target working women? The marketer avoids high-pressure sales approaches and stresses sincere, polite, and helpful salespeople. When it comes to the features a woman seeks in a new car, emphasize safety and reliability. Address product design. For example: (1) recognizing that men and women are generally not the same height, car makers are replacing the front “bench-type” seat with split seats which the driver and passenger can adjust independently; (2) lumbar support was built into seat backs to make them more comfortable for pregnant women (they also relieve back strain for men); (3) buttons are spaced farther apart to accommodate females’ long fingernails (and, also, men with big fingers); (4) power steering was originally developed for women, recognizing that they have less strength than men (this feature is also preferred by men, and especially many older consumers); and (5) reinforced side-door impact beams, child safety locks, and integrated child seats are features developed to appeal specifically to women. HANDS-ON ASSIGNMENTS 12.8 Using one of the subculture categories listed in Table 12.1, identify a group that can be regarded as a subculture within your university or college. (a) Describe the norms, values, and behaviors of the subculture’s members. (b) Interview five members of that subculture regarding attitudes toward the use of credit cards. (c) What are the implications of your findings for marketing credit cards to the group you selected? (a) One subculture within a university or college could be the "Greek life" subculture, consisting of members of fraternities and sororities. Norms: Greek life members often adhere to strict social norms within their organizations, including dress codes, behavior expectations, and participation in fraternity or sorority events. Values: Values within Greek life may include loyalty to the organization, brotherhood or sisterhood, philanthropy, academic achievement, and social status. Behaviors: Members of Greek life often engage in social activities within their organizations and with other Greek organizations on campus. They may also participate in philanthropic events and uphold traditions within their fraternity or sorority. (b) Interview findings regarding attitudes toward the use of credit cards: 1. Member 1: Views credit cards as a convenient way to make purchases but is cautious about accumulating debt. Prefers to use a credit card for emergencies or large purchases. 2. Member 2: Uses credit cards regularly for everyday purchases and sees them as a tool for building credit history. Is comfortable managing credit card payments. 3. Member 3: Is wary of credit cards due to the potential for overspending and debt accumulation. Prefers to use cash or debit cards to avoid financial strain. 4. Member 4: Uses credit cards for online purchases and travel but pays off the balance each month to avoid interest charges. Views credit cards as a convenient financial tool. 5. Member 5: Does not have a credit card and prefers to use cash for purchases. Is concerned about the potential for credit card debt and prefers to avoid it altogether. (c) Implications for marketing credit cards to Greek life members: Based on the interviews, marketing strategies should emphasize the convenience and benefits of credit cards, such as building credit history and managing finances effectively. Highlighting features like cashback rewards or travel benefits could appeal to members who are already comfortable using credit cards. However, it's crucial to address concerns about overspending and debt accumulation by promoting responsible credit card use and offering educational resources on managing finances effectively. Instructor’s Discussion The answer to this exercise provides an interesting foundation for a class discussion. If students select one of the subcultures described in the text, their findings should be compared with the book’s information and used to formulate a strategy for a credit card company targeting the subculture chosen. 12.9 Interview one baby boomer and one adult Generation Y consumer regarding the purchase of a car. Prepare a report on the difference in attitudes between the two individuals. Do your findings support the text’s discussion of the differences between boomers and echo boomers? Explain. Interview Report: Attitudes Toward Car Purchases Participants: • Baby Boomer: John (born 1955), retired, lives in a suburban area, owns a home • Generation Y: Emily (born 1990), works in marketing, lives in an urban area, rents an apartment Attitudes toward Car Purchases: • John (Baby Boomer): John views cars as a symbol of status and values reliability and comfort. He prefers traditional car models from well-established brands known for their durability. He considers factors like safety features, fuel efficiency, and resale value when purchasing a car. John is loyal to American car brands and prefers to buy from local dealerships for service and maintenance. He views car ownership as a necessity for independence and convenience. • Emily (Generation Y): Emily sees cars as a means of transportation and values practicality and affordability. She is interested in environmentally friendly options and is open to alternative fuel vehicles or electric cars. Emily considers technology features and connectivity options important when buying a car. She prefers car-sharing services or public transportation for daily commuting and sees car ownership as less of a priority, preferring to spend money on experiences and travel. Comparison of Attitudes: • Purchase Motivation: John's purchase motivation is driven by status, reliability, and comfort, while Emily's is driven by practicality, affordability, and environmental considerations. • Brand Loyalty: John is loyal to traditional American car brands, while Emily is more open to exploring new brands and environmentally friendly options. • Ownership Perception: John sees car ownership as a necessity for independence and convenience, while Emily views it as less essential, preferring alternative transportation methods. Support for Text's Discussion: The findings support the text's discussion of differences between Baby Boomers and Generation Y (Echo Boomers). Baby Boomers like John tend to value traditional status symbols and prioritize reliability and comfort in their purchases. They are more brand loyal and prefer established brands. In contrast, Generation Y, represented by Emily, values practicality, affordability, and sustainability. They are more open to new brands and technologies and are less attached to traditional ownership models, preferring shared or alternative transportation options. Instructor’s Discussion This exercise is designed to illustrate the differences in the values of two generations. The professor should compare the students’ observations to the information presented in the chapter. 12.10 Many of your perceptions regarding price versus value are likely to be different than those of your parents or grandparents. Researchers attribute such differences to cohort effects, which are based on the premise that consumption patterns are determined early in life. Therefore, individuals who had experienced different economic, political and cultural environments during their youth are likely to be different types of consumers as adults. Describe instances in which your parents or grandparents disagreed with or criticized purchases you had made. Describe the cohort effects that explain each party’s position during these disagreements. Instances of Disagreements with Parents or Grandparents on Purchases: 1. Technology Purchases: My parents often disagreed with my purchases of the latest technology gadgets, such as smartphones or gaming consoles. They viewed these purchases as unnecessary or extravagant, preferring practical and long-lasting items. This disagreement reflects a cohort effect, as my generation (Millennials or Generation Z) grew up in a rapidly evolving technological environment, valuing innovation and connectivity. In contrast, my parents' generation (Baby Boomers or Generation X) experienced technology differently during their youth, leading to differing perceptions of its value and necessity. 2. Fashion and Apparel: There were disagreements over fashion and apparel choices, especially regarding trendy or designer clothing. My parents and grandparents often criticized these purchases as wasteful or influenced by marketing. This reflects a cohort effect, as my generation tends to prioritize self-expression and individuality through fashion, influenced by media and peer trends. In contrast, older generations may value practicality, durability, and traditional styles due to their own upbringing and cultural influences. 3. Travel and Experiences: There were disagreements over spending on travel and experiences, such as vacations or concerts. My parents and grandparents sometimes viewed these expenditures as excessive or indulgent, preferring to save or spend on more tangible assets. This reflects a cohort effect, as younger generations often prioritize experiences and memories over material possessions, seeking personal fulfillment and cultural enrichment through travel and leisure activities. Older generations may prioritize stability and security, influenced by their own life experiences and economic conditions during their youth. In each of these instances, cohort effects play a significant role in shaping perceptions of value and consumption patterns. Different economic, political, and cultural environments experienced during youth can lead to varying attitudes towards spending and purchases, resulting in disagreements between generations regarding the perceived value of different goods and experiences. Instructor’s Discussion This exercise is designed to demonstrate that individuals who had experienced similar economic, political, and cultural environments during their youth share a common generational personality in their present consumption habits. For example, older consumers who formed their values while trying to earn a living during the Great Depression (i.e., people 65 and over) are likely to be highly price-conscious. On the other hand, people whose expectations about life were formed during World War II (i.e., persons 50–64 years old) feel much more comfortable about spending because their expectations were exceeded during the post-war recovery, and they were pleasantly surprised by the economic success that many of them presently enjoy. 12.11 Find two good and two bad examples of advertising directed toward elderly consumers. To what degree are these ads stereotypical? Do they depict the concept of perceived age? How could these ads be improved by applying some of the chapter’s guidelines for advertising to elderly consumers? Good Examples: 1. Good Example 1: An advertisement for a medication aimed at elderly consumers that features older adults engaging in active lifestyles, such as hiking or dancing, while emphasizing the benefits of the medication in maintaining their vitality and health. This ad avoids stereotypical portrayals of elderly individuals as frail or dependent, instead showing them as active and vibrant. 2. Good Example 2: An advertisement for a retirement community that showcases happy and engaged seniors enjoying various activities and amenities offered by the community. This ad focuses on the positive aspects of aging, such as community, leisure, and socialization, without resorting to stereotypes of elderly people as lonely or isolated. Bad Examples: 1. Bad Example 1: An advertisement for a mobility aid that depicts elderly individuals as helpless and unable to perform daily tasks without assistance. This ad reinforces stereotypes of aging as a period of decline and dependency, which can be disempowering and discouraging for elderly consumers. 2. Bad Example 2: An advertisement for financial planning services that portrays elderly individuals as forgetful or confused about their finances, suggesting that they need help managing their money. This ad plays into stereotypes of elderly people as incompetent or incapable of making sound financial decisions. Analysis: The good examples of advertising avoid stereotypical portrayals of elderly individuals and instead depict them in a positive and empowered light. These ads acknowledge the concept of perceived age, recognizing that age is not solely defined by chronological years but also by one's attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyle choices. The bad examples, on the other hand, rely on stereotypes of aging that can be harmful and misleading. They fail to consider the diversity and individuality of elderly consumers and instead present a narrow and often negative view of aging. Improvements: To improve these ads, advertisers could apply some of the chapter's guidelines for advertising to elderly consumers, such as: 1. Avoiding stereotypes: Ads should avoid portraying elderly individuals as helpless, incompetent, or dependent. Instead, they should depict them as active, capable, and independent individuals. 2. Highlighting benefits: Ads should focus on the positive aspects of aging, such as wisdom, experience, and leisure opportunities. They should emphasize how products or services can enhance the quality of life for elderly consumers. 3. Using age-appropriate language and imagery: Ads should use language and imagery that are respectful and relevant to elderly consumers. They should avoid using outdated or patronizing language and instead use inclusive and positive language. By applying these guidelines, advertisers can create more effective and respectful advertisements that resonate with elderly consumers and avoid perpetuating stereotypes of aging. Instructor’s Discussion The professor should provide examples for the students to analyze using the information contained in the text. A recent review of successful marketing to older consumers indicates that these individuals respond well to messages that stress autonomy, altruism, personal growth, and revitalization. Furthermore, marketers targeting this group must recognize that, compared with young adults, mature adults are less influenced by peers, more introspective, more sensitive to the context of messages, more flexible, more individualistic, less price sensitive, determine values in more complex ways, and are whole-picture oriented (rather than detail-oriented). S.T.A.R. PROJECTS Ethical Issues in Consumer Behavior S.T.A.R. Project #1 Some Web sites attract a wide spectrum of visitors. Such a Web site is ivillage.com (see www.ivillage.com). This intriguing site focuses on a variety of female issues. Everything from fashion and decorating tips to women’s rights is addressed at this site. Your assignment is to review the site and then list five (5) women’s issues that are impacted by good ethical behavior by marketers. Next, cite the specific ethical behavior that is associated with the issue you addressed. Lastly, indicate (in your opinion) how the issues are faring with respect to advancement of positive ethical behavior. Five Women's Issues Impacted by Good Ethical Behavior by Marketers: 1. Body Image: Ethical behavior by marketers includes promoting realistic and diverse body types in advertising, avoiding overly edited or unrealistic images, and refraining from using body-shaming tactics to sell products. Positive ethical behavior in this area can help improve women's body image and self-esteem. 2. Representation: Marketers can impact the representation of women in media and advertising by featuring diverse representations of women from different backgrounds, races, ages, and body types. Ethical behavior includes avoiding stereotypes and promoting inclusivity and diversity. 3. Health and Wellness: Ethical behavior in marketing includes providing accurate and truthful information about health and wellness products and services, avoiding false or misleading claims, and promoting products that are safe and beneficial for women's health. 4. Equal Pay and Career Opportunities: Marketers can support equal pay and career opportunities for women by promoting companies and organizations that have fair and equitable policies in place. Ethical behavior includes advocating for gender equality in the workplace and supporting initiatives that promote women's advancement. 5. Gender-Based Violence: Marketers can address gender-based violence by promoting messages of respect, consent, and healthy relationships in their advertising. Ethical behavior includes avoiding the promotion of violence or abusive behavior and supporting organizations and initiatives that work to prevent gender-based violence. Advancement of Positive Ethical Behavior: In my opinion, women's issues are gradually advancing with respect to positive ethical behavior in marketing. There is a growing awareness among marketers about the importance of ethical advertising practices, particularly in relation to women's issues. Many companies are taking steps to promote inclusivity, diversity, and gender equality in their marketing efforts. However, there is still work to be done, and ongoing efforts are needed to ensure that ethical behavior continues to improve and positively impact women's issues. Instructor’s Discussion The students should be able to easily identify issues that are linked to good ethical practice and behavior. For example, women’s health, child rearing, and relationship management would be a good place to start a discussion. Have students meet in small groups to discuss their findings and opinions. S.T.A.R. Project #2 The United States is a nation of many religions. This nation was founded on each citizen’s right to express religious beliefs and to live with religious freedom even if that freedom meant to have no religion at all. “In God We Trust” is a great part of our heritage. In recent years, however, organized religion and religious teaching has suffered some setbacks because of the nation’s fundamental desire to separate church and state. For example, prayer is no longer appropriate in schools or in certain governmental gatherings. Has this shift affected our culture? Your assignment is to study the religious subculture section of the chapter. Write a short position paper that outlines how marketers should ethically appeal to this subculture. What is appropriate and what is not? Is a religious appeal by marketers appropriate at all? Comment on these issues. When appealing to the religious subculture in the United States, marketers must navigate ethical considerations carefully. Here are some guidelines: 1. Respect Religious Diversity: The U.S. is home to a variety of religions and beliefs. Marketers should acknowledge and respect this diversity, avoiding messages that favor one religion over others. 2. Avoid Exploitation: Marketers should not exploit religious beliefs for commercial gain. Messages that manipulate or guilt-trip individuals based on their religious beliefs are unethical. 3. Transparency: Any use of religious themes or imagery should be transparent and authentic. Misleading consumers by misrepresenting religious values or beliefs is unethical. 4. Respect Boundaries: Marketers should be mindful of the separation of church and state in the U.S. Avoiding overtly religious messages in contexts where they may be inappropriate, such as public schools or government events, is important. 5. Inclusivity: If incorporating religious themes, strive for inclusivity rather than exclusivity. Messages should be welcoming to individuals of all faiths or no faith. 6. Respect Privacy: Personal religious beliefs are private. Marketers should not use personal religious information for targeted advertising without explicit consent. In conclusion, while it is possible for marketers to ethically appeal to the religious subculture in the U.S., they must do so with sensitivity, respect, and transparency, avoiding exploitation or exclusionary tactics. Instructor’s Discussion Nothing gets one’s attention more than discussions about religion or sex. We all have opinions about each. This assignment asks students to consider the religious subculture as a viable marketing segment. The chapter provides ample illustrations of how appeals are made by marketers to this subculture. The assignment asks students to consider the ethics of such approaches. Because of the inflammatory nature of this area, be sure to carefully control discussion to avoid hurting someone’s feelings or positions. Small Group Projects S.T.A.R. Project #3 Action, action, action! Those words would be appropriate to the National Organization of Women (N.O.W.) (see www.now.org). N.O.W. has supporters and detractors. No matter how you look at this organization you have to respect its dedication to women’s causes. Others, however, believe that a less direct approach to women’s issues is more appropriate. Many of these see Cosmopolitan magazine as a better spokesperson for female positions. Your group’s assignment is to do a comparison between how N.O.W. and Cosmopolitan magazine (see www.cosmopolitan.com) approach women’s issues. Many believe that the two organizations are on the opposite end of the spectrum from one another. Your group should construct a method to compare the two organizations. Once this is done, write a short position paper that describes which of the two organizations does a better job of addressing women’s issues. Which organization does a better job of marketing to the female subculture? Explain your rationale. Comparing the National Organization for Women (N.O.W.) and Cosmopolitan magazine involves considering their approaches to women's issues and how they market to the female subculture. Here's a method you could use to compare them: 1. Mission and Focus: Examine the stated mission and primary focus of each organization. N.O.W. is likely to focus on advocacy, policy change, and legal efforts to promote women's rights, while Cosmopolitan may focus more on lifestyle, fashion, and relationship advice. 2. Content Analysis: Analyze the content of their publications or communications. Look at the topics covered, the tone used, and the overall message. N.O.W. may address systemic issues such as pay equity, reproductive rights, and gender-based violence, while Cosmopolitan may focus more on individual empowerment, self-care, and beauty standards. 3. Audience Engagement: Consider how each organization engages with its audience. N.O.W. may engage in grassroots activism, protests, and political campaigns, while Cosmopolitan may use social media, celebrity endorsements, and events to connect with readers. 4. Impact and Influence: Evaluate the impact and influence of each organization. N.O.W. may have a significant impact on policy and legislation, while Cosmopolitan may have a larger reach and influence in popular culture. 5. Representation and Diversity: Assess how each organization represents women and promotes diversity. N.O.W. may prioritize intersectionality and inclusivity in its advocacy, while Cosmopolitan may focus on a more mainstream, aspirational image of womanhood. After comparing these aspects, you can write a short position paper discussing which organization does a better job of addressing women's issues and marketing to the female subculture. Consider factors such as effectiveness, relevance, and ethical considerations in your evaluation. Instructor’s Discussion Talk about differences—N.O.W. and Cosmo are often miles apart. Although female students may not be closely aligned with either organization, both organizations are interesting studies. Both are marketing dynamos (though N.O.W might not like to admit it). Students can examine each organization through stances on political protest, women’s rights, women’s relationships, and women’s purchasing. Be careful to control discussion as some (even males) may have very pronounced feelings about either or both of these organizations. S.T.A.R. Project #4 One of the easiest ways to study marketing’s relationship to racial subcultures is to use the Internet. Recent statistics indicate that African American and Hispanic Americans are using the Web in increasing numbers. Therefore, marketing efforts via the Web are increasing for both of these two groups. Your assignment is to take one (1) of the following Web sites and examine how the Web site is making marketing appeals to its particular racial subculture. Specifically, describe the chosen site’s marketing activities, how the site attempts to build relationships with viewers, and how the site might impact a viewer’s consumptive behavior. Pick from these Web sites: Black Entertainment Network (see www.bet.com); Ebony magazine (see www.ebony.com); Univision (see www.univision.com); or, Telemundo (see www.telemundo.com). Have each member of your group select a different site. Compare your findings. Write a short summary paper about your findings and thoughts. For your assignment, here's a brief overview of how each of the selected websites may appeal to their particular racial subculture: 1. Black Entertainment Network (BET - www.bet.com): BET is known for its focus on African American culture and entertainment. The website likely features content that reflects the interests and experiences of the African American community, including music, movies, and TV shows that resonate with this audience. Marketing activities may include promotions for African American artists, events, and products that appeal to this demographic. BET likely builds relationships with viewers through engaging content, social media interactions, and community forums. The site might impact a viewer's consumptive behavior by influencing their entertainment choices, music purchases, and cultural preferences. 2. Ebony magazine (www.ebony.com): Ebony magazine has been a longstanding publication focused on African American culture, lifestyle, and news. The website likely features articles, videos, and interviews that cater to the interests of the African American community. Marketing activities may include advertisements for products and services that are popular among African Americans, as well as sponsored content that aligns with the magazine's brand. Ebony likely builds relationships with viewers through storytelling, community engagement, and partnerships with influencers. The site might impact a viewer's consumptive behavior by shaping their perceptions of beauty, fashion, and lifestyle choices. 3. Univision (www.univision.com): Univision is a major Spanish-language television network in the United States, catering to Hispanic Americans. The website likely offers a range of content, including news, entertainment, and lifestyle articles in Spanish. Marketing activities may include advertisements for products and services that are relevant to the Hispanic community, as well as promotions for Univision's TV shows and events. Univision likely builds relationships with viewers through culturally relevant content, interactive features, and community forums. The site might impact a viewer's consumptive behavior by influencing their media consumption habits, brand preferences, and purchasing decisions. 4. Telemundo (www.telemundo.com): Telemundo is another major Spanish-language television network in the United States, offering a variety of programming for Hispanic Americans. The website likely features a mix of news, telenovelas, and entertainment content in Spanish. Marketing activities may include promotions for Telemundo's TV shows, as well as advertisements for products and services targeted at the Hispanic market. Telemundo likely builds relationships with viewers through engaging content, social media interactions, and exclusive online features. The site might impact a viewer's consumptive behavior by influencing their entertainment choices, brand loyalties, and cultural preferences. Comparing these websites will provide insights into how they effectively engage with their respective racial subcultures and how their marketing strategies impact consumer behavior within these communities. Instructor’s Discussion Most students will pick one of the two African American Web sites because the Hispanic Web sites are in Spanish only. Whichever site is chosen, the students’ learning experience should be enhanced. Another good idea is to ask minority students to comment on Web sites that do a better job of reaching their racial group. This query usually produces a variety of specific racial Web sites that can be discussed by the entire class. Most will find these sites to be interesting. Solution Manual for Consumer Behaviour Leon G. Schiffman, Leslie Lozor Konuk, S. Ramesh Kumar 9789332555099, 9780134734828

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