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This Document Contains Chapters 6 to 7 Chapter Six: Sorcery, Witchcraft, and Modernity Multiple Choice 1. In many societies, people think that __________, usually manipulated by humans, cause illness, death, or just plain randomness in everyday life. A. intercessory actions B. unseen powers C. reincorporation powers D. introductory actions Answer: B 2. The Maka survived __________ efforts to extract rubber from the region (Cameroon), and equally coercive French efforts to force people to plant coffee and cocoa. A. Belgian B. English C. Dutch D. German Answer: D 3. Maka have spoken of a/an __________ called djambe, a force that lives in the belly of some humans in the form of a small animal, like a mouse or a crab. A. unseen power B. spirit C. ghost D. goddess Answer: A 4. Maka say that certain people, called __________, “bring out their djambe,” which means that they leave their bodies and join others of like mind at nighttime rendezvous. A. sorcerers B. witches C. voodoo priests D. njindjamb Answer: D 5. The slipperiness of __________ in Maka society, rests on the postulate that everyone in the society might well have a djambe. What is at issue is not what is inside you but how you use it: Do you develop it, and bring it out for use against others? A. witchcraft B. sorcery C. la sorcellerie D. accusation Answer: D 6. In one respect, E. E. Evans-Pritchard followed his teacher Bronislaw Malinowski, who argued that people everywhere are __________ in their everyday behavior. A. illogical B. logical C. rational D. sexual Answer: C 7. Azande say that some among them have inherited a substance that lives in their small intestine, called __________. A. njindjamb B. mangu C. djambe D. Maka Answer: B 8. __________ can give forth emanations that cause misfortune. This can sometimes happen without the knowledge of the person in whose body it exists as a direct consequence of feeling envy or hatred. A. Njindjamb B. Mangu C. Djambe D. Maka Answer: B 9. A man in Azande society hanged himself after a quarrel, but people quarrel every day without killing themselves, so the force of __________ is called on to explain why in this case the man committed suicide. A. njindjamb B. Maka C. djambe D. mangu Answer: D 10. In Azande society, the top of the oracle hierarchy is the __________ oracle controlled by princes. When this oracle is consulted, a handler, who works for the prince, administers a strychnine-type poison to the animal. A. water buffalo B. dog C. rabbit D. chicken Answer: D 11. How does an Azande oracle, the most important and beyond which there is no appeal, work? A. it depends on what is asked of the oracles B. pure sorcery C. pure witchcraft D. a dependence on religious values Answer: A 12. In analyzing the Azande system, we are better off considering witchcraft first and foremost as a set of social practices rather than a __________ system of knowledge claims. A. formal B. scientific C. pseudoscientific D. psychosocial Answer: C 13. One of the major languages of the region in and around Cameroon is __________. A. French B. German C. Ewondo D. Dutch Answer: C 14. __________ ideas may also be invoked to explain how some people accumulate riches, and why some of the rich then suffer for it—all the modern houses have gravesites in front of them, noted one man. A. Witchcraft B. Voodoo C. Evu D. Sorcery Answer: D 15. One new idea has been that of the sorcerer who turns people into zombies to work for him. This practice is called __________ in the port of Duala, one of the centers of new commercial wealth in Cameroon and also a center for these new ideas. A. njindjamb B. Maka C. ekong D. mangu Answer: C 16. Throughout Africa, ideas about sorcery incorporate ideas about social tensions and __________, and they have changed along with broader social transformations. A. power B. concerns C. politics D. witchcraft Answer: A 17. The __________ cult was involved in the witch finding that accused thousands of women in Nigeria of being witches, forcing them to confess, pay a cleansing fee, and eat a substance that would kill them if they ever practiced witchcraft again. A. Maka B. Mangu C. Atinga D. Ekong Answer: C 18. Accusations of witchcraft continue to be a part of modern __________ life in many parts of Africa as a way of talking about evil, particularly the evil brought by strangers. A. rural B. urban C. artistic D. social Answer: B 19. In South Africa the use of the “__________” – the burning tire used to kill suspected informants during the struggle against apartheid—was a weapon against accused witches. A. necklace B. bracelet C. bling bomb D. scorpion Answer: A 20. Until the mid-1980s, the Gebusi had one of the highest rates of homicide in the world; about one-third of the deaths occurring in the period 1940–1982 were from killing. The overwhelming majority of these deaths were in retribution for a suspected death or illness from __________. A. warfare B. witchcraft C. sorcery D. head hunting Answer: C 21. Gebusi social life is shaped by the idea of “__________”: I give you something and you give me its equivalent in return. A. generalized reciprocity B. redistribution C. economic cohesion D. direct reciprocity Answer: D 22. In Gebusi society, tensions, especially those involving __________, could result in __________. A. direct reciprocity/sorcery accusations B. redistribution/witchcraft accusations C. direct reciprocity/open warfare D. economic cohesion/an almost immediate homicide Answer: A 23. Bowen argues that witchcraft ideas in New England once functioned much as they do in __________ society, to encourage confession and purge the society of its fears and tensions. A. Maka B. Gebusi C. Azande D. Mayan Answer: C 24. Who is responsible for this quote? “We must be knit together as one man and must delight in each other, make other’s condition our own, rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work.” A. Warren Harding B. John Smith C. John Winthrop D. Cotton Mather Answer: C 25. Puritans held gnawing doubts about their salvation, lived in the presence of __________, and were acutely aware that they were far from achieving their ideal of a morally, as well as socially, close-knit community. A. grace B. Evil C. the Lord D. God Answer: B Essay Questions 1. What social and economic conditions led to witchcraft accusations in 1692 Salem, Massachusetts? Answer: The Salem witch trials of 1692 were influenced by a confluence of social and economic conditions that created a fertile ground for hysteria and scapegoating. Several factors contributed to the atmosphere of fear and suspicion that led to witchcraft accusations: 1. Religious Zeal and Puritan Beliefs: The Puritan community in Salem was characterized by a strict adherence to religious doctrine and a belief in the supernatural. The Puritans viewed the world as a battleground between God and Satan, and they believed that witchcraft was a real and present threat. This religious zeal created a climate of fear, where any deviation from accepted norms could be interpreted as evidence of witchcraft. 2. Social Strain and Conflicts: Salem was a community fraught with social tensions. There were deep divisions between the more affluent residents of Salem Town, who were engaged in commerce, and the poorer, agrarian inhabitants of Salem Village. These economic disparities bred resentment and suspicion. Additionally, disputes over property lines, grazing rights, and church privileges exacerbated these tensions, providing a backdrop for personal vendettas to be played out through witchcraft accusations. 3. Economic Hardship: The late 17th century was a period of economic instability for Salem. The community faced hardships such as crop failures, epidemics, and harsh winters, which strained resources and heightened anxiety. The resulting economic pressures made it easier for people to believe in and accuse others of witchcraft, as a means of explaining their misfortunes and redirecting blame. 4. Gender and Social Roles: Women, particularly those who were unmarried, widowed, or otherwise deviated from traditional social roles, were often targets of witchcraft accusations. In a patriarchal society that valued conformity, women who were perceived as independent or outspoken were vulnerable to suspicion. Many of the accused women were those who did not fit the Puritan ideal of womanhood. 5. Political Uncertainty: The political instability of the period also played a role. The aftermath of the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688 and the subsequent changes in colonial governance created an atmosphere of uncertainty and anxiety. The revocation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and the imposition of a new, less autonomous government contributed to the community’s sense of vulnerability and fear. 6. Psychological Factors: The stress and fear prevalent in the community likely had psychological effects, leading to mass hysteria. The initial accusations by a group of young girls in Salem Village, who exhibited strange behaviors and claimed to be afflicted by witches, triggered a chain reaction. The credence given to these claims by community leaders and the use of "spectral evidence" (testimony that the spirit or specter of the accused was seen committing witchcraft) further fueled the hysteria. 2. How does the concept of the church in New England Puritan society set the stage for witchcraft accusations by neighbor against neighbor? Answer: The Role of the Church in New England Puritan Society and Neighbor Against Neighbor Accusations The Puritan church played a central role in New England society, and its influence set the stage for the witchcraft accusations in Salem by fostering an environment where suspicion and fear could flourish. 1. Theocratic Society: The Puritans established a theocratic society where church and state were closely intertwined. Religious leaders held significant power and authority, and church membership was a prerequisite for full participation in civic life. This theocratic system created a culture of surveillance and conformity, where deviations from religious norms were seen as threats to the social order. 2. Doctrine of Predestination and Anxiety: The Puritan belief in predestination—that God had already chosen who would be saved and who would be damned—created a pervasive sense of anxiety. Puritans constantly searched for signs of God’s favor or disfavor in their lives and the lives of others. This led to a heightened sensitivity to any behavior that could be interpreted as sinful or diabolical, making accusations of witchcraft a way to explain and control social deviance. 3. Covenant Theology: Puritans believed they had a covenant with God to create a holy community. Any sin, including witchcraft, threatened this covenant and, by extension, the entire community’s relationship with God. This belief justified extreme measures to root out and punish perceived sinners, including accusations of witchcraft against neighbors. 4. Role of Ministers and Sermons: Ministers played a key role in shaping public opinion and reinforcing the belief in witchcraft. Sermons often focused on the dangers of the devil and the presence of witches within the community. Prominent ministers, such as Cotton Mather, preached about the reality of witchcraft and the necessity of vigilance against it, contributing to the climate of fear and suspicion. 5. Community Surveillance and Mutual Distrust: The close-knit nature of Puritan communities meant that neighbors were constantly observing and judging each other’s behavior. This surveillance culture bred mutual distrust and provided fertile ground for personal grievances to manifest as witchcraft accusations. Disputes over property, inheritance, and other local issues could easily be framed as evidence of diabolical activity. 6. Fear of the "Other": Puritan society was deeply suspicious of anything perceived as "other" or outside their strict religious norms. This included not only non-Puritans but also individuals within the community who did not conform. The fear of the "other" translated into a readiness to believe in and act upon accusations of witchcraft as a means of maintaining social cohesion and religious purity. In conclusion, the Salem witch trials were the result of a complex interplay of social, economic, religious, and psychological factors. The Puritan church’s central role in society, combined with economic hardships, social tensions, and religious zeal, created an environment where fear and suspicion could easily escalate into a tragic and deadly witch hunt. 3. The Maka people of Cameroon believe in an entity called the djambe. What is this entity? What problems can it cause? Who are the people named njindjamb? What problems do they suffer? How are all of these things related? Answer: The Maka people of Cameroon hold a complex belief system centered around an entity called the djambe. Understanding the djambe, the problems it causes, and the individuals known as njindjamb requires delving into the spiritual and social dynamics of the Maka community. 1. The Djambe: The djambe is a supernatural entity or spirit in Maka cosmology, often associated with witchcraft and malevolent forces. It is believed to be a source of spiritual power that can be harnessed by individuals for both protective and harmful purposes. The djambe is feared because it embodies the potential for causing misfortune, illness, and other problems within the community. 2. Problems Caused by the Djambe: The djambe is associated with a range of adverse effects. It is believed to cause illness, misfortune, death, and social discord. These problems can manifest in various ways, such as sudden sickness, unexplained accidents, or persistent bad luck. The fear of the djambe is pervasive, as its influence is thought to permeate many aspects of daily life, making it a central concern in Maka spirituality and social interactions. 3. Njindjamb: Njindjamb are individuals believed to possess or be possessed by the djambe. These people are often accused of witchcraft and are thought to have the ability to wield the djambe's power for harmful purposes. Njindjamb can be men or women and are typically viewed with suspicion and fear by their community. The identification of someone as njindjamb can arise from personal grievances, jealousy, or unexplained misfortunes attributed to them. 4. Problems Suffered by Njindjamb: Individuals labeled as njindjamb face significant social and psychological challenges. They may be ostracized, stigmatized, and subjected to various forms of social exclusion. The accusation of being njindjamb can lead to a loss of social standing, trust, and relationships within the community. In extreme cases, njindjamb may suffer from violence or forced exile. 5. Interrelation of Djambe and Njindjamb: The belief in the djambe and the identification of njindjamb are deeply intertwined. The djambe is the source of the perceived malevolent power, while njindjamb are the individuals believed to wield this power. The problems caused by the djambe, such as illness and misfortune, are often attributed to the actions of njindjamb. This creates a cycle of fear and suspicion, as the community seeks to identify and mitigate the influence of the djambe by targeting those thought to be njindjamb. In summary, the belief in the djambe and the existence of njindjamb reflect the Maka people's efforts to understand and control the unseen forces that impact their lives. The djambe represents a powerful and dangerous spiritual force, while njindjamb are the human manifestations of this force, bearing the brunt of social suspicion and ostracism. This belief system underscores the importance of spiritual explanations in addressing misfortune and maintaining social cohesion within the Maka community. 4. When the Azande say that mangu provided the “second spear” of explanation, what do they mean? Answer: The Azande people of Central Africa have a unique and intricate belief system that includes the concept of mangu, commonly translated as witchcraft. When the Azande say that mangu provides the “second spear” of explanation, they are referring to a layered approach to understanding and explaining misfortune and events in their lives. 1. Mangu: Mangu, in Azande belief, is an inherent quality that some individuals possess, enabling them to cause harm to others unconsciously through their witchcraft. It is considered an internal, hereditary substance that can activate malevolent influences, often without the witch's conscious intent. 2. The “Second Spear” of Explanation: The phrase “second spear” of explanation is a metaphor used by the Azande to describe the dual nature of their understanding of causality. The first spear refers to the immediate, physical cause of an event, such as the natural or mechanical reason something occurred. The second spear, provided by mangu, refers to the underlying, spiritual cause that explains why the event happened to a particular person at a particular time. 3. How Mangu Explains Events: When an unfortunate event occurs, the Azande first identify the immediate cause. For instance, if a granary collapses and injures someone, the immediate cause might be termites weakening the structure. This is the first spear. However, the Azande believe this explanation is incomplete. The second spear, mangu, explains why the granary collapsed at the precise moment when the person was underneath it. They believe that the witchcraft of someone harboring mangu directed the misfortune towards the victim. 4. Integration of Both Explanations: The Azande do not see the physical and spiritual explanations as mutually exclusive. Instead, they integrate both to form a comprehensive understanding of events. The physical cause provides the how, while mangu provides the why, offering a deeper insight into the misfortune’s timing and personal impact. 5. Social Function of Mangu: The belief in mangu serves several social functions. It helps maintain social order by providing explanations for misfortunes that might otherwise create conflict or anxiety. It also reinforces social norms and relationships, as accusations of witchcraft are often directed towards those who violate social expectations or harbor hidden enmities. 6. Addressing Mangu: When mangu is suspected, the Azande might consult oracles or conduct rituals to identify the witch. Once identified, various remedies, such as rituals or social sanctions, are employed to neutralize the witch's power and restore harmony. In summary, the Azande concept of mangu as the “second spear” of explanation reveals a dual-layered approach to understanding causality. It complements the physical explanation with a spiritual dimension, providing a holistic framework for interpreting and addressing misfortunes within their cultural context. This belief system underscores the Azande's intricate integration of spiritual beliefs with everyday life, ensuring that all aspects of an event are thoroughly understood and addressed. 5. How do the Azande use oracles? What makes them so accurate? Answer: The Use and Perceived Accuracy of Oracles by the Azande The Azande people of Central Africa employ a variety of oracles to make decisions, resolve disputes, and understand the causes of misfortune. Oracles hold a significant place in Azande society due to their perceived accuracy and the trust the community places in them. The process of using oracles and the factors contributing to their perceived accuracy are as follows: 1. Types of Oracles: The Azande use several types of oracles, each with its own specific methods and purposes: • Poison Oracle (Benge): This is the most important and widely used oracle among the Azande. The procedure involves administering poison to a chicken and posing a question. The chicken's reaction to the poison (surviving or dying) is interpreted as the answer to the question. This oracle is considered highly authoritative and is used for significant decisions. • Termite Oracle (Dakpa): This oracle involves placing two sticks in a termite mound. The question posed determines which stick the termites are expected to chew first. The answer is based on the stick that is chewed more by the termites. • Rubbing-board Oracle (Iwa): This is a more accessible oracle, where a small board is rubbed against another surface. The friction and resulting sounds or movements are interpreted to provide answers to questions. 2. Process of Consulting Oracles: The process of consulting oracles typically follows these steps: • Formulating Questions: The questions posed to oracles are usually binary (yes/no) and are formulated carefully to ensure clear answers. • Performing the Ritual: Depending on the oracle, the appropriate ritual or procedure is followed. For the poison oracle, this involves preparing the poison, selecting the chicken, and administering the poison while asking the question. • Interpreting Results: The outcomes are interpreted according to established traditions. For the poison oracle, if the chicken dies, it may indicate one answer, whereas its survival indicates another. 3. Factors Contributing to Perceived Accuracy: • Ritual Precision: The Azande perform oracle rituals with meticulous precision and adherence to tradition. This consistency reinforces the belief in the oracles' reliability. Any deviation from the prescribed method is believed to affect the outcome, thus emphasizing the importance of following rituals accurately. • Social Reinforcement: The community's collective belief in the oracles' accuracy reinforces their credibility. When oracles are consulted, the results are accepted by the community, which strengthens the trust in their effectiveness. Social reinforcement through communal validation ensures that the outcomes are respected and integrated into decision-making processes. • Confirmation Bias: The Azande might remember instances when the oracle's predictions were correct and forget or rationalize instances when they were not. This cognitive bias helps maintain the belief in the oracle's accuracy. Successes are highlighted and attributed to the oracle’s power, while failures are often explained away or attributed to errors in the ritual. • Psychological Comfort: Consulting oracles provides psychological comfort by offering a sense of control and certainty in uncertain situations. The belief in oracles helps the Azande cope with stress and anxiety by providing clear guidance and answers, even if the outcomes are interpreted through the lens of cultural beliefs. • Double-checking with Multiple Oracles: In critical situations, the Azande often consult multiple oracles to confirm a result. If different oracles provide consistent answers, this reinforces the perceived accuracy of the results. The use of corroborating evidence from various oracles strengthens the community’s confidence in the final decision. 4. Role in Society: • Decision-making: Oracles are used to make important decisions, such as marriage arrangements, identifying the causes of illness or misfortune, and resolving disputes. Their role in decision-making underscores their central place in Azande society. • Social Cohesion: By providing a structured method for addressing uncertainties and conflicts, oracles contribute to social cohesion. They offer a way to resolve disputes impartially, thereby maintaining harmony within the community. • Spiritual Guidance: Oracles are also seen as a means of communicating with the spiritual world, seeking guidance from ancestors and supernatural forces. This spiritual aspect reinforces their significance and the respect accorded to their outcomes. In conclusion, the Azande use oracles as crucial tools for decision-making and understanding the world around them. The perceived accuracy of these oracles is bolstered by ritual precision, social reinforcement, cognitive biases, psychological comfort, and the practice of consulting multiple oracles. These factors together create a robust belief system that upholds the oracles' authority and effectiveness in Azande society. Chapter Seven: Worship, Hierarchy, Conflict: Focus on Hinduism Multiple Choice 1. __________ refers to the many practices of worship and devotion that arose in southern Asia to seek blessings from deities, to maintain rules of purity, and to meditate on the wheel of suffering. A. Sikhism B. Hinduism C. Christianity D. Shinto Answer: B 2. About __________ percent of India’s 800 million people consider themselves Hindus, and most of them, daily and in countless ways (including sacrificial ways), carry out rituals of offerings and homage to the gods. A. 70 B. 80 C. 90 D. 97 Answer: B 3. The core of Hindu ritual is __________ or worship, directed to a deity and accompanied by offerings and chanting. A. puja B. prayer C. Vishnu D. Rama Answer: A 4. Vishnu and Shiva are two gods that stand in __________ relationship(s) to each other, Vishnu as the preserver and Shiva the destroyer. A. complimentary B. opposite C. creative D. complementary Answer: D 5. Brahma, not to be confused with the Brahmin caste grouping, is less prominent in worship, but is in fact the __________. A. intermediary B. ascetic C. creator D. purist Answer: C 6. Vishnu is usually worshiped through 1 of his 10 incarnations, in particular as Rama or __________. A. Brahma B. Krishna C. Skanda D. Shiva Answer: B 7. Vishnu and Shiva may have different wives in different temples, although Vishnu is most often represented with the goddess of fortune, __________. A. Skanda B. Lakshmi C. Ganesha D. Sundareshwara Answer: B 8. Goats, pigs, fowls, and, ideally, __________ are slaughtered and offered to deities— smaller animals to lesser deities and the buffalo to goddesses, and in particular to the Goddess in the form of Durga, who slew the buffalo-demon and whose victory is celebrated on Durga Puja or Navaratri. A. a male buffalo B. a female buffalo C. a wild boar D. a tiger Answer: A 9. Animals are often sacrificed to “hot” deities who bring __________, and particularly epidemic diseases such as smallpox. A. warfare B. peace C. calm D. violence Answer: D 10. Hindus have available a large number of older sacred works, including the early texts (the Rig Veda and the Upanishads) composed over the millennium 1400–400 B.C. E. and known collectively as __________, “knowledge”. A. harmony B. Veda C. Rig D. Upanishads Answer: B 11. Buddhist teachings became the religion of __________ under Asoka (r. 268–239), who constructed a new imperial state in India. A. the day B. du jour C. Hindus D. state Answer: D 12. One indicator that violence was renounced as a central element in Hindu life was the practice of conducting animal sacrifice alongside __________ sacrifice. A. material B. bird C. virtual D. vegetable Answer: D 13. The sacrificial fire in the kitchen of a home in Madhya Pradesh, central India, is composed of what fuel? A. wood B. cow dung C. dog dung D. methane gas Answer: B 14. Major Hindu communities are found in __________, Europe, and the Americas, and Hindus make up a large proportion of the populations of some Caribbean islands, Fiji, and Bali. A. Africa B. Asia C. East Asia D. South America Answer: A 15. Hindu festivals all revolve around making offerings to the gods. Festivals vary across India, including the springtime Holi, celebrated in north India to mark the burning of the _________ and the start of the agricultural season. A. crop stubble B. altar fire C. demonness Holika D. demon Shiva Answer: C 16. All forms of offering, simple or elaborate, involve __________, communicating, and making offerings. A. worship B. purifying C. ritual clarification D. reclassification of the deities Answer: B 17. Opposition to sacrifice was one element in broader movements for religious reform and national self-determination. Some of these movements were influenced by Western rationalist ideas about religion, but the movements also incorporated _________ ideas about proper Hinduism. A. Brahmans’ B. Vishnu’s C. Shiva’s D. Vedas’ Answer: A 18. __________ schools promote the idea that one must learn the content of religions before learning to practice it. A. Agamic B. Shivaite C. Vedic D. Bhakti Answer: A 19. The Hindu pilgrim’s goal is to enhance his temple experience through journey, to “exchange vision” (__________) with deities many times in many places. A. Vishnu B. Shivaite C. Bhakti D. darshan Answer: D 20. The prototypical goal of the Hindu pilgrim is Benares (Kashi, Varanasi) in north central India. This “City of Light” lies alongside the __________, a river said to have descended from heaven to earth. A. Indus B. Arawati C. Nile D. Ganges Answer: D 21. Benares is the most widely acclaimed ford of all. To many Hindus, it is the __________ (as is Jerusalem to some Christians, Mecca to some Muslims, and Beijing to some Chinese) A. quintessential place B. center of the universe C. center of Hinduism D. place of passage Answer: B 22. Benares also attracts pilgrims to bathe in its particularly sacred waters and to cremate their dead. The pilgrim’s first duty is to __________ in the river on one of its many landings. Pilgrims bathe in the Ganges to partake of its purifying powers, brown and replete with ashes and bacteria though it is. A. bathe B. swim C. drink D. meditate Answer: A 23. When one’s ashes lie on the Ganges, one’s spirit crosses over from earth to __________. A. the moon B. the star alpha Centauri C. liberation D. a new life free of strife Answer: C 24. Hindu unity meant opposition to __________, and the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) called for mosques to be removed from several sacred spots, including in Ayodhya. A. Buddhists B. Christians C. Muslims D. Sikhs Answer: C 25. According to Bowen, Brubaker, and Laitin, religious or ethnic differences do not, of themselves, cause __________. A. respect B. harmony C. violence D. conflict Answer: D Essay Questions 1. What is the best predictor of nonviolence in Indian cities when contemplating the relationships between Muslim and Hindu associations at the local level? Answer: Best Predictor of Nonviolence in Indian Cities: Hindu-Muslim Associations The best predictor of nonviolence in Indian cities, when contemplating the relationships between Muslim and Hindu associations at the local level, is the presence of strong, intercommunal civic engagement and organizations that promote regular interaction and cooperation between the two communities. This dynamic can be understood through several key aspects: 1. Intercommunal Civic Organizations: Cities that have strong, active civic organizations where Hindus and Muslims regularly interact are less likely to experience communal violence. These organizations include trade unions, business associations, neighborhood groups, and sports clubs, which foster positive interactions and mutual dependence across communal lines. 2. Regular Interaction and Social Ties: Regular interaction between Hindus and Muslims at the local level helps build personal relationships and social ties that can mitigate tensions. When people from different communities work, trade, or socialize together, they are more likely to view each other as individuals rather than stereotyped representatives of their communities. This reduces the likelihood of dehumanization and scapegoating, which are often precursors to violence. 3. Cross-communal Coalitions: The formation of cross-communal coalitions for common causes, such as local development projects or civic issues, also plays a critical role in preventing violence. These coalitions provide a platform for collaborative problem-solving and demonstrate that cooperation is more beneficial than conflict. 4. Leadership and Mediation: The presence of respected community leaders and mediators who can address grievances and defuse tensions before they escalate is crucial. Effective leadership that advocates for peace and mutual understanding can help steer communities away from violence. 5. Shared Economic Interests: Economic interdependence between communities, where both Hindus and Muslims benefit from trade and business partnerships, can also promote nonviolence. When economic stability and prosperity depend on peaceful coexistence, there is a stronger incentive to maintain harmony. 6. Historical Context and Memory: The historical context of intercommunal relations and the collective memory of past cooperation or conflict also influence the likelihood of violence. Cities with a history of peaceful coexistence and successful conflict resolution are better positioned to prevent violence. Case Studies: Research by Ashutosh Varshney highlights specific case studies in Indian cities that illustrate these points. In cities like Calicut (Kozhikode) and Surat, strong networks of intercommunal associations have been pivotal in maintaining peace. Conversely, cities lacking such networks, like Aligarh and Ahmedabad, have experienced higher levels of communal violence. 2. What practice of the Hindu closely compares to that of the Muslim Hajj? Describe the ritual process. Answer: Hindu Practice Comparable to the Muslim Hajj: Kumbh Mela A Hindu practice that closely compares to the Muslim Hajj is the Kumbh Mela. Both are large-scale pilgrimage events with deep spiritual significance, involving elaborate rituals and immense gatherings of devotees. 1. Overview of Kumbh Mela: The Kumbh Mela is a major pilgrimage festival in Hinduism, celebrated four times over a course of twelve years, rotating among four locations: Prayagraj (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain, and Nashik. The most significant among these is the Maha Kumbh Mela, held at Prayagraj every twelve years. 2. Ritual Process of Kumbh Mela: a. Preparation and Pilgrimage: • Pilgrimage: Devotees travel from all over India and the world to the designated Kumbh Mela site. The journey itself is considered a spiritual act, with pilgrims often traveling in groups, singing hymns, and reciting prayers. • Purification: Before entering the Kumbh Mela grounds, pilgrims often perform rituals of purification, including fasting and taking vows of celibacy and abstinence. b. The Sacred Bath (Shahi Snan): • Main Ritual: The most important ritual of the Kumbh Mela is the Shahi Snan or the royal bath. It takes place on specific auspicious dates determined by Hindu astrology. Devotees believe that taking a dip in the holy rivers during these dates cleanses them of sins and grants spiritual merit. • Procession of Akharas: Various sects and monastic orders, known as Akharas, lead grand processions to the riverbanks. These processions are highly ritualistic, featuring chants, music, and symbolic displays of religious artifacts. c. Worship and Satsangs: • Puja and Arti: Pilgrims engage in various forms of worship, including offering puja (ritual offerings) and participating in arti (ceremonial light offering) ceremonies along the riverbanks. • Satsangs and Sermons: The Kumbh Mela also features spiritual discourses (satsangs) by revered saints and gurus. These sessions provide pilgrims with spiritual teachings and guidance. d. Community Activities: • Feeding the Poor: Acts of charity, such as feeding the poor and distributing alms, are integral to the Kumbh Mela. These acts are seen as ways to earn spiritual merit and demonstrate compassion. • Cultural Performances: The festival includes cultural events, such as traditional music and dance performances, which enhance the communal and celebratory atmosphere. 3. Significance and Parallels with Hajj: • Spiritual Significance: Like the Hajj, the Kumbh Mela is considered a path to spiritual purification and salvation. Both pilgrimages are acts of faith and devotion, fulfilling important religious duties for their respective adherents. • Mass Participation: Both events attract millions of devotees, creating one of the largest gatherings of people in the world. The scale and logistics of these events require extensive planning and coordination. • Ritual Purification: Central to both pilgrimages is the concept of ritual purification—through the holy bath in the Kumbh Mela and the various rites performed during the Hajj, such as the Tawaf (circumambulation of the Kaaba) and the Sa'i (walking between the hills of Safa and Marwah). In conclusion, the Kumbh Mela is a Hindu pilgrimage that parallels the Muslim Hajj in its scale, spiritual significance, and the elaborate rituals involved. Both serve as profound expressions of faith, bringing together vast numbers of believers in acts of devotion and communal solidarity. 3. Why do Hindus still perform ritual sacrifice? What is the significance of the change to vegetable sacrifice? Answer: Reasons for Hindu Ritual Sacrifice and the Significance of the Change to Vegetable Sacrifice Ritual Sacrifice in Hinduism: Ritual sacrifice in Hinduism has ancient roots, historically involving the offering of animals, and even humans in some extreme and rare instances, to deities. The primary reasons for these sacrifices include: 1. Appeasing Deities: Sacrifices are performed to appease deities and seek their blessings for prosperity, health, and protection from harm. This practice is grounded in the belief that offerings can secure divine favor and avert misfortune. 2. Purification and Merit: Sacrifices are also seen as acts of purification, expiating sins and accumulating spiritual merit. The sacrificial act is believed to cleanse the individual or community, maintaining cosmic order (rita) and social harmony. 3. Ritual Tradition: Sacrifices are integral to many Hindu rituals, deeply embedded in cultural and religious traditions. They are performed during festivals, religious ceremonies, and life-cycle events to honor the gods and ancestors. Change to Vegetable Sacrifice: Over time, there has been a significant shift from animal to vegetable sacrifices, driven by several factors: 1. Ahimsa (Non-violence): The principle of ahimsa, or non-violence, is a core tenet of Hindu philosophy, particularly emphasized in Jainism, Buddhism, and certain Hindu sects like Vaishnavism. This principle has led to a reevaluation of the ethics of animal sacrifice. 2. Spiritual Evolution: As Hindu thought evolved, there was a growing emphasis on internal spiritual practices over external rituals. Devotion (bhakti) and personal purity became more central, reducing the emphasis on animal sacrifices. 3. Vegetarianism: The rise of vegetarianism among Hindus, influenced by texts like the Bhagavad Gita and the teachings of influential reformers like Mahavira and Buddha, contributed to the preference for non-animal offerings. 4. Socio-Cultural Changes: Modern social and ethical considerations, along with legal restrictions on animal cruelty in many regions, have further encouraged the shift towards vegetable sacrifices. Significance of Vegetable Sacrifice: Vegetable sacrifices maintain the symbolic essence of offerings without involving harm to animals. They represent: 1. Purity and Ahimsa: Vegetable offerings align with the principle of non-violence and purity, making the ritual more ethically acceptable to contemporary practitioners. 2. Symbolic Offerings: The essence of the sacrifice is preserved symbolically. The act of giving, rather than the material being offered, is emphasized, allowing devotees to continue traditional practices in a more humane manner. 3. Inclusivity: Vegetable sacrifices are more inclusive, accommodating the dietary preferences and ethical beliefs of a broader spectrum of Hindu practitioners. 4. What is important about the god Agni to Hindu sacrifice? Answer: Importance of the God Agni to Hindu Sacrifice Role of Agni in Hindu Sacrifice: Agni, the fire god, is central to Hindu sacrificial rituals (yajnas). His significance includes: 1. Mediator between Humans and Gods: Agni acts as a mediator, carrying offerings from humans to the gods. In Vedic rituals, the sacrificial fire is considered the mouth of the gods, through which offerings are consumed. 2. Purification and Transformation: Fire purifies and transforms offerings, symbolizing the purification of the devotees' intentions and desires. This transformative power of Agni is essential for the efficacy of the sacrifice. 3. Sustainer of the Universe: In Vedic cosmology, Agni is a sustainer of the universe, representing vital energy and life force. Sacrifices performed with Agni's presence are believed to sustain cosmic order (rita) and ensure the well-being of the world. 4. Invocation and Blessings: Agni is invoked at the beginning of rituals to sanctify the space and invite other deities. His presence is essential for invoking divine blessings and ensuring the success of the ritual. 5. How does opposition to Hindu sacrifice lead to the renunciation of meat-eating? Explain. Answer: Opposition to Hindu Sacrifice and Renunciation of Meat-Eating Opposition to Sacrifice: Opposition to animal sacrifice in Hinduism has historical roots and has led to significant shifts in dietary practices: 1. Ethical and Philosophical Grounds: Philosophical movements like Jainism and Buddhism, emerging around the 6th century BCE, strongly opposed animal sacrifice on ethical grounds. These religions emphasized ahimsa and the sanctity of all life forms, promoting non-violence as a fundamental principle. 2. Reform Movements: Hindu reform movements, such as the Bhakti movement and teachings of saints like Kabir and Ramananda, also emphasized devotion and inner purity over ritual sacrifices. They criticized ritualistic practices and promoted a more personal and ethical approach to spirituality. Renunciation of Meat-Eating: The opposition to animal sacrifice contributed to the renunciation of meat-eating among many Hindus: 1. Ahimsa and Diet: As the principle of ahimsa gained prominence, vegetarianism became a logical extension of non-violence. Abstaining from meat was seen as a way to avoid harm to living beings, aligning diet with ethical and spiritual values. 2. Purity and Spiritual Discipline: Vegetarianism is associated with purity and spiritual discipline. Many Hindu texts advocate for a vegetarian diet as conducive to spiritual growth, mental clarity, and bodily health. 3. Cultural Identity: Over time, vegetarianism became a marker of Hindu cultural and religious identity, particularly among Brahmins and other upper-caste communities who emphasized ritual purity. Interconnection of Beliefs: The opposition to animal sacrifice and the shift towards vegetarianism are interconnected aspects of a broader transformation within Hinduism, reflecting evolving ethical, spiritual, and cultural values. These changes illustrate the dynamic nature of Hindu practices, adapting to new philosophical insights and societal norms while retaining core spiritual principles. In conclusion, the practice of ritual sacrifice and its evolution within Hinduism, along with the central role of Agni and the shift towards vegetarianism, highlight the complex interplay of tradition, ethics, and spirituality in Hindu life. These transformations reflect broader philosophical developments and the enduring relevance of core Hindu values like non-violence and purity. Test Bank for Religions in Practice: An Approach to the Anthropology of Religions John R. Bowen 9780205961047

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