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This Document Contains Chapters 3 to 5 Chapter Three: Domains And Boundaries Of Religion Multiple Choice 1. In practice, __________ freely blend elements from indigenous practices, state-inspired Shinto, and the traditions of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, with a bit of Christianity thrown in from time to time. A. Asians B. Japanese C. Chinese D. Burmese Answer: B 2. Across many surveys, from __________ of Japanese people say that they have no religious beliefs (compared to fewer than 10 percent in the United States). A. 65 percent to 85 percent B. 25 percent to 35 percent C. 35 percent to 45 percent D. 55 percent to 65 percent Answer: A 3. Within the __________, it is relatively easy to try a new healing religion without abandoning offerings to household spirits and Buddhist deities. A. Chinese religious world view B. Indian religious world view C. Japanese religious world view D. Burmese religious world view Answer: C 4. The religious–cultural emphasis on practices over doctrines makes it easier for Japanese to combine elements from the different religious traditions __________. A. Shintoism and Buddhism B. Shintoism and Regaeism C. Hinduism and Buddhism D. Sikhism and Buddhism Answer: A 5. Basic to the Japanese Shinto tradition are spirits or __________ (Earhart 1982), which are located in specific places in the empirical world: in a boulder, or a house, or a shrine. A. rami B. desca C. Inari D. kami Answer: D 6. Important to everyday life in Japan is the spirit of a rice field. This spirit lives a dual existence, as the figure of __________, the rice deity, and also as the spirit guarding each particular field. A. rami B. desca C. Inari D. kami Answer: C 7. Sometime famous people will become deified as __________ and have shrines built to them, but for a mixture of reasons. A. rami B. desca C. Inari D. kami Answer: D 8. Increased ease of transport has meant that Japanese increasingly visit the more famous shrines in __________ cities. A. smaller B. rural C. distant D. larger Answer: D 9. The Buddhist religion came into existence in the __________ century B.C.E. in what is today northern India, when the historical Buddha, Siddhartha of the clan Gautama, found enlightenment after long meditation. A. fourth B. fifth C. sixth D. seventh Answer: C 10. The “three jewels” of Buddhism include the Buddha, the Sangha or community, and __________. A. karma B. dharma C. reincarnation D. transmigration Answer: B 11. In South Asia, Buddhism diverged into two major streams: Theravada and __________. A. Mahayana B. Zen C. Shingon D. Nichiren Answer: A 12. The __________ stream of Buddhism spread northward from India through Tibet and China. A. Mahayana B. Zen C. Shingon D. Nichiren Answer: A 13. Zen practitioners may use __________ problems that appear unsolvable, as a way of breaking down the barriers that everyday linear thinking places in the path to enlightenment. A. Shingon B. Nichiren C. koan D. kami Answer: C 14. Confucius taught that social order and welfare depended on maintaining the proper __________ relationships between persons, particularly those of father to son and ruler to subject. A. rigid B. fluid C. hierarchical D. convoluted Answer: C 15. State promotion of religions began between the sixth and ninth centuries with the adoption of __________ ideas that the emperor is both divine and the active ruler of society. A. Malay B. Chinese C. Indonesian D. Indian Answer: B 16. In 728, the emperor built the Todai temple in Nara as the first national temple. The statue of Buddha inside the temple, called “__________,” still stands as the largest Buddhist statue in the world. A. Buddha B. Vishnu C. Lochana D. Amaterasu Answer: C 17. The __________ Restoration combined economic restructuring with the creation of a cult of the emperor. A hierarchy of Shinto priests was created, and the result has come to be called State Shinto. A. Meiji B. Todai C. Secular D. Hirohito Answer: A 18. The new Japanese Constitution states that the emperor is not __________, but only “the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people.” A. holy B. respected C. significant D. divine Answer: D 19. The eighth-century ascendancy of Buddhism in Japan was accompanied by a change from burial to __________ for emperors and empresses, following Buddhist practice. A. half-flexed burial B. fully-flexed burial C. cremation D. incineration Answer: C 20. What is clear in Japan is that lines between religions are __________ or, rather, that religions are not defined by the individual’s exclusive commitment to one set of doctrines as opposed to others. A. distinct B. fuzzy C. redundant D. remarkable Answer: B 21. Many modern states in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have drawn their ideas of religion from Western, Christian, and to some extent, Islamic models, and often __________ these ideas on local people who think about their beliefs and practices in quite different ways. A. imposed B. projected C. impressed D. forced Answer: A 22. The Indonesian government has “belief in one God” as one of the planks of its ideology. The state defines religion as having a sacred book, a monotheistic foundation, exclusive boundaries, and as transcending __________ boundaries. A. cultural B. social C. normal D. ethnic Answer: D 23. How is it that the Indonesian government could consider Hinduism a monotheistic faith? A. The various Hindu gods are all non-entities. B. Hindu gods stand for animistic symbols, thus are not really gods. C. Hindu gods were reclassified as the one Protestant God, known to Christians as Yahweh. D. The government declared that the various Hindu gods were all manifestations of a single absolute deity. Answer: D 24. The Indonesian state decreed that everyone should belong to one of five religions: Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism; __________ was recognized, then removed, and re-added in 1998. A. Catholicism B. Confucianism C. Hinduism D. Islam Answer: B 25. Rituals of possession and healing are performed cross-culturally by __________, ritual experts who are possessed by spirits. A. mabolong B. witches C. shamans D. sorcerers Answer: C Essay Questions 1. Explain how it is that when queried, most Japanese say they are not religious, and yet, most practice some form of Shinto or Buddhism? Answer: Japanese Perception of Religion When asked if they are religious, many Japanese people respond negatively, often stating that they do not identify with a specific religion. This phenomenon can be attributed to several cultural, historical, and societal factors. 1. Concept of Religion: In Japan, the concept of "religion" (shūkyō) is often associated with organized, doctrinal, and institutionalized faiths, much like Christianity, which contrasts with the more fluid and integrative nature of Shinto and Buddhism in Japanese life. 2. Cultural Practices vs. Religious Identity: Shinto and Buddhism in Japan are deeply intertwined with cultural and social practices rather than rigid religious doctrines. For many Japanese, participating in rituals such as visiting Shinto shrines (jinja) for New Year's prayers, celebrating festivals (matsuri), or holding Buddhist funerals is more about cultural heritage and tradition than religious belief. These practices are integrated into daily life and are not seen as requiring religious identity. 3. Syncretism: Japanese religious practice is highly syncretic, meaning that Shinto and Buddhist beliefs and practices coexist and often blend seamlessly. This syncretism allows individuals to partake in rituals from both traditions without needing to choose a single religious identity. 4. Secularism and Modernity: Post-World War II Japan underwent significant secularization and modernization. The Japanese constitution guarantees freedom of religion, and the state maintains a policy of separation of religion and government. This secular approach has led many to see their practices more as cultural activities rather than religious obligations. Shinto and Buddhism in Daily Life Despite the general disavowal of religious identity, Shinto and Buddhism play a significant role in Japanese life: Shinto: Shinto is an indigenous belief system that focuses on kami (spirits associated with natural elements and ancestors). It emphasizes rituals and festivals that promote harmony and community. Many Japanese visit Shinto shrines for rites of passage such as births, weddings, and New Year celebrations. Buddhism: Buddhism, which arrived in Japan in the 6th century, primarily influences practices related to death and the afterlife. Many Japanese families maintain Buddhist altars (butsudan) in their homes and hold Buddhist funerals and memorial services. 2. France has freedom of religion and yet restricts some practices. How do the needs of the state seem to contradict this freedom? Why? How does Britain differ in its approach to the same sets of practices? Answer: France's Approach France is known for its principle of laïcité (secularism), which emphasizes the separation of religion from public life. This principle underpins the French state's approach to freedom of religion and the regulation of religious practices. 1. Secularism and Public Sphere: France's strict interpretation of laïcité leads to policies that restrict the display of religious symbols and practices in public institutions. For example, wearing conspicuous religious symbols, such as hijabs or large crosses, is prohibited in public schools and by public sector employees. The aim is to maintain a neutral public sphere where religion does not influence state affairs or infringe on the secular values of the Republic. 2. Contradictions and Tensions: These restrictions can be seen as contradictory to the principle of freedom of religion. The state's efforts to preserve secularism sometimes infringe on individual rights to express their religious beliefs. The ban on wearing face-covering veils (niqab and burqa) in public spaces, for example, has been criticized for targeting Muslim women and limiting their freedom of religious expression. Britain's Approach Britain, in contrast to France, adopts a more flexible and multicultural approach to religious practices. 1. State and Religion: Unlike France, Britain does not have a strict separation of church and state. The Church of England is the established church, and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor. This historical relationship allows for a more accommodating attitude towards religion in public life. 2. Multiculturalism: Britain embraces a multicultural approach, allowing greater expression of religious diversity. Religious symbols and practices are generally permitted in public institutions, including schools and workplaces. This approach aims to respect and celebrate cultural and religious diversity rather than enforcing a uniform secular public sphere. 3. Legal Protections: British law protects religious freedom and prohibits discrimination based on religion. The Equality Act 2010, for instance, ensures that individuals are not treated unfairly because of their religious beliefs or practices. Conclusion The difference between France and Britain in handling religious practices illustrates varying interpretations of how to balance state interests with individual freedoms. France's stringent secularism aims to create a neutral public space but often leads to restrictions that contradict freedom of religion. In contrast, Britain's more accommodating and multicultural approach allows for greater religious expression, reflecting a different balance between state interests and individual rights. These contrasting approaches highlight the complexities and challenges inherent in managing religious diversity within democratic societies. 3. How do Western notions of religion differ from those of the East? Answer: Western and Eastern notions of religion differ significantly in terms of structure, practice, and conceptualization: Western Notions of Religion 1. Institutional and Doctrinal: Western religions, particularly Christianity, tend to be organized around formal institutions (churches, clergy) and clear doctrines. They often emphasize adherence to specific beliefs, creeds, and moral codes. 2. Monotheism: Western religions are predominantly monotheistic, focusing on the worship of a single, all-powerful deity. This is evident in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. 3. Separation of Sacred and Secular: There is often a clear distinction between the sacred and the secular. Religious practices and spaces are set apart from everyday life, and there is a tendency to separate religion from other social institutions. 4. Exclusive Membership: Western religions often require a clear commitment to a specific faith, with conversion processes that signify a change in religious identity. This can lead to an exclusive sense of belonging, where one is either a member of the religion or not. Eastern Notions of Religion 1. Philosophical and Syncretic: Eastern religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Shinto, often integrate philosophical teachings with religious practices. They tend to be more syncretic, blending elements from various traditions and philosophies. 2. Polytheism and Animism: Many Eastern religions are polytheistic or animistic. Hinduism, for example, worships a multitude of gods and goddesses, while Shinto venerates kami, spirits present in nature. 3. Integration of Sacred and Secular: In Eastern traditions, the sacred and secular are often intertwined. Religious practices are embedded in daily life, festivals, and social activities, making it difficult to separate religious from non-religious aspects. 4. Inclusive and Flexible: Eastern religions are generally more inclusive and flexible regarding membership. It is common for individuals to participate in multiple religious traditions without the need for formal conversion. For instance, in Japan, people often partake in both Shinto and Buddhist practices. 4. The Wana of Sulawesi utilize shamanic practices for what purpose? How do they perform their “rituals”? Why would the Wana say that these practices are not religious (in the Western sense)? Answer: Purpose of Shamanic Practices The Wana people of Sulawesi utilize shamanic practices primarily for healing, maintaining harmony with the spirit world, and addressing social and environmental issues. Shamans, known as tadulako, act as mediators between the human and spirit worlds, diagnosing and treating illnesses believed to be caused by spiritual disturbances or imbalances. Performance of Rituals Wana shamanic rituals involve various techniques to enter altered states of consciousness and communicate with spirits: • Trance and Possession: Shamans enter trance states, often through drumming, chanting, or dancing, allowing spirits to possess them and provide guidance or healing. • Use of Natural Elements: Rituals often include the use of natural elements like water, plants, and animal parts, believed to hold spiritual power. • Communal Participation: Rituals are typically communal events, involving the participation of the community in singing, dancing, and supporting the shaman’s work. Perception of Practices as Non-Religious The Wana might not consider these practices religious in the Western sense because: • Integration into Daily Life: Shamanic practices are deeply integrated into daily life and cultural traditions, not set apart as distinct "religious" activities. • Lack of Institutionalization: There is no formal religious institution or doctrine governing these practices. They are fluid, adaptive, and embedded in the social fabric. • Functional Perspective: The focus is on practical outcomes, such as healing and maintaining balance, rather than on worship or adherence to a set of beliefs. 5. Exactly how ubiquitous are the Japanes kami? How many might there be? What does the term kami refer to? What is the relationship between kami and Shinto gateways called torii? Answer: Ubiquity and Number of Kami Kami are ubiquitous in Japanese culture, with an immense number believed to exist. The term "kami" encompasses a wide range of spirits, deities, and forces of nature, making their exact number indeterminate. It is often said that there are "eight million kami," a term used poetically to signify an innumerable multitude. Definition of Kami Kami refers to: • Spirits of Nature: Entities residing in natural features such as mountains, rivers, trees, and rocks. • Deities and Ancestors: Gods and revered ancestors worshipped for their spiritual influence and guidance. • Phenomena and Forces: Abstract forces like fertility, growth, and natural phenomena, all seen as manifestations of kami. Relationship between Kami and Torii Torii are traditional Japanese gateways that mark the entrance to sacred spaces, particularly Shinto shrines. The relationship between kami and torii can be understood as follows: • Symbolic Gateways: Torii symbolize the transition from the mundane to the sacred. Passing through a torii signifies entering the realm of the kami. • Markers of Sacredness: They serve as markers that designate the presence of kami and the boundary of their sacred space. • Invoking Respect: The presence of a torii encourages respect and reverence for the sacred space and the kami inhabiting it. In summary, kami are deeply embedded in the fabric of Japanese culture and spirituality, with torii serving as visible reminders of their pervasive presence and the sacred spaces they inhabit. Chapter Four: Rituals of Transition Multiple Choice 1. The sociologist Arnold van Gennep pointed out in 1908 that across many societies, __________ display a similar sequential structure. A. transition rituals B. separation rituals C. reincorporation rituals D. introductory rituals Answer: A 2. Arnold van Gennep notes that rites marking birth, puberty, __________, and death, are often structured temporally as _________ distinct stages. A. marriage/four B. marriage/three C. adolescence/three D. adolescence/four Answer: B 3. The first stage of a transition ritual __________. A. incorporates a person into the new milieu B. separates a person from the entire society C. separates a person from the ordinary social environment D. requires a person to redefine him or herself in light of the new changes Answer: C 4. The second or middle stage of a transition ritual __________. A. is one of marginality, where a person is outside of normal social life B. is short, but necessary for the observation of taboos, etc. which lead to the new life C. requires the person to observe many new formal practices D. includes painful practices, mostly secretive in nature Answer: A 5. The final (third) stage of transition rituals __________. A. includes the final painful processes that allow a person to reincorporate into society B. preclude the earlier two stages and isolate the person in question for years at a time C. lead to the reincorporation of the individual into society (or into the afterlife society) now possessing a new status D. creates a new, whole, member of society (or a member of the afterlife society) Answer: C 6. Each year during the pilgrimage month of the Islamic lunar calendar, more than a million Muslims from throughout the world gather in the holy places in and around __________. A. Jerusalem B. Medina C. Riyadh D. Mecca Answer: D 7. Today, most Muslims live in Indonesia, __________, Bangladesh, and India; others are spread through Africa, Asia, and, increasingly, Western Europe and North America. A. Peru B. Paraguay C. Singapore D. Pakistan Answer: D 8. Muslims consider the actions of the Prophet Muhammad divinely inspired —not because he was divine himself, but because he spoke and acted as __________. A. a prophet B. an angel from afar C. God’s messenger D. an agent of change Answer: C 9. The collection of reports about Muhammad’s statements and actions is called the __________ and act as a supplement to the Qur’ân. A. addition B. “hadîth” C. “book” D. “hajj” Answer: B 10. The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca is known as the __________. A. great challenge B. “hadîth” C. “personal victory” D. “hajj” Answer: D 11. Making the pilgrimage is one of the __________ ritual obligations, or rukns (pillars), of Islam. A. three B. four C. five D. six Answer: C 12. Death rituals across societies can be seen as highlighting ideas about the individual’s relationship to the __________. A. infinite B. collectivity C. void D. society Answer: B 13. In much of China and Taiwan, villagers conceive of the spiritual world as composed of three beings: __________, gods, and ancestors. A. angels B. spirits C. ghosts D. demons Answer: C 14. Today the combined expenses of burial, home altar with tablets, and the services of a Buddhist priest can amount to a Japanese middle-class family’s __________ pretax income. A. two-month B. three-month C. six-month D. one-year Answer: D 15. In Japan, __________ generally is the time to make offerings to the ancestors. The ritual grave near the house is cleared and a path is swept leading back to the house. A. Hajj B. Obon C. Gaki-do D. Okichi Answer: B 16. Death rituals also frequently feature images of journeys to new worlds, enactments of rebirth, or the __________. A. disinterment and reburial of bones B. exhumation of the corpse C. removal of the coffin to a new location D. removal and reburial of a coffin under a new name to confuse evil spirits Answer: A 17. Death is often linked to __________ in the transition stages. A. illness B. sickness C. disability D. life and fertility Answer: D 18. The Asmat call themselves the “tree people.” Their environment is __________. A. wet B. dry C. wood D. rock Answer: C 19. The Asmat once took revenge for a death by taking a/an __________ in a raid on another clan, thus continuing the cycle of death and retribution. A. life B. head C. victim D. animal Answer: B 20. The practice of __________ is intended to provide material signs of the transition from life to an afterlife in the form of the state of the bones of the dead after decomposition is supposed to have set in. A. burial B. primary burial C. secondary burial D. tertiary reburial Answer: C 21. The sociologist Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), stressing the social base for much of religious life, argued that ritual action, especially when in a group, channels and determines __________. A. emotions B. feelings C. conscious states D. group reality Answer: A 22. Ritual forms, linked to __________ cultural values, prescribe sharply contrasting patterns of mourning behavior. A. predominant B. dominant C. subordinate D. marginal Answer: B 23. Christian Scientists argue that bereaved people can and should lift themselves out of sorrow __________. A. with the help of the local community B. by publicly proclaiming their loss C. through the sheer force of the will D. through a series of public and religious meetings geared toward dealing with grief Answer: C 24. In some parts of Brazil, lower-class men and women treat the death of a very young child as a blessing. The child will be taken to heaven and is already __________. A. a little angel B. a little spirit C. a little child D. one with God Answer: A 25. Unni Wikan concludes that Balinese appearances of calm and joy in the face of loss are not due to a theater-like detachment from the world, but rather to their strong fears of __________ and their ideas about how best to combat it. A. loss of face B. witchcraft C. sorcery D. loss of friendship Answer: C Essay Questions 1. Evaluate the three-stage model of transition rituals with examples either from your own life or someone close that you have observed. Answer: 1. Separation: Leaving for college after high school graduation. Example: A friend moved to a different city for university, marking a clear separation from their hometown and previous routines. 2. Transition or Liminal Phase: Starting a new job in a different industry. Example: My cousin switched careers from accounting to graphic design, navigating a period of uncertainty and adaptation as they learned new skills and adjusted to a different work culture. 3. Incorporation or Reintegration: Graduating from university and starting a career. Example: I experienced this transition personally, moving from student life to full-time employment, where I had to integrate my academic knowledge into practical work situations and establish new routines. 2. What is the debate over emotion about? Does this debate question what it is to be human? Do societies control our emotions or do they just control our outward expression of emotion? Answer: The debate over emotion revolves around whether emotions are primarily biological or socially constructed phenomena. This debate challenges our understanding of what it means to be human by questioning the extent to which emotions are innate or shaped by cultural and social factors. Societies influence both the expression and regulation of emotions, often through norms, values, and social expectations, shaping how emotions are displayed publicly. Thus, while societies may not directly control emotions themselves, they exert significant influence over how emotions are expressed outwardly within social contexts. 3. Describe the importance of the Muslim Hajj. Answer: The Muslim Hajj holds profound significance both religiously and culturally within Islam. It is the fifth pillar of Islam and entails a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which every adult Muslim who is physically and financially capable is obligated to undertake at least once in their lifetime. 1. Spiritual Journey: Hajj is considered a spiritual journey of purification and renewal. It symbolizes the unity of Muslims worldwide, regardless of nationality, race, or social status, gathered in worship of Allah. 2. Historical and Scriptural Basis: The rituals performed during Hajj trace back to the time of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his family, affirming the continuity of faith and obedience to Allah's commands as exemplified in Islamic scripture. 3. Community Bonding: Hajj fosters a sense of community and brotherhood/sisterhood among Muslims. Pilgrims from diverse backgrounds come together in mutual respect and humility, reinforcing Islamic values of equality and solidarity. 4. Forgiveness and Redemption: Completing Hajj is believed to cleanse sins and bring spiritual purification. Pilgrims seek forgiveness from Allah and aim to return home spiritually renewed and resolved to live a better life. 5. Personal Transformation: Hajj is a transformative experience for many pilgrims, deepening their faith, fostering humility, and instilling a sense of gratitude and piety. In summary, the Hajj is not only a religious duty but also a profound spiritual journey that reinforces the core beliefs and practices of Islam while promoting unity, humility, and devotion among Muslims worldwide. 4. Detail the stages of the Hajj and differentiate between the secular portions and when a person must enter a state of consecration, or ihram. Answer: The Hajj pilgrimage consists of several stages, each with its own rituals and significance. Here’s a detailed overview of the stages of Hajj: 1. Ihram (State of Consecration): • Secular vs. Consecration: Before entering Mecca, pilgrims must enter a state of ihram. This involves wearing simple white garments (for men) and adhering to specific rules of conduct, such as refraining from cutting hair or nails, using perfume, or engaging in certain activities that are permissible outside of ihram. • Purpose: Ihram symbolizes purity and equality before Allah, emphasizing spiritual readiness and devotion for the pilgrimage. 2. Tawaf and Sa'i: • Tawaf: Upon arrival in Mecca, pilgrims perform Tawaf, which involves circling the Kaaba seven times in a counter-clockwise direction, while reciting prayers and supplications. • Sa'i: Pilgrims then perform Sa'i, walking seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah, reenacting Hagar's search for water for her son Ishmael. 3. Day of Arafat (Wuquf): • Secular vs. Wuquf: Pilgrims proceed to the plain of Arafat, where they spend the day in prayer and contemplation. This is the central rite of Hajj, emphasizing supplication, forgiveness, and spiritual reflection. • Importance: Standing at Arafat symbolizes the climax of Hajj, where pilgrims seek Allah's mercy and forgiveness. 4. Muzdalifah and Rami al-Jamarat: • Muzdalifah: After sunset on the Day of Arafat, pilgrims proceed to Muzdalifah, where they gather stones for the next ritual. • Rami al-Jamarat: Pilgrims perform the symbolic stoning of the Devil by throwing pebbles at three pillars in Mina, representing rejection of evil and temptation. 5. Eid al-Adha and Tawaf al-Ifadah: • Eid al-Adha: The festival of sacrifice marks the end of Hajj. Pilgrims sacrifice an animal (usually a sheep, goat, or cow) to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son. • Tawaf al-Ifadah: After Eid prayers, pilgrims return to Mecca for another Tawaf around the Kaaba, marking the completion of the main Hajj rituals. 6. Farewell Tawaf: • Secular vs. Farewell Tawaf: Before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a Farewell Tawaf, bidding farewell to the Kaaba and concluding their pilgrimage journey. • Reflection and Departure: Pilgrims reflect on their spiritual journey and depart with a renewed commitment to faith and righteousness. In conclusion, the stages of Hajj encompass a blend of rituals, prayers, and symbolic acts that signify faith, submission to Allah, and unity among Muslims worldwide. The distinction between secular and consecrated aspects lies primarily in the state of ihram, where specific rules and rituals guide pilgrims’ conduct and spiritual focus throughout the journey. 5. Explain the three-stage process of transforming the deceased into a part of the spirit collectivity experienced by the Japanese. What special problems do urban Japanese experience? Answer: The three-stage process of transforming the deceased into a part of the spirit collectivity, as experienced by the Japanese, involves intricate cultural and religious practices deeply rooted in Shintoism and Buddhism. Here’s an explanation of each stage, along with the special problems urban Japanese may face: Three-Stage Process of Transformation: 1. Funeral Rituals and Mourning (Matsuri): • Purpose: Immediately after death, rituals known as Matsuri are performed to guide the spirit peacefully into the afterlife. • Rituals: This stage includes washing and dressing the deceased, offering prayers, and ensuring the deceased's transition with dignity. It involves elements of both Shinto and Buddhist practices, depending on family traditions. 2. Memorialization (Hoyo): • Purpose: Hoyo refers to ongoing rituals and ceremonies performed to honor and remember the deceased. • Rituals: Families conduct regular visits to gravesites, offerings of food and incense, and prayers at home altars (Butsudan) or community temples (Obon). These rituals are believed to maintain a connection between the living and the deceased, ensuring the deceased's comfort and spiritual well-being. 3. Ancestral Reverence (Sorei): • Purpose: Sorei is the long-term aspect of ancestor veneration, ensuring that deceased ancestors continue to play a role in family and community life. • Rituals: Offerings and ceremonies during festivals like Obon strengthen familial bonds across generations and reaffirm the continuity of family identity. It's believed that ancestors protect and guide their descendants, influencing family decisions and fortunes. Special Problems for Urban Japanese: 1. Limited Space and Accessibility: • Issue: Urbanization has led to smaller living spaces and fewer available burial plots. This poses challenges for traditional practices like home altars and gravesite visits. • Solution: Some urban families opt for shared graves or cremation, with ashes stored in family columbarium’s or Buddhist temples. Virtual gravesites and online memorials also cater to modern lifestyles. 2. Changing Family Structures: • Issue: Nuclear family trends and declining birth rates reduce the number of descendants available to perform ancestral rites. • Solution: Families collaborate with extended relatives or participate in community-based ceremonies to maintain traditional practices. Modern interpretations may adapt rituals to involve younger generations more actively. 3. Secularization and Relocation: • Issue: Increased secularism and migration from rural to urban areas challenge the continuity of ancestral traditions. • Solution: Urban Japanese may reinterpret rituals within a secular framework or seek spiritual guidance from non-religious sources. Community centers and social organizations offer support for those navigating cultural transitions. In conclusion, the Japanese three-stage process of transforming the deceased into a part of the spirit collectivity underscores the importance of continuity, respect, and familial ties across generations. Urbanization presents unique challenges, prompting adaptations in ritual practices while preserving the essence of cultural and spiritual connections with ancestors. Chapter Five: Healing Through Religion Multiple Choice 1. Prayers that can help someone else heal, are known as “__________.” A. intercessory prayers B. separation prayers C. reincorporation prayers D. introductory prayers Answer: A 2. Bronislaw Malinowski’s idea is that most people work on a common sense basis until they reach the limits of their capacities and __________, and only then reach for magic to extend their grasp. A. intelligence B. knowledge C. creativity D. abilities Answer: B 3. The mechanism involved in trance and hypnosis, __________, and positive imagery, reduce pain levels. A. self-hypnosis B. sympathetic nervous responses C. dissociation D. hypnosis Answer: C 4. The “__________” is part of the explanation for a number of approaches to curing. A. nocebo effect B. dissociation effect C. Coriolis Effect D. placebo effect Answer: D 5. The view that speech directly confers power flowers fully within __________ religion. __________ place speech at the center of religion as the source of creative power. A. Navajo/Navajo B. Cherokee/Cherokee C. Hopi/Hopi D. Zuni/Zuni Answer: A 6. In Japan, new forms of healing and worship bring trance mechanisms together with the Japanese cultural heritage to heal patients suffering from what we would call __________ illnesses. A. fatal B. terminal C. cultural D. psychosomatic Answer: D 7. The Mahikari world view offers to __________ the scientific world view by bringing the laws of natural cause and effect down to the level of the individual and his or her suffering. A. replace B. supplant C. offer doubt of D. supplement Answer: D 8. The process of “okiyome,” involving divination and then exorcism of the spirit, is one of __________. A. purity B. purging C. purification D. cleansing Answer: C 9. Mahikari healers diagnose a patient’s ills by detecting the __________ around their bodies. A. sickness B. illness C. aura D. chroma Answer: C 10. According to Davis (1980) central to a patient’s experience of being healed is the state of __________ into which he or she enters. __________, like any other altered state of consciousness, begins when one dissociates, or withdraws from ordinary states of consciousness. A. trance/Trance B. nervousness/Nervousness C. fear/Fear D. being/Trance Answer: A 11. Felicitas Goodman (1988) documents __________ and possession worldwide. A. dissociation B. hypnosis C. self-hypnosis D. trance Answer: D 12. Mahikari combines __________ psychosocial processes (such as trance) with culturally specific features (such as the focus on ancestors). Simply by participating in a group, regardless of its content, some people gain a stronger sense of the value of their lives. A. local B. Japanese C. universal D. humanistic Answer: C 13. Women make up 60 percent of the participants in Mahikari; many of these women are unmarried and in the traumatic period after high school during which society views them as in transition to their next state, __________. A. career B. college C. marriage D. motherhood Answer: C 14. Narratives, trance, beliefs in possession—these and other elements of religion-based healing can have strong __________ effects. A. psychological B. physiological C. placebo D. psychophysiological Answer: D 15. In one National Institute of Health–funded study ( Helm et al. 2000), over 3,000 North Carolina adults were surveyed in 1986 and then monitored over the next six years (1986–1992). The researchers controlled for social support and health behaviors and found that lack of private religious activity continued to predict a __________ percent greater risk of dying. A. 15 B. 25 C. 36 D. 47 Answer: D 16. One group of researchers (Pargament et al. 2001) studied what they called “negative religious coping” among black and white patients, a concept that they attributed to patients who wondered whether God had abandoned them, felt punished by God for their lack of devotion, or decided the Devil had made them ill. People who believed these statements experienced __________ percent greater mortality during the two-year period following hospital discharge. A. 19-28 B. 25-35 C. 45-55 D. 10-20 Answer: A 17. It seems that the __________ side of church attendance contributes to the positive effects of religion on health. A. religious B. faith C. social D. psychological Answer: C 18. A small number of medical researchers have designed studies to test the idea that if a team of “intercessors” prays for patients, patients will do better than will patients not receiving prayer from the team. What was the outcome of these experiments? A. no difference from the control group B. slightly better results for the control group C. significant improvement for the experimental group D. obvious evidence of God interceding for the ill Answer: C 19. Another approach from medical science to studying religious experience has been by way of __________ rather than experiments. A. brain mapping B. MRI of the brain C. CAT scanning of the brain D. simple PET scanning of the brain Answer: B 20. Carol Laderman argues that Malay women in the throes of labor need the help of the “bomoh” in order to give birth. The story the “bomoh” chants induces a psychological response which creates a biological response, producing __________ that reduce pain and anxiety. A. opiates B. cannabis C. endorphins D. relaxation Answer: C 21. In Navajo tradition, the individual human being has the power to change the world through __________. A. ghost mediation B. language C. art (sand paintings) D. prayer Answer: B 22. Navajo __________ also draws its powers from the story of creation. After the Holy People built the first house; they decorated the floor with bits of shale, rock, and mineral dyes. A. sand paintings B. song C. homes D. myth Answer: A 23. Japanese New Religions developed in response to new life situations, particularly in response to the __________ and anxieties felt by many newly urban Japanese. A. stresses of urban life B. new illnesses C. new diseases D. old religious beliefs Answer: B 24. The healer wears a/an __________, a small locket worn on a chain, with a piece of paper inside that has a symbol written on it. This locket is “plugged in” through the central Mahikari organization to God. The objective properties of the __________ are explained in ways that draw on electric and electronic imagery. A. amulet/amulet B. necklace/amulet C. amulet/necklace D. necklace/necklace Answer: A 25. Felicitas Goodman (1988) documents __________ worldwide. Its particular form in Japan draws on older culturally specific practices. A. religious practices B. magical practices C. trance and possession D. processes of dissociation Answer: C Essay Questions 1. Relate the results of the various studies of prayer, especially its medical effects. Answer: Studies of Prayer and Its Medical Effects: Research on prayer, especially in medical contexts, has yielded varied results and insights into its potential effects on health and well-being: • Psychological Benefits: Studies suggest that prayer can reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, promoting a sense of peace and well-being among practitioners. • Physiological Effects: Prayer has been associated with lowered heart rate, reduced blood pressure, and improved immune function in some individuals, which may contribute to overall health improvements. • Healing and Recovery: Some studies indicate that prayer, whether individual or intercessory (praying for others), may facilitate faster recovery from illnesses and surgeries. • Quality of Life: Patients often report enhanced coping mechanisms and better quality of life when prayer is integrated into their healthcare routines. • Controversies and Challenges: Despite positive findings, the scientific community debates the methodological rigor and potential biases in studies of prayer, highlighting the complexity of measuring subjective spiritual experiences and their impacts on health outcomes. In summary, while empirical evidence regarding the medical effects of prayer remains mixed and subject to ongoing research, there is acknowledgment of its potential psychological and physiological benefits in promoting holistic well-being. 2. How is it that the use of a shaman, along with a midwife, can result in an easier birth process in those cultures who normally conduct these practices? Explain and give examples. Answer: Role of Shaman and Midwife in Facilitating Easier Birth Processes: In cultures where shamans and midwives play integral roles in childbirth, their practices contribute to a supportive environment that can ease the birthing process: • Shamanic Rituals and Support: Shamans often perform rituals that aim to invoke spiritual guidance, alleviate fear, and provide emotional support to the mother and her family. For example, among the Navajo people, shamans use chants, herbs, and ceremonial practices to ensure a safe delivery and postpartum recovery. • Midwifery Expertise: Midwives possess specialized knowledge of childbirth techniques, pain management, and maternal health. Their presence reassures mothers and empowers them through physical and emotional support during labor. • Cultural Beliefs and Comfort: Beliefs in spiritual interventions and traditional practices contribute to a sense of cultural continuity and confidence in the birthing process. This cultural context can reduce anxiety and promote relaxation, facilitating smoother labor and delivery. • Case Examples: In communities like those in rural Africa or indigenous tribes in South America, the combined expertise of a shaman and midwife has been observed to reduce complications, expedite labor, and enhance maternal and infant outcomes. These practitioners complement each other’s roles, providing holistic care that addresses both physical and spiritual needs. In conclusion, the collaborative efforts of shamans and midwives in childbirth demonstrate the integration of spiritual and medical practices to enhance the birthing experience. Their combined knowledge and support not only promote physical well-being but also uphold cultural traditions and foster a sense of community health and resilience. 3. What is the purpose of the Navajo Blessing way and how is it used in healing? Answer: The Navajo Blessing way, or Hózhóójí, holds profound cultural and spiritual significance among the Navajo (Diné) people of North America. It serves multiple purposes, including healing, restoration of harmony, and ensuring a balanced life. Here’s an in-depth look at its purpose and how it is used in healing: Purpose of the Navajo Blessing way: 1. Promotion of Hózhó (Harmony and Beauty): • Core Concept: The Blessing way ritual is centered around the concept of Hózhó, which encompasses beauty, balance, health, and harmony in Navajo cosmology. • Objective: The ritual aims to restore and maintain Hózhó in individuals, families, and communities by aligning them with the natural order and spiritual principles of the universe. 2. Healing and Well-being: • Spiritual and Physical Healing: The Blessing way addresses physical ailments, emotional disturbances, and spiritual imbalances believed to disrupt Hózhó. It seeks to restore health and well-being through prayers, songs, and ceremonial practices. • Holistic Approach: Healing is approached holistically, integrating spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical aspects of an individual’s well-being. 3. Cultural Continuity and Identity: • Preservation of Tradition: The Blessing way reinforces Navajo cultural identity and continuity by transmitting traditional knowledge, values, and practices from elders to younger generations. • Community Participation: It fosters community solidarity and mutual support, with community members coming together to participate in and witness the ritual’s transformative power. Use of the Navajo Blessing way in Healing: 1. Ceremonial Components: • Chants and Prayers: The Blessing way includes sacred chants (Blessing way songs) performed by a skilled singer (Hataałii) to invoke blessings and healing energies from spiritual beings (Holy People). • Symbolic Actions: Symbolic actions such as the sprinkling of corn pollen, use of sacred plants like sage, and the construction of sandpainting’s (forbidden to photograph) play crucial roles in the ritual, symbolizing purification, protection, and spiritual renewal. 2. Individual and Collective Healing: • Personalized Rituals: Blessing ways can be tailored to address specific needs, such as healing from illness, trauma, or restoring mental and emotional balance. • Community Healing: Larger Blessing ways may involve the entire community, focusing on collective well-being and harmony, especially during times of crisis or hardship. 3. Integration with Modern Practices: • Adaptation: While rooted in ancient traditions, the Blessing way continues to adapt to modern contexts, integrating elements of contemporary life and addressing current challenges faced by Navajo individuals and communities. • Resilience and Adaptability: Its enduring relevance lies in its ability to foster resilience, cultural pride, and spiritual strength among the Navajo people, contributing to their overall health and vitality. In summary, the Navajo Blessing way serves as a powerful cultural and spiritual practice aimed at restoring harmony, promoting healing, and nurturing the well-being of individuals and communities within the framework of Navajo cosmology and traditions. 4. What is “aura” and how is it used in divination? Answer: Aura and Its Use in Divination: Aura refers to a subtle energy field believed to surround living beings, including humans, animals, and plants. It is often described as a luminous halo or aura of colored light that emanates from an individual's body. In divination practices, such as aura reading and interpretation, the aura is believed to reveal information about a person's physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual state. Characteristics and Interpretation of Aura in Divination: 1. Colors and Meanings: • Different colors of the aura are associated with various aspects of an individual's being: • Red: Vitality, strength, passion. • Blue: Calmness, communication, truthfulness. • Yellow: Intellect, optimism, creativity. • Green: Healing, growth, balance. • Purple: Spirituality, intuition, higher consciousness. • The intensity, clarity, and fluctuations of these colors are interpreted to reflect changes in the person's health, emotions, and spiritual development. 2. Techniques of Aura Reading: • Visual Observation: Some practitioners claim to see the aura directly with the naked eye or through trained psychic perception. • Photographic Techniques: Kirlian photography and other bio electrography methods allegedly capture the aura's electromagnetic field, which is then analyzed for diagnostic and interpretive purposes. • Sensing and Intuition: Sensitives and mediums use intuitive abilities to perceive and interpret the aura's qualities and changes. 3. Use in Healing and Spiritual Guidance: • Diagnostic Tool: Aura readings are used to diagnose energetic imbalances, emotional blockages, and potential health issues. • Spiritual Counseling: Insights from the aura reading can guide individuals toward emotional healing, spiritual growth, and personal transformation. • Energy Healing: Practitioners of energy medicine may use aura readings to target specific areas of imbalance and facilitate energetic healing through techniques like Reiki or pranic healing. In summary, the concept of aura in divination is a complex blend of metaphysical beliefs, psychic perception, and spiritual practice. It serves as a tool for understanding and interpreting the subtle energies surrounding individuals, offering insights into their holistic well-being and spiritual journey. 5. Relate some of the studies on the power of prayer and healing. Are any mechanisms understood that might explain the results? Answer: Studies on the Power of Prayer and Healing: Research on prayer's effects on healing has generated significant interest and debate within medical and scientific communities. While findings vary, several studies suggest potential mechanisms that could explain the observed effects: 1. Psychological and Emotional Factors: • Prayer may reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, which can enhance the body's ability to heal. • Positive emotions associated with prayer, such as hope and optimism, contribute to a more resilient mindset and improved overall well-being. 2. Physiological Changes: • Prayer has been linked to changes in physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and immune function. • These changes may promote relaxation, reduce inflammation, and support immune responses crucial for healing processes. 3. Intercessory Prayer Studies: • Some studies suggest that intercessory prayer (praying for others' well-being) can have positive effects on health outcomes. • Controlled trials have reported instances where prayer was associated with faster recovery times, reduced complications, and improved patient-reported outcomes. 4. Mind-Body Connection: • The mind-body connection plays a pivotal role in prayer's potential healing effects. • Belief systems and expectations influenced by prayer may activate neurochemical pathways in the brain associated with healing responses. 5. Spiritual and Social Support: • Prayer fosters a sense of connectedness and support within communities, which can buffer against stress and enhance resilience during illness. • Social networks strengthened by prayerful interactions may provide practical and emotional support crucial for healing. In conclusion, while the mechanisms underlying prayer's healing effects are not fully understood, research suggests that its benefits may stem from a combination of psychological, physiological, and social factors. Future studies continue to explore prayer as a complementary approach to holistic health and well-being, integrating spiritual practices with conventional medical care. Test Bank for Religions in Practice: An Approach to the Anthropology of Religions John R. Bowen 9780205961047

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