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This Document Contains Chapters 12 to 13 Chapter Twelve: New Religious Movements Multiple Choice 1. Anthony Wallace defines __________ as “a deliberate, organized, conscious effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture.” A. religion B. revitalization movements C. reflective movements D. revisionist history Answer: B 2. The tendency of Fundamentalists to separate from the world was challenged in the 1970s when the __________ movement, led by Jerry Falwell, urged Fundamentalists to work to change the world. A. Small Minority B. Amoral majority C. Moral Majority D. Silent Majority Answer: C 3. Postmillennialists” hold that Jesus will come after the world has experienced as __________ of harmonious existence. For most people in this group, which includes many Evangelical Christian denominations, the task at hand is converting as many people as possible to Christianity, in order to prepare the world for Jesus. A. period B. lengthy period C. creative period D. millennium Answer: D 4. Millenarian movements in Christianity, and in other religions, promise a total social transformation at a particular __________ moment to come in the near, future. A. world-shattering B. chosen C. pre-ordained D. surprising Answer: A 5. The peoples living on the Great Plains focused on their relations to spirits and especially the __________. A. god of buffalo B. goddess of buffalo C. creator of all things D. Great Spirit Answer: D 6. A movement in Samoa during the 1830s and 1840s was primarily motivated by the desire to possess the power and control that Samoans associated with European trade goods. Here emerged a “__________,” intended to produce new material wealth, but also based on a new combination of religious ideas. A. cargo cult B. materials cult C. cult of goods D. materialist religion Answer: A 7. Siovili stated that those who joined him in following the religious practices of the Europeans would share in the European __________. A. cultural practices B. managed shipping schedules C. goods D. services Answer: C 8. “Cargo cults” are especially common in Melanesia, the area that includes __________, perhaps because of the importance of prestige goods in these societies. Political leadership and social prestige in many Melanesian societies result from success in accumulating and redistributing food and other goods. A. Australia B. New Zealand C. the Philippines D. New Guinea and Fiji Answer: D 9. First introduced in 1870, the Ghost Dance was revived and its message spread widely by a Paiute prophet in western Nevada, __________ (c. 1856–1932). A. Ashante B. Geronimo C. Wovoka D. Tatonka Answer: C 10. The ultimate purpose of the Ghost Dance was __________. A. to eliminate all Euro-Americans from native American homelands B. to forcibly move all Euro-Americans back to Europe C. to reanimate the ancestors of Native Americans D. never truly understood as the details were controlled by a secret society of Lakota Sioux Answer: A 11. In the 1970s as Wounded Knee became, for some Native Americans, a symbol of U.S. repression, __________ revived the Ghost Dance. A. the American Lakota Society B. the American Indian Movement C. Dennis Banks D. the Lakota Sioux Answer: B 12. Asahara Shoko perpetrated the __________ on the Tokyo subway in 1995, which killed 12 people and injured thousands in response to his failures as the leader of a religious movement called Aum Shinrikyo. A. large derailment B. bombing C. flooding D. sarin gas attack Answer: D 13. Like many others in Japan, Asahara was attracted by the Agonshu movement’s teaching that the world was threatened by environmental or __________ disaster. A. a famine-type B. a flooding C. a nuclear D. global warming Answer: C 14. The Knights Templar were formed during the Crusades in the twelfth century in order to protect __________. A. Jericho B. Christianity C. Jerusalem D. Rome Answer: C 15. The Knights Templar secrecy, success, and activities in the financial world aroused envy and suspicion; and once they failed on the battlefield, the Church and the king of France, Philip the Fair, moved together against them. In 1310, Philip had 54 Knights __________ for heresy. A. arrested B. jailed C. burned at the stake D. drowned Answer: C 16. The message of Luc Jouret was that a vital __________ in ourselves was troubled when we felt sick, and that the same __________ in our environment was troubled, a line of thought leading him to predict ecological apocalypse. A. essence/essence B. essence/system C. system/essence D. organ/system Answer: A 17. The Solar Order’s leaders responded to the conviction of Luc Jouret by declaring that cosmic messages indicated the need to make a “Transit” out of this world and to __________. A. Jupiter B. Venus C. Proxima Centauri D. Sirius Answer: D 18. Heaven’s Gate, the Branch Davidians, and other groups that ended in violence had __________ expectations about the soon-to-arrive end of human history. A. apocalyptic B. grandiose C. millennial D. religious Answer: A 19. __________ have/has been subjected to more governmental scrutiny and harassment than was the Order of the Solar Temple. A. Pentacostals B. Scientologists C. Christian Scientists D. The Nation of Islam Answer: B 20. The EU report (Europol 2007) found 498 attacks during 2006 that it, and the member states counted as terrorist, or involving violence within the state intended to destabilize the political order. These were mostly __________. A. Islamic B. Euro-Christian C. separatist D. left-wing Answer: C 21. __________ has peaceful objectives and aims at reaching Muslims who have become lax in their daily religious duties of prayer and piety, and it recruits them to spread this message to others. A. Tablighi Jema’at B. Hamas C. Hezbollah D. Hizb ut-Tahrir Answer: A 22. __________ is overtly political and often appears radical in its demands, which include the creation of an Islamic state and, in the meantime, the disengagement of Muslims from civic participation in non-Muslim states. A. Tablighi Jema’at B. Hamas C. Hezbollah D. Hizb ut-Tahrir Answer: D 23. According to Lofland, Stark, and Finke, people who end up joining a religious movement are likely to have recently __________ from their previous social ties, and, after initially encountering the new doctrine, form positive social bonds with one or more members of the new group. A. moved away B. separated violently C. sequestered themselves D. denounced their old friends and cut Answer: A 24. New Religious movements draw adherents because of their capacity to __________ experience in new terms. A. redraw B. frame C. reframe D. categorize Answer: C 25. The Diné or __________ people emphasize ways of restoring balance to the world and to a person as the basis for healing, as do the Zuni people of the Pueblos. A. Sioux B. Hopi C. Anasazi D. Navajo Answer: D Essay Questions 1. What leads people to follow a particular new call and leader? Answer: Factors Leading People to Follow a New Call and Leader Human behavior in following new calls and leaders, whether in religious, social, or political contexts, is influenced by several key factors: Charismatic Leadership: Individuals who possess charisma, or extraordinary personal qualities such as eloquence, confidence, and vision, often attract followers. Charismatic leaders inspire trust and admiration, compelling people to believe in their message and follow their lead. Crisis or Discontent: Times of social, economic, or political uncertainty create fertile ground for new movements and leaders to emerge. People experiencing discontent or disillusionment with existing systems or leadership may be more open to alternative visions and solutions offered by new leaders. Vision and Ideology: Leaders who articulate a compelling vision or ideology that resonates with people's values, aspirations, or fears can attract followers. This vision offers a sense of purpose and direction, promising solutions to perceived problems or injustices. Social Identity and Belonging: Joining a new movement or following a leader can provide individuals with a sense of belonging to a community that shares their beliefs and values. This social identity fulfills emotional and psychological needs for connection and acceptance. Psychological Factors: Psychological factors such as cognitive dissonance (the discomfort from holding contradictory beliefs) or the desire for certainty and meaning in life can lead individuals to seek out new leaders and movements that offer clear answers and direction. Historical Examples: Examples such as the rise of charismatic leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement, or political leaders during times of social upheaval, illustrate how these factors play out in real-world contexts. 2. What is the promise of any revitalization movement? What conditions lead people to join them? Answer: Promise of Revitalization Movements and Conditions Leading to Joining Them Promise of Revitalization Movements: Revitalization movements promise to renew or transform existing social, religious, or cultural structures in response to perceived decline, crisis, or injustice. Their promises typically include: • Renewal and Reformation: Revitalization movements often seek to revive or purify traditional practices or values believed to have been lost or corrupted over time. • Social Justice or Liberation: Movements may promise liberation from oppression, inequality, or social injustices, advocating for rights and freedoms for marginalized groups. • Spiritual or Moral Revival: Religious revitalization movements promise spiritual renewal, moral purity, or alignment with divine will as a means to address perceived moral decay or spiritual crisis. Conditions Leading to Joining Revitalization Movements: • Perceived Crisis or Decline: Individuals join revitalization movements in response to perceived threats to their way of life, identity, or values. This crisis can be social, economic, political, or spiritual in nature. • Charismatic Leadership: Charismatic leaders who articulate a compelling vision and inspire trust and confidence attract followers seeking leadership and direction during times of uncertainty. • Social Dislocation: Displacement, migration, or social upheaval disrupt established social structures and identities, making individuals more receptive to new movements that offer a sense of stability and community. • Cultural or Religious Resonance: Movements that resonate with cultural or religious traditions and beliefs held by potential followers are more likely to gain adherence and support. • Desire for Change or Improvement: Individuals join revitalization movements out of a desire for change, improvement, or the pursuit of a better future for themselves or their community. Historical and Contemporary Examples: Historical examples like the Great Awakening in colonial America or contemporary social movements advocating for civil rights and environmental justice illustrate how these conditions and promises manifest in different contexts. 3. Relate the Samoan Cargo Cult experience from the 1830s – 1840s. How does the Samoan experience compare to the later Melanesian experience? Answer: Samoan Cargo Cult Experience (1830s-1840s) and Comparison with Melanesian Experience Samoan Cargo Cult Experience: During the 1830s-1840s, Samoa experienced a form of cargo cultism influenced by Western contact and missionary activity. Key aspects include: • Impact of Christian Missionaries: European missionaries introduced Christianity to Samoa during this period, leading to cultural and religious transformations among the Samoan people. • Adaptation and Syncretism: Samoans integrated Christian teachings and practices with traditional beliefs and customs, creating a unique blend of Christianity and indigenous spirituality. • Social and Cultural Change: Missionary activity brought significant social and cultural change to Samoa, affecting governance, family structure, and everyday life. Comparison with Melanesian Experience: Melanesian Cargo Cults (Late 19th and 20th centuries): • Colonial Context: Cargo cults in Melanesia emerged in response to colonial encounters and disruptions caused by European colonization and World War II. • Beliefs and Practices: Melanesian cargo cults often revolved around the belief in messianic figures who would bring prosperity and deliverance through the arrival ("cargo") of Western goods. • Social Impact: Cargo cults in Melanesia reflected local responses to colonial exploitation, social dislocation, and cultural disruption. They provided frameworks for resistance and cultural revitalization. Comparison: • Origins and Context: Both Samoan and Melanesian cargo cults emerged in response to external influences and disruptions, including colonialism and missionary activity. • Syncretism: Both contexts witnessed the syncretic blending of indigenous beliefs with introduced Christian or Western elements, adapting to local cultural and social dynamics. • Responses to Change: Cargo cults in both regions provided frameworks for coping with social change, offering visions of hope, restoration, and cultural continuity amidst external pressures. Conclusion: The Samoan cargo cult experience of the 1830s-1840s demonstrates how indigenous societies respond to external influences and transformations, integrating new religious and cultural elements while maintaining core aspects of their traditional beliefs. Comparatively, Melanesian cargo cults of the late 19th and 20th centuries reveal similar adaptive responses to colonialism and social change, illustrating broader patterns of cultural resilience and adaptation among Pacific Island societies. 4. Why do some revitalization movements “tip” into violence? What attracts people to already violent movements? Answer: Factors Leading Revitalization Movements to "Tip" into Violence and Attraction to Violent Movements Revitalization Movements and Violence: Revitalization movements, which initially seek social, religious, or cultural renewal, can sometimes escalate into violence due to several interrelated factors: • Perceived Threats: Movements may perceive external threats to their beliefs, identity, or goals. This perceived threat can lead to defensive reactions, including aggression or violence, as a means of self-preservation or asserting dominance. • Internal Dynamics: Internal power struggles, ideological purity tests, or charismatic leaders' influence can exacerbate tensions within the movement. Competing factions may resort to violence to consolidate power or enforce conformity. • Radicalization: Movements may radicalize over time, adopting extremist ideologies or strategies that justify or promote violence as a legitimate means to achieve their objectives. This radicalization can alienate moderate members and escalate conflict. • Social Marginalization: Movements marginalized by mainstream society or facing repression may resort to violence as a form of protest or resistance against perceived injustices. Violence becomes a tool for asserting relevance and gaining attention. Attraction to Violent Movements: Individuals may be attracted to already violent movements for several reasons: • Identity and Belonging: Violent movements offer a sense of identity and belonging to individuals who may feel marginalized or disconnected from mainstream society. Membership provides a community that shares beliefs, values, and goals. • Empowerment and Agency: Joining a violent movement can provide individuals with a sense of empowerment and agency, particularly if they perceive themselves as contributing to a cause or fighting against perceived injustices. • Psychological Factors: Some individuals are drawn to the adrenaline rush and sense of purpose that violence provides. In environments of conflict or instability, violence may seem like a viable means to effect change or achieve personal goals. • Socialization and Indoctrination: Violent movements socialize new recruits through indoctrination processes that reinforce beliefs, dehumanize perceived enemies, and justify violent actions as necessary or righteous. • Desire for Change: Individuals attracted to violent movements often seek radical change or solutions to perceived problems that mainstream avenues have failed to address. Violence is seen as a decisive action to bring about desired outcomes. Historical and Contemporary Examples: Historical examples include revolutionary movements like the French Revolution and contemporary instances of terrorism or armed insurgency, which illustrate how movements can evolve from peaceful to violent. 5. What is the Order of the Solar Temple (OTS)? What does it mean to be in transit? How does one attain “transit?” What is the ultimate purpose? Answer: The Order of the Solar Temple (OTS): Meaning of "In Transit," Attainment, and Ultimate Purpose Order of the Solar Temple (OTS): The Order of the Solar Temple was a secretive religious sect founded in Switzerland in the 1980s by Luc Jouret and Joseph Di Mambro. It blended elements of Christianity, New Age spirituality, and apocalyptic beliefs centered around the notion of spiritual transformation. In Transit: "In transit" in the context of the OTS refers to a belief in spiritual transition or progression towards a higher state of consciousness or existence. Members of the OTS believed that through initiation rituals and adherence to the group's teachings, they could attain spiritual enlightenment and transcendence. Attainment of "Transit": Attaining "transit" within the OTS involved undergoing specific rituals and practices designed to purify the soul and prepare it for ascension to a higher spiritual realm. Members believed that through these processes, they could shed earthly attachments and achieve spiritual liberation. Ultimate Purpose: The ultimate purpose of the OTS was tied to eschatological beliefs about the end times and cosmic transformation. Members believed that through their spiritual practices and rituals, they were preparing themselves for a final transition that would lead to a higher plane of existence or cosmic journey. Tragic End: The OTS gained notoriety due to a series of tragic events in the 1990s, including mass suicides and murders committed by its members in Switzerland and Canada. These incidents were motivated by the group's apocalyptic beliefs and the conviction that death would facilitate their transition to a higher spiritual realm. Analysis: • Eschatological Beliefs: The OTS's beliefs mirrored aspects of other millenarian movements throughout history, which predicted dramatic transformations or transitions in the face of perceived global crises or spiritual revelations. • Psychological Dynamics: Members were likely attracted to the OTS due to promises of spiritual enlightenment, belonging to an elite group, and a sense of purpose tied to cosmic transformation. • Ethical Considerations: The tragic end of the OTS raises ethical questions about charismatic leadership, group dynamics, and the psychological vulnerabilities that can lead individuals to participate in extremist or apocalyptic movements. Conclusion: The Order of the Solar Temple illustrates the potent mix of spiritual fervor, apocalyptic beliefs, and charismatic leadership that can attract individuals to new religious movements. Understanding "in transit," attainment, and the ultimate purpose within the OTS sheds light on the motivations and tragic consequences associated with such groups. It serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of radicalized beliefs and the potential for violence within fringe religious movements. Chapter Thirteen: Revelation and Authority in Islam Multiple Choice 1. Islam should be the ideal religion for the “standard model” of a religion, with a/an __________, a prophet, and a set of globally accepted teachings. A. angel B. messenger C. message D. book Answer: D 2. Some Muslims cite a __________ from the Prophet to the effect that Muslims should follow him with regard to worship and service to God, and follow their own learning in the pursuit of their other affairs. A. hadîth B. mu‘âmalât C. ‘ibâdât D. harâm Answer: A 3. Islam was born against a background of __________. A. violence B. redemption C. trans-desert trade D. polytheism Answer: D 4. Muhammad’s own tribe, the Quraysh, dominated the city of __________ by its control of the caravan trade. A. Medina B. Mecca C. Riyadh D. Babylon Answer: B 5. In 622 Muhammad fled or made the emigration, hijra, to the nearby city of Medina. The emigration marks the beginning of the Islamic __________ calendar. A. solar B. sidereal C. tropical D. lunar Answer: D 6. Muhammad’s authority in the early Muslim community came from his direct ties to __________. A. the community B. the tribal group C. the religious groups D. God Answer: D 7. Muhammad had neither designated a/a __________ nor suggested a way of doing so. He had no male heir, but even had there been one, it is not clear that this person would have succeeded him. A. follower B. believer C. acolyte D. successor Answer: D 8. Umar realized the need to create a regular procedure for choosing rulers and convened a council, shûra, to select a new caliph. A caliph is a __________. A. leader B. deputy of the prophet C. creator of the mystery D. religious leader separate from the secular leader Answer: B 9. Alî was the son-inlaw of the Prophet and also his __________, and had a great deal of support because of his kin ties to Muhammad. He was the closest to an heir available to the community. A. nephew B. cousin C. son D. grandson Answer: B 10. An event occurred in 680 that was to mark the Muslim world forever: en route to the Iraqi city of Kûfa, __________ was ambushed and his entire company massacred by Umayyad forces at a place called Karbala. A. Husayn B. ‘Alî C. Mu’âwiya D. Abu Bakr Answer: A 11. The Karbala massacre became the pivotal event in the emergence and identity of the “party of ‘Alî.” Now known as the __________, this group conceived of legitimate authority as being forever charismatic. A. Sufi party B. Sunni party C. Shî’î, “party D. Muslim party Answer: C 12. The __________ party is the majority and are the successors to the Umayyad. They claim their authority from the first council that chose the caliph. A. Sufi party B. Sunni party C. Shî’î, “party,” D. Muslim party Answer: B 13. A third type of Islamic authority, alongside those of the council and kinship, is that which binds disciples to __________. A. Sunni masters B. Shî’î masters C. angels D. Sufi masters Answer: D 14. The first __________ order was founded by the Persian scholar Abdul Qâdir al-Jîlânî (1078–1166). Abdul Qâdir’s influence as a preacher grew so large that followers established a special retreat for him, where people came to study and listen. A. Sufi B. Sunni C. Shî’î, D. Muslim Answer: A 15. Across the world, many Muslims sacrifice an animal on the __________, the Id al-Adha (`Îd al-Adhâ), which occurs on the 10th day of the last month of the Islamic calendar. A. Feast of Flesh B. Feast of Sacrifice C. Feast of the Flowers D. Feast of Rewards Answer: B 16. While on pilgrimage, the pilgrims carry out the animal sacrifice in __________ near Mecca. A. Mina B. Medina C. Riyadh D. Karbala Answer: A 17. In urban Morocco, other political messages are layered onto the social and religious one. Elaine Combs-Schilling (1989) describes how the rulers of Morocco use the sacrificial ritual to publicly reaffirm their claims to be the __________ descendants of the prophet Muhammad. A. indirect B. close C. direct D. distant Answer: C 18. Each year on the day of sacrifice, the king of Morocco publicly plunges a dagger into a ram’s throat, reenacting his ascendant Muhammad’s own commemorative sacrifice in the seventh century. In Combs-Schilling’s account, the sacrifice also reaffirms patriarchal power in the family and embodies a notion of male __________. A. work ethic B. fertility C. dominance D. superiority Answer: B 19. Women play only the role of passive observers to the sacrifice (Feast of Sacrifice); after the killing, they may dab some of the victim’s blood on their __________ to “share in the power of sacrifice.” A. faces B. scarves C. legs D. arms Answer: A 20. The spurting blood of the sacrificed animal (Feast of Sacrifice) is caught by women for what purpose? A. to cook blood pudding B. to mix with sausage C. to ritually fertilize the new crop D. to ward off harm and cure illness Answer: D 21. As long as the throat can be cut and the meat eaten, the sacrifice, in the village of Isak meets the demands of God. (In principle, said some, half-jokingly, even a __________ would do as a sacrifice.) A. rat B. mouse C. grasshopper D. rabbit Answer: C 22. Moroccans have distinct __________ roles in relationship to the sacrificing of animals for the Feast of Sacrifices as opposed to Indonesian Muslims who make no real distinction. A. utilitarian B. gender C. sexual D. work Answer: B 23. In Isak, Indonesia, the throat-cutting is not the most publicly salient moment of the Feast of Sacrifices ritual, nor are the Moroccan patriarchal messages communicated. The focus of social attention is instead on __________ benefit to one’s relatives by means of the sacrifice and, especially, at the ritual meals (kenduri ) held afterwards. A. telescoping B. telegraphing C. relating D. transmitting Answer: D 24. At feasts where a buffalo or sheep was eaten, a religiously learned man would lead a group recitation of short __________, recite a long petitionary prayer (punctuated by choruses of “ âmîn ”), and, for good measure, repeat, for God’s hearing, the names of the beneficiaries of the just-completed sacrifice. A. Qur’ânic verses B. Biblical verses C. verses from the Torah D. Talmudic revelations Answer: A 25. The sacrifice (Festival of Sacrifice) also provides a specific, future material benefit, for on __________ the persons named as sacrificial beneficiaries will be able to ride on the animal to the place of judgment. A. funeral day B. Judgment Day C. Prayer Day D. Kenduri Answer: B Essay Questions 1. Describe why Islam is so divided today. How far back do these divisions go? Answer: Division in Islam: Historical Roots and Contemporary Issues Historical Roots of Division: Islam's division today can be traced back to early disagreements following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE. Key factors contributing to division include: • Succession Dispute: The disagreement over who should succeed Prophet Muhammad as the leader of the Muslim community led to the Sunni-Shia split. Sunni Muslims supported Abu Bakr, while Shia Muslims favored Ali, Prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. • Theological and Juridical Differences: Over time, theological and jurisprudential differences emerged among Muslim scholars regarding interpretations of Islamic texts and practices. This led to the development of various Islamic schools of thought (madhabs) and legal traditions (fiqh). • Political Fragmentation: Historical events such as the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, the rise of regional dynasties, and later colonialism further fragmented the Muslim world politically, culturally, and geographically. Contemporary Issues: In the modern era, factors contributing to division within Islam include: • Geopolitical Conflicts: Conflicts in the Middle East and beyond have exacerbated sectarian tensions between Sunni and Shia Muslims, often exacerbated by political rivalries and interventions. • Interpretational Differences: Diverse interpretations of Islamic teachings and practices, influenced by cultural contexts and modern ideologies, contribute to ideological divisions within the Muslim community. • Social and Cultural Factors: Socio-economic disparities, globalization, and varying levels of religious conservatism versus liberalism contribute to divergent social norms and identities among Muslims worldwide. Impact of Division: • Identity Politics: Sunni-Shia tensions often manifest in identity politics, influencing national and regional dynamics across the Muslim-majority world. • Impact on Governance: Divisions within Islam have influenced political structures and governance models in Muslim-majority countries, affecting laws, policies, and societal norms. • Challenges for Unity: Efforts towards intra-Muslim dialogue and reconciliation face challenges due to deep-rooted historical, theological, and political differences. 2. How does Islam meet all of the tenets of the “standard model” of a religion yet is difficult to define? Answer: Islam and the "Standard Model" of Religion: Definitional Challenges Meeting Tenets of the "Standard Model": Islam, like other major religions, meets several criteria of the "standard model" of religion, including: • Belief in Supernatural Powers: Muslims believe in Allah (God) as the supreme deity and in angels, prophets, and divine revelation (Quran). • Sacred Texts and Traditions: The Quran is the central religious text, supplemented by the Hadith (sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad). Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) guides religious practices and ethical conduct. • Rituals and Worship: The Five Pillars of Islam (Shahada, Salah, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj) constitute fundamental religious obligations observed by Muslims worldwide. Definitional Challenges: However, defining Islam proves challenging due to: • Diverse Interpretations: Islam encompasses a wide spectrum of beliefs, practices, and interpretations across different cultural, geographical, and ideological contexts. • Cultural Variability: Islamic practices and norms vary significantly among Muslim communities, influenced by local customs, traditions, and historical developments. • Secular-Islam Divide: Debates over the role of religion in governance, law, and public life challenge conventional definitions of Islam as solely a religious faith. • Globalization and Modernity: Contemporary Muslim identities are shaped by interactions with modernity, globalization, and diverse philosophical and ideological currents, challenging traditional religious definitions. Conclusion: Islam's adherence to core religious elements and its diverse manifestations worldwide highlight the complexity of defining it within the framework of the "standard model" of religion. Its richness in diversity and interpretations underscores the dynamic nature of Islamic beliefs and practices in contemporary global contexts. 3. What are the “five pillars” of Islam? For whom are these acts carried out? Answer: The Five Pillars of Islam: Significance and Practice The Five Pillars of Islam: The Five Pillars of Islam represent the fundamental acts of worship and obedience for Muslims: 1. Shahada (Declaration of Faith): Affirmation that there is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. It serves as the central tenet of Islamic belief and identity. 2. Salah (Prayer): Muslims are required to pray five times a day (dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, night), facing the Kaaba in Mecca. This ritualistic prayer fosters spiritual discipline and connection with Allah. 3. Zakat (Almsgiving): Muslims must give a portion of their wealth (usually 2.5%) to support the needy and charitable causes within the community. Zakat promotes social justice and economic solidarity. 4. Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan): Muslims fast from dawn to sunset throughout the lunar month of Ramadan. Fasting promotes self-discipline, spiritual reflection, and empathy for the less fortunate. 5. Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca): Muslims who are physically and financially able are required to perform the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. Hajj emphasizes unity among Muslims and commemorates the rituals performed by Prophet Abraham and his family. Purpose and Practice: • Spiritual Fulfillment: The Five Pillars provide a framework for spiritual fulfillment, ethical conduct, and communal solidarity among Muslims worldwide. • Community Integration: Fulfilling the Five Pillars strengthens communal bonds and reinforces Islamic identity within the global Muslim community. • Divine Command: Muslims perform the Five Pillars as acts of obedience to Allah's commandments and as a means to attain spiritual purification and closeness to Allah. • Individual and Collective Responsibility: Each Pillar carries both individual and collective responsibilities, fostering a sense of duty towards Allah and fellow human beings. Conclusion: The Five Pillars of Islam constitute foundational practices that guide Muslim beliefs and behaviors, emphasizing spiritual devotion, social responsibility, and unity within the Islamic faith. They underscore Islam's holistic approach to faith and life, integrating religious observance with ethical conduct and communal solidarity. These answers provide comprehensive insights into the complexities of Islam, its practices, theological nuances, and historical contexts, offering a nuanced understanding of its dynamics and significance in the contemporary world. 4. Explain how the concept of harâm may lead to problems inside of non-Muslim societies that take in Muslims. Give examples. Answer: The Concept of Harâm and Its Implications in Non-Muslim Societies Concept of Harâm: In Islam, harâm refers to actions, behaviors, or practices that are forbidden or prohibited by Islamic law (Sharia). These prohibitions are based on religious texts such as the Quran and Hadiths, and they encompass a wide range of activities from dietary restrictions to moral behaviors. Implications in Non-Muslim Societies: The concept of harâm can pose challenges in societies that accommodate Muslim minorities or interact with predominantly Muslim countries: 1. Dietary Practices: • Examples: Muslim dietary laws prohibit the consumption of pork and alcohol. In non-Muslim majority countries, ensuring halal food options and respecting dietary restrictions can be challenging, particularly in public institutions like schools or hospitals. • Conflict: This may lead to debates over accommodating halal food in public institutions or the availability of alternative options for Muslim dietary needs. 2. Social and Cultural Practices: • Examples: Islamic teachings emphasize modesty and gender segregation in certain contexts. Practices such as public nudity or mixed-gender interactions may conflict with Islamic norms. • Conflict: Non-Muslim societies may have different norms regarding dress codes, gender relations, or public displays of affection, leading to cultural misunderstandings or tensions. 3. Legal and Judicial Systems: • Examples: Islamic law governs aspects of personal status, inheritance, and family law. Issues like marriage, divorce, and custody may be governed by Sharia principles. • Conflict: Balancing Sharia principles with secular legal frameworks in non-Muslim countries can lead to debates over religious accommodation, human rights, and gender equality. 4. Moral and Ethical Values: • Examples: Islamic teachings prohibit activities considered immoral or unethical, such as gambling, usury (interest-based transactions), and certain forms of entertainment. • Conflict: Non-Muslim societies may have legal or cultural acceptance of practices considered harâm in Islam, raising questions of religious freedom, tolerance, and societal norms. Examples of Challenges: • Islamic Finance: Introducing Sharia-compliant banking and financial services in non-Muslim countries requires navigating legal and regulatory frameworks that may not accommodate Islamic principles. • Legal Reform: Debates over whether and how to integrate aspects of Islamic law into legal systems of non-Muslim countries, particularly in family law or inheritance matters, can be contentious. • Social Integration: Balancing religious rights with societal norms regarding dress codes, public behavior, and religious expression in multicultural societies can lead to debates over cultural assimilation versus religious accommodation. Conclusion: The concept of harâm presents challenges and opportunities for dialogue and accommodation in societies with diverse religious and cultural landscapes. Understanding and respecting Islamic principles while upholding secular laws and human rights remain essential in fostering inclusive and harmonious coexistence. 5. How important is it that the people of the Arabian Peninsula were polytheistic at the time of the introduction of Islam? How does this conflict with the teachings of Islam? Answer: Importance of Arabian Polytheism and Its Conflict with Islam Arabian Polytheism Before Islam: Before the advent of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the region was predominantly polytheistic. Arabian society practiced various forms of idolatry, worshiping multiple deities associated with tribal customs, fertility, and natural phenomena. Importance in Context of Islam: 1. Cultural and Religious Context: • Idol Worship: Arabian polytheism included rituals centered around idols housed in the Kaaba in Mecca, which became central to Islamic history and pilgrimage (Hajj). • Social Structure: Tribal affiliations and religious practices were closely intertwined, influencing political alliances, trade relations, and social hierarchies. 2. Conflict with Islamic Teachings: • Monotheism: Islam introduced strict monotheism (Tawhid), rejecting polytheistic beliefs and practices as idolatry (shirk). • Prophetic Mission: Prophet Muhammad's message challenged the religious status quo, advocating for the worship of Allah alone and denouncing idol worship and superstition. • Social Reformation: Islam aimed to reform Arabian society by promoting social justice, egalitarianism, and moral ethics rooted in monotheistic principles. Significance: • Religious Transformation: The transition from polytheism to monotheism was central to Islam's mission of spiritual renewal and social reform in Arabian society. • Cultural Revolution: The rejection of idol worship and polytheistic rituals marked a profound cultural and religious shift, laying the foundation for Islamic theology and practice. • Historical Legacy: Understanding the pre-Islamic Arabian context enriches the appreciation of Islam's historical and cultural significance, including the evolution of Islamic rituals and pilgrimage traditions. Conclusion: The prevalence of polytheism in pre-Islamic Arabia underscores the radical nature of Islam's monotheistic message and its transformative impact on Arabian society. The conflict between Arabian polytheism and Islamic teachings highlights the profound theological and social changes brought about by the advent of Islam, shaping the religious and cultural identity of the Muslim world. Test Bank for Religions in Practice: An Approach to the Anthropology of Religions John R. Bowen 9780205961047

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