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This Document Contains Chapters 14 to 16 Chapter Fourteen: Migration and Adaptation: Focus on Muslims in Europe Multiple Choice 1. As with Catholicism and Buddhism, Islam always was __________ in its conception, in the sense of having a global reach. A. local B. regional C. continental D. transnational Answer: D 2. Muslims established a presence in Europe early in Islamic history. They expanded into Europe from two directions: from northern Africa into Spain (and for a brief period into southern France), and, later on, into __________. A. the Iberian Peninsula B. the Balkan Peninsula C. Central Europe D. Eastern Europe through the Iron Gate Answer: B 3. France, Britain, the Netherlands, and __________ all had colonies with Muslim populations. A. Germany B. Denmark C. Belgium D. Italy Answer: D 4. Today we see the __________ on religious grounds precisely in those counties where Muslims live apart from others. A. greatest assimilation B. biggest arguments C. greatest efforts to understand each other D. sharpest conflicts Answer: D 5. British Muslims tend to come from a small number of places. About _________ are from Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. A. 25% B. 35% C. 50% D. 70% Answer: C 6. Nearly half of all Muslims in Britain live in ___________. A. the London area B. Bradford C. Birmingham D. Plymouth Answer: A 7. Once Muslim families began to immigrate to Britain in the 1960s, more and more __________ appeared and became centers for spiritual development and religious teaching. A. mosques B. churches C. cultural centers D. detention centers Answer: A 8. The demographic character of Muslim immigration to France differs in a number of ways from that in Britain. About __________ of Muslim immigrants to France have come from three countries in North Africa. Algerians and Moroccans have contributed the largest numbers, followed by Tunisians. Turks and West Africans form the next largest groups. A. 20-30 percent B. 60–70 percent C. 40-50 percent D. 35-55- percent Answer: B 9. Algeria was a closely-tied colony of France until __________. A. 1945 B. 1951 C. 1962 D. 1961 Answer: C 10. For many in the generation of Muslims born in France, it is the experience of being discriminated against as “__________” or “Arab” that creates their sense of “ethnicity”. A. Maghrebin B. Peninsular C. African D. Arabian Answer: A 11. In France no one country group is predominant across categories (in the way that Pakistanis dominate in Britain), and the __________ language serves as a (potentially) uniting element across the most politically active groups. A. Tunisian B. Moroccan C. Algerian D. Arabic Answer: D 12. Spanish Muslims come overwhelmingly from neighboring Morocco and maintain close ties with their home country; Spain even __________ two cities located in northern Morocco. A. has formal ties with B. has investment interests in C. has located a number of immigrants in D. owns Answer: D 13. Each large Dutch city is likely to have several mosques, each allied to a different __________ community and each with a preference for its own language. A. transnational B. regional C. corresponding D. local Answer: A 14. Although Germany has a broad policy of recognizing and supporting (through taxation) religious organizations as public entities, divisions among Muslims are sharp and are reproduced in ___________. A. cultural centers B. towns C. mosques D. NGOs (non-governmental organizations) Answer: C 15. Even in the 2000s, the majority of Muslim household heads living in France were born __________. Their thoughts about whether and how to sacrifice frequently refer back to practices in their countries of origin. A. in Algeria B. in Tunisia C. in Morocco D. elsewhere Answer: D 16. What important practice of the Islamic faith is virtually impossible to carry out by Muslims due to French regulation? A. worship B. prayer C. sacrifice D. legal councils Answer: C 17. Early Islamic scholars developed a distinction between the __________ or abode of Islam, versus the ___________ or abode of war. A. dâr al-islâm, dâr al-harb B. Arab world, non-Arab world C. Arab-speaking world, non-Arab speaking world D. world of true faith,world of sin Answer: A 18. A/n ___________ is a non-binding legal opinion issued by a qualified person or group. A. opinion B. dâr al-islâm C. fatwâ D. darûrat Answer: C 19. Muslims are not normally allowed to pay interest on loans because interest is considered to be ___________. A. illegal B. unclean C. usury D. against Muhammad Answer: C 20. The doctrine of extreme necessity (__________) allows Muslims to do what otherwise is forbidden under compulsion or necessity. A. fatwâ B. darûrat C. dâr al-islâm D. Hanbalî Answer: B 21. One possible alternative to dâr al-harb in countries outside of the majority Islamic world due to their tolerance of Muslim practices could be __________, “abode of treaty.” A. dâr al-’ahd B. dâr al-da’wa C. dâr ash-shahâda D. dâr al-islâm Answer: A 22. For Muslims, the shift from seeing one’s religious commitments and practices as distinct from ethnic particularities and immigration histories has made possible different ways of thinking about what it means to be a Muslim in Europe. For some, being a Muslim becomes a matter of faith and private religious practice, along the lines of older forms of European __________. A. Catholicism B. Paganism C. Protestantism D. political practices Answer: C 23. The “secular Muslim” approach is most present in __________ because the secularist media find this approach closest to proper __________ attitudes. A. Britain, British B. Germany, German C. France, French D. Belgium, Belgian Answer: C 24. The Swiss intellectual Tariq Ramadan (2002) argues that at the level of __________, one can find a convergence between Islamic norms and those of Europe and that to do this one need not abandon the ideal of a visible, public Islamic presence. A. norms B. morality C. values D. mores Answer: C 25. French policies toward Islam push toward integration, with a mix of carrots and sticks. __________ are out at school, but some enlightened mayors are giving land for mosques. A. Hats B. Abayas C. Knives D. Headscarves Answer: D Essay Questions 1. It has been proposed that Muslims in Detroit, Michigan, establish sharî’a councils. What are good arguments for and against this idea? Answer: Establishment of Sharî’a Councils in Detroit, Michigan: Arguments For and Against Arguments For Establishing Sharî’a Councils: 1. Religious Freedom and Accommodation: • Argument: Sharî’a councils can provide a mechanism for Muslims to resolve personal and family matters according to Islamic principles, ensuring religious freedom and accommodation. • Supporting Points: They can handle issues like marriage, divorce, inheritance, and dispute resolution in a manner consistent with Islamic law, which is important for devout Muslims seeking religious guidance in legal matters. 2. Community Cohesion and Cultural Sensitivity: • Argument: Sharî’a councils can promote community cohesion by offering culturally and religiously sensitive services to Muslim residents. • Supporting Points: They may prevent Muslims from feeling marginalized or alienated by providing familiar and accessible avenues for resolving disputes and legal matters. 3. Legal Clarity and Consistency: • Argument: Establishing sharî’a councils can provide clarity and consistency in applying Islamic principles within the legal framework of American law. • Supporting Points: This can potentially reduce confusion and ensure that decisions made within the Muslim community are recognized and respected, enhancing legal predictability. 4. Voluntary Participation and Choice: • Argument: Participation in sharî’a councils would be voluntary, allowing individuals to choose whether to seek guidance from Islamic scholars or opt for secular legal avenues. • Supporting Points: This upholds the principle of freedom of choice and respects individuals' rights to religious practice within the bounds of U.S. law. Arguments Against Establishing Sharî’a Councils: 1. Legal and Constitutional Concerns: • Argument: Sharî’a councils may raise legal and constitutional concerns regarding the separation of church and state, as well as equal protection under the law. • Counterpoints: Critics argue that allowing religious councils to adjudicate legal matters could undermine secular legal principles and potentially lead to discrimination or unequal treatment. 2. Gender Equality and Women's Rights: • Argument: Sharî’a councils may not uphold principles of gender equality and women's rights as recognized under U.S. law. • Counterpoints: There are concerns that decisions made by sharî’a councils could disadvantage women in matters like divorce, custody, and inheritance, potentially undermining progress in gender equality. 3. Integration and Assimilation Concerns: • Argument: Encouraging the establishment of sharî’a councils could hinder the integration and assimilation of Muslim communities into broader American society. • Counterpoints: Critics argue that promoting separate legal systems based on religious identity may perpetuate cultural isolation and hinder efforts towards societal cohesion and unity. 4. Potential for Parallel Legal Systems: • Argument: Allowing sharî’a councils to operate could set a precedent for other religious or cultural groups to establish their own parallel legal systems, complicating the legal landscape. • Counterpoints: Maintaining a unified legal framework ensures equal treatment under the law for all citizens, regardless of religious affiliation, and avoids fragmentation of legal standards. Conclusion: The debate over establishing sharî’a councils in Detroit, Michigan, involves balancing religious freedom and accommodation with legal and constitutional principles. Proponents emphasize cultural sensitivity and community cohesion, while critics raise concerns about legal consistency, gender equality, and societal integration. Ultimately, any decision must carefully consider both the rights of religious minorities and the foundational principles of U.S. law. 2. What are the contrasts between the way French and British Muslims have settled in their respective countries. Which group seeming has the better life? Why? Answer: Contrasts Between French and British Muslims' Settlement and Quality of Life Contrasts in Settlement: 1. Historical Context and Immigration Policies: • France: Historically, France has had a centralized approach to integration, emphasizing assimilation and secularism (laïcité). Immigration policies have focused on cultural assimilation into a unified French identity. • Britain: The UK has adopted multiculturalism, promoting diversity and recognizing cultural differences. British Muslims have historically been more decentralized in settlement, with communities in cities like London, Birmingham, and Manchester. 2. Social Integration and Identity: • France: French Muslims often face challenges with social integration due to policies promoting a singular national identity and secularism. There have been tensions over cultural symbols like the hijab and debates about national identity. • Britain: British Muslims have integrated into diverse communities, maintaining religious and cultural identities while participating in broader society. Multicultural policies have supported diversity and community cohesion. Quality of Life Comparison: 1. Economic Opportunities: • Britain: British Muslims have access to diverse economic opportunities in sectors such as finance, education, and healthcare. Cities with significant Muslim populations have thriving business and cultural sectors. • France: French Muslims encounter higher levels of unemployment and economic disparities, partly due to challenges in educational attainment and integration into the labor market. 2. Social Cohesion and Discrimination: • France: French Muslims have experienced social exclusion and discrimination, exacerbated by socioeconomic disparities and debates over cultural and religious symbols. • Britain: British Muslims report varying degrees of social cohesion, with instances of discrimination tempered by multicultural policies promoting diversity and inclusion. Better Quality of Life Assessment: • Factors Favoring Britain: Multicultural policies, diverse economic opportunities, and community integration support British Muslims' quality of life. Cities like London offer vibrant cultural and educational environments. • Challenges in France: Secularism, assimilation policies, and socioeconomic disparities contribute to challenges faced by French Muslims, affecting their integration and quality of life. Conclusion: While both French and British Muslims face challenges related to integration and societal acceptance, British Muslims appear to have a better quality of life overall due to multicultural policies, diverse economic opportunities, and community cohesion. These factors contribute to a more inclusive environment that supports religious and cultural diversity within British society. 3. Why do American Muslims, made up of African Americans, South Asians, and Arabs do as well as they do? Are their differences between groups? Why? Answer: Success of American Muslims: African Americans, South Asians, and Arabs Success Factors: 1. Historical Context: • African Americans: Nation of Islam and Civil Rights Movement efforts paved the way for social and political inclusion. Conversion to mainstream Islam provided religious identity and community support. • South Asians and Arabs: Immigration waves brought skilled professionals and entrepreneurs, contributing to economic success and community development. 2. Educational Attainment: • African Americans: Efforts in education and empowerment post-Civil Rights Movement enhanced educational opportunities and socioeconomic mobility. • South Asians and Arabs: Emphasis on education and professional careers among immigrant communities led to higher educational attainment and economic success. 3. Community Support and Networks: • All Groups: Strong community networks and support systems facilitate social cohesion, business partnerships, and cultural preservation. • Integration Challenges: Integration into mainstream American society while maintaining cultural and religious identity remains a challenge across all groups. Differences Between Groups: 1. Socioeconomic Backgrounds: • African Americans: Historically disadvantaged backgrounds impact socioeconomic outcomes despite educational achievements. • South Asians and Arabs: Immigration patterns often involve skilled professionals and entrepreneurs, leading to higher income levels and economic stability. 2. Cultural Adaptation: • African Americans: Conversion to Islam provided a distinct religious identity, integrating with cultural and social activism. • South Asians and Arabs: Preserved cultural traditions alongside successful integration into American society, balancing cultural heritage with mainstream identity. 3. Religious Diversity and Practices: • All Groups: Diversity in religious practices and interpretations influence community dynamics and engagement in social and civic activities. • Interfaith Relations: Engagement in interfaith dialogue and advocacy enhances community relations and promotes social cohesion. Conclusion: The success of American Muslims, including African Americans, South Asians, and Arabs, is attributed to historical empowerment efforts, educational achievements, and community support networks. While each group faces unique challenges related to cultural adaptation and integration, their contributions to American society underscore the diversity and resilience of the Muslim community in the United States. 4. Answer the following questions: Is a majority-Muslim country whose government represses its people and prevents the free expression of religious ideas to be considered part of dâr al-Islâm? Conversely, why should countries not governed by Islamic laws but where Muslims are free to worship be considered as belonging to an “abode of war” (dâr al-harb)? Answer: Understanding Dâr al-Islâm and Dâr al-Harb in the Context of Muslim Countries and Islamic Laws Dâr al-Islâm and Repressive Governments: Definition: Dâr al-Islâm (Abode of Islam) traditionally refers to territories where Islamic law (Sharia) is implemented, Muslims can freely practice their religion, and Islamic institutions are recognized. Question Consideration: Repressive Muslim Governments: If a majority-Muslim country represses its people, restricts free expression of religious ideas, and violates human rights, should it be considered part of dâr al-Islâm? Arguments for Inclusion: 1. Legalistic Definition: According to the legalistic interpretation, dâr al-Islâm is defined by the presence of a Muslim majority and the implementation of Islamic law, regardless of the nature of the government. 2. Religious Practices: If Muslims are allowed to practice their religion (albeit under restrictions), it aligns with the basic criteria of dâr al-Islâm. 3. Recognition of Islamic Institutions: Even under repressive regimes, there might be formal recognition of Islamic institutions and some degree of religious observance. Arguments Against Inclusion: 1. Human Rights Violations: Repressive regimes often violate fundamental human rights, including freedom of expression and religious freedom, which are contrary to Islamic principles. 2. Secular or Authoritarian Rule: Governments that suppress religious freedom or govern in a secular or authoritarian manner may not align with the Islamic principles of justice and freedom. 3. Public Opinion and Consent: Islamic governance traditionally emphasizes consultation (shura) and the consent of the governed. Repressive regimes may lack legitimacy in the eyes of the populace. Conclusion: In conclusion, while a majority-Muslim country with a repressive government technically falls within the legal definition of dâr al-Islâm due to its demographic and legal criteria, ethical considerations regarding human rights violations and governance practices challenge its categorization under Islamic principles. Dâr al-Harb and Free Worship Countries: Definition: Dâr al-Harb (Abode of War) traditionally refers to territories where non-Muslim governance prevails and where Muslims may face restrictions in practicing Islam. Question Consideration: Free Worship Countries: Why should countries not governed by Islamic laws but where Muslims are free to worship be considered part of dâr al-harb? Arguments Against Inclusion: 1. Freedom of Worship: Countries that allow Muslims to practice Islam freely, without legal impediments or discrimination, demonstrate tolerance and respect for religious diversity. 2. Legal Protection: Constitutional protections of religious freedom and equality under the law ensure that Muslims can worship and practice Islam without hindrance. 3. Social Integration: Integration of Muslims into broader society fosters mutual understanding and respect, promoting social cohesion and unity. Arguments for Inclusion: 1. Legal and Political Context: From a strict legalistic perspective, dâr al-harb refers to territories not governed by Islamic law, regardless of religious freedom. 2. Potential for Conflict: Some scholars argue that non-Islamic governance may lead to cultural and moral conflicts for Muslims, which could be viewed as a state of hostility (harb). Conclusion: Countries where Muslims are free to worship without legal impediments or discrimination should not be considered dâr al-harb due to their respect for religious freedom and legal protections. This approach promotes peaceful coexistence and religious pluralism, aligning with contemporary interpretations of Islamic principles regarding tolerance and coexistence. 5. Respond to the following statement from the text in light of your experience and knowledge of Islam in America: The “secular Muslim” approach is most present in France because the secularist media find this approach closest to proper French attitudes. Writers such as Malik Chebel promote in their books and through frequent television appearances an “enlightened Islam” hat would consist of philosophy and spirituality, but eschew the legal and institutional aspects, which, he writes, do not fit well in Europe. Answer: The Concept of "Secular Muslim" and its Presence in France Understanding the "Secular Muslim" Approach: Definition: The term "secular Muslim" refers to individuals who identify as Muslim but prioritize secular values and lifestyles over strict adherence to religious practices or laws. Statement Analysis: Statement: "The 'secular Muslim' approach is most present in France because the secularist media find this approach closest to proper French attitudes." Arguments For the Statement: 1. French Secularism (Laïcité): France has a strong tradition of secularism (laïcité), separating religion from public life. This environment encourages individuals, including Muslims, to adopt secular attitudes and behaviors. 2. Integration Pressure: French Muslims often face societal pressures to assimilate into secular French culture, leading some to embrace a secular identity while maintaining a cultural connection to Islam. 3. Public Discourse: Media and public intellectuals in France, such as Malik Chebel, promote an "enlightened Islam" focused on philosophy and spirituality rather than legal or institutional aspects, appealing to a broader secular audience. Arguments Against the Statement: 1. Diverse Muslim Identities: Not all French Muslims identify as secular. Many practice Islam in various forms, ranging from cultural observance to devout religious practice, challenging the idea of a uniform "secular Muslim" identity. 2. Integration Challenges: Pressure to conform to secular norms may alienate devout Muslims and hinder efforts towards cultural and religious integration within French society. 3. Global Perspective: The concept of "secular Muslim" is not unique to France and exists in other secular societies. It reflects broader trends of religious diversity and adaptation in multicultural contexts. Conclusion: The presence of a "secular Muslim" approach in France reflects the complex interplay between secularism, multiculturalism, and religious identity. While French secularism influences public discourse and societal expectations, Muslim identities in France remain diverse and multifaceted, encompassing a spectrum of religious and cultural practices. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for fostering dialogue and cohesion within multicultural societies like France. Chapter Fifteen: Virtual Religion Multiple Choice 1. In 1998, 25 percent of American Internet-users used the Web for “religious purposes” and by 2003, __________ percent did so. A. 46 B. 51 C. 64 D. 82 Answer: C 2. Belief.net allows users to create virtual __________. A. churches B. sacrificial centers C. prayer circles D. multi-denominational prayer groups Answer: C 3. Virtual churches, temples, etc., allow for an individual to worship at a distance, or __________. A. privately B. anonymously C. secularly D. prayerfully Answer: B 4. In 2000, the site of the Cathedral of Hope in Dallas (http://www. cathedralofhope.com/), a member of the United Church of Christ, advertised itself as the “world’s largest __________,” which it can be precisely because of online participation. A. gay and lesbian church B. Protestant church C. Internet church D. Christian church Answer: A 5. __________ sites often construct a home page that celebrates all religions together, which at times takes on a synthetic “world” characteristic. A. Narrowband B. Religious C. Broadband D. Virtual Religion Answer: C 6. Beliefnet.com has used its broad ecumenical approach to offer a range of quizzes to users about their beliefs. In 2000, it allowed users to identify their religion and then answer a series of __________ questions about beliefs, observance, and behavior, which placed them at a specific point on the relevant doctrinal spectrum. A. diagnostic B. quick C. intrusive D. qualitative Answer: A 7. Jon Anderson characterizes many religious Web sites as __________. A. preachy B. mixed up C. crazy D. “creole” spaces Answer: D 8. Jon Anderson states that “creole” spaces respond to the needs, __________, and hopes of a particular group of local users and creators of sites, and at the same time have a global, electronic spatial reach. A. wants B. desires C. questions D. fears Answer: D 9. Trinidad Catholics see their Church as universal, but they also think that the common experience of residents of the Caribbean made desirable a regional Catholic theology, something now much more likely to develop through __________. A. the World Wide Web B. high frequency radio communication C. region-wide electronic communication D. creative computer usage Answer: C 10. “__________,” link broad, often global spaces to local concerns. But they can also link religious concerns to broad-based consumer interests as well as targeting a specific user community. A. Religious sites B. Polytheistic religious sites C. Monotheistic religious sites D. Creole sites Answer: D 11. MyQuran.com and others like it are extremely user-friendly in more than one way. They have a modern, __________, even consumerist feel to them. They indicate nothing about a particular religious message or orientation. A. secular B. glitzy C. techno-religious D. creole Answer: A 12. The author proposes a typology of religious websites. These are __________. A. information, communication, and performances B. information, communication, and ritual C. information, ritual, and performances D. communication, performances, and ritual Answer: A 13. Internet sites that are mainly sources of information are like __________, only unusually versatile. A. videos B. magazines C. books D. texts Answer: C 14. Websites that promote horizontal communication among users involves __________, not a type of technology. A. skills B. practices C. web design D. hosting Answer: B 15. What element of Bowen’s typology of religious websites allows many Muslims in Europe to seek and compare opinions with others? A. information B. communication C. performance D. ritual Answer: B 16. What are the distinctions made between “online religion” and “religion online”? A. practice versus worship techniques B. “online religion” requires particular beliefs where “religion online” does not C. where users create religious communities versus where information is conveyed D. the two are virtually the same Answer: C 17. The first online wedding was held in May 1996, on __________, a site claiming to be the oldest interactive world on the Internet. A. AlphaWorld B. Second Life C. Virtual World D. Real World Answer: A 18. While the Catholic Church approves online religion, it notes that it has no performative value: No __________ occur. A. services B. sacraments C. performances D. blessings Answer: B 19. One of the more popular and complex sites is Second Life. Second Life is a __________ (MUVE), downloadable at no cost, and open for anyone to wander and talk in the form of an on-screen character or avatar. A. Multiplayer User Virtual Environment B. Multitasking Universal Virtual Environment C. Multiuser Virtual Environment D. Multiple User Religious Virtual Environment Answer: C 20. The Stations of the Cross occupy a prominent place in one Catholic church on __________. The Basilica of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus presents the visitor with a familiar and fairly elaborate church setting. As you enter, to the left are a set of wall posters that allow you to touch and receive (as “greeting cards”) a biography of Pope Benedict XVI or a detailed account of each of the seven Sacraments. A. Virtual World B. Alpha World C. Second World D. Second Life Answer: D 21. Islam Online has built a virtual pilgrimage site on Second Life, which you can reach by the usual means, by __________ to the site. You arrive at the IslamOnline.net Virtual Airport, apparently in Mecca. A. teleporting B. coding in C. flying in D. dragging your avatar in Answer: A 22. To be labeled either hajji (male) or hajjah (female) refers to a new social status due to __________. A. completion of the pilgrimage to Mecca B. completing a Feast of Sacrifice animal sacrifice C. continuing to ever-higher levels of religious study D. creating an avatar on Second Life that completes the virtual Hajj Answer: A 23. A game called The Ark, was created by __________ lay people as part of the online version of their magazine Ship of Fools in 2003. A. Episcopalian B. Baptist C. Methodist D. Pentecostal Answer: C 24. When two anthropologists ( Kluver and Chen 2008 ) undertook an ethnography of the Church of Fools, they wanted to find out whether we should consider the online worship “__________.” A. real B. virtual C. full of grace D. sanctified by John Wesley Answer: A 25. Michael Taylor (1982) looked at the concept of “__________” as part of the definition of community: that you know and interact with other people on more than one register, not just as your baker but also as a fellow parent of a schoolchild or just fellow frequenter of the same neighborhood park. A. multiple ties B. multiple tiers C. multistranded ties D. multiple interactions Answer: C Essay Questions 1. On one level the World Wide Web is a great provider of information on and about religion. On the other hand it allows for participation in some religious activities. Give several examples of both with explanations as to how these activities may be superior, for some, to their real-world counterparts Answer: The World Wide Web: Provider of Information and Facilitator of Religious Activities Information Provider: 1. Access to Diverse Religious Resources: • Example: Websites, blogs, and forums provide access to scriptures, religious texts, teachings, and scholarly interpretations from various traditions. • Superiority: Information is accessible globally 24/7, allowing individuals to study and learn at their own pace and explore diverse perspectives not available locally. This democratizes religious education. 2. Comparative Religious Studies: • Example: Websites and databases offer comparative studies of religions, historical contexts, and theological debates. • Superiority: Users can explore different religions without geographical constraints, fostering understanding and tolerance through comparative analysis. 3. Archival and Historical Resources: • Example: Online archives preserve religious artifacts, historical documents, and cultural heritage. • Superiority: Digitization ensures preservation and accessibility, benefiting scholars, practitioners, and the public in researching religious history and traditions globally. Facilitator of Religious Activities: 1. Virtual Worship Services: • Example: Livestreamed or recorded religious ceremonies, sermons, and rituals. • Superiority: Enables participation from remote or homebound individuals, fostering inclusivity and community engagement beyond physical attendance. 2. Online Religious Communities: • Example: Social media groups, forums, and virtual congregations for discussion, prayer, and support. • Superiority: Provides anonymity, accessibility, and inclusivity for marginalized groups or those seeking support without physical presence, fostering a sense of belonging and mutual aid. 3. Global Outreach and Missionary Work: • Example: Websites, blogs, and online campaigns for spreading religious teachings, outreach, and charity. • Superiority: Expands outreach beyond local communities, facilitating cross-cultural dialogue, and supporting humanitarian efforts on a global scale. Explanations: • Superiority for Some: Online platforms offer convenience, accessibility, anonymity, and inclusivity, appealing to individuals who face physical barriers, live in remote areas, or seek diverse perspectives and support networks not available locally. 2. How do online prayer circles compare to real-world prayer circles? Does it matter that some online prayer circles are extensions of real-world churches, while others are not? Answer: Online Prayer Circles vs. Real-World Prayer Circles Comparison: 1. Online Prayer Circles: • Characteristics: Conducted via social media, forums, or dedicated platforms. • Advantages: Allow participation regardless of geographical location or physical presence, enabling asynchronous or synchronous prayer requests and interactions. 2. Real-World Prayer Circles: • Characteristics: Physical gatherings in churches, community centers, or homes. • Advantages: Offer immediate interpersonal connection, physical touch, and communal support through shared presence and direct interaction. Significance of Being Extensions of Real-World Churches: • Integration: Online prayer circles connected to real-world churches maintain continuity with physical community practices, fostering a sense of belonging, shared identity, and organizational structure. • Authenticity and Trust: Affiliation with established churches provides credibility, pastoral oversight, and adherence to doctrinal teachings, ensuring spiritual guidance and accountability in virtual interactions. Importance of Context: • Contextual Differences: While both online and real-world prayer circles aim to foster spiritual support and community, the mode of interaction (virtual vs. physical) impacts the depth of emotional connection, sense of presence, and immediacy of response. 3. Explain Jon Anderson’s characterization of many religious Web sites as “creole” spaces. Answer: Jon Anderson’s Characterization of Religious Websites as "Creole" Spaces Definition of Creole Spaces: • Jon Anderson: Describes religious websites as "creole" spaces where diverse religious traditions, practices, and cultural influences converge and interact online. Explanation: 1. Cultural Syncretism: • Example: Religious websites blend elements of different traditions, beliefs, and practices in a digital context, creating hybrid identities and new forms of religious expression. • Significance: Facilitates cross-cultural dialogue, understanding, and adaptation of religious teachings and rituals in a globalized, interconnected world. 2. Inclusive and Diverse Participation: • Example: Online forums and communities bring together adherents from various religious backgrounds, fostering interfaith dialogue and collaboration. • Significance: Promotes tolerance, mutual respect, and shared values while preserving distinct cultural and religious identities in digital spaces. 3. Virtual Rituals and Practices: • Example: Virtual pilgrimages, ceremonies, and rituals conducted online incorporate multimedia elements and interactive features. • Significance: Enhances accessibility, engagement, and educational outreach, catering to diverse audiences and promoting cultural exchange in religious practices. Conclusion: Jon Anderson’s concept of "creole" spaces highlights the dynamic nature of religious websites as hubs of cultural exchange, hybrid identities, and inclusive dialogue. These digital platforms reshape religious engagement, community building, and spiritual expression in the contemporary era, bridging traditional boundaries and fostering global interconnectedness in religious discourse. 4. How do some Websites facilitate religious performance? Is the experiential perception of a virtual analogue to a real-word experience valuable? Why or Why not? Answer: Websites Facilitating Religious Performance and Experiential Perception Facilitation of Religious Performance: 1. Virtual Worship Services: • Example: Websites offering live-streamed or recorded religious ceremonies, prayers, and sermons. • Facilitation: Allows distant participants to engage in communal worship, observe religious rituals, and receive spiritual teachings in real-time or on-demand. 2. Interactive Rituals and Practices: • Example: Virtual platforms hosting interactive rituals such as virtual pilgrimages, religious simulations, or symbolic ceremonies. • Facilitation: Enables users to participate actively in religious practices, experience sacred spaces, and engage in rituals that may not be physically accessible. 3. Educational Resources and Spiritual Guidance: • Example: Religious websites providing multimedia resources, virtual tours of religious sites, and online courses. • Facilitation: Enhances religious education, spiritual growth, and doctrinal understanding through interactive media and online community engagement. Experiential Perception of Virtual Analogues: 1. Value of Virtual Experiences: • Advantages: Virtual experiences offer accessibility, convenience, and inclusivity for participants who cannot attend physical gatherings due to distance, disability, or scheduling conflicts. • Enhanced Engagement: Immersive technologies and multimedia elements can simulate real-world experiences, fostering a sense of presence, emotional connection, and spiritual engagement. 2. Challenges and Considerations: • Authenticity: Virtual experiences may lack the tangible elements (physical presence, communal interaction) that enhance the depth and authenticity of real-world religious practices. • Spiritual Depth: While virtual analogues provide access and convenience, they may not fully replicate the profound spiritual experiences and interpersonal dynamics of physical religious gatherings. Importance of Virtual Experiences: Accessibility: Virtual platforms broaden access to religious services and rituals, accommodating diverse needs and preferences within globalized and multicultural societies. Community Building: Online interactions can foster virtual communities, support networks, and shared religious experiences that complement or extend physical community bonds. Conclusion: The experiential perception of virtual analogues to real-world religious experiences holds value in enhancing accessibility, inclusivity, and educational outreach. While virtual platforms facilitate religious performance and engagement, they complement rather than replace the depth and authenticity of physical communal rituals and spiritual experiences. 5. What is a MUVE? What is an avatar in a MUVE? Can a sense of community exist in this environment? Can this be applied to virtual religion? Answer: MUVEs, Avatars, and Virtual Community in Relation to Virtual Religion MUVEs (Multi-User Virtual Environments): • Definition: MUVEs are online platforms or virtual worlds where multiple users interact in real-time, often represented by avatars. Avatars in MUVEs: • Definition: Avatars are digital representations or characters used by users to navigate and interact within MUVEs. Sense of Community in MUVEs: 1. Community Dynamics: • Interaction: Users communicate, collaborate, and socialize through avatars, forming virtual friendships and networks. • Shared Activities: Participate in group activities, events, and discussions, fostering a sense of belonging and community identity. 2. Virtual Community Characteristics: • Inclusivity: MUVEs can transcend geographical and physical limitations, bringing together individuals from diverse backgrounds and locations. • Identity Formation: Avatars allow users to express religious identities and affiliations, engage in religious practices, and interact based on shared beliefs and values. Application to Virtual Religion: 1. Virtual Religious Practices: • Examples: Virtual religious services, ceremonies, pilgrimages, and educational programs conducted within MUVEs. • Facilitation: Enables global participation in religious activities, spiritual discussions, and community building among adherents worldwide. 2. Challenges and Considerations: • Authenticity: Virtual environments may challenge traditional notions of physical presence and ritual authenticity in religious practices. • Ethical Concerns: Ensuring respectful and ethical interactions, safeguarding religious teachings, and maintaining doctrinal integrity in virtual spaces. Conclusion: MUVEs and avatars facilitate virtual community formation and engagement, offering unique opportunities for religious expression, education, and social interaction. Virtual environments complement physical religious practices by expanding outreach, fostering inclusivity, and accommodating diverse religious needs in an increasingly digital world. However, the authenticity and spiritual depth of virtual religious experiences require careful consideration of ethical, cultural, and technological factors to ensure meaningful engagement and respect for religious traditions. Chapter Sixteen: Secularism and Religions in Modern States Multiple Choice 1. Britain has an established church, the __________, in which all state weddings and funerals take place. Other churches and religious organizations are allowed, and some even receive state support, but they take second place to this Church. A. Catholic B. Unitarian C. Episcopal or Anglican D. Lutheran Answer: C 2. In __________, a law is enacted and a judicial decision taken as the result of deliberations and voting that are not subject to religious bodies or authorities, and no religious text has direct legal force. A. the former Soviet Union B. the United States C. Norway D. Indonesia Answer: B 3. __________ does not imply a loss of faith and is compatible with a religious perspective on all domains of one’s life; it does mean that each of the social institutions in which one participates has its own set of norms. A. Religious ideology B. Atheism C. Laic D. Secularization Answer: D 4. As __________ became relegated to a separate sphere, the state came to see itself as distinct from religion, the family became a specialized sphere of socialization, and each domain took on its own norms. A. play B. politics C. religion D. work Answer: D 5. Secularization may mean the __________ in some sense, if we believe that individuals become less likely to view matters of social life or even ultimate concerns in religious terms. A. absence of religion B. turning away from religion C. ignorance of authoritative religious beliefs D. decline of religion Answer: D 6. One may have a society where the majority of people retain a high degree of religious commitment and yet the society is __________, and the state exercises little direct action on religions—the United States is an excellent example of this combination. A. highly secularized B. lightly secularized C. not secularized D. atheistic Answer: A 7. The name of this clause of the Constitution: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” is __________. A. the Elastic Clause B. the Establishment Clause C. the Secularization Clause D. the anti-Religion-in-Government Clause Answer: B 8. The emphasis on limiting the powers of government over religion was motivated by the colonists’ experience of religious __________. A. exaltation B. superiority C. idolatry D. persecution Answer: D 9. Authorities in New York and Massachusetts expelled Lutherans and Quakers along with Catholics and Jews. Even the relatively tolerant colony established by __________ forbade deists to live in the colony and kept Jews from holding office. A. James Madison B. Samuel Adams C. Patrick Henry D. William Penn Answer: D 10. What famous “founding father” stated that there should be “a wall of separation between church and state?” A. James Madison B. Samuel Adams C. Thomas Jefferson D. William Penn Answer: C 11. The legal historian Harold Berman (1990) argues, “for Americans of the 1780s and 1790s, free exercise of religion meant the freedom of religious communities to regulate family and social life, not the freedom of __________ to do as they pleased.” A. individuals B. states C. corporations D. groups Answer: A 12. From a nation where most people thought of religion in terms of community norms as well as private faith, the United States has become a nation where most people think of religion in terms of __________. A. private values B. private feelings C. private beliefs D. individual beliefs alone Answer: D 13. In 1800, nearly everyone in the United States belonged to a Protestant denomination; Catholics, Jews, and other faiths taken together amounted to perhaps __________ percent of the population. A. 10 B. 5 C. 15 D. 2 Answer: D 14. By the early 2000s, Catholics constituted about __________ percent of the population, and Jews and Mormons each less than __________ percent. A. 25/2 B. 35/5 C. 15/5 D. 25/6 Answer: A 15. In the 1992 case, Lee v. Weisman, the Supreme Court decided five to four that prayer delivered by a rabbi at a public school graduation was unconstitutional. The majority opinion stressed that any school-sponsored prayer, whether in the classroom or at an assembly, engendered social pressure on those not subscribing to the majority faith. But the dissent argued that graduation prayers were a __________, the idea of coercive social pressure was fabricated, and that Americans have always thanked God for his blessings. A. right B. expected behavior C. normal value D. tradition Answer: D 16. In 1879, in a decision (Reynolds v. U.S. ) that upheld a law against the Mormon practice of polygamy, the Court held that religious __________ were not themselves protected. A. observances B. practices C. rituals D. anti-government opinions Answer: B 17. In 1972, in the landmark case Wisconsin v. Yoder, the Supreme Court ruled that a state had to prove a compelling interest before it could constitutionally compel a community to obey a state law that conflicted with its religious __________. A. observances B. practices C. rituals D. anti-government opinions Answer: B 18. What is the “Lemon Test?” A. “excessive entanglement” of the state in religious affairs (Lemon v. Kurzman 1971) B. equal access to services C. special access to services by religious groups D. tax exemptions as religious groups Answer: A 19. Some Jewish and Muslim leaders have come out publicly in support of the continuing establishment of the Anglican Church (Modood 1994). They argue that when there is a national religion, the followers of that religion feel comfortable about their place in the society and, therefore, exert less pressure on minority groups to __________. A. change B. reform C. convert or conform D. exile themselves Answer: C 20. In Germany, and especially in Bavaria, the normal state of affairs was quite different than that in France. The state required that all primary school classrooms prominently display a __________. A. painting of the Last Supper B. painting of the Pieta C. large crucifix D. the Ten Commandments Answer: C 21. In Israel, Jewish courts enforce Jewish law, but the __________ retains the capacity to define the legal conditions of enforcement. A. Knesset B. Parliament C. Congress D. Senate Answer: A 22. Indonesia has an Islamic court system that runs parallel to its system of civil courts (Bowen 2003). Each system hears civil cases in the first instance and on appeal, and allows requests for cassation to be made to the Supreme Court. The Islamic courts only hear cases brought by __________. A. Indonesian B. Muslims C. Arabs D. heretics Answer: B 23. __________ grants distinct rights to its citizens depending on their declared religious confession. The state not only grants legal recognition to Islam, along with a small number of other official religions but also requires that each citizen declare, and indicate on his or her identity card, a recognized religion. A. Taiwan B. Saudi Arabia C. France D. Indonesia Answer: D 24. India’s constitution proclaims it to be a secular state; the Indian version of secularism gives religion a __________ role. A. secondary B. tertiary C. creative D. central Answer: D 25. Indian judges must decide which body of __________ governs the lives of a particular person or family. When judging a Muslim couple, they must determine which legal school ( madhhab ) the couple follows. A. law B. religious law C. religious custom D. religious philosophy Answer: B Essay Questions 1. What is a secular state? Is it truly possible for any state to be completely secular? Answer: Understanding a Secular State and its Possibility Definition of a Secular State: A secular state is a government or state that is officially neutral in matters of religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs or practices. It upholds the principle of separation between religious institutions and the state, ensuring freedom of religion and preventing religious influence in governmental affairs. Is Complete Secularism Possible? 1. Practical Challenges: • Cultural and Historical Context: Many countries have deep-rooted religious traditions and cultural norms that influence societal practices and policies. • Political Realities: Religious institutions often play significant roles in societal welfare, education, and moral guidance, making complete separation challenging. • Public Opinion: Public sentiment and political dynamics may sway policies towards accommodating religious values or practices. 2. Examples of Secular States: • France: Known for its strict interpretation of laïcité, separating church and state to a high degree, though controversies and adaptations exist. • Turkey: Historically secular with state institutions separate from religious ones, but recent shifts towards more religious influences have occurred. • India: Officially secular in its constitution but with challenges regarding religious tensions and state involvement in religious matters. 3. Degrees of Secularism: • Soft Secularism: Acknowledges religious influence but maintains neutrality in policy-making. • Strict Secularism: Seeks complete separation of religion from state affairs, including public institutions and education. Conclusion: While achieving complete secularism in practice is challenging due to cultural, historical, and political factors, many countries strive to uphold principles of religious freedom and neutrality in governance. The extent of secularism varies, influenced by societal norms, historical contexts, and ongoing debates over the role of religion in public life. 2. While the United States Constitution may not allow for the formation of a state religion, what is the experience of politicians when it comes to religion? How hard would it be for an atheist to be elected to office? Answer: Religion and Politicians in the United States Experience of Politicians with Religion: 1. Constitutional Context: • Establishment Clause: The First Amendment prohibits the establishment of a state religion and guarantees religious freedom. • Political Discourse: Religion often features prominently in American politics, influencing voter perceptions, policy debates, and candidates' public personas. 2. Political Landscape: • Religious Affiliation: Many politicians publicly express religious beliefs, affiliations, and values, which can resonate with voters and shape electoral outcomes. • Public Perception: Atheists and agnostics may face challenges in electoral politics due to stigma, misconceptions, and perceived lack of moral grounding. 3. Electability of Atheists: • Challenges: Polling data suggests that atheists are among the least likely demographic groups to be elected to public office in the United States. • Public Opinion: Despite constitutional protections, religious rhetoric and affiliations often influence voter perceptions of candidates' values and trustworthiness. 4. Progress and Challenges: • Diversity: Efforts to diversify political representation include advocating for religious diversity and secular viewpoints. • Legal Protections: Legal protections ensure equal rights and nondiscrimination based on religious beliefs or lack thereof, though societal biases may persist. Conclusion: While the U.S. Constitution safeguards religious freedom and prohibits the establishment of a state religion, the political landscape reflects deep-rooted connections between religion and public life. Atheists and non-religious candidates face significant electoral challenges due to prevailing societal norms, highlighting ongoing debates over the role of religion in governance and political representation. Efforts towards inclusivity and diversity continue to shape the discourse on religion and politics in the United States. 3. How do the 14th amendment to the United States Constitution and a 1947 Supreme Court ruling (Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township) come together to dictate just how the individual states interpret the Bill of Rights? Answer: The 14th Amendment and Everson v. Board of Education: Impact on State Interpretation of the Bill of Rights 14th Amendment: 1. Equal Protection Clause: The 14th Amendment, ratified in 1868, guarantees equal protection of the laws to all citizens and prohibits states from denying any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 2. Due Process Clause: It also includes a due process clause, ensuring that states uphold fundamental rights and liberties, including those protected by the Bill of Rights. Everson v. Board of Education (1947): 1. Background: The case involved a challenge to a New Jersey law allowing reimbursements to parents of parochial school students for transportation costs. The Supreme Court upheld the law, arguing it did not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. 2. Significance: The decision established the "wall of separation" metaphor between church and state and extended the application of the Establishment Clause to the states through the 14th Amendment's Due Process Clause. Impact on State Interpretation of the Bill of Rights: 1. Incorporation Doctrine: Everson v. Board of Education marked a pivotal moment in constitutional law by applying the Establishment Clause (part of the First Amendment) to state laws and practices, thus incorporating it into the protections guaranteed by the 14th Amendment. 2. Uniform Application: It mandated that state laws and policies must adhere to the principles of religious neutrality and separation of church and state, ensuring consistency in the interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights across all states. 3. Legal Precedent: Subsequent Supreme Court rulings further clarified and expanded the incorporation doctrine, ensuring that fundamental rights protected under the Bill of Rights apply equally to state and local governments. Conclusion: The 14th Amendment, coupled with the precedent set by Everson v. Board of Education, establishes a framework for how states interpret and apply the Bill of Rights. It mandates that states uphold constitutional protections, including religious freedom and the separation of church and state, ensuring consistency and uniformity in legal interpretation and application across the United States. 4. France has made state secularism a part of its legal framework. Throughout the nineteenth century, Republican and Catholic factions struggled for control of the schools—and through them, control of the hearts and minds of French children. From that struggle came strong laws preventing the state from granting official recognition to any religion and laws guaranteeing public, secular education to all French children. Taking all of this into account, how does this apply to Muslim girls wearing headscarves to school? Answer: Secularism in France and Muslim Girls Wearing Headscarves to School Historical Context: 1. Struggle for Secularism: In France, the 19th-century conflict between Republican ideals and Catholic influence led to the establishment of strict secular laws separating church and state. 2. Legal Framework: Laws passed during this period ensured public education was secular and prevented the state from endorsing any religion, reflecting a commitment to laïcité (secularism). Application to Muslim Headscarves: 1. Headscarf Bans: In the early 2000s, France implemented laws prohibiting the wearing of conspicuous religious symbols, including Muslim headscarves, in public schools. 2. Legal Justification: These laws aim to maintain strict neutrality in public institutions and uphold secular principles. They are rooted in the principle that public education should be free from religious influence to ensure equality and prevent religious divisions among students. 3. Controversy and Debate: The prohibition of headscarves in schools has sparked debate regarding religious freedom, cultural identity, and integration of Muslim communities in France. 4. Legal Challenges: Despite criticism, French courts have upheld the legality of such laws under the principles of secularism and equal treatment of all citizens regardless of religious beliefs. Impact on Muslim Girls: 1. Identity and Expression: For Muslim girls who choose to wear headscarves as an expression of religious identity, these laws pose challenges to their freedom of expression and cultural practices. 2. Integration and Social Cohesion: Supporters argue that secular laws promote social cohesion and integration by fostering a common public space where religious differences are minimized. Conclusion: France's commitment to secularism, rooted in historical struggles for state neutrality and public education, shapes policies regarding religious symbols like Muslim headscarves in schools. While aimed at promoting secular values and equality, these laws also raise complex issues of religious freedom and cultural identity, reflecting ongoing debates over the balance between individual rights and state secularism in modern societies. 5. Respond in essay form to the following statement: Some Britons have recently urged that the Anglican Church be disestablished, deprived of its official status. Non-Anglicans, including many Muslims and Jews, argue that for all British citizens to enjoy full citizenship, they all must enjoy an equal capacity to shape the public culture. Answer: In recent years, calls for the disestablishment of the Anglican Church as the official state church of Britain have intensified, driven by arguments for greater religious equality and the secularization of public institutions. This essay explores the arguments both for and against disestablishment, considering the perspectives of non-Anglican religious groups, such as Muslims and Jews, who advocate for a more inclusive public culture. Historical Context and Current Debate 1. Establishment of the Anglican Church: • The Anglican Church, or Church of England, has been the established church in England since the Reformation, with the monarch serving as its supreme governor. • Its establishment is enshrined in British constitutional tradition, granting it special legal and symbolic status in national ceremonies and public life. 2. Calls for Disestablishment: • Secular Principles: Advocates for disestablishment argue that a secular state should not privilege any particular religion, maintaining religious neutrality and equality under the law. • Religious Pluralism: Non-Anglican religious communities, including Muslims and Jews, argue that state support for the Anglican Church undermines their equal status and integration into British society. • Changing Demographics: Britain's demographic landscape has evolved with increasing religious diversity, necessitating a reassessment of the Anglican Church's role in reflecting and serving the broader population. Arguments for Disestablishment 1. Religious Neutrality: • Disestablishment would affirm the principle of religious neutrality in governance, ensuring that all citizens, regardless of religious affiliation, are equally represented and respected by the state. • It would prevent the Anglican Church from influencing public policy and social norms disproportionately compared to other faiths. 2. Equality and Citizenship: • Disestablishment aligns with principles of equal citizenship, where all citizens have the right to participate in and shape public culture without religious bias or preference. • It promotes a more inclusive society where religious minorities feel fully integrated and recognized in national life. 3. Secular Governance: • In a secular state, decisions on matters of public policy, education, and law should be made independently of religious considerations to uphold fairness and protect individual freedoms. Arguments Against Disestablishment 1. Historical and Cultural Identity: • The Anglican Church is deeply intertwined with British history, culture, and national identity, providing a moral and ethical framework that has shaped the nation's values and institutions. • Disestablishment could erode these historical ties and diminish the church's role in promoting social cohesion and ethical standards. 2. Continued Relevance: • Despite declining membership, the Anglican Church continues to provide spiritual guidance, pastoral care, and community support to millions of Britons, contributing to the welfare of society. 3. Practical Considerations: • Disestablishment could entail complex legal and constitutional reforms, potentially disrupting existing governance structures and relationships between church and state. Perspectives of Non-Anglican Communities 1. Equality and Integration: • Non-Anglican religious groups argue that disestablishment would affirm their equal status as British citizens and promote a more inclusive public culture that respects religious diversity. • It would ensure that no single religious institution receives preferential treatment or influence over public affairs. 2. Challenges of Exclusion: • Maintaining the Anglican Church's established status may perpetuate feelings of exclusion among religious minorities, hindering efforts to foster social harmony and mutual respect. Conclusion The debate over the disestablishment of the Anglican Church reflects broader societal shifts towards secularism, religious pluralism, and equality under the law in Britain. While advocates emphasize the principles of religious neutrality and equal citizenship, opponents highlight the church's cultural and historical significance, as well as its continued role in providing moral guidance and community support. Non-Anglican religious communities, including Muslims and Jews, assert their right to participate fully in shaping public culture without institutional bias. Ultimately, the decision on disestablishment requires careful consideration of constitutional principles, societal values, and the evolving religious landscape in Britain to ensure a fair and inclusive public sphere for all citizens. Test Bank for Religions in Practice: An Approach to the Anthropology of Religions John R. Bowen 9780205961047

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