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Chapter 4
The Roman Period and the Middle Ages
1. The Greek physician ___________, practicing in Rome, was one of the first to distinguish
between delusions and hallucinations.
a. Asclepiades
b. Galen
c. Plotinus
d. Lucretius
Answer: a. Asclepiades
Asclepiades, a Greek physician practicing in Rome during the 1st century BCE, was among
the first to make a clear distinction between delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (false
perceptions), laying the groundwork for understanding different aspects of mental disorders.
2. ________ was one of the first to assess psychological states by observing physiological
reactions. Indeed, he concluded that one of his patients was in love because her heart rate and
facial expressions changed each time the name of the object of her love was mentioned.
a. Galen
b. Empedocles
c. Hippocrates
d. Alcmaeon
Answer: a. Galen
Galen, a prominent Greek physician in Rome during the 2nd century CE, was one of the
earliest practitioners to link psychological states with physiological reactions. His

observations of changes in heart rate and facial expressions in response to stimuli helped him
assess psychological conditions, such as identifying love in a patient.
3. Galen believed that most mental disorders are the result of
a. demons.
b. bad choices, or the misuse of free will.
c. psychological conflicts.
d. imbalance in the various humors and qualities.
Answer: d. imbalance in the various humors and qualities.
Galen, influenced by the humoral theory inherited from Hippocrates, attributed most mental
disorders to an imbalance in the bodily humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile) and
their associated qualities, such as heat, cold, dryness, and moisture.
4. Taken quite simply, the term pneuma, as used by Galen, refers to
a. the body.
b. air that is drawn in as we breath, and distributed to the various tissues.
c. blood.
d. black bile responsible for depression.
Answer: b. air that is drawn in as we breath, and distributed to the various tissues.
In Galenic physiology, pneuma refers to the vital air or breath drawn into the body through
respiration, which is believed to be distributed to various tissues and organs to support life
5. Galen's medical doctrines were
a. widely rejected by the Christian church.

b. assimilated into Christian theology and became rigid dogma.
c. rejected by the church as the “work of the devil.”
d. rejected by the church as an example of materialism.
Answer: b. assimilated into Christian theology and became rigid dogma.
Galen's medical theories were incorporated into Christian theology during the Middle Ages,
becoming a cornerstone of medieval medical education and practice, often considered
authoritative and infallible within Christian societies.
6. Most of the major schools of thought in Rome were focused on
a. the physical structure of the universe.
b. the problem of knowledge.
c. the conflicts of faith and reason.
d. how to live a happy and untroubled life.
Answer: d. how to live a happy and untroubled life.
In Roman philosophical traditions, particularly Stoicism and Epicureanism, the focus was on
ethical teachings aimed at achieving a state of tranquility and contentment in life,
emphasizing practical principles for living a fulfilling and virtuous life.
7. __________ was a stoic who advocated resignation to things beyond human control.
a. Lucretius.
b. Plotinus.
c. Epicurus of Samos.
d. Epictetus.
Answer: d. Epictetus.

Epictetus, a Stoic philosopher, emphasized the importance of accepting and resigning to
events beyond human control, advocating for personal virtue and inner tranquility as the key
to happiness.
8. The stoics and the Epicureans believed in moderation, but psychologically the stoics
emphasized ________ whereas the Epicureans emphasized ________.
a. suppression . . . expression
b. expression . . . suppression
c. extroversion . . . introversion
d. socialization . . . isolation
Answer: a. suppression . . . expression
Stoicism emphasized the suppression of emotions and desires, advocating for inner selfcontrol and resilience in the face of adversity, while Epicureanism promoted the expression
of natural desires in moderation, seeking pleasure through avoidance of pain and tranquility
through simple living.
9. ________ proposed a theory of evolution of social groups, religion, and language.
a. Plotinus
b. Hypatia of Alexandria
c. Epicurus of Samos
d. Lucretius
Answer: d. Lucretius

Lucretius, a Roman poet and philosopher, proposed a theory of cultural evolution in his epic
poem "De Rerum Natura" ("On the Nature of Things"), tracing the development of human
society, religion, and language from primitive origins to more complex forms.
10. Platonic thought was combined with religion in the work of
a. Lucretius
b. Plotunis
c. Rhazes
d. Zeno of Cyprus
Answer: b. Plotunis
Plotinus, a prominent philosopher of the 3rd century CE, is known for his synthesis of
Platonic thought with mystical and religious ideas, forming the basis of Neoplatonism. His
philosophical system integrated elements of Plato's teachings with metaphysical concepts,
emphasizing the ascent of the soul towards union with the divine.
11. _________ was known for expertise in geometry and for being an early advocate of
music therapy.
a. Hypatia
b. Aristotle
c. Plotinus
d. Rhazes
Answer: a. Hypatia
Hypatia, a renowned mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher in ancient Alexandria, was
celebrated for her contributions to geometry and her advocacy of intellectual pursuits. She
also explored the therapeutic effects of music, anticipating later developments in music

12. _________ is to skepticism as__________ is to Neo-Platonism.
a. Alhazen . . . Rhazes
b. Augustine . . . Aquinas
c. Lucretius . . . Pyrrho
d. Pyrrho . . . Plotinus
Answer: d. Pyrrho . . . Plotinus
Pyrrho is associated with skepticism, advocating for suspension of judgment and doubting the
possibility of attaining true knowledge. Plotinus, on the other hand, is a prominent figure in
Neoplatonism, emphasizing the ascent of the soul towards the divine through contemplation
and spiritual purification.
13. The school of philosophy known as skepticism was founded by
a. Pyrrho.
b. Lucretius.
c. Zeno.
d. Plotinus.
Answer: a. Pyrrho.
Pyrrho of Elis is credited with founding the school of skepticism in ancient Greece.
Skepticism, as advocated by Pyrrho, promoted the suspension of judgment and the
recognition of the limitations of human knowledge.
14. According to the text, which of the following did NOT contribute to the fall of the Roman
a. A dwindling population
b. Tensions between Roman polytheism and Christianity

c. Economic burdens resulting from military expansion
d. Larger families
Answer: d. Larger families
While factors such as dwindling population, religious tensions, and economic burdens did
contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire, larger families were not a significant factor in its
decline. In fact, larger families were often seen as advantageous in ancient societies.
15. The early Christian church in Rome emphasized
a. science.
b. knowledge by revelation.
c. the value of this life.
d. acceptance of women.
Answer: b. knowledge by revelation.
The early Christian church in Rome emphasized knowledge by revelation, relying on divine
guidance and scripture rather than scientific inquiry. Revelation was considered the primary
source of knowledge and truth.
16. The medieval period was characterized by
a. accelerated development.
b. total stagnation.
c. intellectual progression and regression occurring simultaneously.
d. the acceptance of science.
Answer: c. intellectual progression and regression occurring simultaneously.

The medieval period was marked by both intellectual progress and regression. While
advancements were made in areas such as theology, philosophy, and architecture, there were
also periods of intellectual stagnation, particularly in scientific inquiry.
17. The method for seeking knowledge on which Tertullian centered his worldview was
a. reason.
b. revelation.
c. empiricism.
d. aetheticism.
Answer: b. revelation.
Tertullian, an early Christian theologian, emphasized revelation as the primary method for
seeking knowledge. He believed in the importance of divine guidance and scripture as
sources of truth, rather than relying solely on human reason or empirical observation.
18. __________, as author of the Confessions, provided the world with a powerful
psychological autobiography. He was one of the first to emphasize the importance of
unconscious processes.
a. Aquinas
b. Rhazes
c. Roger Bacon
d. Augustine
Answer: d. Augustine
Augustine, through his work "Confessions," offered a profound psychological autobiography,
exploring themes of sin, redemption, and the workings of the human mind. He delved into the
significance of unconscious processes, contributing to early understandings of psychology.

19. _____ wrote on the topic of memory, distinguishing between recognition and recall, and
gave consideration to the tip-of-the-tongue phenomena
a. Aquinas
b. Rhazes
c. Roger Bacon
d. Augustine
Answer: d. Augustine
Augustine extensively wrote about memory in his philosophical and theological works,
making distinctions between recognition and recall and exploring phenomena such as the tipof-the-tongue experience. His insights laid the groundwork for later studies in memory
20. ________ may be called the founder of the Middle Ages
a. Boethius
b. Avicenna
c. Rhazes
d. Roger Bacon
Answer: a. Boethius
Boethius, a Roman philosopher and statesman, is often regarded as a foundational figure in
the transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages. His influential works, such as
"Consolation of Philosophy," played a significant role in shaping medieval thought and
21. In addition to criticizing ancient conceptions of disease such as demonology, _____ was
also the first to apply chemistry to medical research

a. Aquinas
b. Rhazes
c. Roger Bacon
d. Augustine
Answer: b. Rhazes
Rhazes, also known as Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, was a Persian physician who made
significant contributions to medicine. He criticized ancient beliefs about disease and was one
of the first to apply chemical principles to medical research, pioneering the use of chemistry
in the understanding and treatment of illnesses.
22. The most influential philosopher and physician of the early Islamic world was
a. Avicenna.
b. Rhazes.
c. Alhazen.
d. Averröes.
Answer: a. Avicenna.
Avicenna, also known as Ibn Sina, was a Persian polymath who made profound contributions
to philosophy, medicine, and science during the Islamic Golden Age. His philosophical
works, particularly "The Book of Healing" and "The Canon of Medicine," had a lasting
impact on both Islamic and Western thought.
23. One characteristic that Avicenna, Maimonides, and St. Thomas Aquinas had in common
was that each one
a. was Christian.
b. greatly distrusted reason.

c. elevated empiricism over reason.
d. sought to reconcile faith and reason.
Answer: d. sought to reconcile faith and reason.
Avicenna, Maimonides, and St. Thomas Aquinas were all prominent medieval philosophers
and theologians who sought to harmonize faith with reason. They believed in the
compatibility of religious doctrines with philosophical inquiry, aiming to reconcile faithbased beliefs with rational thought.
24. ___________ had a concept of soul very similar to Aristotle’s concept of soul. Soul
includes vegetative, animal, and human functions.
a. Avicenna
b. Rhazes
c. Alhazen
d. Averröes
Answer: a. Avicenna
Avicenna's concept of the soul closely resembled Aristotle's notion of the soul, encompassing
vegetative, animal, and human functions. Avicenna, drawing from Aristotelian philosophy,
developed a comprehensive understanding of the soul's role in vital functions and
25. Famous for his Book of Optics, _______ rejected the Platonic theory of extramission or
that light rays are emitted from the eye.
a. Roger Bacon
b. William of Ockham
c. Alhazen

d. Avicenna
Answer: c. Alhazen
Alhazen, also known as Ibn al-Haytham, was a pioneering Arab scientist known for his work
in optics. In his "Book of Optics," he rejected the Platonic theory of extramission, instead
proposing a theory of visual perception based on light entering the eye.
26. __________wrote The Incoherence of the Philosophers and cautioned against empirical
and rational inquiry.
a. Rhazes
b. Avicenna
c. Alhazen
d. Al-Ghazali
Answer: d. Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali, a Persian philosopher and theologian, authored "The Incoherence of the
Philosophers," in which he criticized certain philosophical ideas prevalent in his time. He
cautioned against blind acceptance of empirical and rational inquiry, advocating instead for a
balanced approach that incorporates religious faith.
27. __________ was a philosopher in his own right, but he was even more famous for his
extensive commentaries on the work of Aristotle which became a major intellectual force in
a. Rhazes
b. Avicenna
c. Alhazen
d. Averröes

Answer: d. Averröes
Averröes, also known as Ibn Rushd, was a prominent Islamic philosopher and jurist who
wrote extensive commentaries on Aristotle's works. His commentaries played a significant
role in reintroducing Aristotelian philosophy to medieval Europe and shaping subsequent
philosophical discourse.
28. The book Guide of the Perplexed, written by ________, was an early attempt to reconcile
faith and science by arguing that many scriptural texts were written for very simple people
and should not be taken literally.
a. Maimonides
b. Aquinas
c. Avicenna
d. Roger Bacon
Answer: a. Maimonides
Maimonides, a Jewish philosopher and physician, authored the "Guide for the Perplexed," in
which he sought to reconcile faith with rational inquiry. He argued that many scriptural texts
should be interpreted allegorically rather than literally, encouraging a harmonious
relationship between religious teachings and philosophical reasoning.
29. _________ argued that reason is no less a gift from God than the scriptures and should
not be blindly rejected. He saw doubt in a positive light because it motivates study.
a. Plotinus
b. Augustine
c. Peter Abelard
d. Plato
Answer: c. Peter Abelard

Peter Abelard, a medieval French philosopher and theologian, emphasized the importance of
reason in understanding religious truths. He believed that reason, like scripture, was a divine
gift and should not be dismissed. Abelard also valued doubt as a means of stimulating
intellectual inquiry and deeper understanding.
30. _________ was an early investigator of the nature of loving relationships.
a. Oliva Sabuco
b. Heloise
c. Hypatia
d. Thomas Aquinas
Answer: b. Heloise
Heloise, a French nun and scholar, was known for her intellectual pursuits and her passionate
love affair with the philosopher Peter Abelard. Their relationship, documented in their letters,
provided insights into the complexities of romantic love and emotional connections in
medieval society.
31. _________ wrote Opus Majus, which contained chapters on topics such as optics,
philology, mathematics, experimental science, moral philosophy, and four general causes of
human errors.
a. Thomas Aquinas
b. Peter Abelard
c. Heloise
d. Roger Bacon
Answer: d. Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon, a medieval English philosopher and Franciscan friar, authored the Opus Majus,
a comprehensive work covering various fields of knowledge including optics, mathematics,
experimental science, and moral philosophy. This influential text discussed human errors and
emphasized empirical investigation as a means to acquire knowledge.
32. Almost single-handedly, _________ was able to convince church authorities that they had
nothing to fear from Aristotle. Following the influence of this theologian, Aristotle was a
regular part of the curriculum at the University of Paris.
a. Thomas Aquinas
b. Augustine
c. Peter Abelard
d. Heloise
Answer: a. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican friar and theologian, played a crucial role in reconciling
Christian theology with the philosophy of Aristotle. His works, particularly the Summa
Theologica, demonstrated the compatibility of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian
doctrine, leading to the acceptance of Aristotle's writings in medieval universities.
33. The principle of parsimony or “Ockham's Razor” states that
a. scientific explanations should always be set forth in quantitative terms.
b. science should always begin with experience and then look for the building blocks of
c. nothing in nature is ever simple, so do not assume simplicity.
d. explanations containing fewer assumptions are to be preferred to those containing more
Answer: d. explanations containing fewer assumptions are to be preferred to those containing
more assumptions.

Ockham's Razor, attributed to the medieval philosopher William of Ockham, states that when
multiple competing theories exist to explain the same phenomenon, the one with the fewest
assumptions should be preferred. This principle guides scientists and philosophers in
selecting the simplest and most economical explanations for observed phenomena.

Test Bank for A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context
Brett D. King, Wayne Viney, William Douglas Woody

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