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Chapter 4 Classical Civilization: China Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Compared to a Chinese nobleman, a peasant in classical China was more likely to A) have a low level of literacy. B) be ineligible to participate in religious life C) have a belief in a number of gods or spirits of nature. D) depend on trade as the basic economic resource. Answer: A Rationale: In classical China, social mobility was limited, and access to education was primarily available to the elite class, including noblemen and scholars. Peasants, on the other hand, typically had lower levels of literacy because they were primarily focused on agricultural labor rather than intellectual pursuits. As a result, they were less likely to be literate compared to the nobility who had access to education and could afford private tutors. 2) To what does the term “Son of Heaven” refer? A) the Chinese emperor B) a Chinese religious leader C) a Chinese warrior D) a Chinese deity Answer: A Rationale: The term "Son of Heaven" refers to the Chinese emperor, who was considered to be the intermediary between heaven and earth and held supreme authority over the realm. This concept of imperial rule was deeply rooted in Chinese political and religious thought, emphasizing the emperor's divine mandate to govern and maintain harmony within the empire. 3) One difference between classical civilizations and river valley civilizations was that A) most people farmed the land. B) empires were often formed. C) trade was introduced. D) writing was developed. Answer: B Rationale: While both classical civilizations and river valley civilizations had agricultural economies and developed forms of writing, one notable difference is that classical civilizations, such as those in ancient Greece, Rome, and China, often saw the emergence of large empires with centralized governments and extensive bureaucracies. River valley civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt, tended to have more localized political structures centered around city-states or kingdoms rather than expansive empires. 4) One difference between classical China and the earlier Huanghe river valley civilization was that in classical China, A) religious sacrifices were suppressed. B) traditions emphasized the harmony of nature. C) irrigation was widely practiced. D) China became relatively isolated. Answer: A Rationale: In classical China, especially during the Qin and Han dynasties, there was a trend toward the suppression of traditional religious practices and the promotion of state-sanctioned ideologies, such as Legalism and Confucianism. Religious sacrifices, which were prominent in earlier periods, particularly during the Shang and Zhou dynasties, were often discouraged or replaced by state rituals aimed at consolidating imperial power and promoting loyalty to the ruling regime. 5) The Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou in that it A) lasted longer. B) practiced Confucianism. C) was more centralized. D) was defeated by invading Huns. Answer: C Rationale: The Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou dynasty primarily in terms of its political structure and level of centralization. The Qin dynasty, particularly under the rule of Qin Shi Huang, established a highly centralized and authoritarian government, characterized by strict legalism and bureaucratic control. In contrast, the Zhou dynasty relied more on feudalistic arrangements with regional lords, leading to a more decentralized form of governance. 6) Chinese views of nature emphasized A) harmony and balance. B) a powerful, all-seeing god. C) that nature was uncontrollable. D) that the key to understanding lay through scientific experiments. Answer: A Rationale: Chinese views of nature traditionally emphasized harmony and balance, reflecting the philosophical and religious beliefs of Confucianism, Daoism, and other indigenous spiritual traditions. Nature was seen as an interconnected system where human beings were expected to live in harmony with the natural world, rather than attempting to dominate or control it. This perspective influenced various aspects of Chinese culture, including art, literature, and environmental ethics. 7) A “dynasty” in Chinese history was A) any emperor who lasted more than two decades. B) a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation. C) powerful bureaucrats who ran the state. D) big business families who monopolized overseas trade. Answer: B Rationale: In Chinese history, a "dynasty" refers to a sequence of rulers from the same family who held power and passed the imperial title from one generation to the next. Dynastic rule was a fundamental principle of Chinese political organization, with each dynasty often establishing its own system of governance, laws, and cultural norms. Dynastic changes typically occurred through conquest, rebellion, or succession, marking significant transitions in Chinese history. 8) Which of the following constituted a function of government in Han China? A) suppression of scientific research B) promotion of Confucian beliefs C) schools for peasant boys D) differentiated laws for criminals of different social classes Answer: B Rationale: In Han China, the promotion of Confucian beliefs was a central function of the government, particularly under the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. Confucianism was adopted as the state ideology, and Confucian scholars were appointed to bureaucratic positions based on their knowledge of Confucian classics and principles. The government sponsored the establishment of Confucian academies, the compilation of Confucian texts, and the examination system to select officials based on Confucian teachings. This emphasis on Confucianism played a significant role in shaping state policies, moral values, and social hierarchy during the Han dynasty. 9) Which of the following were lowest in official Chinese social hierarchy (aside from the “mean people”)? A) students B) merchants C) peasants D) artisans Answer: C Rationale: Peasants occupied the lowest position in the official Chinese social hierarchy, aside from the "mean people." While they formed the backbone of agrarian society and provided essential labor for agricultural production, they often lacked social status, political power, and economic opportunities compared to other social groups such as scholars, officials, and merchants. Peasants were typically tied to the land they cultivated and were subject to heavy taxation and corvée labor obligations imposed by the ruling elite. 10) During the Zhou dynasty, ceremony became an important part of upper-class Chinese life because the Chinese believed that A) women should regulate the household. B) people should restrain crude impulses. C) polite behavior would make other discipline unnecessary. D) courtesy would win salvation in heaven. Answer: B Rationale: During the Zhou dynasty, ceremony and ritual observances became integral aspects of upperclass Chinese life due to the prevailing Confucian beliefs and ethical principles. Confucianism emphasized the importance of social harmony, hierarchical relationships, and proper conduct based on the principles of li (ritual propriety) and ren (benevolence). Ceremony and etiquette were seen as essential means to cultivate virtue, discipline unruly impulses, and maintain social order within the hierarchical structure of society. Thus, individuals were expected to adhere to strict codes of behavior and etiquette as a manifestation of moral cultivation and social refinement. 11) Which of the following was a Confucian belief? A) Change is the goal of a sensible state. B) A good society has a firm hierarchy. C) Merchants must be valued for their money-making skills. D) Governments must not interfere with individual rights. Answer: B Rationale: Confucianism, founded by Confucius (Kong Fuzi), promoted the idea of a harmonious society based on moral cultivation, social order, and hierarchical relationships. One of the core Confucian beliefs was the importance of maintaining a firm hierarchy within society, with clear distinctions between rulers and subjects, parents and children, and other social roles. Confucianism emphasized filial piety, respect for authority, and adherence to traditional rituals and customs as essential elements for fostering social stability and moral integrity within the community. 12) One of China’s key economic strengths was A) extensive overseas trade. B) government encouragement of the merchant class. C) high levels of technological innovation. D) early introduction of steam-powered equipment. Answer: C Rationale: One of China's key economic strengths throughout its history was its tradition of technological innovation and invention. Chinese civilization made significant contributions to various fields such as agriculture, metallurgy, ceramics, textiles, papermaking, and printing. Innovations such as the compass, gunpowder, paper currency, and the mechanical clock originated in China and had a profound impact on global trade, communication, and warfare. China's emphasis on technological advancement facilitated economic development, enhanced productivity, and contributed to its status as a major center of innovation and industrial production in the ancient and medieval world. 13) The Chinese government accepted Daoism for which of the following reasons? A) Daoists had great political ambitions. B) Daoists believed that nobles were holier than peasants. C) Daoists refused to acknowledge the Son of Heaven. D) Daoists provided spiritual insights for many in the upper classes. Answer: D Rationale: The Chinese government accepted Daoism primarily because Daoist teachings and practices provided spiritual solace and philosophical insights for many individuals, including members of the upper classes. Daoism, attributed to the legendary sage Laozi, emphasized living in harmony with the Dao (the Way), embracing simplicity, spontaneity, and naturalness, and cultivating inner peace and tranquility through meditation, contemplation, and selfcultivation. While Daoism did not directly challenge imperial authority or advocate for radical social change, it offered alternative spiritual perspectives and ethical values that complemented Confucianism and Buddhism in shaping Chinese culture and worldview. 14) Daoists emphasized which of the following? A) the importance of political activity B) scorn for greed C) the basic harmony of nature D) the importance of restraint in personal life Answer: C Rationale: Daoism emphasized the fundamental harmony of nature as a guiding principle for understanding the cosmos and human existence. Daoist philosophy, rooted in the concept of the Dao (the Way), posited that the universe operates according to natural laws and rhythms that are spontaneous, cyclical, and interconnected. Daoists advocated for aligning oneself with the flow of the Dao, embracing simplicity, humility, and non-interference with the natural order. The emphasis on the harmony of nature influenced various aspects of Daoist thought, including ethics, cosmology, medicine, and aesthetics, and contributed to the development of Daoist arts, literature, and spiritual practices aimed at attaining unity with the Dao. 15) Chinese art featured A) frequent shifts in style. B) careful craftsmanship and detailed work. C) monumental temples and stadiums. D) emphasis on God and the holy family. Answer: B Rationale: Chinese art is renowned for its meticulous craftsmanship and attention to detail, characterized by intricate brushwork, delicate carving, and exquisite decoration. Whether in painting, calligraphy, ceramics, or sculpture, Chinese artists exhibited a high degree of skill and precision, reflecting the values of discipline, patience, and mastery inherent in Confucian and Daoist philosophies. Artisans often employed traditional techniques passed down through generations, producing works of art that were both aesthetically pleasing and culturally significant. This emphasis on careful craftsmanship contributed to the enduring legacy of Chinese art and its influence on artistic traditions worldwide. 16) Which of the following contributed to the decline of the Zhou dynasty? A) declining political infrastructure and invasions B) excessive bureaucracy C) expanded territory D) unwillingness of the people to accept the Mandate of Heaven Answer: A Rationale: The decline of the Zhou dynasty was attributed to various factors, including internal strife, weakening central authority, and external invasions. Over time, the Zhou kings lost control over regional lords (zhou), leading to the fragmentation of political power and the proliferation of independent states. This disintegration of political unity and the breakdown of the feudal system created opportunities for rival states to challenge Zhou authority and engage in military conflicts. Additionally, invasions by nomadic tribes from the north, such as the Xiongnu, further weakened the Zhou dynasty, eventually culminating in its collapse and the onset of the Warring States period. 17) Legalism emerged after the decline of the A) Qin. B) Shang. C) Zhou. D) river valley civilizations. Answer: C Rationale: Legalism emerged as a political and philosophical movement during the Warring States period (c. 475–221 BCE) following the decline of the Zhou dynasty. Developed by thinkers such as Shang Yang and Han Feizi, Legalism advocated for strict adherence to laws, the centralization of state power, and the imposition of harsh punishments to maintain social order and strengthen the authority of the ruler. Legalist principles became influential during the Qin dynasty, particularly under the reign of Qin Shi Huang, who implemented Legalist policies to consolidate imperial control and unify China under a centralized bureaucracy. 18) The Qin dynasty is known for A) taking control of the Yangzi River valley. B) creating a network of alliances with regional aristocrats. C) reorganizing China into large provinces ruled by emperor-appointed bureaucrats. D) supporting Confucianism. Answer: C Rationale: The Qin dynasty, under the rule of Qin Shi Huang, is known for its centralization of power and administrative reforms aimed at strengthening imperial control over the newly unified Chinese territories. One of the significant achievements of the Qin dynasty was the reorganization of China into large administrative units called commanderies and counties, each governed by appointed officials responsible for tax collection, law enforcement, and military recruitment. This administrative structure facilitated efficient governance and facilitated the implementation of Legalist policies to maintain social order and suppress dissent. 19) Because Qin Shihuangdi felt thinking was subversive to his rule, he A) supported Daoism. B) attacked formal culture and Confucian ideas. C) destroyed schools. D) used intellectuals in bureaucratic positions. Answer: B Rationale: Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, viewed independent thought and intellectual dissent as potential threats to his authoritarian rule. To consolidate his power and suppress opposition, Qin Shi Huang implemented policies aimed at centralizing authority, standardizing thought, and eliminating sources of dissent. One of his notable actions was the persecution of Confucian scholars and the burning of books, which targeted classical texts and philosophical works deemed critical of Qin rule. By attacking formal culture and Confucian ideas, Qin Shi Huang sought to eradicate ideological opposition and promote loyalty to the state. 20) Which of the following made Qin Shihuangdi unpopular? A) high taxes and attacks on intellectuals B) holding a national census C) standardizing coinage, weights, and measures D) making Chinese written script uniform Answer: A Rationale: Qin Shi Huang's reign was marked by several controversial policies and actions that contributed to his unpopularity among certain segments of society. High taxes imposed to fund ambitious construction projects, such as the Great Wall and the emperor's mausoleum, burdened the peasantry and sparked resentment. Furthermore, Qin Shi Huang's harsh suppression of intellectual dissent, including the persecution of scholars and the burning of books, alienated many intellectuals and Confucianists who opposed his authoritarian rule. These measures, coupled with Qin Shi Huang's autocratic style of governance, led to widespread discontent and resistance against his regime, contributing to his eventual downfall. 21) The Han dynasty A) expanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina, and central Asia. B) continued the brutal repression of the Qin. C) favored legalism. D) reduced the powers of the bureaucracy. Answer: A Rationale: The Han dynasty, which succeeded the Qin dynasty, embarked on a period of territorial expansion and cultural flourishing known as the "Han expansion" (or "Han imperialism"). Han emperors, such as Emperor Wu of Han, pursued aggressive military campaigns to extend Chinese influence and control into neighboring regions, including Korea, Vietnam (Indochina), and Central Asia (Tarim Basin). These conquests expanded the Han empire's territorial boundaries, opened new trade routes, and facilitated cultural exchange along the Silk Road. The Han expansion contributed to the consolidation of Chinese power and the spread of Chinese civilization beyond its traditional heartland. 22) The use of formal training that emphasized the values of Confucian philosophy was a characteristic of which dynasty? A) Zhou B) Qin C) Han D) River Valley Answer: C Rationale: The Han dynasty is renowned for its adoption and promotion of Confucianism as the dominant ideology and educational system within the imperial bureaucracy. Under the Han, Confucian principles became integral to state governance, social hierarchy, and cultural identity. The civil service examination system, introduced during the Han dynasty, provided a formal mechanism for selecting government officials based on their proficiency in Confucian classics, moral virtue, and administrative skills. Confucian education emphasized the cultivation of ethical values, filial piety, loyalty to the emperor, and adherence to hierarchical relationships, shaping the worldview and behavior of the ruling elite and aspiring scholars. 23) Ancestor worship was practiced more by which group? A) farming families B) merchants C) “mean” peoples D) wealthy landowners Answer: D Rationale: Wealthy landowners and aristocratic families were more inclined to practice ancestor worship due to their higher social status and greater resources. Ancestor worship was deeply rooted in Confucian tradition, emphasizing filial piety and the importance of honoring one's ancestors to maintain family cohesion and social harmony. Wealthy families could afford elaborate ancestral shrines, rituals, and sacrifices, which served to preserve lineage prestige and ensure blessings from departed ancestors. 24) The classic model of centralized government established by Qin Shihuangdi did not include A) a uniform tax system. B) a single law code. C) emperor-appointed governors. D) the use of local rulers in the government. Answer: D Rationale: The centralized government model implemented by Qin Shihuangdi during the Qin dynasty did not incorporate the use of local rulers in the administration. Instead, Qin Shihuangdi appointed governors and officials directly loyal to the central authority to govern the newly unified empire. This centralized bureaucratic system aimed to consolidate power under the emperor's control, standardize administrative procedures, and minimize regional autonomy. Local rulers, such as feudal lords or aristocrats, were largely abolished or marginalized to prevent challenges to imperial authority and ensure uniform governance across the realm. 25) The schools established by Wudi to train bureaucrats helped to A) provide a check on complete upper-class rule by allowing individuals from lower ranks of society to serve in government. B) keep individuals from the lower ranks of society from qualifying for government service. C) decrease the overall number of bureaucrats. D) increase the authority of the emperor. Answer: A Rationale: The schools established by Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty (Wudi) aimed to recruit and train bureaucrats from diverse social backgrounds, including individuals from the lower ranks of society. By instituting a merit-based civil service examination system, Wudi sought to diminish the influence of hereditary aristocracy and ensure that talent and ability, rather than noble birth or social status, determined one's eligibility for government service. This policy provided a mechanism for upward social mobility, allowed for greater social diversity within the bureaucracy, and acted as a check on complete upper-class rule, thereby strengthening imperial governance. 26) Which of the following helped to stimulate trade during the Han dynasty? A) the creation of civil service tests for bureaucrats B) the building of shrines throughout China C) the standardization of currency, weights, and measures D) government-sponsored public works. Answer: C Rationale: The standardization of currency, weights, and measures during the Han dynasty facilitated trade by promoting economic stability, facilitating commercial transactions, and reducing uncertainties associated with varying local standards. With a unified system of currency and measurements enforced across the empire, merchants could conduct business more efficiently, calculate prices accurately, and exchange goods with greater confidence. Standardization contributed to the growth of domestic and international trade networks, increased market integration, and stimulated economic development during the prosperous period of the Han dynasty. 27) During the Qin dynasty, how did war change? A) Battles were contests between well-armed and elite warriors. B) Codes of honor determined how battles were fought. C) Great emphasis was placed on heroic deeds. D) Special schools were created to train military leaders. Answer: D Rationale: During the Qin dynasty, significant changes occurred in military organization and warfare, including the establishment of special schools to train military leaders and standardize military tactics. Qin Shi Huang implemented reforms to create a professional standing army composed of well-trained soldiers, rather than relying solely on feudal levies or conscripted peasants. These military schools emphasized discipline, strategic planning, and proficiency in combat skills, marking a departure from earlier periods where warfare was often conducted by regional militias or aristocratic warriors. The Qin military reforms contributed to the effectiveness and cohesion of the imperial army, enabling Qin Shi Huang to conquer rival states and unify China under centralized rule. 28) Which of the following emphasized the development of personal virtue as a way to achieve a solid political life? A) Confucianism B) Daoism C) Legalism D) The Art of War Answer: A Rationale: Confucianism emphasized the cultivation of personal virtue, moral integrity, and ethical conduct as fundamental principles for achieving a harmonious society and effective governance. According to Confucian teachings, individuals, particularly rulers and officials, were expected to embody the virtues of benevolence, righteousness, filial piety, and propriety (li) in their actions and relationships. By practicing self-cultivation and adhering to Confucian moral precepts, individuals could fulfill their social roles responsibly, earn the respect and trust of others, and contribute to the stability and prosperity of the state. Confucianism's emphasis on virtue ethics provided a moral framework for political life and social order in ancient China. 29) According to Confucius, rulers should A) put the interest of the state before that of the people. B) be humble and sincere. C) seek individual gain. D) use rank to determine service in the state. Answer: B Rationale: Confucius emphasized the importance of moral integrity, humility, and sincerity in leadership. According to Confucian teachings, rulers should lead by virtuous example, demonstrate compassion and empathy towards their subjects, and prioritize the welfare of the people over personal interests. Confucius believed that humble and sincere rulers who govern with benevolence and righteousness would earn the respect and loyalty of their people, fostering social harmony and stability within the state. 30) Daoism A) arose at roughly the same time as Confucianism. B) arose at roughly the same time as Legalism. C) appealed primarily to the lower classes. D) promoted harmony through excessive spending. Answer: A Rationale: Daoism emerged as a philosophical and spiritual tradition in ancient China during the same period as Confucianism, roughly around the 6th to 5th centuries BCE. Daoism, attributed to the legendary sage Laozi, espouses principles of harmony, simplicity, and naturalness, contrasting with the moral and social teachings of Confucianism. While Daoism appealed to individuals from various social backgrounds, its emphasis on personal cultivation, inner harmony, and intuitive wisdom resonated particularly with those seeking spiritual fulfillment and liberation from societal constraints. 31) Laozi was a proponent of: A) Confucianism. B) Daoism. C) Legalism. D) the Han dynasty. Answer: B Rationale: Laozi, also known as Lao Tzu, was a key figure in Daoism and is traditionally credited with authoring the foundational text of Daoist philosophy, the "Dao De Jing" (Tao Te Ching). As a proponent of Daoism, Laozi advocated for living in harmony with the Dao (the Way), embracing simplicity, spontaneity, and naturalness, and cultivating inner peace and contentment. His teachings emphasized the virtues of humility, non-action (wu wei), and detachment from worldly desires as pathways to spiritual enlightenment and harmony with the cosmic order. 32) The Five Classics were A) a series of texts used as a basis for civil service examinations. B) the basic texts of Daoism. C) mostly histories. D) edited by the Qin dynasty. Answer: A Rationale: The Five Classics (Wujing) were a collection of ancient Chinese texts that formed the core curriculum for education and scholarship in imperial China. Compiled and canonized during the Han dynasty, the Five Classics included works on Confucian thought, history, poetry, and rituals. These texts served as foundational sources of knowledge and moral instruction for aspiring scholars preparing for civil service examinations. The Five Classics played a crucial role in Confucian education, providing a framework for understanding traditional Chinese culture, ethics, and governance. 33) From the classical period onward, which of the following was a characteristic of an educated person? A) owning large tracks of land B) obtaining a degree from a state-run school C) the ability to learn and recite poetry D) the ability to write political treatises Answer: C Rationale: In classical China, an educated person was characterized by their proficiency in classical literature, particularly poetry. Poetry, along with other literary forms such as prose and historical texts, formed the basis of traditional education and cultural refinement for the elite scholar-official class. The ability to learn, recite, and appreciate poetry was highly valued as a demonstration of intellectual sophistication, aesthetic sensibility, and mastery of language. Competence in poetry was considered an essential skill for scholars, officials, and literati to communicate ideas, express emotions, and participate in cultural activities. 34) Chinese art during the classical period was A) simple and functional. B) poorly produced. C) mostly made out of bronze. D) largely decorative. Answer: D Rationale: Chinese art during the classical period was characterized by its decorative and aesthetic qualities, encompassing a wide range of mediums such as painting, calligraphy, ceramics, sculpture, and decorative arts. Artisans and craftsmen produced objects of beauty and refinement, often adorned with intricate designs, symbolic motifs, and meticulous craftsmanship. Chinese art served multiple purposes, including religious rituals, imperial patronage, elite culture, and everyday aesthetics. Whether in the form of bronze vessels, jade carvings, silk textiles, or landscape paintings, classical Chinese art exemplified a reverence for tradition, nature, and artistic expression. 35) During the classical period, science was: A) practical B) theoretical C) not supported by the state D) behind discoveries in Europe Answer: A Rationale: During the classical period in China, science was primarily practical in nature, focusing on empirical observation, technological innovation, and applied knowledge to address practical challenges and improve human life. Chinese scientists and inventors made significant contributions in various fields such as agriculture, metallurgy, medicine, engineering, and astronomy. Scientific advancements, such as the invention of papermaking, the compass, gunpowder, and movable type printing, revolutionized Chinese society and had far-reaching impacts on global history. While theoretical inquiries and philosophical speculation existed, classical Chinese science was predominantly oriented towards solving real-world problems and enhancing technological efficiency. 36) The landowning aristocracy and educated bureaucrats were members of which class? A) laborers B) the scholar-gentry class C) artisans D) merchants Answer: B Rationale: The landowning aristocracy and educated bureaucrats belonged to the scholar-gentry class in traditional Chinese society. This social class comprised individuals who attained education through Confucian learning, passed civil service examinations, and obtained official positions in the imperial bureaucracy. The scholar-gentry class wielded significant political influence, economic privilege, and cultural prestige, serving as the backbone of imperial governance and societal stability. Members of this class were typically landowners, literati, and government officials who occupied elite positions in the hierarchical social order based on educational attainment and Confucian virtue. 37) In classical China, silk clothing marked which class? A) wealthy merchants B) scholar-gentry families C) teachers D) urban artisans Answer: B Rationale: In classical China, silk clothing was often associated with the scholar-gentry class, particularly affluent and educated families who could afford luxury goods and prized cultural symbols. Silk, known as the "fabric of civilization," held immense cultural and economic significance in ancient China, symbolizing wealth, refinement, and social status. Scholargentry families, consisting of educated officials, literati, and landed elites, frequently adorned themselves and their households with silk garments, textiles, and furnishings as markers of their elite status and cultural sophistication. Silk clothing served as a conspicuous display of social distinction and aesthetic taste among the privileged classes in classical Chinese society. 38) During the Han dynasty, trade focused on A) luxury goods for the wealthy. B) pottery. C) weapons. D) spices. Answer: A Rationale: During the Han dynasty, trade primarily focused on luxury goods catering to the affluent class. The Silk Road trade routes facilitated the exchange of valuable commodities such as silk, porcelain, jade, precious metals, and other luxury items between China and distant regions, including Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and the Roman Empire. These goods were highly sought after by wealthy elites for their cultural significance, aesthetic appeal, and status symbol, driving the expansion of trade networks and stimulating economic growth during the Han period. 39) Nonagricultural goods were produced by A) merchants. B) farmers. C) bureaucrats. D) artisans. Answer: D Rationale: Nonagricultural goods during the Han dynasty were primarily produced by artisans. Artisans were skilled craftsmen and craftswomen who specialized in various trades such as pottery, metallurgy, weaving, woodworking, and other forms of craftsmanship. They played a vital role in manufacturing a wide range of nonagricultural products including ceramics, textiles, metalwork, furniture, and luxury items for both domestic consumption and trade. Artisans were organized into guilds or workshops and often worked in urban centers where they contributed to the flourishing of Han Chinese culture and commerce. 40) Ban Zhao was A) the creator of the state examination system. B) the founder of Legalism. C) a famous female scholar. D) an extremely wealthy merchant who lived during the Han dynasty. Answer: C Rationale: Ban Zhao was a renowned female scholar who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty in China. She was known for her literary contributions, particularly her historical writings and commentary on Confucian classics. Ban Zhao's most famous work is the "Lessons for Women" (Nüjie), which provided guidance on proper conduct and behavior for women in Chinese society. She played a significant role in shaping Confucian thought and education during her time, making her a notable figure in Chinese intellectual history. 41) Classical Chinese culture emphasized which of the following? A) the authority of women in economic matters B) women’s subordination to their husband’s authority C) release of emotions D) the pursuit of wealth Answer: B Rationale: Classical Chinese culture emphasized the subordination of women to their husband's authority. Confucianism, which was a dominant philosophical system during this period, promoted the concept of filial piety and emphasized the importance of maintaining hierarchical relationships within the family and society. According to Confucian teachings, women were expected to adhere to the virtues of obedience, modesty, and domesticity, and their primary role was to support and serve their husbands and families. This patriarchal worldview permeated various aspects of Chinese culture, including social norms, legal codes, and family structures, reinforcing the subordinate status of women in classical Chinese society. 42) There was little contact with areas outside of China during the Classical period because A) there was little trade along the silk roads. B) there was a missionary spirit in Chinese politics. C) there was little desire among most Chinese to interact with non-Chinese. D) of xenophobia. Answer: C Rationale: During the Classical period, there was limited contact with areas outside of China primarily because of a lack of desire among most Chinese to interact with non-Chinese cultures. Classical Chinese society, influenced by Confucian principles of social order and hierarchy, maintained a strong sense of cultural superiority and ethnocentrism, which contributed to a general reluctance to engage with foreign civilizations. Confucian teachings emphasized the importance of preserving Chinese cultural traditions and values, viewing foreign influence as a potential threat to social harmony and stability. As a result, Chinese interactions with neighboring regions were often limited to diplomatic exchanges, sporadic trade, and occasional military campaigns, rather than sustained cultural or intellectual exchanges. 43) Confucius saw government as A) an extension of family relationships. B) dangerous to the stability of rural life. C) a way to balance the power of the aristocracy. D) separate from society. Answer: A Rationale: Confucius viewed government as an extension of family relationships. Central to Confucian political philosophy was the concept of filial piety (xiao), which emphasized the importance of respect, obedience, and loyalty within familial and social hierarchies. Confucius believed that the principles governing family ethics, such as benevolence, righteousness, and propriety, should also guide the conduct of rulers and officials in their governance of the state. By analogizing the ruler-subject relationship to the father-son relationship, Confucius advocated for a paternalistic form of government in which rulers acted as benevolent patriarchs, caring for the welfare of their subjects and providing moral leadership based on virtuous conduct. This familial model of governance aimed to foster social harmony, stability, and mutual obligation within society, reflecting Confucius' belief in the interconnectedness of familial, social, and political life. 44) Confucianism supported A) loose government oversight of the provinces. B) tight government control. C) the idea of mysterious divine will. D) Daoist mysticism. Answer: B Rationale: Confucianism advocated for tight government control as a means to maintain social order and harmony within society. According to Confucian teachings, a well-ordered society required strong moral leadership from the ruling class, guided by the principles of benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and filial piety. Confucianism emphasized the importance of hierarchical relationships and obedience to authority, promoting the idea that a virtuous ruler should exercise firm control over the affairs of the state to ensure the welfare and prosperity of the people. Confucian scholars believed that an effective government should be centralized and authoritative, with strict laws and regulations enforced to uphold moral standards and prevent chaos or rebellion. This emphasis on centralized authority and government intervention in social and political affairs reflects Confucianism's vision of a harmonious society governed by ethical principles and moral guidance. 45) Alliance systems were used by the ________ to solidify their rule. A) Zhou B) Qin C) Han D) river valley civilizations Answer: A Rationale: Alliance systems were utilized by the Zhou dynasty to consolidate and strengthen their rule over the feudal states within their territory. The Zhou dynasty, which succeeded the Shang dynasty in ancient China, established a decentralized system of governance characterized by the granting of fiefs to regional lords or nobles in exchange for their loyalty and military support. To maintain control over the vast territories under their dominion, the Zhou rulers formed alliances with these regional lords through marriage alliances, political alliances, and reciprocal obligations. By forging strategic alliances with powerful regional leaders and integrating them into the Zhou political system, the dynasty was able to extend its influence, stabilize its rule, and mitigate the risk of internal rebellion or external invasion. This system of feudal alliances played a crucial role in solidifying the authority of the Zhou dynasty and establishing a semblance of political unity and stability during its early period of rule. 46) The Chinese feudal period was characterized by A) a strong centralized government. B) an extensive bureaucracy. C) relationships between rulers and landlord vassals. D) increased regional loyalty. Answer: C Rationale: The Chinese feudal period was marked by relationships between rulers and landlord vassals, where regional lords held authority over specific territories granted to them by the central government. These landlord vassals owed allegiance to the central ruler and provided military service and tribute in exchange for their land grants. This feudal system created a hierarchical structure of power, with the central ruler at the apex, followed by regional lords who exercised control over their respective domains. The relationships between rulers and landlord vassals were characterized by reciprocal obligations, where the vassals pledged loyalty and military support to the ruler in return for land grants and protection. This decentralized system of governance allowed for greater autonomy and power for regional lords while maintaining a loose framework of central authority under the ruling dynasty. 47) Legalism emphasized A) harmony with nature. B) mystical experiences with the gods. C) order at all costs. D) the building of shrines throughout China. Answer: C Rationale: Legalism emphasized order at all costs as its central tenet. Legalist philosophy, developed during the Warring States period in ancient China, advocated for strict adherence to laws, regulations, and authoritarian rule to maintain social order and political stability. Legalist thinkers believed that a strong, centralized government led by a powerful ruler was necessary to impose harsh punishments on those who violated laws and to enforce obedience among the populace through fear of punishment. The emphasis on strict laws, meritocracy, and centralized control reflected Legalism's pragmatic approach to governance, prioritizing the maintenance of social order and the stability of the state over individual liberties or ethical considerations. 48) Sunzi A) founded the Han dynasty. B) was a famous Confucian scholar. C) wrote The Art of War. D) led a revolt against the Zhou. Answer: C Rationale: Sunzi wrote The Art of War, a renowned military treatise that remains influential in strategic thinking and warfare tactics to this day. Sunzi, also known as Sun Tzu, was a Chinese military strategist and philosopher who lived during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. The Art of War, attributed to him, offers timeless wisdom on military strategy, tactics, and leadership, emphasizing the importance of careful planning, deception, and adaptability in achieving victory on the battlefield. Sunzi's teachings have been studied and applied not only in military contexts but also in various fields such as business, politics, and sports, making him one of the most influential figures in Chinese history. 49) Wudi was a famous ruler during the A) Han dynasty. B) end of the Zhou dynasty. C) 140 B.C.E. peasant uprising. D) Qin dynasty. Answer: A Rationale: Wudi, also known as Emperor Wu of Han, was a prominent ruler during the Han dynasty, one of the most celebrated periods in Chinese history. His reign, which lasted from 141 BCE to 87 BCE, marked a significant expansion of Han territory through military conquests and diplomatic efforts. Wudi is renowned for his contributions to governance, the promotion of Confucianism, and the advancement of imperial bureaucracy. Under his rule, the Han dynasty experienced economic prosperity, cultural flourishing, and territorial expansion, solidifying its status as one of the greatest dynasties in Chinese history. 50) During classical China, the rulers did not direct the daily lives of their subjects because A) they followed Confucian philosophy. B) they relied on local rulers to oversee the people. C) the technology of an agricultural society did not permit this. D) the emperors were not allowed to interact with their subjects. Answer: C Rationale: The rulers in classical China did not directly intervene in the daily lives of their subjects primarily due to the technological limitations of an agricultural society. In ancient China, the majority of the population was engaged in agricultural activities, such as farming and animal husbandry, which required considerable labor and expertise. The rulers lacked the means to effectively oversee or micromanage the vast agricultural activities taking place across their realms. Instead, they relied on a decentralized system of governance, where local rulers, appointed officials, and regional administrators were responsible for managing day-to-day affairs within their respective jurisdictions. This system allowed for greater efficiency in resource allocation, economic management, and social order, as local authorities were better equipped to address the needs and challenges faced by their communities. Thus, the rulers' indirect involvement in daily affairs was a practical necessity dictated by the agricultural nature of classical Chinese society. Short Answer Questions 51) Define the good life according to Confucianism. Answer: According to Confucianism, the good life is achieved through the cultivation of virtue, the practice of filial piety, and the fulfillment of social roles and responsibilities. Confucianism emphasizes the importance of moral character, ethical behavior, and harmonious relationships within society. Individuals strive to become morally upright, compassionate, and benevolent, contributing to the well-being of their families, communities, and the broader society. The pursuit of knowledge, self-improvement, and adherence to Confucian principles such as loyalty, righteousness, and propriety are central to attaining the good life. 52) In what ways did classical China become extensively governed? Answer: Classical China became extensively governed through the establishment of a centralized imperial bureaucracy, which administered various aspects of government, including taxation, law enforcement, public works, and military affairs. The ruling elite, consisting of appointed officials and scholars, played a crucial role in managing state affairs and maintaining social order. The implementation of Confucian ideology promoted the principles of hierarchical authority, moral governance, and social harmony. Additionally, the development of a sophisticated administrative system, civil service examinations, and legal codes facilitated efficient governance and promoted stability throughout the empire. 53) What were the key elements of the Han bureaucracy? Answer: The key elements of the Han bureaucracy included a hierarchical structure, meritbased recruitment, standardized administrative procedures, and specialization of roles. The Han dynasty established a centralized imperial bureaucracy composed of various government ministries, offices, and departments responsible for overseeing different aspects of governance. Recruitment into the bureaucracy was based on merit, as aspiring officials were required to pass rigorous civil service examinations assessing their knowledge of Confucian classics and administrative skills. The bureaucracy operated under a strict hierarchy, with officials organized into ranks based on their seniority and responsibilities. Specialized departments handled specific tasks such as taxation, agriculture, justice, diplomacy, and military affairs, ensuring effective governance and the implementation of imperial policies across the empire. 54) What were the major technological innovations of classical China? Answer: Classical China witnessed several major technological innovations that significantly impacted various aspects of society and culture. These innovations included the invention of papermaking, printing techniques such as woodblock printing and movable type, the development of the compass for navigation, the creation of gunpowder for military and civilian use, advancements in metallurgy leading to the production of high-quality iron and steel, the construction of sophisticated water management systems such as canals and irrigation networks, and the refinement of agricultural techniques such as seed drills and crop rotation. These technological advancements facilitated economic growth, cultural exchange, military expansion, and social development, contributing to the prosperity and advancement of classical Chinese civilization. 55) What were the key features of Chinese family structure? Answer: The key features of Chinese family structure included patrilineal kinship, ancestor worship, filial piety, and the preservation of familial hierarchy. Chinese families were typically organized along patrilineal lines, with descent traced through the male lineage and inheritance passing from father to son. Ancestor worship played a central role in Chinese family life, as families honored their ancestors through rituals, offerings, and ceremonies aimed at maintaining familial harmony and ensuring blessings for future generations. Filial piety, the reverence and obedience shown by children towards their parents and elders, was regarded as a fundamental virtue and moral obligation within Confucian ethics. Family relationships were characterized by strict hierarchies based on age, gender, and generation, with elders holding authority and respect within the household. The family served as the primary social unit and the foundation of Chinese society, fostering values of loyalty, solidarity, and mutual support among its members. Essay Questions 56) How did Chinese culture, particularly Confucian philosophy, support the political structure of the empire? Answer: Chinese culture, especially Confucian philosophy, supported the political structure of the empire by providing a framework for social order, governance, and legitimacy. Confucianism emphasized the importance of hierarchical relationships, moral leadership, and ethical behavior, which aligned with the principles of imperial rule. Confucian teachings promoted the concept of the "mandate of heaven," asserting that rulers governed with divine approval as long as they ruled virtuously and benevolently. This idea justified the authority of the emperor and reinforced the legitimacy of the imperial system. Confucianism also emphasized the virtue of filial piety, which extended to loyalty and obedience to the emperor as the "father" of the nation. Additionally, Confucianism emphasized the importance of education, meritocracy, and the cultivation of moral character, which contributed to the selection and training of bureaucratic officials responsible for governing the empire. 57) What kinds of political problems was the development of bureaucracy in Han China meant to solve? Answer: The development of bureaucracy in Han China was meant to address various political problems, including administrative inefficiency, corruption, regional fragmentation, and challenges to centralized authority. Prior to the establishment of a centralized bureaucracy, Han China faced difficulties in governing its vast territories due to the lack of standardized administrative practices and the reliance on decentralized power structures. Local officials often acted independently, leading to inconsistencies in governance and the abuse of power. By creating a bureaucratic system based on meritocracy and standardized procedures, the Han dynasty aimed to streamline governance, improve the administration of justice, increase tax revenue, and enhance communication and coordination across the empire. Bureaucratic reforms also sought to curb the influence of powerful aristocratic families and establish a professional civil service accountable to the imperial government, thus strengthening centralized control and promoting political stability. 58) Why was China able to accept two different basic belief systems, Confucianism and Daoism? Answer: China was able to accept two different basic belief systems, Confucianism and Daoism, due to their complementary nature and flexibility in accommodating diverse spiritual and philosophical perspectives. Confucianism, with its emphasis on social order, ethical conduct, and governance, appealed to the ruling elite and served as the dominant ideology of the imperial state. Confucian principles provided a moral and intellectual framework for government, education, and social hierarchy, promoting stability and cohesion within Chinese society. On the other hand, Daoism offered a more individualistic and mystical approach to spirituality, focusing on harmony with nature, self-cultivation, and the pursuit of inner peace. Daoist teachings resonated with those seeking spiritual fulfillment outside of conventional social norms and bureaucratic structures. Despite their differences, Confucianism and Daoism coexisted within Chinese culture, with many individuals integrating aspects of both belief systems into their personal lives and worldview. This pluralistic approach to religion and philosophy allowed for religious tolerance and intellectual diversity, contributing to the rich tapestry of Chinese civilization. 59) Aside from periods of outright political decline, what were the chief tensions in Chinese society and culture? How were they handled? Answer: Chief tensions in Chinese society and culture included issues related to social hierarchy, moral conduct, economic disparity, and regional autonomy. These tensions were often addressed through a combination of governmental policies, philosophical teachings, and social norms. Confucianism, with its emphasis on filial piety, social harmony, and moral rectitude, provided a framework for addressing social inequalities and promoting ethical behavior among individuals and rulers alike. The Confucian emphasis on education and meritocracy aimed to mitigate tensions arising from disparities in wealth and social status by providing opportunities for social mobility based on intellectual attainment rather than birthright. Additionally, legal reforms and administrative measures implemented by imperial authorities sought to regulate economic activities, maintain order, and address grievances within society. Daoist principles of non-interference and acceptance of natural spontaneity offered an alternative perspective, encouraging individuals to find inner peace and contentment amidst societal pressures. Furthermore, periods of cultural syncretism and intellectual exchange allowed for the blending of diverse philosophical and religious traditions, fostering tolerance and adaptation to changing social conditions. 60) What are the main differences between classical civilization and a river valley civilization? Answer: The main differences between classical civilization and a river valley civilization lie in their scale, complexity, and cultural achievements. River valley civilizations, such as those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China, emerged along major river systems and were characterized by agricultural economies, centralized governments, and the development of written language and monumental architecture. These civilizations typically flourished in river valleys due to the fertile soil, reliable water supply, and conducive environment for agricultural production. In contrast, classical civilizations, which emerged later in history, encompassed larger territorial domains, more sophisticated political institutions, and greater cultural achievements. Classical civilizations, including those of ancient Greece, Rome, India, and China, were characterized by urbanization, extensive trade networks, complex bureaucracies, and significant advancements in art, philosophy, science, and literature. While river valley civilizations laid the foundation for classical civilizations through their innovations in agriculture, governance, and culture, classical civilizations exhibited greater diversity, dynamism, and influence on subsequent historical developments. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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