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Chapter 23 The Settler Societies: The West on Frontiers Multiple-Choice Questions 1) By 1900, the societies of the “frontier West” were making their greatest world history mark in A) culture. B) industry. C) agriculture and mining. D) imperialism. Answer: C Rationale: The societies of the "frontier West" in the United States made their greatest mark in world history primarily through their advancements in agriculture and mining. The expansion of agriculture, including the cultivation of vast tracts of land for crops such as wheat, corn, and cotton, fueled economic growth and population expansion in the West. Similarly, the discovery and extraction of valuable minerals such as gold, silver, and coal attracted settlers and spurred development in mining regions. These economic activities played a significant role in shaping the landscape, economy, and social fabric of the American West during the late 19th century. 2) After which war was the constitutional structure of the new United States established? A) the War of 1812 B) the American Civil War C) the American Revolution D) the French American War Answer: C Rationale: The constitutional structure of the new United States was established after the American Revolution. The Revolutionary War, fought between 1775 and 1783, resulted in the colonies gaining independence from British rule. Following the war, the Founding Fathers drafted and ratified the United States Constitution in 1787, establishing the framework for the federal government and the principles of governance that continue to shape the nation to this day. 3) The constitutional structure of the United States was established in A) 1789. B) 1775. C) 1812. D) 1803. Answer: A Rationale: The constitutional structure of the United States was established in 1789 when the U.S. Constitution officially went into effect. Although the Constitution was drafted in 1787, it required ratification by the states before it could become operational. This process was completed when the necessary number of states ratified the Constitution, and the first Congress convened under its authority in 1789. 4) The United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase from which country? A) Great Britain B) France C) Canada D) New Zealand Answer: B Rationale: The United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase from France. The Louisiana Purchase, completed in 1803, was a significant land acquisition in which the United States purchased approximately 828,000 square miles of territory from France for $15 million. This vast territory, which stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border, doubled the size of the United States and opened up vast opportunities for westward expansion and settlement. 5) Democratic voting systems, with rights for free males, were widely completed by the ________ in the United States. A) 1790s B) 1820s C) 1840s D) 1860s Answer: B Rationale: Democratic voting systems, with rights for free males, were widely completed by the 1820s in the United States. During the early years of the republic, voting rights were often restricted to property-owning white males. However, by the 1820s, most states had eliminated property qualifications for voting, and the franchise was extended to a broader segment of the adult male population, regardless of property ownership. 6) The Erie Canal was sponsored by which state? A) Michigan B) Pennsylvania C) Ohio D) New York Answer: D Rationale: The Erie Canal was sponsored by the state of New York. Completed in 1825, the Erie Canal was a groundbreaking transportation project that connected the Great Lakes region with the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson River. Financed and constructed by the state of New York, the Erie Canal played a crucial role in facilitating trade, commerce, and settlement in the Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States. 7) The United States federal government warred with Mexico to acquire which of the following states in the 1840s? A) California B) New Mexico C) Texas D) Arizona Answer: C Rationale: The United States federal government warred with Mexico to acquire the state of Texas in the 1840s. The Mexican-American War, fought between 1846 and 1848, resulted in the annexation of Texas by the United States, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Texas as a U.S. state in 1845. 8) Before the American Civil War, new immigrants from which of the following countries added to the size and mix of the population? A) Ireland B) China C) Russia D) Australia Answer: A Rationale: Before the American Civil War, new immigrants from Ireland added to the size and mix of the population in the United States. The period before the Civil War witnessed significant waves of immigration to the United States, with Irish immigrants comprising a substantial portion of the influx. Pushed by economic hardship and the Irish Potato Famine, many Irish immigrants sought better opportunities and a new life in America. 9) Efforts to reform the American South were largely abandoned by A) 1847. B) 1857. C) 1867. D) 1877. Answer: D Rationale: Efforts to reform the American South were largely abandoned by 1877. The period following the Civil War, known as Reconstruction, saw efforts by the federal government to rebuild the South and address issues such as civil rights for freed slaves, economic development, and political integration. However, Reconstruction came to an end in 1877 with the Compromise of 1877, which marked the withdrawal of federal troops from the South and the subsequent rise of Jim Crow laws and segregationist policies. 10) When did U.S. entry into the world economy, as more than a source of cotton or an investment opportunity, begin? A) the 1860s B) the 1870s C) the 1880s D) the 1890s Answer: B Rationale: U.S. entry into the world economy, as more than a source of cotton or an investment opportunity, began in the 1870s. The post-Civil War period witnessed significant industrialization and economic growth in the United States, leading to increased exports of manufactured goods and participation in global trade networks. This period also saw the expansion of American influence in international markets, investment in foreign ventures, and the emergence of the United States as a major player in the world economy. 11) When did the United States join the imperialist scramble, essentially adding to the list of Western powers involved? A) the 1860s B) the 1870s C) the 1880s D) the 1890s Answer: D Rationale: The United States joined the imperialist scramble in the 1890s, essentially adding to the list of Western powers involved. This period, often referred to as the "Age of Imperialism," saw the United States expanding its influence beyond its borders, particularly in the Pacific and Caribbean regions. Events such as the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the annexation of Hawaii in 1898 marked significant milestones in America's emergence as an imperial power. 12) The British began to grant increasing self-rule in Canada after A) 1819. B) 1829. C) 1839. D) 1849. Answer: C Rationale: The British began to grant increasing self-rule in Canada after 1839. This period marked the transition towards responsible government in Canada, wherein colonial assemblies gained greater authority over local affairs. The move towards self-rule was a gradual process, with significant milestones such as the passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791 and the Rebellions of 1837-1838 leading to increased autonomy for the Canadian colonies. 13) Initially, Britain’s grant of self-rule in Canada applied primarily to A) Ontario. B) Quebec. C) Manitoba. D) British Columbia. Answer: A Rationale: Initially, Britain's grant of self-rule in Canada applied primarily to Ontario. The Province of Canada, consisting of present-day Ontario and Quebec, was the focal point of early political developments in Canada. The granting of responsible government allowed elected representatives in the colonial assemblies, particularly in Ontario, to exercise greater control over local governance and legislative matters. 14) Which of the following things brought settlement to western territories and a great expansion of mining and commercial agriculture in the vast plains of Canada, beginning in the 1850s? A) cities B) railroads C) population growth D) state-sponsored education Answer: B Rationale: Railroads brought settlement to western territories and a great expansion of mining and commercial agriculture in the vast plains of Canada, beginning in the 1850s. The construction of transcontinental railways, such as the Canadian Pacific Railway, facilitated the transportation of people, goods, and resources to and from the western regions of Canada. This transportation infrastructure played a crucial role in opening up new areas for settlement, mining, and agricultural development. 15) Britain’s Australian colonies originated in A) 1768. B) 1778. C) 1788. D) 1798. Answer: C Rationale: Britain's Australian colonies originated in 1788. The arrival of the First Fleet, a convoy of British ships carrying convicts and settlers, marked the establishment of the first British colony in Australia at Sydney Cove on January 26, 1788. This event laid the foundation for the colonization and subsequent development of Australia as a British territory. 16) By 1861, the European population of Australia was around ________ people. A) 500,000 B) 1,000,000 C) 1,500,000 D) 2,000,000 Answer: B Rationale: By 1861, the European population of Australia was around 1,000,000 people. The European settlement of Australia accelerated in the decades following the establishment of the first colony, leading to significant population growth fueled by immigration from Britain and other parts of Europe. 17) By 1840, Australia had ________ European inhabitants. A) 40 B) 80 C) 110 D) 140 Answer: D Rationale: By 1840, Australia had 140 European inhabitants. The early years of European settlement in Australia saw a gradual increase in population as more settlers arrived from Britain and other European countries. This period also witnessed the establishment of additional colonies and the expansion of agricultural and economic activities. 18) Which of the following was discovered in Australia in 1851? A) diamonds B) gold C) silver D) copper Answer: B Rationale: Gold was discovered in Australia in 1851. The discovery of gold at Bathurst and other locations in New South Wales sparked a gold rush that attracted thousands of prospectors from around the world. This event had a profound impact on the economy, society, and development of Australia, leading to rapid population growth, urbanization, and economic prosperity. 19) New Zealand began to receive British attention after A) 1804. B) 1814. C) 1824. D) 1834. Answer: B Rationale: New Zealand began to receive British attention after 1814. The signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and Māori chiefs in 1840 marked the formal establishment of British sovereignty over New Zealand. This event paved the way for increased British colonization and settlement in the islands. 20) The Polynesian hunting-and-gathering people in New Zealand were known as A) Australians. B) aborigines. C) Maoris. D) Hongi Hika. Answer: C Rationale: The Polynesian hunting-and-gathering people in New Zealand were known as Māoris. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand, with a distinct culture, language, and history. They are recognized as the tangata whenua, or "people of the land," and have played a significant role in the shaping of New Zealand's identity and society. 21) Disease cut the Maori population by ________ percent on the north island by the 1840s. A) 50 B) 60 C) 70 D) 80 Answer: C Rationale: Disease cut the Maori population by 70 percent on the north island by the 1840s. The introduction of infectious diseases by European settlers had devastating effects on the indigenous Maori population of New Zealand. Diseases such as measles, influenza, and tuberculosis, to which the Maori had no immunity, spread rapidly, leading to a significant decline in their numbers. 22) An influx of ________ in the 1850s led to new disputes over land and a series of wars in New Zealand. A) British farmers B) Maori tribesmen C) Australian settlers D) Japanese traders Answer: A Rationale: An influx of British farmers in the 1850s led to new disputes over land and a series of wars in New Zealand. The arrival of British settlers, particularly farmers seeking land for agriculture, intensified conflicts over land ownership and usage between the indigenous Maori tribes and the European colonists, resulting in armed conflicts known as the New Zealand Wars. 23) Hawaiian population declined from half a million to ________ by 1850 because of imported disease. A) 80 B) 180 C) 1,800 D) 18,000 Answer: A Rationale: Hawaiian population declined from half a million to 80 by 1850 because of imported disease. Similar to the Maori population in New Zealand, the indigenous Hawaiian population faced catastrophic declines due to the introduction of diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza by European and American traders and settlers. 24) The United States annexed Hawaii in A) 1878. B) 1888. C) 1898. D) 1908. Answer: C Rationale: The United States annexed Hawaii in 1898. Following a period of political instability in Hawaii and pressure from American business interests, the United States annexed Hawaii through the Newlands Resolution in 1898, making it an official territory of the United States. 25) The skyscraper was first introduced in A) New York. B) San Francisco. C) Washington, D.C. D) Chicago. Answer: D Rationale: The skyscraper was first introduced in Chicago. The Home Insurance Building, completed in 1885 in Chicago, is widely considered the first skyscraper. This innovative architectural design paved the way for the construction of tall buildings in urban centers, revolutionizing city skylines around the world. 26) Which of the following societies developed the most distinctive policies toward native inhabitants? A) the United States B) New Zealand C) Australia D) Canada Answer: B Rationale: New Zealand developed the most distinctive policies toward native inhabitants. New Zealand's approach to indigenous rights and land ownership, as reflected in the Treaty of Waitangi and subsequent legislation, differed significantly from other British colonies, leading to distinctive policies and initiatives aimed at addressing Maori grievances and promoting cultural preservation. 27) Canada, Australia, and New Zealand ALL differed from the United States during the 19th century in which of the following ways? A) dependence on immigration B) significance of indigenous peoples C) relationship with France D) degree of industrialization Answer: D Rationale: Canada, Australia, and New Zealand ALL differed from the United States during the 19th century in the degree of industrialization. While the United States experienced rapid industrialization during this period, characterized by advancements in manufacturing, transportation, and urbanization, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand had varying levels of industrial development influenced by factors such as geography, population size, and economic priorities. 28) Which of the following best states what New Zealand’s economy relied on heavily? A) sales to Asia B) sales to the United States C) sales to Britain D) sales to India Answer: C Rationale: New Zealand's economy relied heavily on sales to Britain. During the 19th century, New Zealand's economy was closely tied to Britain through trade and colonial ties. The export of agricultural products, wool, and other commodities to the British market played a significant role in sustaining New Zealand's economy and development. 29) The United States’ federal system led to a(n) ________ government. A) fairly weak central B) fairly strong central C) entirely decentralized D) entirely centralized Answer: A Rationale: The United States' federal system led to a fairly weak central government. The structure of the United States government, as outlined in the Constitution, established a federal system with powers divided between the central (federal) government and the individual states. This division of powers was intended to balance authority and prevent the concentration of power in any single entity. 30) Many major developments in the United States were the result of ________ action or ________ initiatives. A) federal government; business B) state; business C) state; religious D) federal government; religious Answer: B Rationale: Many major developments in the United States were the result of state action or business initiatives. Throughout the 19th century, individual states played a significant role in driving economic, social, and political progress through legislation, infrastructure projects, and educational reforms. Additionally, private businesses and entrepreneurs contributed to the nation's development through innovation, investment, and entrepreneurial endeavors. 31) American culture before the Civil War was personified by ________ writers, thinkers, painters, and musicians. A) Southern B) Midwestern C) Western D) New England Answer: D Rationale: American culture before the Civil War was personified by New England writers, thinkers, painters, and musicians. The region of New England, particularly cities like Boston and Concord, emerged as centers of intellectual and cultural activity during the 19th century, fostering the transcendentalist movement and producing influential figures such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Louisa May Alcott. 32) The North’s victory in the Civil War led to A) the reform of the South. B) a new period of consolidation. C) suffrage for women. D) segregation in the North. Answer: B Rationale: The North's victory in the Civil War led to a new period of consolidation. Following the Civil War, the United States experienced a period of Reconstruction aimed at reintegrating the Southern states into the Union, rebuilding the war-torn nation, and addressing issues such as the abolition of slavery, the rights of freed slaves, and the reconstruction of the Southern economy and society. 33) American politics after the Civil War were characterized by A) relatively modest basic divisions between two major political parties. B) very deep divisions between two major political parties. C) relatively modest basic divisions between several political parties. D) very deep divisions between several political parties. Answer: A Rationale: American politics after the Civil War were characterized by relatively modest basic divisions between two major political parties. While there were political tensions and disagreements, the two-party system dominated American politics during this period, with the Democratic and Republican parties emerging as the primary political forces shaping national policies and agendas. 34) Labor agitation after the American Civil War led to A) a nationally standardized education system. B) waves of immigration from southern and eastern Europe. C) new unions, strikes, and occasional political assassinations. D) increased criminal activity in urban areas. Answer: C Rationale: Labor agitation after the American Civil War led to new unions, strikes, and occasional political assassinations. The post-Civil War period witnessed significant labor unrest as workers organized themselves into unions to advocate for better working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours. This activism often led to strikes, labor conflicts, and, in some cases, violent confrontations between workers, employers, and government authorities. 35) Which of the following was the most significant American contribution to the world economy between the 1870s and 1914? A) developments in the uses of electricity B) arms manufacturing C) innovations in the management of labor D) the establishment of American subsidiaries in Europe and Russia Answer: C Rationale: The most significant American contribution to the world economy between the 1870s and 1914 was innovations in the management of labor. During this period, American industrialists and entrepreneurs implemented new management techniques, including assembly-line production, scientific management principles, and labor specialization, which revolutionized manufacturing processes and significantly increased productivity and efficiency. 36) Which of the following led to the United States’ annexation of Hawaii in 1898? A) pressure created by the British presence on the islands B) influence by American missionaries and planters C) the spread of disease and its subsequent decimation of the native Hawaiian population D) a failed native Hawaiian rebellion against American planters in 1897 Answer: B Rationale: The United States’ annexation of Hawaii in 1898 was primarily influenced by American missionaries and planters. American settlers, missionaries, and businessmen exerted significant influence in Hawaii, leading to economic and political dominance over the islands. The strategic importance of Hawaii as a naval base and refueling station further motivated the United States to annex the territory. 37) Which of the following best describes America’s presence in the world economy prior to the 1870s? A) a source of cotton and an investment opportunity B) a source of weapons and manufactured chemicals C) a source of innovations in electricity D) a source of innovations in the management of labor Answer: A Rationale: America’s presence in the world economy prior to the 1870s was best described as a source of cotton and an investment opportunity. During this period, the United States was primarily known for its agricultural exports, particularly cotton, which played a significant role in global trade and industrial development. Additionally, the United States attracted foreign investment, particularly in infrastructure projects and land speculation. 38) Which of the following best describes America’s role in cultural arenas before World War I? A) a trailblazer B) a pioneer of impressionism C) a borrower D) a pioneer of romanticism Answer: C Rationale: America’s role in cultural arenas before World War I was best described as a borrower. During this period, American artists, writers, and intellectuals drew inspiration from European cultural movements and traditions, adapting and incorporating foreign influences into their own works. American culture was characterized by a diverse range of influences, reflecting the multicultural and cosmopolitan nature of American society. 39) Canada, Australia, and New Zealand followed common Western patterns in which of the following areas? A) family life, the role of women, and the extension of mass education and culture B) the role of women, the extension of mass education and culture, and religion C) family life, the extension of mass education and culture, and religion D) family life, the role of women, and religion Answer: A Rationale: Canada, Australia, and New Zealand followed common Western patterns in family life, the role of women, and the extension of mass education and culture. Despite their geographic distance from Europe, these Western settler colonies adopted similar social and cultural norms, institutions, and practices, reflecting broader Western values and traditions. 40) Which of the following caused recurrent trouble in Canada in the 18th and 19th centuries? A) consequences of the uprisings of the American Revolution B) religious differences between French Catholic settlers and British rulers and settlers C) cultural differences between Americans and Canadians D) cultural differences between French settlers and British rulers Answer: B Rationale: Religious differences between French Catholic settlers and British rulers and settlers caused recurrent trouble in Canada in the 18th and 19th centuries. The conflict between the predominantly Catholic French-speaking population of Quebec and the Protestant Englishspeaking population of the rest of Canada led to tensions over language, culture, religion, and political representation, contributing to political unrest and social divisions in colonial Canada. 41) Why did Britain grant increasing self-rule to Canada before World War I? A) To avoid losing the colony to the French. B) To focus its energies on its African colonies. C) To avoid losing the colony in addition to the United States. D) To focus its energies on its Asian colonies. Answer: C Rationale: Britain granted increasing self-rule to Canada before World War I to avoid losing the colony in addition to the United States. The British government recognized the growing desire for autonomy among the Canadian colonies and sought to prevent potential secessionist movements by devolving more political power to local governments and fostering a sense of loyalty to the British Empire. 42) Which of the following choices eased French hostility in Canada? A) the creation of Quebec, a separate province where the majority of French settlers remained B) the opening of the borders between Canada and the United States, after which the majority of French settlers migrated to America C) Britain’s grant of increasing self-rule to Ontario D) the creation of French Australian colonies, where the majority of French settlers traveled in the 19th century Answer: A Rationale: The creation of Quebec, a separate province where the majority of French settlers remained, eased French hostility in Canada. By establishing Quebec as a distinct political entity with recognition of French language and culture, British authorities sought to accommodate the linguistic and cultural differences of the French-speaking population, thereby mitigating tensions and promoting stability within the Canadian colonies. 43) Which of the following was a direct result of Canada’s growing commercial development in the second half of the 19th century? A) new immigrants from Asia B) railroad construction C) new immigrants from eastern and southern Europe D) the expansion of agriculture Answer: C Rationale: The influx of new immigrants from eastern and southern Europe was a direct result of Canada’s growing commercial development in the second half of the 19th century. As Canada's economy expanded and industrialized, especially with the development of industries like mining, manufacturing, and transportation, there was a growing demand for labor. This demand attracted immigrants from various parts of Europe seeking economic opportunities and employment in Canada's burgeoning industries. 44) How did Britain’s Australian colonies originate? A) as overflow for Canadian settlers who were unable to enter the country due to its increasingly strict immigration laws in the latter half of the 19th century B) as the tribute from France for winning the French-Canadian War C) as a colony in which there was freedom of religious expression D) as a penal colony Answer: D Rationale: Britain’s Australian colonies originated as a penal colony. In the late 18th century, Britain established colonies in Australia primarily as places of punishment for convicts, serving as a solution to prison overcrowding in Britain. The first fleet of convicts arrived in Australia in 1788, marking the beginning of European settlement in the continent. 45) Which of the following contributed most to the exponential population growth in Australia in the 1850s? A) the discovery of gold B) the cessation of exported convicts from Britain C) the formation of the socialist party D) the construction of railroads Answer: A Rationale: The discovery of gold contributed most to the exponential population growth in Australia in the 1850s. The gold rushes in various parts of Australia, notably in Victoria and New South Wales, attracted a massive influx of immigrants seeking fortune and prosperity. This sudden population increase fueled economic growth, urban development, and cultural diversity in Australia during this period. 46) Why did Britain move to take official control of New Zealand in 1840? A) The French had expressed interest in the area. B) Many Maoris had converted to Anglicanism by this time. C) British settlers far outnumbered Maoris by this time. D) The Dutch had expressed interest in the area. Answer: A Rationale: Britain moved to take official control of New Zealand in 1840 because the French had expressed interest in the area. Concerned about potential French expansion into the region, the British government dispatched officials to negotiate the Treaty of Waitangi with Maori chiefs, establishing British sovereignty over New Zealand and preempting French claims to the territory. 47) Why was New Zealand something of a special case among settler societies? A) Britain granted them increasing self-rule during the 19th century. B) The socialist party had a robust presence there. C) It was slower to embrace industrialization than the other settler societies. D) The Polynesian Maoris maintained their importance despite the disruption brought about by British settlements. Answer: D Rationale: New Zealand was something of a special case among settler societies because the Polynesian Maoris maintained their importance despite the disruption brought about by British settlements. Unlike in many other settler colonies where indigenous populations were marginalized or displaced, the Maori people of New Zealand retained significant political, cultural, and social influence, contributing to a unique and relatively equitable relationship between settlers and indigenous peoples. 48) Proponents of the idea of American exceptionalism would be most interested in which of the following topics? A) why the United States was able to copy English industrialization B) why many American intellectuals were fascinated with Europe C) why the United States did not develop extensive socialist policies D) why women gained the vote later in France than they did in the United States and Britain Answer: C Rationale: Proponents of the idea of American exceptionalism would be most interested in why the United States did not develop extensive socialist policies. American exceptionalism is the belief that the United States is inherently unique or superior compared to other nations, often emphasizing its political, economic, and cultural distinctiveness. The absence of widespread socialism in the United States, despite its prevalence in Europe, is often cited as evidence of America's exceptional commitment to individualism, free enterprise, and limited government intervention in the economy. 49) The late 19th-century relationship among Canada, Australia, and New Zealand on the one hand, and Britain on the other, tended toward A) independence within a commonwealth. B) independent republics. C) cherished colonies. D) recurrent revolt. Answer: A Rationale: The late 19th-century relationship among Canada, Australia, and New Zealand on the one hand, and Britain on the other, tended toward independence within a commonwealth. During this period, the British Empire underwent a transformation from direct colonial rule to a looser association of self-governing dominions within the British Commonwealth. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand increasingly gained autonomy in domestic affairs while maintaining allegiance to the British Crown and participating in a shared framework of cooperation and mutual defense. 50) Unlike the United States, Canada A) remained part of the British empire. B) failed to develop efficient commercial agriculture. C) was unable to forge national unity among disputing ethnic groups. D) set up its own monarchy. Answer: A Rationale: Unlike the United States, Canada remained part of the British empire. While the United States gained independence from Britain and established a republican form of government, Canada remained a constitutional monarchy with ties to the British Crown. Despite achieving self-governance and autonomy, Canada maintained its status as a dominion within the British Empire, with the British monarch serving as the head of state. Short Answer Questions 51) What were the main exports of Canada and Australia/New Zealand? Answer: The main exports of Canada were timber, wheat, and minerals such as gold, silver, and copper. In contrast, the main exports of Australia and New Zealand were wool, meat, dairy products, and agricultural produce, with Australia also becoming a significant exporter of gold and minerals. 52) What were the main targets of United States imperialism? Answer: The main targets of United States imperialism included territories in the Caribbean, such as Cuba and Puerto Rico, Pacific islands like the Philippines, Guam, and Hawaii, as well as parts of Central America and East Asia. These territories were sought after for their strategic locations, natural resources, and economic potential. 53) Why has the United States historically been a more violent society than western Europe in the same time periods? Answer: The United States has historically been a more violent society than western Europe due to several factors, including its frontier heritage, the proliferation of firearms, socioeconomic disparities, and a legacy of racial and ethnic tensions. Additionally, periods of rapid industrialization, urbanization, and social change contributed to higher levels of crime and violence in American society compared to western Europe during the same time periods. 54) What were key differences between patterns of farming in the United States and Canada and those in western Europe? Answer: Key differences between patterns of farming in the United States and Canada and those in western Europe included the scale of agricultural operations, land tenure systems, and crop specialization. In the United States and Canada, farming was characterized by largescale, extensive agriculture, often based on mechanized farming techniques and extensive land ownership. In contrast, western Europe had a more diverse agricultural landscape, with smaller, intensive farming operations, diverse crop rotations, and varied land tenure systems, including feudal arrangements and small-scale family farms. 55) What political features did the “frontier West” societies share with societies in western Europe in the 19th century? Answer: The "frontier West" societies shared several political features with societies in western Europe in the 19th century, including representative government, legal systems based on English common law, and the emergence of political parties. Both regions experienced processes of democratization, though the extent and pace varied. Additionally, both regions grappled with issues of state-building, territorial expansion, and the incorporation of diverse ethnic and cultural groups into the political system. Essay Questions 56) What characteristics did the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand share as frontier societies? Answer: The United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand shared several characteristics as frontier societies, including: 1. Expansionism: Each of these societies experienced rapid territorial expansion into previously unsettled or indigenous-inhabited regions. 2. Resource Extraction: Frontier societies relied heavily on the extraction of natural resources such as timber, minerals, and agricultural produce to drive economic development. 3. Settler Colonialism: These societies were founded through waves of European settlement and colonization, often displacing or marginalizing indigenous populations. 4. Frontier Mentality: The frontier mentality emphasized rugged individualism, self-reliance, and a pioneering spirit among settlers as they ventured into uncharted territories. 5. Ethnic Diversity: Frontier societies were characterized by diverse immigrant populations, contributing to cultural pluralism and the formation of multicultural societies. 6. Conflict and Violence: Frontier regions often experienced conflicts with indigenous peoples, as well as among settlers themselves, over land, resources, and competing interests. 57) Is the United States a distinct civilization? What are the best arguments for and against an “American exceptionalist” framework? Answer: The question of whether the United States constitutes a distinct civilization is a matter of debate among scholars. Proponents of American exceptionalism argue that the United States possesses unique historical, cultural, and political characteristics that set it apart from other nations. Arguments in favor of American exceptionalism include: For: 1. Democratic Experiment: The United States pioneered democratic governance and constitutional republicanism, influencing political developments worldwide. 2. Economic Powerhouse: America's economic success and innovation, driven by capitalism and entrepreneurship, have had a profound impact on global markets. 3. Cultural Influence: American popular culture, including music, film, literature, and technology, has achieved widespread global dissemination, shaping global trends and lifestyles. 4. Military Dominance: The United States wields significant military power, often acting as a global superpower and influencing geopolitical dynamics. 5. Immigrant Nation: America's history as a melting pot of immigrants from diverse backgrounds contributes to its identity as a nation of immigrants and cultural diversity. Against: 1. Global Interconnectedness: Critics argue that the United States is deeply interconnected with the global community and shares many characteristics with other Western nations, challenging its exceptional status. 2. Historical Context: American exceptionalism may overlook the nation's historical injustices, including slavery, colonialism, and mistreatment of indigenous peoples. 3. Cultural Diversity: The United States' cultural landscape is diverse and dynamic, reflecting global influences rather than a distinct civilization. 4. Comparative Perspective: When compared to other nations, such as European countries or emerging powers like China, America's influence may be less exceptional than commonly believed. 5. Humility in Foreign Policy: Critics caution against American exceptionalism leading to hubris in foreign policy and interventions, advocating for a more nuanced understanding of America's role in the world. 58) In what ways were the United States, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand becoming more important in world history during the later 19th century? Answer: During the later 19th century, the United States, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand became increasingly important in world history due to several factors: 1. Economic Expansion: These nations experienced rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic growth, becoming significant players in global trade and commerce. 2. Territorial Expansion: Each country expanded its territory through settler colonialism, acquisitions, or annexations, contributing to geopolitical shifts and global power dynamics. 3. Immigration: Mass immigration fueled population growth and cultural diversity, shaping national identities and labor markets. 4. Military Power: The United States, in particular, emerged as a formidable military power, engaging in conflicts such as the Spanish-American War and exerting influence in the Pacific and Caribbean regions. 5. Cultural Influence: These nations exported their cultural products, including literature, art, cinema, and music, contributing to the spread of Western culture and ideas worldwide. 6. Diplomatic Relations: They forged alliances and diplomatic ties with other nations, participating in international organizations and treaties that shaped global politics and diplomacy. 59) Why did Canada, Australia, and New Zealand not have the kind of revolutionary war for independence that founded the United States? Answer: Canada, Australia, and New Zealand did not have the kind of revolutionary war for independence that founded the United States due to several reasons: 1. Legal Status: Unlike the American colonies, which were colonies of Britain without representation in Parliament, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand evolved into selfgoverning colonies with increasing degrees of autonomy and political representation within the British Empire. 2. Settler-Indigenous Relations: The presence of significant indigenous populations in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand necessitated complex negotiations and treaties, leading to a different dynamic than the settler-colonial conflicts in the United States. 3. British Policies: Britain adopted a policy of conciliation and gradual reform in response to colonial grievances in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, offering concessions and granting colonial assemblies greater autonomy and self-rule. 4. Lack of Unity: Unlike the American colonies, which shared a common grievance against British rule, the colonies of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were geographically distant and culturally diverse, making it challenging to mobilize unified revolutionary movements. 5. Loyalty to the British Crown: Many settlers in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand maintained strong ties to Britain and identified as British subjects, viewing the British Empire as a source of stability, protection, and economic opportunity rather than oppression. 60) Contrast the situations of Australian aborigines and New Zealand Maoris. Answer: The situations of Australian aborigines and New Zealand Maoris differed in several key aspects: Australian Aborigines: - Indigenous inhabitants of Australia, with diverse cultural and linguistic groups spread across the continent. - Experienced significant dispossession, violence, and marginalization following British colonization, resulting in loss of land, culture, and traditional livelihoods. - Faced government policies of assimilation, segregation, and forced removal from their ancestral lands, leading to social dislocation, poverty, and health disparities. - Struggled for recognition of land rights, self-determination, and cultural preservation, advocating for reconciliation, apology, and restitution from the Australian government. New Zealand Maoris: - Indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand, comprising various tribal groups with distinct languages, customs, and territories. - Initially engaged in conflicts with European settlers over land and resources, including the New Zealand Wars of the 19th century, resulting in significant loss of life and land confiscations. - Signed the Treaty of Waitangi with the British Crown in 1840, establishing a framework for British-Maori relations and recognizing Maori sovereignty and rights. - Fought for treaty rights, land restitution, and cultural revitalization, leading to landmark settlements and legal recognition of Maori customary rights, language revitalization, and representation in government institutions. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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