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Chapter 33 Sub-Saharan Africa: From Colonies to New Nations Multiple-Choice Questions 1) One of the key sources of political leadership in many African new nations has been A) the military. B) the church. C) private business. D) the universities. Answer: A Rationale: The military has often played a significant role in African politics, especially in the early years of independence. Military leaders, through coups or revolutions, have frequently assumed power and governed many African nations. They have been seen as sources of stability or, in some cases, as authoritarian rulers. The military's involvement in politics has shaped the leadership landscape in numerous African countries. 2) Which African colonies were most receptive to the message of Marcus Garvey? A) French colonies B) Belgian colonies C) Portuguese colonies D) British colonies Answer: D Rationale: Marcus Garvey's message of Pan-Africanism, black pride, and self-determination found a receptive audience primarily in British colonies in Africa. His ideas resonated with many Africans who were striving for independence from colonial rule and seeking to reclaim their African heritage and identity. 3) South Africa differs from other African nations in that A) its black population is unusually poor. B) it has no parliament. C) it is industrialized. D) it has recently adopted democracy. Answer: C Rationale: South Africa differs from many other African nations in that it is relatively more industrialized. It has a diverse economy with significant industrial and manufacturing sectors, as well as advanced infrastructure compared to some other African countries. This industrialization has contributed to South Africa's economic strength and development relative to its neighbors. 4) Which of the following is an important heritage from African tradition? A) a single African church B) rejection of agriculture in favor of hunting C) strong religious feeling D) female-dominated families Answer: C Rationale: Strong religious feeling is an important heritage from African tradition. Traditional African societies often had rich and diverse spiritual beliefs and practices, with religion playing a central role in cultural, social, and communal life. This spiritual heritage has persisted and continues to influence many aspects of contemporary African societies. 5) Pan-African nationalists wanted to A) glorify Africa’s strengths and traditions and establish unity among African nations. B) return to the traditional values of each country following decolonization. C) downplay Africa’s traditions in hopes of attracting Western investment. D) ban cultural contact with the West. Answer: A Rationale: Pan-African nationalists aimed to glorify Africa's strengths and traditions while promoting unity among African nations. They sought to foster a sense of African identity and solidarity, emphasizing the shared history, culture, and struggles of African peoples. Pan-Africanism was a movement that emerged during the colonial period and continued to influence African politics and liberation movements throughout the 20th century. 6) West African intellectuals worried about identity might point to which of the following 20th-century changes? A) the decline of religion B) communist takeovers C) urbanization D) the rise of independent African nations Answer: C Rationale: West African intellectuals concerned about identity might point to urbanization as a significant 20th-century change. Urbanization brought about shifts in social structures, lifestyles, and cultural practices, leading to concerns about the preservation of traditional values, languages, and identities. Rapid urbanization challenged established norms and contributed to debates about cultural authenticity and identity among West African intellectuals. 7) Which languages did Belgian officials in the Congo insist that educated Africans learn? A) French and English B) Flemish and French C) Dutch and Flemish D) Belgian and English Answer: B Rationale: Belgian officials in the Congo insisted that educated Africans learn Flemish and French. Belgium, as the colonial power in the Congo, imposed its languages on the indigenous population as part of its colonial education policies. Knowledge of Flemish and French was considered essential for advancement in education, administration, and employment within the colonial system. 8) In Mozambique, Portuguese rulers insisted that many Africans grow which crop? A) cotton B) rubber C) cocoa D) peanuts Answer: A Rationale: Portuguese rulers in Mozambique insisted that many Africans grow cotton. Cotton cultivation was promoted as part of colonial economic policies aimed at exploiting Mozambique's agricultural resources for the benefit of the colonial power. The forced cultivation of cash crops like cotton often resulted in the displacement of subsistence farming practices and the exploitation of indigenous labor. 9) White nationalists in South Africa sponsored the Color Bar bill to A) deny blacks the right to vote in national elections. B) officially break off from the British Empire. C) prevent blacks from holding skilled jobs. D) ban blacks from intermarrying with white populations. Answer: C Rationale: White nationalists in South Africa sponsored the Color Bar bill to prevent blacks from holding skilled jobs. The Color Bar legislation was part of the apartheid system implemented by the National Party government, which sought to institutionalize racial segregation and white supremacy in South Africa. The Color Bar laws restricted black South Africans from accessing certain occupations, professions, and educational opportunities reserved for whites. 10) Between 1947 and 1957, France A) began transferring control of African economies to local business leaders. B) began severing economic ties to its African colonies. C) began heavily taxing its African colonies to make up for economic losses during WWII. D) spent more on its African colonies than it had in the previous 50 years. Answer: D Rationale: Between 1947 and 1957, France increased its spending on its African colonies significantly. This period saw continued French colonial exploitation and control over African resources, economies, and labor forces. Despite growing demands for independence and decolonization movements in Africa, France continued to invest in and extract wealth from its colonial possessions during this time, rather than relinquishing control or fostering economic development for the benefit of local populations. 11) Kwame Nkrumah was the nationalist leader of A) Ghana. B) Kenya. C) Zimbabwe. D) Chad. Answer: A Rationale: Kwame Nkrumah was the nationalist leader of Ghana. He played a crucial role in Ghana's independence movement and became the country's first Prime Minister and later its first President after Ghana gained independence from British colonial rule in 1957. Nkrumah was a prominent Pan-Africanist and advocate for African unity and liberation from colonialism. 12) France granted commonwealth status to its 13 sub-Saharan holdings in A) 1958. B) 1959. C) 1960. D) 1957. Answer: A Rationale: France granted commonwealth status to its 13 sub-Saharan holdings in 1958. This move was part of France's response to growing demands for decolonization and independence in its African colonies. The establishment of the French Community, which included granting autonomy to its colonies while maintaining certain ties with France, was intended to address calls for self-governance while retaining French influence and economic control. 13) For many African laborers, the practice of indigenization A) improved their political standing but not their economic standing. B) decreased their quality of life. C) increased their quality of life. D) made little difference. Answer: D Rationale: For many African laborers, the practice of indigenization made little difference to their quality of life. Indigenization policies were implemented in various African countries to promote the participation of indigenous Africans in the economy and reduce dependency on foreign-owned businesses. However, the impact of these policies varied, and for many laborers, especially those in rural areas or informal sectors, the changes brought about by indigenization were minimal. 14) The Nigerian army officers who took control in1965 to establish national unity were from which tribe? A) Somali B) Annang C) Tiv D) Ibo Answer: D Rationale: The Nigerian army officers who took control in 1965 to establish national unity were from the Igbo (also spelled Ibo) tribe. This refers to the military coup of January 15, 1966, led by predominantly Igbo officers, which aimed to overthrow the government of Prime Minister Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa and establish a unified and stable government in Nigeria. 15) South African riots in 1984-1986 had the effect of A) legalizing black workers unions. B) reinstating martial law. C) ending apartheid. D) winning superficial concessions to apartheid. Answer: B Rationale: The South African riots in 1984-1986 had the effect of reinstating martial law. These riots, known as the anti-apartheid protests or the "Uprising," were a series of protests and demonstrations against the apartheid regime in South Africa, particularly targeting the policy of racial segregation and discrimination. In response to the escalating unrest, the South African government declared a state of emergency and imposed martial law in affected areas to suppress dissent and maintain control. 16) During the 1950s and 1960s, sub-Saharan Africa experienced ________ successful military takeovers of national governments. A) less than 5 B) over 100 C) 20 D) 70 Answer: C Rationale: During the 1950s and 1960s, sub-Saharan Africa experienced approximately 20 successful military takeovers of national governments. This period marked a significant era of political instability and transition in many African countries following decolonization. Military coups and interventions were common as various factions vied for power, leading to frequent changes in government and governance structures. 17) Which of the following African nations enjoyed the greatest political stability in the latter decades of the 20th century? A) Kenya B) Tanzania C) Uganda D) Zaire Answer: A Rationale: Kenya enjoyed the greatest political stability in the latter decades of the 20th century compared to the other listed African nations. Although Kenya faced internal challenges and periods of political unrest, it generally maintained a relatively stable government and avoided the extreme upheavals experienced by some of its neighbors. Kenya's stability was partly attributed to its strong leadership under President Jomo Kenyatta and subsequent administrations. 18) Which African nation elected the continent’s first woman president in 2006? A) Sierra Leone B) Liberia C) Nigeria D) South Africa Answer: B Rationale: Liberia elected the continent’s first woman president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, in 2006. Sirleaf's election marked a significant milestone in African politics and women's empowerment. She served as the President of Liberia from 2006 to 2018 and played a crucial role in the country's recovery from years of civil war, as well as in promoting democracy, governance, and gender equality in Africa. 19) The Senegalese poet and political leader ________ criticized Western scientific traditions. A) Chinua Achebe B) Jomo Kenyatta C) Agustinho Neto D) Léopold Senghor Answer: D Rationale: The Senegalese poet and political leader Léopold Senghor criticized Western scientific traditions. Senghor was a prominent figure in African literature and politics, known for his advocacy of Negritude, a cultural and political movement that sought to celebrate African identity, heritage, and creativity. Senghor criticized Western scientific traditions for their perceived neglect or misinterpretation of African cultural values and contributions to human knowledge. 20) African art sent to Europe by French colonials helped inspire which modern art movement? A) vorticism B) minimalism C) cubism D) impressionism Answer: C Rationale: African art sent to Europe by French colonials helped inspire the modern art movement of cubism. Artists such as Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were influenced by African masks, sculptures, and other artifacts, which they encountered in European collections and exhibitions. The geometric shapes, abstract forms, and expressive qualities of African art contributed to the development of cubism, a revolutionary artistic style that sought to depict reality from multiple perspectives and through fragmented imagery. 21) ________ percent of the sub-Saharan population subscribes to Islam. A) 20 B) 30 C) 40 D) 50 Answer: C Rationale: Approximately 40 percent of the sub-Saharan population subscribes to Islam. Islam is one of the major religions practiced in sub-Saharan Africa, alongside Christianity and indigenous African religions. The spread of Islam in the region can be attributed to various factors, including trade networks, Islamic conquests, and the influence of Muslim scholars and missionaries over centuries. 22) Many African governments were more concerned post-independence with ________ than with modernizing agriculture. A) courting foreign investors B) maintaining the income flow from cash crops C) redistributing land from large estates D) creating public works and factories Answer: D Rationale: Many African governments were more concerned post-independence with creating public works and factories than with modernizing agriculture. This prioritization reflected a desire among newly independent nations to industrialize and develop their economies, often influenced by socialist or developmentalist ideologies. Governments invested resources in infrastructure projects, industrialization initiatives, and urban development, aiming to stimulate economic growth and reduce dependency on agriculture. 23) Per capita income for the average citizen of Congo ________ between 1976 and 1985. A) increased by $249 B) increased by $23 C) decreased by $50 D) increased by $110 Answer: B Rationale: Per capita income for the average citizen of Congo increased by $23 between 1976 and 1985. This modest increase reflects a period of economic growth or stability in Congo during the specified timeframe. However, the actual impact on individual citizens' standard of living may vary depending on factors such as inflation, income distribution, and access to resources and services. 24) Over the course of the 20th century, urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa occurred A) slowly for decades, then picked up considerably in the 1960s and 1970s. B) rapidly in the first half of the century, but slowed appreciably as nations gained independence from Europe. C) slowly and steadily from decade to decade, with only mild fluctuations D) rapidly in the years before WWII, stalled in the middle decades, and then reversed starting in the 1970s. Answer: A Rationale: Over the course of the 20th century, urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa occurred slowly for decades, then picked up considerably in the 1960s and 1970s. Urbanization is the process of population movement from rural to urban areas, driven by factors such as industrialization, economic opportunities, and social change. The acceleration of urbanization in the mid-20th century was influenced by factors including rapid population growth, urbanization policies, and shifts in economic structures. 25) By 2000, court rulings in some African nations A) greatly expanded the political and property rights of women. B) overturned gains in legal rights for women. C) outlawed the practice of female circumcision. D) banned women from working in Western factories. Answer: B Rationale: By 2000, court rulings in some African nations overturned gains in legal rights for women. Despite efforts to promote gender equality and women's rights, including legislative reforms and advocacy initiatives, progress has been uneven across different African countries. In some cases, court rulings or changes in government policies have undermined previous advancements in women's rights, highlighting ongoing challenges and resistance to gender equality. 26) African nationalism was delayed in development in part because A) European imperialists were more careful to take local opinion into account than they had been in Asia. B) the boundaries of most African nations had no relation to African political traditions. C) Africans had no prior experience of self-government. D) most Africans were more loyal to Africa itself than to separate nations. Answer: B Rationale: African nationalism was delayed in development in part because the boundaries of most African nations had no relation to African political traditions. The arbitrary drawing of borders by European colonial powers during the Scramble for Africa often divided ethnic groups, kingdoms, and cultural regions, creating artificial and sometimes conflicting territories. This fragmentation hindered the emergence of cohesive nationalist movements and contributed to ethnic tensions and conflicts within newly independent African states. 27) Which of the following contributed to problems of defining African identity in the 20th century? A) the resilience of traditional gender roles B) resistance to the spread of education in Western languages C) existence of large Marxist parties in most countries D) conversion to Islam or Christianity Answer: D Rationale: Conversion to Islam or Christianity contributed to problems of defining African identity in the 20th century. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa introduced new religious identities and cultural influences that intersected with existing indigenous beliefs and practices. This religious diversity and syncretism, along with colonial legacies and modernization processes, shaped complex and multifaceted notions of African identity, challenging simplistic categorizations and definitions. 28) Leaders of African new nations have usually tried to A) encourage tribal and village loyalties. B) expand school systems. C) eliminate the use of Western languages in public. D) encourage every family to buy a car. Answer: B Rationale: Leaders of African new nations have usually tried to expand school systems. Education is widely recognized as a key priority for national development and social progress in postcolonial African countries. Governments have invested in expanding access to education, building schools, training teachers, and implementing educational reforms to promote literacy, skills development, and human capital accumulation among their populations. Education is viewed as essential for addressing socio-economic challenges, fostering national unity, and achieving long-term development goals. 29) Middle Eastern and African societies showed a similar reaction to Western imperialism in the 20th century in A) the collapse of traditional family ties. B) the rise of new nationalist loyalties. C) widespread new conversions to Christianity. D) the growth of strong communist parties. Answer: B Rationale: Middle Eastern and African societies showed a similar reaction to Western imperialism in the 20th century in the rise of new nationalist loyalties. Both regions experienced waves of anticolonial movements, nationalist uprisings, and struggles for independence against European colonial powers. These movements were driven by aspirations for self-determination, cultural revival, and political autonomy, reflecting a shared desire to assert sovereignty and reclaim control over their own destinies. Nationalist sentiments mobilized diverse social groups and ideologies, contributing to the eventual dismantling of colonial empires and the emergence of independent nation-states. 30) Many observers criticize the emphasis on cash-crop production in African agriculture because A) too much investment in agriculture prevents industrialization. B) methods used in cash-crop production are more primitive than those used in village agriculture. C) Africans make no profits on cash-crop agriculture because of Western domination. D) cash-crop agriculture takes land and labor away from production of food needed at home. Answer: D Rationale: Many observers criticize the emphasis on cash-crop production in African agriculture because cash-crop agriculture takes land and labor away from production of food needed at home. Cash-crop production often prioritizes the cultivation of crops for export markets, such as coffee, cocoa, cotton, and tobacco, over the production of staple food crops for domestic consumption. This can lead to imbalances in food security, rural livelihoods, and agricultural sustainability, exacerbating poverty, inequality, and vulnerability to external market fluctuations and environmental risks. Critics argue for a more balanced approach to agricultural development that addresses both export-oriented cash crops and subsistence farming needs, promoting food sovereignty, income diversification, and rural resilience. 31) In which of the following ways did Western imperialism fail to reform in Africa following WWI? A) It did not stress economic change. B) Its educational efforts remained Eurocentric. C) It did not seek to reform agricultural techniques. D) No efforts were made to reduce tribal warfare. Answer: B Rationale: Western imperialism failed to reform in Africa following WWI in the way that its educational efforts remained Eurocentric. Despite the need for comprehensive educational reforms to address the diverse needs and cultural contexts of African societies, Western colonial powers often implemented educational systems that prioritized European languages, curricula, and values. This Eurocentric approach to education perpetuated colonial ideologies of superiority and undermined efforts to promote indigenous knowledge, languages, and identities. As a result, educational opportunities remained limited for many Africans, perpetuating inequalities and hindering social and economic progress. 32) Why were Portuguese agricultural directives damaging to African farmers? A) Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles were more productive for laborers. B) The labor required to grow cash crops like cotton was more intensive than the labor required to grow food crops. C) Farmers were not able to divert enough resources to growing food. D) Heavy taxation of crops prevented farmers from making a sufficient return on their labor. Answer: C Rationale: Portuguese agricultural directives were damaging to African farmers because farmers were not able to divert enough resources to growing food. The imposition of cash crop production quotas and taxation by Portuguese colonial authorities often forced African farmers to prioritize the cultivation of export crops over subsistence food crops. This led to a decline in food security and agricultural self-sufficiency, as limited resources and land were allocated to cash crops, resulting in dependency on imported food and vulnerability to market fluctuations and food shortages. 33) What was unusual about the political situation in South Africa? A) Representative institutions existed but were mostly restricted to whites. B) Its history of British rule deprived it of local political autonomy. C) It granted voting rights to both blacks and whites from the start, unlike all other African nations. D) Both blacks and whites could participate in elections, but women of all races were barred from participation. Answer: A Rationale: What was unusual about the political situation in South Africa was that representative institutions existed but were mostly restricted to whites. South Africa's system of apartheid, implemented by the National Party in 1948, enforced racial segregation and discrimination, denying political rights and representation to the majority black population. While South Africa technically had representative institutions such as a parliament, these institutions were designed to uphold white minority rule and exclude non-white citizens from meaningful participation in the political process. 34) Why was Africa hit particularly hard by the worldwide economic depression of the 1930s? A) Most African nations lacked political structures to alleviate mass suffering. B) Western companies pulled out of Africa en masse. C) Rapid inflation greatly increased Africa’s debt burden. D) Its economy depended on the sale to the West of low-priced items. Answer: D Rationale: Africa was hit particularly hard by the worldwide economic depression of the 1930s because its economy depended on the sale to the West of low-priced items. Many African economies relied heavily on the export of primary commodities such as minerals, agricultural products, and raw materials to industrialized Western nations. During the Great Depression, global demand for these commodities plummeted, leading to a collapse in prices and export revenues for African producers. This economic downturn worsened poverty, unemployment, and social unrest in African countries, exacerbating the impact of the depression on local populations. 35) The new nation of Ghana shared what in common with a historic African kingdom? A) its geographic boundaries B) its name C) its tradition of divine kingship D) its loose political structures Answer: B Rationale: The new nation of Ghana shared its name with a historic African kingdom. Ghana, formerly known as the Gold Coast, gained independence from British colonial rule in 1957 under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah. The name "Ghana" was chosen to symbolize the country's aspirations for pan-African unity and to honor the ancient Ghana Empire, which flourished in West Africa between the 8th and 11th centuries CE. The adoption of the name reflected a desire to reclaim Africa's pre-colonial heritage and assert national pride and identity. 36) What encouraged France to grant freedom to its sub-Saharan colonies? A) its bitter experience in Indochina and Algeria B) international pressure from other Western powers in the process of decolonization C) widespread peasant revolts D) worsening economic fortunes Answer: A Rationale: France was encouraged to grant freedom to its sub-Saharan colonies due to its bitter experience in Indochina and Algeria. France's colonial possessions in Southeast Asia (Indochina) and North Africa (Algeria) faced prolonged and costly wars of independence, characterized by nationalist uprisings, guerrilla warfare, and international condemnation of French colonial policies. These conflicts drained France's military and financial resources, eroded public support for colonialism, and fueled anti-imperialist sentiments both domestically and internationally. In the face of mounting pressure and geopolitical shifts, France ultimately chose to decolonize its African territories to avoid further costly and protracted conflicts. 37) Indigenization efforts in newly free African nations were balanced against A) the need for the redistribution of land to tenant farmers. B) the need for Western technologies and capital. C) their outstanding debts to Western banks. D) a desire to retain the same economic structures as were present during colonial rule. Answer: B Rationale: Indigenization efforts in newly free African nations were balanced against the need for Western technologies and capital. Indigenization, also known as Africanization or nationalization, refers to the process of transferring control and ownership of key industries, businesses, and resources from foreign or colonial interests to local African populations or governments. While there was a desire to reclaim economic sovereignty and reduce dependency on foreign investors and corporations, newly independent African nations often faced challenges in mobilizing sufficient domestic capital, expertise, and technology to effectively manage and develop their economies. As a result, they relied on partnerships with Western companies, multilateral institutions, and foreign aid to support industrialization, infrastructure development, and economic growth. 38) In what way was central administration in liberated Africa more difficult than under colonial rule? A) Lack of knowledge of communication infrastructure made national government inefficient. B) Competing Western economic powers added a new layer of complication. C) Limited military experience made it difficult to stop tribal warfare. D) Tribal and linguistic divisions came to the fore. Answer: D Rationale: Central administration in liberated Africa was more difficult than under colonial rule because tribal and linguistic divisions came to the fore. Colonial powers often imposed artificial boundaries and administrative structures that disregarded pre-existing ethnic, cultural, and linguistic identities and territories, leading to tensions and conflicts between different ethnic groups and communities. After gaining independence, African nations inherited these complex socio-political dynamics and struggled to foster national unity, cohesion, and integration across diverse ethnic and linguistic populations. The fragmentation of societies along tribal lines posed significant challenges to effective governance, social cohesion, and nation-building efforts, hindering the consolidation of centralized authority and political stability. 39) In the decades following the establishment of new African nations, parliamentary systems A) became dominated by single-party governments. B) were gradually transformed into puppet institutions captured by the interest of Western imperialists. C) were almost uniformly replaced by authoritarian military governments. D) became increasingly sophisticated as Africans learned the ins and outs of representative rule. Answer: C Rationale: In the decades following the establishment of new African nations, parliamentary systems were almost uniformly replaced by authoritarian military governments. Many newly independent African countries experienced political instability, economic challenges, and social unrest, which undermined the functioning of parliamentary democracies and paved the way for the rise of authoritarian regimes. Military coups, political repression, and one-party rule became prevalent across the continent as military leaders and strongmen seized power, suspended democratic institutions, and centralized authority under their control. These authoritarian regimes often justified their rule by promising stability, development, and national unity while suppressing political opposition, dissent, and civil liberties, leading to decades of autocratic rule in many African countries. 40) Why were rural Africans less politically involved than urban Africans? A) Rural Africans were primarily agricultural, and thus had little to gain from political involvement. B) New African governments had little presence in rural areas. C) Their loyalties were with tribe- and village-level associations. D) Language barriers made it difficult to develop political traditions in rural areas. Answer: C Rationale: Rural Africans were less politically involved than urban Africans because their loyalties were with tribe- and village-level associations. In many African societies, social and political identities were deeply rooted in kinship, community, and traditional institutions at the local level, such as clans, lineages, and chiefdoms. Rural populations often maintained strong ties to their ethnic groups, villages, and traditional leaders, shaping their perceptions of identity, authority, and belonging. As a result, political participation and mobilization tended to be more localized and communal in rural areas, revolving around issues and interests relevant to specific communities rather than national or ideological concerns. This decentralized and localized political landscape often limited the reach and influence of central governments and political parties in rural regions, contributing to disparities in political engagement and representation between urban and rural populations. 41) Why did Robert Mugabe’s use of Marxism in African government succeed where other socialist-identified efforts failed? A) Mugabe garnered material support from the USSR. B) Mugabe focused primarily on practical reforms rather than Soviet-style controls. C) Mugabe expelled exploitative foreign economic operators from Zimbabwe. D) Local cultural traditions in Zimbabwe were amenable to Marxist doctrine. Answer: B Rationale: Robert Mugabe's use of Marxism in African government succeeded where other socialistidentified efforts failed because Mugabe focused primarily on practical reforms rather than Soviet-style controls. Unlike some other socialist leaders who imposed rigid centralized control and ideological purity, Mugabe's government in Zimbabwe pursued pragmatic policies aimed at addressing socio-economic inequalities, land redistribution, and national development. While embracing socialist principles, Mugabe's administration maintained a degree of political flexibility and pragmatism, allowing for a more adaptive and inclusive approach to governance. This pragmatic stance helped Mugabe to navigate complex sociopolitical dynamics, maintain domestic stability, and retain popular support, distinguishing his regime from more doctrinaire socialist experiments that faced internal resistance and external opposition. 42) Some African writers struggled with a detachment from the masses because A) they supported unpopular liberal reforms. B) they rejected the importance of traditional African culture as a bridge between the past and the present. C) their use of English and French was regarded as a rejection of African cultural tradition. D) a large percentage of the population remained illiterate. Answer: D Rationale: Some African writers struggled with a detachment from the masses because a large percentage of the population remained illiterate. Despite their aspirations to engage with and represent the experiences and aspirations of the African masses, many African writers encountered challenges in reaching and resonating with broad segments of society due to high levels of illiteracy and limited access to education, particularly in rural areas. Illiteracy rates, compounded by socio-economic disparities and linguistic diversity, hindered the dissemination and reception of literary works among ordinary Africans, constraining the impact and influence of literary movements and intellectual debates on broader social and political discourse. Consequently, the disconnect between educated elites and the masses contributed to a sense of alienation and marginalization among African writers, prompting reflections on the role of literature in fostering social change and cultural transformation. 43) In what way did 20th-century African secondary schools show continuity with Western education efforts in colonial times? A) They retained the use of Western languages to teach African subjects. B) They emphasized Western scientific knowledge over traditional folk explanations for natural phenomenon. C) They only allowed a small minority to pass beyond the primary school level. D) Curriculum was designed and administered by Westerners postulating toward an African audience. Answer: A Rationale: 20th-century African secondary schools showed continuity with Western education efforts in colonial times because they retained the use of Western languages to teach African subjects. Despite gaining independence from colonial rule, many African nations inherited educational systems that were established and influenced by Western colonial powers, which prioritized European languages such as English, French, and Portuguese as the medium of instruction in schools. This linguistic continuity reflected a persistent legacy of colonialism and cultural imperialism, whereby Western languages were privileged over indigenous African languages in educational settings, perpetuating linguistic hierarchies and marginalizing local languages and cultures in formal education. Consequently, African students continued to be educated primarily in Western languages, limiting their access to educational opportunities and perpetuating linguistic and cultural alienation in post-colonial societies. 44) How did land use issues in Africa in the 20th century differ from developments in Asia and Latin America? A) Environmental factors did not play a significant role in the state of agriculture. B) They did not involve significant pressure for land redistribution. C) African governments confiscated most private agricultural assets and reorganized from the top down. D) Agricultural reform was rapid, leading to much greater and more sustained productivity gains. Answer: B Rationale: Land use issues in Africa in the 20th century differed from developments in Asia and Latin America because they did not involve significant pressure for land redistribution. Unlike in Asia and Latin America, where land reform movements and agrarian struggles were prominent features of social and political change, land redistribution efforts in Africa were often limited in scope and effectiveness. Many African countries experienced challenges in addressing land tenure systems, unequal land distribution, and conflicts over land rights, but land redistribution initiatives were often constrained by political, economic, and social factors, including resistance from powerful landowners, inadequate legal frameworks, and weak institutional capacity. Consequently, land use patterns in Africa remained characterized by disparities in land ownership and access, contributing to socio-economic inequalities, rural poverty, and land-related conflicts in many African countries. 45) Why did many African nations run up large debts in the latter half of the 20th century? A) Large gaps existed between export earnings and import needs. B) Military governments borrowed heavily to invest in modern weapons and equipment. C) Many independence agreements included outstanding financial obligations to European powers. D) Predatory lending practices by Western banks encouraged irresponsible borrowing by new governments. Answer: A Rationale: Many African nations ran up large debts in the latter half of the 20th century because large gaps existed between export earnings and import needs. Despite achieving political independence from colonial rule, many African countries faced significant economic challenges and structural imbalances that constrained their capacity to generate sufficient export revenues to finance essential imports and service external debts. Factors such as declining terms of trade, volatile commodity prices, over-reliance on primary commodities, and inefficient economic policies contributed to chronic trade deficits and foreign exchange shortages, forcing African governments to resort to external borrowing to finance development projects, import essential goods, and sustain public spending. However, the accumulation of external debt burdened many African economies with unsustainable debt levels, exacerbating economic vulnerabilities and hindering long-term development prospects. 46) In what way did urbanization lead to the decline of traditional male-dominated African culture? A) U.N. education efforts based in African cities spread literacy among women, and encouraged them to acquire more political rights through the court system. B) The increase in birth-control use lowered the average birthrate, freeing up women’s energy to participate more widely in the economy and culture. C) Women were allowed to work on equal footing with men in Western production, eroding gender differences. D) Men moved to cities and left women behind, allowing them to gain greater autonomy at home. Answer: D Rationale: Urbanization led to the decline of traditional male-dominated African culture because men moved to cities and left women behind, allowing them to gain greater autonomy at home. The migration of men from rural to urban areas in search of employment opportunities and better living conditions disrupted traditional gender roles and power dynamics within African societies, leading to changes in family structures, household responsibilities, and social norms. In the absence of male authority figures, women often assumed greater autonomy and decision-making power within their households, asserting themselves as heads of households and primary caregivers for their families. This shift in gender dynamics challenged traditional patriarchal norms and facilitated the empowerment of women, enabling them to pursue education, employment, and civic engagement opportunities, thereby contributing to the gradual erosion of male dominance and the advancement of gender equality in urban contexts. 47) Why did multinational corporations begin locating production in some African nations in the 1990s? A) to offset growing Chinese influence in sub-Saharan Africa B) to provide enticements for greater political influence in sovereign African governments C) to take advantage of low-wage labor D) to move production facilities closer to sources of raw materials Answer: C Rationale: Multinational corporations began locating production in some African nations in the 1990s to take advantage of low-wage labor. With the globalization of markets and the liberalization of trade and investment policies, multinational corporations sought new opportunities for costsaving and profit-maximization by outsourcing production to countries with lower labor costs and less stringent regulations. Many African countries offered favorable conditions for multinational investment, including abundant labor supply, competitive wage rates, and government incentives, making them attractive destinations for foreign direct investment in manufacturing and assembly operations. By establishing production facilities in Africa, multinational corporations aimed to reduce production costs, increase operational efficiency, and access new markets, thereby enhancing their competitive advantage and expanding their global reach in the increasingly interconnected and competitive business environment of the 1990s. 48) Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America in the 20th century share which of the following characteristics? A) a lack of indebtedness to Western banks B) rapid rates of urbanization and population growth C) heavy reliance on manufacturing and the export of food animals D) high rates of family disruption and female-headed households Answer: B Rationale: Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America in the 20th century share rapid rates of urbanization and population growth. Both regions experienced significant demographic transformations during the 20th century, characterized by rapid urbanization, population growth, and rural-tourban migration as people moved from rural areas to cities and towns in search of employment opportunities, better living standards, and improved access to services and amenities. Urbanization and population growth posed various challenges and opportunities for socio-economic development, infrastructure provision, and environmental sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, shaping patterns of urban growth, social change, and cultural transformation across both regions. While urbanization and population growth contributed to the expansion of urban economies, the emergence of informal settlements, and the diversification of social landscapes, they also posed challenges related to urban congestion, housing shortages, unemployment, and environmental degradation, highlighting the complex and interconnected nature of urbanization processes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. 49) Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America in the 20th century share which of the following characteristics? A) a decline in the relative membership and importance of the Catholic church B) formation of many authoritarian and military governments C) periodic diplomatic or military pressure from China or India D) virtually uniform embracing of democracy after the 1970s Answer: B Rationale: Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America in the 20th century share the formation of many authoritarian and military governments. Both regions experienced significant political instability, authoritarian rule, and military interventions during the 20th century, characterized by the emergence of authoritarian regimes, military coups, and periods of political repression and dictatorship. In Sub-Saharan Africa, many newly independent countries grappled with governance challenges, ethnic conflicts, and power struggles, leading to the rise of military regimes and one-party states as mechanisms for maintaining political control and stability. Similarly, Latin America witnessed cycles of military rule, authoritarianism, and political violence, with military juntas and dictatorships often assuming power through coups d'état and suppressing dissent through censorship, repression, and human rights abuses. The prevalence of authoritarian and military governments in both regions reflects shared patterns of political instability, institutional weakness, and socio-economic inequality that shaped their respective trajectories of political development and governance during the 20th century. 50) Unlike new nations in the Middle East, new African nations A) developed one-party systems or military regimes. B) faced serious foreign policy problems. C) faced frequent tribal conflicts within their boundaries. D) united many individual nations in large regional governments. Answer: C Rationale: Unlike new nations in the Middle East, new African nations faced frequent tribal conflicts within their boundaries. While both the Middle East and Africa experienced challenges related to state-building, governance, and socio-political stability following decolonization, the nature and dynamics of internal conflicts differed between the two regions. In the Middle East, new nations grappled with issues such as territorial disputes, geopolitical rivalries, and inter-state conflicts arising from the legacy of colonialism, ethno-nationalism, and external interventions, leading to tensions and conflicts among neighboring countries and regional powers. In contrast, new African nations faced internal challenges related to tribalism, ethnic tensions, and communal violence stemming from pre-colonial legacies, colonial-era policies, and post-independence power struggles, often manifesting in localized disputes, identitybased conflicts, and inter-communal violence within national borders. The prevalence of tribal conflicts in new African nations reflects the complex and contested nature of state formation, nation-building, and social cohesion in ethnically diverse societies transitioning from colonial rule to independence, highlighting the enduring significance of tribal identities and grievances in shaping post-colonial politics and governance in Africa. Short Answer Questions 51) Briefly discuss at least three characteristic problems of African new nations. Answer: African new nations faced several characteristic problems, including: 1. Political Instability: Many African countries struggled with governance challenges, including weak institutions, corruption, and authoritarian regimes. Political instability often led to coups, civil conflicts, and power struggles, hindering democratic consolidation and socio-economic development. 2. Ethnic and Tribal Divisions: Ethnic diversity and tribal loyalties posed challenges to national unity and social cohesion. Tensions between different ethnic groups often fueled conflicts, identity politics, and exclusionary policies, exacerbating social divisions and undermining efforts to build inclusive and cohesive societies. 3. Economic Underdevelopment: African new nations inherited economies characterized by dependence on primary commodities, limited industrialization, and structural imbalances. Persistent poverty, unemployment, and inequality hindered economic growth and development, perpetuating cycles of poverty and socio-economic marginalization. 52) How have African intellectuals defined an African identity separate from the West? Answer: African intellectuals have defined an African identity separate from the West by: 1. Emphasizing Indigenous Knowledge: African intellectuals have highlighted the importance of indigenous cultures, traditions, and knowledge systems as essential components of African identity. They have sought to reclaim and valorize African history, languages, and cultural practices, challenging Eurocentric interpretations of African identity and promoting cultural authenticity and pride. 2. Critiquing Colonial Legacies: African intellectuals have critically examined the legacies of colonialism and imperialism, highlighting the impact of Western domination on African societies, economies, and identities. They have emphasized the need to decolonize African minds and institutions, rejecting Eurocentric paradigms and advocating for African-centric approaches to knowledge production, education, and development. 3. Advocating Pan-Africanism: African intellectuals have championed Pan-Africanism as a philosophy and movement aimed at promoting unity, solidarity, and collective empowerment among people of African descent worldwide. They have emphasized the common history, struggles, and aspirations of Africans and African diaspora communities, advocating for African self-determination, cultural revival, and socio-economic transformation. 53) Briefly discuss three characteristic problems of African agriculture. Answer: Characteristic problems of African agriculture include: 1. Low Productivity: African agriculture often suffers from low productivity due to limited access to modern inputs, technologies, and techniques. Poor soil fertility, inadequate irrigation, and unpredictable weather conditions further constrain agricultural yields, leading to food insecurity and poverty among rural communities. 2. Land Tenure Issues: Land tenure systems in Africa are often characterized by insecurity, fragmentation, and inequality. Land disputes, lack of land titles, and unequal distribution of land rights hinder agricultural investment, land development, and sustainable land management practices, exacerbating poverty and rural-urban migration. 3. Dependency on Rainfed Agriculture: Many African farmers rely on rainfed agriculture, exposing them to climate variability and weather-related risks. Erratic rainfall patterns, droughts, and floods can devastate crops, livestock, and livelihoods, leading to food shortages, malnutrition, and economic hardships, particularly in vulnerable rural areas. 54) Why did many African nations seek nonalignment in the Cold War? Answer: Many African nations sought nonalignment in the Cold War due to: 1. Desire for Sovereignty: African countries valued their independence and sovereignty and sought to avoid entanglement in the ideological conflicts and power struggles between the superpowers. Nonalignment allowed African nations to pursue their own national interests, policies, and alliances without being coerced or influenced by external actors. 2. Promotion of Pan-Africanism: African leaders embraced nonalignment as a means of promoting Pan-African unity, solidarity, and self-determination. Nonalignment enabled African countries to assert their collective voice on the global stage, advocate for decolonization, and resist neocolonialism and imperialism. 3. Focus on Development: African nations prioritized socio-economic development and nation-building efforts over geopolitical alignments. Nonalignment allowed African countries to pursue economic cooperation, trade relations, and development assistance from multiple sources, including both Western and Eastern blocs, without being constrained by Cold War rivalries or alliances. 55) Briefly discuss the main features of European imperialism in Africa between the world wars. Answer: European imperialism in Africa between the world wars was characterized by several key features: 1. Colonial Consolidation: European powers, such as Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal, continued to consolidate their colonial control over African territories acquired during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century. They established administrative structures, imposed colonial laws, and exploited African resources to strengthen their economic and political dominance. 2. Resource Extraction: European imperialism in Africa focused heavily on resource extraction, particularly minerals, agricultural products, and labor. Colonial powers exploited Africa's natural resources, such as gold, diamonds, rubber, and timber, to fuel their industrial economies and meet the demands of global markets, often through forced labor, coercive labor recruitment systems, and exploitative trade practices. 3. Racial Hierarchies: European imperialism entrenched racial hierarchies and discriminatory practices that privileged white settlers and administrators over indigenous African populations. Colonial regimes implemented racial segregation, discriminatory laws, and social policies that marginalized and oppressed African communities, reinforcing notions of European racial superiority and African inferiority. 4. Resistance and Rebellion: African societies responded to European imperialism with various forms of resistance, including armed uprisings, nationalist movements, and political protests. Resistance leaders, such as Jomo Kenyatta in Kenya and Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana, mobilized anti-colonial movements, advocating for independence, self-determination, and the end of colonial rule. 5. Impact of World War I: The aftermath of World War I reshaped European imperialism in Africa, as colonial powers faced economic challenges, political unrest, and anti-colonial sentiments. The war weakened European economies, leading to increased colonial exploitation and repression in Africa to extract resources and maintain colonial control amidst growing nationalist movements and demands for independence. Essay Questions 56) Compare the problems and policies of new African nations with new nations in the 20thcentury Middle East as well as with new nations in 19th-century Latin America. Answer: New African nations in the 20th century, new nations in the 20th-century Middle East, and new nations in 19th-century Latin America faced common challenges and implemented different policies in response: 1. Colonial Legacy: All three regions experienced colonization, which left a legacy of political, social, and economic disruption. African nations and Middle Eastern nations grappled with the effects of European imperialism, including arbitrary borders, ethnic divisions, and economic exploitation. In contrast, 19th-century Latin American nations confronted the legacies of Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule, including social hierarchies, land concentration, and economic dependence. 2. Nation-Building Challenges: New African nations and Middle Eastern nations faced challenges in nation-building, including forging national identities, establishing effective governance structures, and managing diverse ethnic and religious populations. They implemented policies aimed at promoting national unity, economic development, and social cohesion. In Latin America, new nations struggled with similar challenges in the 19th century but implemented policies such as agrarian reforms and liberal economic policies to address them. 3. Foreign Intervention: All three regions experienced varying degrees of foreign intervention and influence. African nations and Middle Eastern nations often contended with Western powers and superpower rivalry during the Cold War, leading to military interventions, proxy conflicts, and geopolitical competition. In Latin America, new nations faced intervention from European powers and the United States, which sought to protect economic interests and contain perceived threats to their hegemony. 4. Political Instability: New African nations and Middle Eastern nations grappled with political instability, including coups, civil wars, and authoritarian regimes. They adopted policies to consolidate power, suppress dissent, and maintain stability, sometimes at the expense of democratic principles and human rights. In Latin America, new nations experienced similar challenges, with periods of political upheaval, dictatorships, and populist movements shaping their political trajectories. Overall, while new African nations, Middle Eastern nations, and new nations in 19th-century Latin America faced distinct historical contexts and challenges, they shared common themes of colonial legacy, nation-building struggles, foreign intervention, and political instability, which influenced their policies and trajectories of development. 57) Discuss and explain the distinctive evolution of South Africa amid 20th-century African history. Answer: South Africa's evolution in the 20th century was distinctive due to several factors: 1. Apartheid: South Africa's implementation of apartheid, a system of institutionalized racial segregation and discrimination, set it apart from other African nations. Apartheid policies systematically marginalized and oppressed the majority black population, denying them political rights, economic opportunities, and social equality. The apartheid regime enforced strict racial laws, forcibly removed black communities from their land, and suppressed opposition through state violence and censorship. 2. Resistance Movements: Despite the oppressive apartheid regime, South Africa witnessed the rise of powerful resistance movements, such as the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC). These movements mobilized mass protests, strikes, and acts of civil disobedience against apartheid, demanding equal rights, democracy, and an end to racial discrimination. Figures like Nelson Mandela became iconic symbols of the antiapartheid struggle, both domestically and internationally. 3. International Isolation: South Africa faced increasing international isolation and condemnation due to its apartheid policies. The United Nations imposed economic sanctions and diplomatic pressure on the apartheid regime, leading to South Africa's isolation from the international community and its expulsion from organizations like the Commonwealth. The anti-apartheid movement gained momentum globally, with many countries supporting sanctions and boycotts against South Africa. 4. Transition to Democracy: The end of apartheid in the early 1990s marked a significant turning point in South Africa's history. Negotiations between the apartheid government and anti-apartheid organizations, facilitated by figures like Nelson Mandela, led to the peaceful transition to democracy. The landmark 1994 elections, which saw Mandela elected as South Africa's first black president, symbolized the triumph of democracy over apartheid and marked the beginning of a new era of reconciliation and nation-building in South Africa. 5. Truth and Reconciliation: Following the transition to democracy, South Africa established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to address the crimes and atrocities committed during the apartheid era. The TRC provided a platform for victims and perpetrators of human rights abuses to share their experiences, seek amnesty, and promote national healing and reconciliation. While the TRC faced criticism for its limitations, it played a crucial role in promoting accountability and confronting South Africa's painful past. In summary, South Africa's distinctive evolution in the 20th century was shaped by apartheid, resistance movements, international isolation, the transition to democracy, and efforts at truth and reconciliation. These factors set South Africa apart from other African nations and contributed to its unique trajectory of historical development. 58) In what ways can sub-Saharan Africa be described as a dependent area in the 20thcentury world economy? Answer: Sub-Saharan Africa exhibited characteristics of dependency in the 20th-century world economy through several dimensions: 1. Export Dependency: Many sub-Saharan African nations relied heavily on the export of primary commodities such as minerals, agricultural products, and raw materials. This exportoriented economic structure made them vulnerable to fluctuations in global commodity prices and demand, leading to economic instability and reliance on external markets. 2. Foreign Investment: Sub-Saharan Africa attracted significant foreign investment, often from Western countries and multinational corporations. However, much of this investment was focused on resource extraction industries or infrastructure projects geared towards facilitating exports, rather than fostering diversified economic development. 3. Debt Burden: Several sub-Saharan African countries accumulated substantial external debt burdens due to borrowing to finance development projects, stabilize economies, or cover budget deficits. High levels of debt servicing further strained national budgets and diverted resources away from social services and infrastructure development. 4. Technology and Knowledge Dependency: Sub-Saharan Africa relied on imported technologies, expertise, and knowledge for various sectors, including agriculture, industry, and healthcare. This dependency limited indigenous innovation and technological advancement, perpetuating reliance on external sources for development. Overall, sub-Saharan Africa's dependency in the 20th-century world economy stemmed from its role as a supplier of raw materials, recipient of foreign investment, borrower of external funds, and importer of technologies and expertise, highlighting its position within the global economic hierarchy. 59) How has the African economy changed in comparison with patterns of earlier centuries? Answer: The African economy has undergone significant changes compared to patterns of earlier centuries, marked by shifts in economic structure, integration into the global economy, and development challenges: 1. Diversification: Historically, many African economies were predominantly agrarian, relying on subsistence farming and traditional agricultural practices. In contrast, the modern African economy has diversified, with the emergence of new sectors such as manufacturing, services, and technology-driven industries. However, this diversification remains uneven across countries, with some still heavily reliant on agriculture. 2. Global Integration: In earlier centuries, African economies were often characterized by limited interaction with the global economy, primarily engaged in local or regional trade networks. In contrast, the modern African economy is more integrated into the global market, participating in international trade, investment, and financial flows. However, this integration has exposed African economies to external shocks and vulnerabilities. 3. Urbanization: The process of urbanization has accelerated in modern Africa, with increasing migration from rural to urban areas in search of economic opportunities. Urban centers have become hubs of economic activity, driving growth in industries such as manufacturing, commerce, and services. However, rapid urbanization has also led to challenges related to infrastructure, housing, and social services. 4. Development Challenges: Despite these changes, Africa continues to face persistent development challenges, including poverty, inequality, unemployment, and underdevelopment. Structural issues such as limited access to education, healthcare, and basic services remain barriers to inclusive growth and sustainable development. Addressing these challenges requires concerted efforts in policy reform, investment in human capital, and strengthening institutional capacity. Overall, while the African economy has undergone transformation in the modern era, transitioning from agrarian to diversified, and becoming more integrated into the global economy, significant development challenges persist, shaping the continent's economic trajectory. 60) Many African nations received their independence with relatively little struggle. Did this make their subsequent development easier or harder than situations in which greater conflict was required? Answer: The ease or difficulty of subsequent development in African nations following relatively peaceful independence processes is influenced by various factors: 1. Institutional Legacy: African nations that achieved independence peacefully often inherited colonial-era institutions, policies, and infrastructure, which could both facilitate and hinder development. While existing institutions may provide a foundation for governance and economic management, they may also perpetuate inequalities, inefficiencies, and dependency. 2. Social Cohesion: Peaceful independence processes may contribute to greater social cohesion and national unity, which are essential for stability and development. However, the absence of significant struggle or conflict may also mask underlying societal divisions, grievances, and unresolved issues that could resurface later, potentially destabilizing the country. 3. Leadership and Governance: The quality of leadership and governance in postindependence African nations plays a crucial role in determining their development trajectories. Peaceful transitions to independence may allow for smoother political transitions and continuity in governance, enabling leaders to focus on development priorities. Conversely, lack of external pressure or accountability mechanisms may lead to complacency, corruption, and mismanagement. 4. External Factors: The geopolitical context and external interventions can significantly impact the development prospects of African nations, regardless of the manner of their independence. Peaceful countries may benefit from greater international assistance, investment, and trade opportunities, while conflict-affected nations may face isolation, instability, and resource constraints. Overall, while peaceful independence may create a conducive environment for initial development efforts, the subsequent trajectory of African nations depends on a complex interplay of historical, political, social, and economic factors, highlighting the multifaceted nature of development challenges on the continent. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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