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Chapter 29 East Asia in the 20th and Early 21st Centuries Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following occurred under both Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong? A) There was an emphasis on strong centralized government. B) There were massive land reforms. C) There were improvements for women. D) There was a preference for Russian over Western political models. Answer: C Rationale: Both Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong implemented policies aimed at improving the status of women in Chinese society. While their approaches differed ideologically, both regimes sought to address issues such as gender inequality, access to education, and participation in the workforce, leading to improvements in women's rights and opportunities. 2) United States’ occupation of Japan helped A) the beginning of Japanese industrialization. B) get rid of a strong communist movement. C) the adoption of Western styles of management. D) set up more democratic laws and government. Answer: D Rationale: The United States' occupation of Japan following World War II played a crucial role in democratizing Japanese society. The occupation authorities introduced political and legal reforms, including the adoption of a new constitution in 1947, which established a parliamentary democracy, guaranteed civil liberties, and renounced war as a sovereign right of the nation. These reforms aimed to dismantle the militaristic and authoritarian elements of the prewar Japanese government and promote democratic governance. 3) Compared to Westerners, contemporary Japanese place a high premium on A) equality for women. B) group cohesion. C) tolerance for foreigners. D) military prowess. Answer: B Rationale: Contemporary Japanese culture places a high premium on group cohesion, harmony, and social cohesion. This emphasis on collective values is reflected in various aspects of Japanese society, including education, workplace dynamics, and social interactions. Group consensus and harmony are often prioritized over individual interests, contributing to a strong sense of community and cooperation within Japanese society. 4) The communist regime has reestablished which of the following traditional features of Chinese politics? A) strong bureaucracy B) ancestor worship C) belief that the political system is divinely inspired D) a high value placed on religious leadership Answer: A Rationale: The communist regime in China under Mao Zedong reestablished a strong bureaucracy as a traditional feature of Chinese politics. Despite ideological differences, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) maintained and expanded the bureaucratic apparatus inherited from previous dynastic governments, utilizing it to exercise centralized control over political, economic, and social affairs. The CCP's emphasis on party discipline, hierarchy, and administrative efficiency reflected the enduring influence of China's bureaucratic tradition on communist governance. 5) Compared to Western business, Japan stresses A) high wages as bonuses for workers. B) security for many workers. C) resistance to government regulation. D) high profits for chief executives. Answer: B Rationale: Compared to Western business practices, Japan stresses job security for many workers as a key priority. Japanese companies often prioritize long-term employment relationships, offering lifetime employment guarantees, job training programs, and promotion based on seniority rather than merit. This emphasis on job security fosters loyalty, commitment, and stability within the workforce, contributing to a strong sense of organizational cohesion and employee morale. 6) Postwar Japanese democracy has featured A) the Liberal Democratic party regularly in power. B) outlawing of opposition parties. C) frequent suspension of Parliament in favor of executive authority. D) high rates of strikes and labor disputes. Answer: A Rationale: Postwar Japanese democracy has featured the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) regularly in power. Since its establishment in 1955, the LDP has been the dominant political party in Japan, forming the government for the majority of the postwar period. The LDP's electoral success can be attributed to various factors, including its broad-based coalition of conservative factions, effective party organization, and successful economic policies that contributed to Japan's rapid postwar recovery and economic growth. 7) China’s leaders since Mao Zedong have discouraged A) industrialization. B) investment in science and technology. C) private enterprise. D) population growth. Answer: D Rationale: China's leaders since Mao Zedong have discouraged rapid population growth as part of the country's family planning policies. In response to concerns about overpopulation, resource depletion, and social instability, the Chinese government implemented a series of population control measures, including the famous one-child policy introduced in 1979. These policies aimed to curb population growth rates, promote economic development, and alleviate pressure on China's natural resources and social services. 8) The “industrialization of the Pacific Rim” refers to recent economic change in countries such as A) Japan and the Philippines. B) South Korea and Taiwan. C) Vietnam and Laos. D) Japan and Australia. Answer: B Rationale: The "industrialization of the Pacific Rim" refers to recent economic changes in countries such as South Korea and Taiwan. These countries, along with other Asian economies such as Singapore and Hong Kong, experienced rapid industrialization and economic development during the latter half of the 20th century, transforming them into major manufacturing and export-oriented economies. The industrialization of the Pacific Rim was characterized by government-led development strategies, investment in infrastructure and technology, exportoriented policies, and participation in global supply chains. 9) Sun Zhongshan hoped to avoid Western patterns of A) social division. B) economic growth. C) democratically elected parliaments. D) growing independence of women. Answer: A Rationale: Sun Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) hoped to avoid Western patterns of social division. As a revolutionary leader and founding father of the Republic of China, Sun advocated for the modernization and unity of China through his Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and livelihood. Sun aimed to overcome social divisions and regionalism in China by promoting a unified national identity, democratic governance, and socioeconomic reforms to address inequality and poverty. His vision of a modern and prosperous China sought to reconcile traditional Chinese values with Western ideas of democracy and progress. 10) ________ did little to contribute to China’s 1911 revolution. A) Student impatience with government conservatism B) Decline of the reigning dynasty C) Fear of increasing Western control D) The example of Russian Bolshevism Answer: D Rationale: The example of Russian Bolshevism did little to contribute to China's 1911 revolution. The 1911 revolution, also known as the Xinhai Revolution, was primarily driven by domestic factors such as social unrest, political discontent, and calls for reform rather than external influences. While the revolution was inspired by nationalist and republican ideals, as well as anti-imperialist sentiment, it was not directly influenced by the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, which occurred several years later in 1917. Instead, the 1911 revolution was sparked by a combination of factors, including frustration with the Qing dynasty's inability to modernize and govern effectively, resentment towards foreign interference in China, and the emergence of revolutionary movements and ideas among Chinese intellectuals and reformers. 11) The death of the Chinese dowager empress in ________ brought government promises of a written constitution. A) 1903 B) 1908 C) 1911 D) 1912 Answer: B Rationale: The death of the Chinese dowager empress in 1908 brought government promises of a written constitution. Empress Dowager Cixi, who had been a powerful and conservative figure in the Qing dynasty, died in November 1908. Her death paved the way for political reforms and promises of constitutional government under the subsequent reign of Emperor Puyi. These promises culminated in the issuance of the Imperial Edict of the Abdication of the Qing Emperor in 1912, marking the end of imperial rule and the establishment of the Republic of China. 12) In China, widespread student rioting led to the end of the empire in A) 1905. B) 1908. C) 1911. D) 1912. Answer: D Rationale: In China, widespread student rioting led to the end of the empire in 1912. The Xinhai Revolution of 1911, also known as the Chinese Revolution, was a nationwide uprising against the Qing dynasty's rule, sparked by a combination of factors including political repression, economic hardships, and foreign encroachment. Student protests and demonstrations played a significant role in mobilizing public support for the revolution and eventually led to the abdication of the last Qing emperor, Emperor Puyi, in February 1912, marking the end of more than two millennia of imperial rule in China. 13) New laws introduced by the Guomindang A) reinstated the practice of footbinding. B) outlawed marriage for teenagers. C) attacked the practice of footbinding. D) rewarded young couples. Answer: C Rationale: New laws introduced by the Guomindang attacked the practice of footbinding. The Guomindang (Kuomintang), under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen and later Chiang Kai-shek, sought to modernize and reform Chinese society during the Republican era (1912-1949). As part of its efforts to promote social progress and gender equality, the Guomindang government implemented laws and campaigns to abolish harmful traditional practices such as footbinding, which had long been associated with the subjugation and oppression of women in China. These efforts aimed to improve women's rights, health, and social status by eradicating practices that were deemed backward and detrimental to women's well-being. 14) In 1931, Japan launched an attack against China by seizing the province of A) Manchuria. B) Canton. C) Chungking. D) Yenan. Answer: A Rationale: In 1931, Japan launched an attack against China by seizing the province of Manchuria. The Manchurian Incident, also known as the Mukden Incident, was a staged event orchestrated by the Japanese military to justify the invasion and occupation of Manchuria, a resource-rich region in northeastern China. The seizure of Manchuria marked the beginning of Japan's aggressive expansionist policies in China and East Asia, leading to the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo and escalating tensions between Japan and the Chinese government. 15) Under Japan’s occupation, China was spared having A) vast stretches of seized lands. B) resources diverted to Japan. C) millions of people killed. D) Jiang Jieshi be executed. Answer: D Rationale: Under Japan's occupation, China was spared from having Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) executed. Despite the brutality and atrocities committed by Japanese forces during their occupation of China, including the infamous Nanjing Massacre in 1937, Jiang Jieshi, as the leader of the Chinese Nationalist government (Guomindang), was not executed by the Japanese. Instead, he remained a prominent figure in the Chinese resistance against Japanese aggression, leading the Nationalist forces in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and the broader struggle against Japanese imperialism in China. 16) In 1944, the United States managed to reclaim ________ from the Japanese. A) Thailand. B) the Philippines. C) Hong Kong. D) Okinawa. Answer: B Rationale: The United States managed to reclaim the Philippines from the Japanese in 1944. The Philippines, which had been under Japanese occupation since 1942, became a strategic target for American forces in the Pacific theater of World War II. The successful American campaign to retake the Philippines, particularly the Battle of Leyte Gulf, marked a significant turning point in the Pacific War and contributed to the eventual defeat of Japan. 17) The United States ended WWII by dropping atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima in A) 1944. B) 1945. C) 1946. D) 1947. Answer: B Rationale: The United States ended World War II by dropping atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima in 1945. These devastating attacks, which occurred on August 6th and 9th, 1945, respectively, led to the deaths of tens of thousands of civilians and caused widespread destruction. The bombings prompted Japan's surrender and the eventual conclusion of World War II. 18) After World War II, Japan’s military ambitions were curbed by A) American-imposed limitations to government and military. B) the complete devastation of its landscape. C) the demoralization of its people and rulers. D) the large Chinese army waiting across the border. Answer: A Rationale: After World War II, Japan's military ambitions were curbed by American-imposed limitations on its government and military. The Allied powers, led by the United States, imposed strict restrictions on Japan's military capabilities and activities through the Treaty of San Francisco and the subsequent Japanese Constitution of 1947. These measures aimed to prevent Japan from rearming and engaging in aggressive militarism, instead fostering a democratic and pacifist political environment. 19) The communists were expelled by Jiang Jieshi in A) 1919. B) 1923. C) 1927. D) 1931. Answer: C Rationale: The communists were expelled by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) in 1927. Following the Northern Expedition and the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to unify China, Jiang Jieshi launched a violent campaign to purge communists from the Guomindang and suppress communist activities. This led to the expulsion of communists from major urban centers and the initiation of a prolonged period of armed conflict between the Nationalists and Communists, known as the Chinese Civil War. 20) In 1934, Mao Zedong A) severed all ties with the Guomindang. B) led his followers in the historic Long March. C) called for the execution of Jiang Jieshi. D) was expelled from mainland China. Answer: B Rationale: In 1934, Mao Zedong led his followers in the historic Long March. Faced with intense persecution and military pressure from Jiang Jieshi's Nationalist forces, Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party embarked on a strategic retreat known as the Long March to evade capture and establish a new base of operations in northern China. The Long March, which lasted from 1934 to 1935, covered thousands of miles and became a symbol of resilience and determination for the Communist movement in China. 21) By 1950, Jiang Jieshi was A) captured by the communists. B) making secret deals with United States. C) still in control of mainland China. D) driven out of China to the island of Taiwan. Answer: D Rationale: By 1950, Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) was driven out of China to the island of Taiwan. Following the Communist victory in mainland China in 1949, Jiang Jieshi retreated with his supporters and remnants of the Nationalist government to the island of Taiwan, where he established the Republic of China (ROC) and continued to claim legitimacy as the rightful ruler of all of China. The Chinese Civil War ended with the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) under Communist rule and the division of China into two separate entities: the PRC on the mainland and the ROC on Taiwan. 22) After Mao’s death in ________, more moderate communist leaders took control of China. A) 1971 B) 1976 C) 1981 D) 1987 Answer: B Rationale: After Mao Zedong's death in 1976, more moderate communist leaders took control of China. Mao's death marked the end of an era characterized by revolutionary zeal and mass mobilization campaigns, paving the way for a period of political and economic reforms under his successors, particularly Deng Xiaoping. The transition to more moderate leadership ushered in a new era of pragmatic policies aimed at modernizing China's economy, promoting social stability, and improving relations with the international community. 23) In the 21st century, China’s surge in industry led to economic growth of ________ percent a year. A) 1 B) 5 C) 10 D) 25 Answer: C Rationale: In the 21st century, China's surge in industry led to economic growth of 10 percent a year. China experienced rapid economic development and industrial expansion over the past few decades, becoming one of the world's largest and fastest-growing economies. This sustained growth, driven by factors such as urbanization, infrastructure investment, export-oriented manufacturing, and technological innovation, propelled China's emergence as a global economic powerhouse and significantly elevated its international influence and status. 24) Japanese politics in the 1970s and in the Meiji era were dominated by A) military and career politicians. B) the emperor and his advisors. C) corporate interests and bank leaders. D) civil servants and business leaders. Answer: D Rationale: Japanese politics in the 1970s and in the Meiji era were dominated by civil servants and business leaders. During the Meiji era (1868-1912), Japan underwent a period of rapid modernization and political transformation, characterized by the centralization of power under the Meiji government and the emergence of a modern bureaucratic state. Civil servants played a crucial role in implementing reforms and modernizing Japan's institutions, while business leaders contributed to economic development and industrialization. Similarly, in the 1970s, Japan's post-war political landscape was characterized by close collaboration between government officials, particularly bureaucrats, and business leaders, known as the "iron triangle," which facilitated economic planning, policymaking, and industrial growth. 25) Modern Japanese culture abandoned A) tea ceremonies. B) traditional costumes. C) stylized nature painting. D) worship of the emperor. Answer: D Rationale: Modern Japanese culture abandoned worship of the emperor. Prior to World War II, the emperor of Japan was revered as a divine figure and the symbol of the nation's unity and identity, reflecting the traditional concept of imperial sovereignty known as "kokutai." However, following Japan's defeat in the war and the subsequent Allied occupation, Emperor Hirohito renounced his divine status and became a constitutional monarch under the post-war Japanese Constitution of 1947. This marked a significant shift in Japanese society and culture, as the emperor's role was redefined to emphasize ceremonial and symbolic functions rather than divine authority, leading to the abandonment of worship of the emperor as a religious figure. 26) Which of the following represents a new function of Chinese government under recent communist leadership compared to more traditional Chinese definitions of functions? A) Government runs many manufacturing operations. B) Government promotes certain beliefs and proscribes others. C) Government regulates marriage age and birth rate. D) Government closely supervises foreigners. Answer: C Rationale: Government regulation of marriage age and birth rate represents a new function of Chinese government under recent communist leadership compared to more traditional Chinese definitions of functions. While traditional Chinese government primarily focused on governance and administration, contemporary Chinese communist leadership has intervened in social policies such as regulating marriage age and birth rate to address demographic challenges and social issues, reflecting the state's increased involvement in shaping societal norms and behaviors. 27) Communists in China were more adept than the Guomindang in A) dealing with the issue of land reform. B) winning concessions from Japanese invaders. C) appealing to Chinese family and religious traditions. D) winning support from urban merchants. Answer: A Rationale: Communists in China were more adept than the Guomindang in dealing with the issue of land reform. During the Chinese Civil War and subsequent Communist rule, land reform became a key component of Communist Party policies aimed at mobilizing support from peasants, who comprised the majority of China's population. The Communist Party's successful implementation of land reform initiatives, including redistributing land from landlords to peasants, contributed to its popularity among rural communities and bolstered its revolutionary legitimacy. 28) “Japan, Inc.” refers to the close ties between A) Japan and the United States. B) Japanese government and business. C) Japanese elite and business leaders. D) Japanese businesses and their so-called “competitors.” Answer: B Rationale: “Japan, Inc.” refers to the close ties between Japanese government and business. The term symbolizes the collaborative relationship between the Japanese government, particularly its economic planning agencies, and the corporate sector, which was instrumental in Japan's post-war economic miracle. Through coordinated industrial policies, financial support, and regulatory frameworks, the Japanese government worked closely with business leaders to promote economic development, industrial growth, and international competitiveness, contributing to Japan's emergence as a major economic power in the latter half of the 20th century. 29) Which of the following had little impact on Japanese expansion in the 1930s? A) population pressure B) economic depression C) the concern for markets and resources for Japanese industry D) the importance of promoting liberal values in underdeveloped Asian nations Answer: D Rationale: The importance of promoting liberal values in underdeveloped Asian nations had little impact on Japanese expansion in the 1930s. During the 1930s, Japan pursued aggressive expansionist policies in Asia, driven by factors such as population pressure, economic depression, and the desire for markets and resources for Japanese industry. The Japanese government sought to secure access to vital resources and territories through military conquest and colonial expansion, aiming to establish a sphere of influence in East Asia and assert its dominance in the region. 30) During the 1960s, which of the following was NOT a target of attack under Mao? A) traditional hierarchy in schools, family, and the army B) teachers and intellectuals C) science and technology D) agricultural work Answer: D Rationale: Agricultural work was not a target of attack under Mao during the 1960s. Mao Zedong's policies during the Cultural Revolution targeted various aspects of Chinese society and institutions perceived as representing bourgeois or counter-revolutionary elements. These included traditional hierarchies in schools, family, and the army, intellectuals, and scientific and technological establishments, which were criticized and subjected to ideological scrutiny as part of Mao's campaign to purify the Communist Party and society of perceived capitalist and revisionist influences. 31) From a Western standpoint, contemporary China and Japan both show a general A) ability to industrialize. B) hostility to parliamentary democracy. C) preference for group over individual. D) hostility to foreign travel. Answer: C Rationale: From a Western standpoint, contemporary China and Japan both show a general preference for group over individual. Both Chinese and Japanese societies traditionally emphasize collective values, social harmony, and group cohesion over individual autonomy and expression. This cultural orientation manifests in various aspects of social behavior, interpersonal relationships, and decision-making processes in both countries, reflecting a shared cultural tendency towards collectivism and communalism. 32) Chinese communism has consistently differed from Russian communism in its A) lack of interest in a strong military. B) lack of concern for formal ideology. C) dominant interest in peasant conditions. D) desire to repress political opposition. Answer: C Rationale: Chinese communism has consistently differed from Russian communism in its dominant interest in peasant conditions. Unlike Russian communism, which initially focused on urban industrial workers as the vanguard of the revolution, Chinese communism under Mao Zedong prioritized the mobilization and empowerment of the peasant class as the primary revolutionary force. Maoist ideology emphasized the significance of agrarian revolution, rural mobilization, and land redistribution in achieving socialist transformation and achieving revolutionary goals, reflecting the distinct historical, social, and economic contexts of China compared to Russia. 33) After the end of the empire, China had a difficult time restructuring its government because A) the idea and responsibilities of democracy were alien to most Chinese people. B) the empire was deeply loved by the Chinese people. C) most of the population did not care for Sun Zhongshan. D) Sun Zhongshan spent most of his time governing from abroad. Answer: A Rationale: After the end of the empire, China had a difficult time restructuring its government because the idea and responsibilities of democracy were alien to most Chinese people. Following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, China experienced political instability and struggled to establish stable governance and democratic institutions. The concept of democracy, with its emphasis on popular participation, civil liberties, and rule of law, was relatively new to China's political culture, which had been characterized by imperial authoritarianism and Confucian hierarchical values for millennia. 34) In a climate of political unrest, 1930s Japan turned to ________ to prevent social unrest. A) complete government restructuring and revision of laws B) military control and intimidation of the masses C) welfare reform and extreme tax relief programs D) fervent nationalism and worship of the emperor Answer: D Rationale: In a climate of political unrest, 1930s Japan turned to fervent nationalism and worship of the emperor to prevent social unrest. During the 1930s, Japan faced internal challenges such as economic depression, social inequality, and political instability, compounded by external pressures including international tensions and the threat of Western imperialism. To maintain social cohesion and bolster national unity, the Japanese government promoted a fervent nationalist ideology centered around emperor worship, militarism, and imperial expansionism, fostering a cult of loyalty and patriotism among the populace to rally support for the state and suppress dissent. 35) Japan’s post-World War II political stability allowed it to become A) a major player in the newly formed United Nations. B) a leader in the production of fossil fuel alternatives. C) one of the world’s most technologically sophisticated nations. D) a close ally with its former enemy, the People’s Republic of China. Answer: C Rationale: Japan’s post-World War II political stability allowed it to become one of the world’s most technologically sophisticated nations. Following Japan's defeat in World War II and the subsequent Allied occupation, the country underwent a period of rapid reconstruction, economic development, and political reform. Through democratic governance, industrial policies, and investment in education and research, Japan emerged as a global leader in technology, innovation, and manufacturing, achieving remarkable advancements in various fields such as electronics, automotive, robotics, and telecommunications. Japan's technological prowess and industrial capabilities propelled its economic resurgence and solidified its position as a major player in the global economy. 36) Post-World War II, Jiang Jieshi had trouble holding onto his control over China because A) the people longed for the return of imperialism. B) Japan threatened to attack again. C) the Chinese land holdings were simply too vast. D) communist opposition began to mount. Answer: D Rationale: Communist opposition began to mount against Jiang Jieshi's rule after World War II. The Chinese Communist Party, led by Mao Zedong, gained significant popular support, particularly among peasants and rural populations, due to its promises of land reform, social justice, and resistance against corruption and foreign influence. As the Communist forces grew stronger and gained momentum, Jiang Jieshi's Nationalist government faced increasing challenges to its authority, leading to a protracted civil war that eventually resulted in the Communist victory in 1949 and the establishment of the People's Republic of China. 37) Between 1919 and 1921, a communist movement formed among students who were inspired by the A) fall of the Chinese empire. B) success of the United States. C) example of Russia’s Bolshevik success. D) changes made by the Guomindang. Answer: C Rationale: Between 1919 and 1921, a communist movement formed among students who were inspired by the example of Russia’s Bolshevik success. The May Fourth Movement in 1919, sparked by the dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles and the perceived weakness of the Chinese government, led to a surge in interest in socialist and Marxist ideologies among Chinese intellectuals and students. The success of the Russian Revolution of 1917, which resulted in the establishment of the Soviet Union under Bolshevik rule, inspired many Chinese intellectuals to embrace communism as a revolutionary alternative to China's traditional political and social order. 38) Mao’s communist regime executed at least 800,000 people with the purpose of A) destroying all traces of China’s former ruling class. B) drastically reducing the size of China’s large population. C) intimidating the surviving population. D) ridding the nation of all unemployed workers. Answer: A Rationale: Mao’s communist regime executed at least 800,000 people with the purpose of destroying all traces of China’s former ruling class. During the early years of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party implemented radical land reforms, political purges, and campaigns aimed at eliminating perceived counter-revolutionaries, landlords, intellectuals, and other elements associated with the old social order. The executions and violent purges were part of Mao's efforts to consolidate power, establish communist control, and transform Chinese society according to Marxist-Leninist principles, leading to widespread human rights abuses and loss of life. 39) Border fighting with the Soviet Union in 1969 led Mao to seek A) military assistance from the Japanese. B) a partial reconciliation with the United States. C) revisions to the five-year plans he had made. D) help from western European nations. Answer: B Rationale: Border fighting with the Soviet Union in 1969 led Mao to seek a partial reconciliation with the United States. The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969, resulting from territorial disputes and ideological differences between China and the Soviet Union, prompted Mao Zedong to reevaluate China's foreign policy and seek rapprochement with the United States as a strategic counterbalance against the Soviet threat. This shift in diplomatic alignment eventually culminated in President Richard Nixon's historic visit to China in 1972 and the normalization of relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China. 40) In the late 1940s and 1950s, the Japanese government began a campaign of ________ with the intent of stabilizing population growth. A) promoting birth control and legalized abortion B) one child per family C) tax breaks for smaller families D) discouraging marriage Answer: A Rationale: In the late 1940s and 1950s, the Japanese government began a campaign of promoting birth control and legalized abortion with the intent of stabilizing population growth. Following World War II, Japan faced rapid population growth, urbanization, and demographic challenges, prompting the government to implement policies aimed at controlling birth rates and managing population growth. The promotion of birth control measures, including access to contraceptives and family planning services, alongside the legalization of abortion, contributed to a decline in fertility rates and helped stabilize Japan's population growth in subsequent decades. 41) Modern Japan’s economic growth and improvement in living standards is often attributed to its A) extraordinarily high percentage of college educated citizens that work in its labs and factories. B) fast adherence to traditional values and ideas that keep Japan rooted in the past. C) integrated political-social system that takes concrete action in vital areas of human behavior. D) tendency to move forward with new ideas and discoveries, despite probable risks. Answer: C Rationale: Japan's economic growth and improvement in living standards are often attributed to its integrated political-social system that takes concrete action in vital areas of human behavior. The Japanese government, in collaboration with industry leaders and labor unions, implemented policies promoting industrial development, technological innovation, education, and social welfare. This coordinated approach, known as the "Japanese model" or "Japan, Inc.," fostered stability, cooperation, and long-term planning, contributing to Japan's economic success and high living standards. 42) Despite Japan’s strong secular culture, spiritualism still perseveres in the practice of A) Confucianism and Hinduism. B) Buddhism and Shintoism. C) Christianity and Islam. D) Taoism and Judaism. Answer: B Rationale: Despite Japan’s strong secular culture, spiritualism still perseveres in the practice of Buddhism and Shintoism. Buddhism, imported from China and Korea, and Shintoism, Japan's indigenous religion, continue to play significant roles in Japanese society, culture, and spirituality. These religious traditions influence various aspects of Japanese life, including rituals, festivals, ethics, and worldview, despite Japan's modernization and secularization. 43) Which of the following, in the 1970s, signaled Japan’s dominance in technological production over other countries? A) its partnership with the U.S. space program B) its invention of the home computer C) its exports of automobiles and electronic equipment D) its development of the Internet Answer: C Rationale: In the 1970s, Japan’s dominance in technological production over other countries was signaled by its exports of automobiles and electronic equipment. Japanese industries, particularly automotive and electronics manufacturers such as Toyota, Honda, Sony, and Panasonic, gained global prominence for their high-quality products, technological innovation, and competitive pricing. Japan's success in exporting automobiles and electronics contributed significantly to its economic growth and international influence during this period. 44) The successes of 20th-century Japanese enterprises were due largely to a(n) A) highly-paid skilled labor force. B) very large pool of Japanese workers. C) unusual degree of worker loyalty and diligence. D) strongly unionized workforce. Answer: C Rationale: The successes of 20th-century Japanese enterprises were due largely to an unusual degree of worker loyalty and diligence. Japanese companies, known for their strong emphasis on teamwork, discipline, quality control, and continuous improvement, fostered a corporate culture that prioritized employee dedication, company loyalty, and collective effort. This unique work ethic, often referred to as "salaryman culture" or "lifetime employment system," contributed to Japan's economic success and competitiveness in global markets. 45) Mao sought to eradicate all traces of Confucianism in China because he felt that A) traditional ceremonies and ancestor worship impeded cultural and social change. B) religion was the reason for all the past troubles his country had experienced. C) Confucius had been too tightly linked to the time of Chinese imperialism. D) religion could potentially distract the peasant population from their work. Answer: A Rationale: Mao sought to eradicate all traces of Confucianism in China because he felt that traditional ceremonies and ancestor worship impeded cultural and social change. Confucianism, with its emphasis on hierarchical social order, filial piety, and obedience to authority, was perceived by Mao as an obstacle to the communist revolution and the establishment of a classless society. Mao viewed Confucian values and practices as remnants of feudalism and bourgeois ideology, incompatible with the goals of socialism and modernization. 46) Because Mao’s regime was determined to keep Western influence to a limit, some older practices such as ________ were still in play despite efforts to modernize China. A) footbinding B) extreme politeness C) traditional medicine D) control of emotion Answer: C Rationale: Because Mao’s regime was determined to keep Western influence to a limit, some older practices such as traditional medicine were still in play despite efforts to modernize China. Traditional Chinese medicine, including acupuncture, herbal remedies, and holistic healing practices, persisted in Maoist China as part of the country's cultural heritage and national identity. Despite the promotion of Western medicine and scientific healthcare, traditional Chinese medicine remained popular among the Chinese population, reflecting a blend of ancient wisdom and modern healthcare practices. 47) The rise of the Falun Gong in modern China is proof that A) people of all cultures will seek some form of spiritual enlightenment. B) the communist regime of China will not last into the future. C) the challenge of running an authoritarian state in a global environment is not simple. D) the peasantry and the student body of China is struggling against its government. Answer: C Rationale: The rise of the Falun Gong in modern China is proof that the challenge of running an authoritarian state in a global environment is not simple. Falun Gong, also known as Falun Dafa, is a spiritual practice that gained popularity in China in the 1990s, attracting millions of adherents with its teachings on meditation, moral philosophy, and exercises for physical and spiritual well-being. The Chinese government's harsh crackdown on Falun Gong practitioners, including mass arrests, forced labor, and suppression of religious freedom, highlighted the complexities and contradictions of governance in an increasingly interconnected world, where authoritarian regimes face scrutiny and resistance from both domestic and international communities. 48) Japan’s invasion of China demonstrated A) its much larger population. B) its superior technology. C) its admiration of Chinese culture. D) China’s inability to govern itself. Answer: B Rationale: Japan’s invasion of China demonstrated its superior technology. During the Second SinoJapanese War (1937-1945), Japan's military forces, equipped with modern weaponry, aircraft, and naval vessels, overwhelmed Chinese defenses and inflicted significant damage on Chinese cities, towns, and infrastructure. Japan's use of advanced military technology, including tanks, aircraft carriers, and chemical weapons, underscored its military superiority over China and other Asian nations during this period, contributing to its expansionist ambitions and imperialist goals in East Asia. 49) Which of the following historical events contributed to Japan’s aggressive attacks against China? A) Mao’s heroic Long March B) Hitler’s invasion of Europe C) Stalin’s rise to power in Russia D) Mussolini’s death Answer: B Rationale: Hitler’s invasion of Europe contributed to Japan’s aggressive attacks against China. During the 1930s, Japan, under militaristic and expansionist leadership, sought to establish hegemony and imperial control over East Asia by exploiting the geopolitical chaos and power vacuum created by global conflicts and European colonialism. Hitler's invasion of Europe diverted the attention of Western powers and weakened their ability to respond effectively to Japanese aggression in China, emboldening Japan to escalate its military campaigns and territorial expansion in Asia-Pacific regions. 50) Japan’s past military success and its current economic success are due to its A) highly educated population and limited number of foreigners entering its workforce. B) staunch refusal to abandon traditional ideas, relying solely on itself. C) willingness to borrow new ideas and technologies from other nations without losing its own identity. D) diverse populace and its willingness to relinquish age-old principles for newer ones. Answer: C Rationale: Japan’s past military success and its current economic success are due to its willingness to borrow new ideas and technologies from other nations without losing its own identity. Throughout its history, Japan has demonstrated a capacity for adaptation, innovation, and assimilation of foreign influences, contributing to its military modernization, industrialization, and economic development. By selectively adopting and adapting foreign ideas, technologies, and practices while preserving its cultural heritage and national identity, Japan has been able to navigate through periods of change and adversity, maintaining its relevance and competitiveness in global affairs. Short Answer Questions 51) Identify and discuss the significance of Sun Zhongshan. Answer: Sun Zhongshan, also known as Sun Yat-sen, was a prominent Chinese revolutionary leader and political theorist who played a pivotal role in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty and founding the Republic of China. He is often referred to as the "Father of Modern China" for his contributions to the Chinese revolution. Sun advocated for the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and livelihood, which became the ideological foundation of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party). His efforts laid the groundwork for the end of imperial rule in China and the establishment of a republican government. Despite facing numerous challenges and setbacks, including internal divisions and external threats from warlords and foreign powers, Sun's vision inspired generations of Chinese nationalists and revolutionaries. His legacy continues to influence Chinese politics and society to this day. 52) In what ways did Japanese politics change between the world wars? Answer: Between the world wars, Japanese politics underwent significant changes marked by the rise of militarism, expansionism, and the erosion of democratic institutions. The period saw the emergence of ultranationalist factions within the government and military, which sought to assert Japan's dominance in East Asia through aggressive foreign policies and military interventions. The civilian government gradually lost control to the military, leading to the militarization of the state and the weakening of parliamentary democracy. Political assassinations, coups, and the suppression of dissent became increasingly common as Japan pursued its imperial ambitions in China and Southeast Asia. These changes culminated in Japan's withdrawal from the League of Nations, the invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and eventual entry into World War II. 53) Briefly discuss the main features of Mao Zedong’s interest in and policies affecting the peasants. Answer: Mao Zedong's interest in and policies affecting the peasants were central to his revolutionary ideology and strategies for transforming Chinese society. Mao viewed the peasantry as the backbone of the Chinese revolution and sought to mobilize their support for his communist cause. His policies aimed to address the grievances of the rural poor, redistribute land to peasants, and empower them as a revolutionary force. Key features of Mao's peasant policies included land reform, collectivization, and mass mobilization campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. These initiatives aimed to eliminate feudal exploitation, increase agricultural productivity, and promote socialist transformation in the countryside. However, Mao's policies also led to widespread suffering, famine, and political turmoil, with millions of peasants bearing the brunt of the consequences. 54) In what ways have Pacific Rim states like Taiwan and South Korea produced the clearest new industrial revolutions in the world since 1945? Why? Answer: Pacific Rim states like Taiwan and South Korea have produced the clearest new industrial revolutions since 1945 through rapid economic development, industrialization, and technological innovation. Both countries underwent remarkable transformations from agrarian economies to high-tech industrial powerhouses within a few decades. Their success can be attributed to several factors, including proactive government policies, strategic investment in education and infrastructure, export-oriented industrialization, and strong leadership. Taiwan and South Korea leveraged their comparative advantages, such as skilled labor, geographical location, and access to global markets, to attract foreign investment and facilitate technology transfer. Additionally, their economies benefited from favorable geopolitical conditions, including security alliances with the United States and geopolitical stability in East Asia. As a result, Taiwan and South Korea emerged as major players in the global economy, with thriving electronics, automotive, and semiconductor industries driving their industrial revolutions. 55) How did the role of Chinese women change under the leadership of Mao? Answer: Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the role of Chinese women underwent significant changes characterized by increased participation in the workforce, education, and political life. Maoist policies aimed to emancipate women from traditional Confucian gender roles and promote gender equality as part of the socialist revolution. Women were encouraged to join the labor force, receive education, and engage in political activism alongside men. Maoist propaganda portrayed women as equal partners in building socialism and contributing to the nation's development. The Communist Party implemented policies such as land reform, marriage law reforms, and the establishment of women's organizations to advance women's rights and empower them economically and socially. However, despite these advancements, gender disparities persisted, particularly in rural areas, where women faced discrimination, limited access to resources, and unequal opportunities compared to men. Additionally, Mao's policies often prioritized class struggle over gender equality, leading to tensions between feminist aspirations and revolutionary imperatives. Essay Questions 56) Why did it take so long, from 1911 to 1949 or 1950, for China to complete its revolution? Answer: The prolonged duration of China's revolution from 1911 to 1949 or 1950 can be attributed to a combination of internal strife, external conflicts, ideological divisions, and the complex socio-political landscape of the time. Following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, China entered a period of political fragmentation characterized by warlordism, regionalism, and foreign intervention. The struggle for power between various factions, including the Nationalists (Kuomintang) led by Sun Yat-sen and later Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek), and the Communists led by Mao Zedong, prolonged the revolutionary process. Additionally, external factors such as foreign imperialism, including Japanese aggression and Western intervention, further complicated China's internal dynamics and delayed the consolidation of power. The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists, interrupted by the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), contributed to the protracted nature of the revolution. Ultimately, the Communist victory in 1949 and the establishment of the People's Republic of China marked the culmination of decades of struggle and transformation. 57) What are the main differences between Japan and the West as advanced industrial societies? Answer: The main differences between Japan and the West as advanced industrial societies stem from their historical, cultural, and socio-economic contexts. Japan's industrialization and modernization were heavily influenced by its unique cultural heritage, traditional values, and historical experiences, leading to distinct characteristics compared to Western industrialized nations. One key difference lies in the role of the state in economic development: while Western countries generally embrace free-market capitalism and limited government intervention, Japan has historically pursued a model of state-led capitalism characterized by close collaboration between the government, industry, and financial institutions. Additionally, cultural factors such as the emphasis on group harmony, consensus-building, and long-term planning have shaped Japan's industrial practices and management styles, setting it apart from the individualism and competitiveness often associated with Western societies. Moreover, Japan's geographic limitations, resource constraints, and strategic priorities have influenced its economic policies, trade relations, and approach to international affairs, leading to distinct patterns of development and interaction with the global economy. 58) Why did Japan become increasingly aggressive in foreign policy and then find it relatively easy to accept a non-expansionist policy? Answer: Japan's shift towards aggressive foreign policy in the early 20th century can be attributed to a combination of domestic factors, geopolitical ambitions, and historical circumstances. Japan's rapid industrialization and modernization during the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) propelled it into the ranks of major world powers, leading to ambitions of regional hegemony and imperial expansion in East Asia. Growing nationalism, militarism, and the desire to secure resources, markets, and strategic dominance fueled Japan's aggressive actions, including its annexation of Korea (1910) and military interventions in China (e.g., the First Sino-Japanese War, the Twenty-One Demands). However, Japan's expansionist policies eventually led to conflicts with Western powers, culminating in its defeat in World War II and the subsequent occupation and democratization under U.S. oversight. The postwar period witnessed a fundamental transformation in Japan's foreign policy, as it embraced pacifism, democracy, and international cooperation under the auspices of the U.S.-Japan security alliance. Japan's adoption of a non-expansionist policy reflected a strategic reorientation towards economic development, diplomatic engagement, and reliance on the security umbrella provided by the United States, allowing it to focus on rebuilding its economy and fostering peaceful relations with its neighbors. 59) Why have China and Russia proved to be among the few nations to have fully adopted a communist political and economic system? Answer: China and Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) emerged as two of the few nations to fully adopt communist political and economic systems due to a combination of historical, ideological, and geopolitical factors. In both cases, the revolutions of the early 20th century (the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Chinese Revolution of 1949) resulted in the establishment of communist regimes led by vanguard parties (the Bolsheviks in Russia and the Communist Party of China). These revolutions were fueled by deep-seated grievances against feudalism, imperialism, and socio-economic inequality, as well as the desire to modernize and transform their respective societies. The communist ideology, with its emphasis on class struggle, proletarian revolution, and the establishment of a socialist state, resonated with the aspirations of revolutionary movements seeking to overthrow the existing order and build a more equitable society. Additionally, external factors such as geopolitical rivalries, Cold War dynamics, and the influence of communist ideology on anti-colonial movements further shaped the trajectory of communist states in China and Russia. Despite significant differences in their historical experiences, political systems, and policy approaches, both countries maintained centralized, authoritarian rule under communist parties, which exercised control over all aspects of society, economy, and ideology. 60) What are the main causes of the Pacific Rim’s industrial rise since the 1960s? Answer: The industrial rise of the Pacific Rim since the 1960s can be attributed to a combination of internal factors, external influences, and strategic developments that transformed the region into a dynamic economic powerhouse. One key factor was the adoption of export-oriented industrialization (EOI) strategies by countries such as Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and later, China, which prioritized manufacturing for export markets, foreign investment, and technology transfer. These countries leveraged their comparative advantages, including skilled labor, low wages, and proximity to major markets, to attract multinational corporations and integrate into global supply chains. Additionally, governmentled development policies, investment in infrastructure, and targeted industrial policies played crucial roles in fostering industrialization, promoting technological innovation, and facilitating economic growth. The presence of strong state institutions, proactive government intervention, and long-term planning further contributed to the success of the Pacific Rim economies. Moreover, geopolitical factors such as the Cold War dynamics, security alliances with the United States, and regional stability created conducive conditions for industrial expansion, trade liberalization, and foreign investment inflows. The emergence of new industries, such as electronics, automotive manufacturing, and high-tech sectors, propelled the Pacific Rim countries to the forefront of global production and trade, driving their industrial rise and economic transformation. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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