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Chapter 22 World Economy and Western Imperialism: Africa and South Asia Multiple-Choice Questions 1) According to the “white man’s burden” concept, imperialists owed “natives” which of the following? A) independence B) freedom C) democracy D) Christianity Answer: D Rationale: The "white man's burden" concept, popularized during the era of imperialism, held that Western powers had a moral obligation to civilize and Christianize colonized peoples. Therefore, the correct answer is D) Christianity. 2) Indian nationalism first arose particularly among A) Muslims. B) civil servants. C) lower-caste rebels. D) Hindu religious leaders. Answer: B Rationale: Indian nationalism initially gained traction among the educated middle class, including civil servants, who were directly exposed to British colonial rule and its policies, leading to a desire for self-governance and independence. 3) Most popular resistance in India to British rule can be described as A) traditionalist. B) nationalist. C) socialist. D) imperialist. Answer: A Rationale: Much of the popular resistance in India against British rule was rooted in traditionalist movements, including religious and cultural revivals, rather than nationalist or socialist ideologies, which gained prominence later. 4) European settlement in sub-Saharan Africa was most extensive in the A) south. B) west. C) center. D) east. Answer: A Rationale: European settlement in sub-Saharan Africa was most extensive in the southern regions, particularly in areas such as South Africa, where colonial powers established settler colonies and implemented policies of apartheid. 5) Which of the following colonies belonged to the French? A) Algeria B) India C) South Africa D) Hawaii Answer: A Rationale: Algeria was a colony of the French, who established control over the region in the 19th century through military conquest and colonization. 6) Which was a colony of the United States by 1900? A) Burma B) Ethiopia C) Puerto Rico D) Liberia Answer: C Rationale: Puerto Rico was a colony of the United States by 1900, acquired as a result of the SpanishAmerican War in 1898. 7) The area where 19th-century imperialism most clearly had a greater impact in Africa compared to India was in A) religion. B) position of women. C) encouragement of industrialization. D) linguistic unity. Answer: A Rationale: In Africa, 19th-century imperialism had a greater impact on religion due to the spread of Christianity by European missionaries, whereas in India, the impact on religion was less pronounced due to the presence of diverse religious traditions and a longer history of cultural exchange. 8) What did the Industrial Revolution give to the West? A) new quantities of raw materials B) new quantities of slaves C) new quantities of manufactured products D) higher interest rates Answer: C Rationale: The Industrial Revolution in the West led to the mass production of manufactured products, marking a significant shift from agrarian economies to industrialized societies. 9) What helped expand the railroad network in the United States? A) British and French investment B) French investment only C) British investment only D) Russian investment Answer: A Rationale: The expansion of the railroad network in the United States was facilitated by British and French investment, which provided capital and expertise for the construction of railroads across the country. 10) What measures did imperial governments introduce in southeast Asia? A) collected census data B) independent local leaders C) permitted crime and social unrest D) less efficient administration Answer: A Rationale: Imperial governments in Southeast Asia introduced measures such as collecting census data to facilitate administrative control and taxation, allowing them to govern more effectively and assert their authority over the region. 11) What infrastructure did Britain introduce to India? A) pedestrian bridges and underpasses B) seaports and lighthouses C) rails, roads, and canals D) airports and navigational systems Answer: C Rationale: Britain introduced infrastructure such as railways, roads, and canals to India to facilitate transportation, trade, and communication, which played a crucial role in consolidating British colonial rule and promoting economic development. 12) In what language did literature surface in east Africa in the late 18th century? A) Swahili B) French C) Spanish D) English Answer: A Rationale: Literature surfaced in Swahili in East Africa in the late 18th century, reflecting the cultural and linguistic heritage of the region and its integration into broader Indian Ocean trading networks. 13) Who was involved in many battles with African forces through the 1930s? A) monarchies B) Bantu groups C) French settlers D) Boers Answer: D Rationale: The Boers, descendants of Dutch settlers in South Africa, were involved in many battles with African forces through the 1930s as part of their efforts to expand and consolidate control over territory and resources in the region. 14) What were earlier colonies considered before the 19th century? A) wild frontier B) a new empire C) market outposts D) mining areas Answer: C Rationale: Earlier colonies before the 19th century were often considered as market outposts, serving as trading centers for the exchange of goods between colonial powers and indigenous populations, rather than being primarily focused on resource extraction or settlement. 15) Who invaded India before the British? A) the Mughals B) the Dutch C) the Americans D) the French Answer: A Rationale: The Mughal Empire, originating from Central Asia, invaded and established control over parts of the Indian subcontinent before the arrival of the British. 16) Who wrote the phrase “the white man’s burden”? A) Karl Pearson B) Rudyard Kipling C) Rabindranath Tagore D) Mary Kingsley Answer: B Rationale: Rudyard Kipling, a British author and poet, wrote the phrase "the white man's burden" in his poem of the same name, which expressed the idea of the moral responsibility of the Western colonial powers to civilize and uplift the colonized peoples. 17) Who wrote the document “Social Darwinism and Imperialism”? A) Rudyard Kipling B) Mary Kingsley C) Rabindranath Tagore D) Karl Pearson Answer: D Rationale: Karl Pearson, a British mathematician and biologist, wrote the document "Social Darwinism and Imperialism," which applied Darwinian principles to human societies and justified imperialistic expansion as a natural consequence of social evolution. 18) Who were in the first Indian National Congress? A) British officials and Hindus B) Hindus and Muslims C) British officials and Muslims D) widowed Indian women Answer: B Rationale: The first Indian National Congress, formed in 1885, included prominent Indian leaders representing various religious and regional interests, predominantly Hindus but also Muslims, who advocated for Indian self-governance and political reforms. 19) Where did Africans work after Europeans colonized their nations? A) in missions B) in civil service posts C) in gardens D) in mines Answer: D Rationale: After Europeans colonized their nations, many Africans were forced to work in mines under harsh conditions, extracting valuable resources such as gold, diamonds, and other minerals for the benefit of colonial powers. 20) What kinds of factories were opened and directed by Indian entrepreneurs? A) coffee and tea B) textiles and metallurgy C) diamonds and sapphires D) wool and whiskey Answer: B Rationale: Indian entrepreneurs opened and directed factories primarily in the textile and metallurgical industries, taking advantage of India's abundant raw materials and skilled workforce to develop local manufacturing capabilities. 21) What year did the rawest economic exploitation of India take place? A) 1889 B) 1900 C) 1890 D) 1800 Answer: D Rationale: The rawest economic exploitation of India took place in the early stages of British colonial rule, particularly during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when India was heavily exploited for its resources and subjected to exploitative economic policies. 22) When did the European exploitation of resources in Africa begin to increase? A) the 1890s B) the 1870s C) the 1880s D) the 1900s Answer: A Rationale: The European exploitation of resources in Africa began to increase significantly in the 1890s with the onset of the "Scramble for Africa," during which European powers aggressively competed for territorial control and access to Africa's abundant natural resources. 23) Which regions were not subjected to full imperialistic control? A) Indonesia B) China and the Ottoman Empire C) Latin America D) southeast Asia Answer: B Rationale: China and the Ottoman Empire were not subjected to full imperialistic control during the 19th century, maintaining varying degrees of independence and sovereignty despite facing pressure from Western colonial powers. 24) After 1850, ________ and ________ had much capital to export. A) Indochina; the Ottoman Empire B) India; southeast Asia C) Europe; north America D) south Africa; north Africa Answer: C Rationale: After 1850, Europe and North America had much capital to export due to the industrialization and economic growth experienced in these regions, leading to increased investment in overseas colonies and markets. 25) In what year did Ethiopia defeat Italy? A) 1896 B) 1914 C) 1850 D) 1900 Answer: A Rationale: Ethiopia defeated Italy in the Battle of Adwa in 1896, marking a significant victory for Ethiopian forces and maintaining Ethiopia's independence from European colonization. 26) Imperialism’s 19th-century political impact on Africa involved A) limiting elections for government officials to the propertied elite. B) teaching ordinary Africans to defy tribal leaders. C) setting up national boundaries that differed from traditional clan, tribal, and ethnic group boundaries. D) inspiring a growing nationalist literature protesting European rule. Answer: C Rationale: The political impact of 19th-century imperialism on Africa involved the imposition of national boundaries by European colonial powers, which often disregarded traditional clan and ethnic boundaries, leading to artificial divisions and conflicts within African societies. 27) Britain justified many of its imperialist expansions on the need A) to protect existing colonies from other European powers. B) for cheap labor to produce manufactured goods. C) to spread democracy to backward peoples. D) to keep aristocrats from fomenting armed rebellion at home. Answer: A Rationale: Britain often justified its imperialist expansions by citing the need to protect its existing colonies from other European powers, maintain strategic dominance in key regions, and secure valuable trade routes and resources. 28) Nationalism was a new force in India because it A) suggested unity of the subcontinent for the first time. B) suggested that political loyalties might be as important as religious or caste loyalties. C) promised equality to all Indian citizens. D) suggested that all contacts with Britain and the West be cut off. Answer: B Rationale: Nationalism was a new force in India because it suggested that political loyalties might be as important as religious or caste loyalties, challenging traditional social hierarchies and fostering a sense of collective identity and resistance against British colonial rule. 29) The Sepoy rebellion involved A) nationalist protest against British import of cheap laborers called Sepoys. B) Muslim protest against liberal British policies toward women. C) religious objections by Indian soldiers to new supplies. D) reactionary protest by people loyal to the former Mughal emperor. Answer: C Rationale: The Sepoy Rebellion, also known as the Indian Mutiny of 1857, involved religious objections by Indian soldiers (Sepoys) to new rifle cartridges rumored to be greased with animal fat, which was offensive to both Hindu and Muslim beliefs. 30) Which of the following statements is True? A) Many colonial powers controlled India whereas Africa was controlled primarily by Britain. B) India adjusted its culture more selectively than Africa in response to colonial rule. C) African political theorists had stressed the importance of African unity before colonial rule. D) India had been substantially divided at times before Western imperialism. Answer: B Rationale: India adjusted its culture more selectively than Africa in response to colonial rule, as Indian society had a longer history of statehood and cultural development, allowing for more nuanced adaptations to colonial influence compared to many African societies. 31) What happened as a result of the increased quantities of manufactured goods? A) domestic economies ceased B) an increase of traditional manufacturing systems C) less raw materials were required D) an intense need to find new markets Answer: D Rationale: The increased quantities of manufactured goods created an intense need to find new markets for these products, driving imperialist expansion as European powers sought to secure colonies and trading posts to sell their surplus goods. 32) What huge change occurred with the growing need for exports/imports? A) The transatlantic slave trade continued. B) Slaves were no longer necessary. C) Human labor was well-paid. D) Opportunities for women grew. Answer: B Rationale: With the growing need for exports/imports, slaves were no longer necessary for labor, leading to a decline in the transatlantic slave trade and a shift towards other forms of labor, including wage labor and indentured servitude. 33) The new surge in imperialism sprang from A) new military technology. B) a decreasing European appetite for conquest. C) less territories to choose from. D) declining Western capital. Answer: A Rationale: The new surge in imperialism sprang from advancements in new military technology, including firearms, steamships, and telegraphs, which gave European powers a significant military advantage over indigenous peoples and rival colonial powers. 34) In what ways did Britain produce Western-style change in India? A) They created a unified code of laws relating to gender and caste. B) They brought about educational reform. C) They brought significant economic gain to Indian farmers. D) They encouraged peasants to get involved in the political process. Answer: B Rationale: Britain produced Western-style change in India by introducing educational reform, including the establishment of modern schools and universities, which aimed to train a new class of Indians in Western knowledge and values. 35) Historians have offered all of the following possible explanations for 19th-century abolitionism EXCEPT: A) Slavery was no longer consistent with the economic self-interests of industrial capitalists. B) Slavery was inconsistent with Christianity. C) Slavery was inconsistent with humanitarian ideals. D) By focusing on the abolition of slavery, industrial capitalists could distract workers from focusing on their own plight. Answer: B Rationale: Historians have not offered the explanation that slavery was inconsistent with Christianity for 19th-century abolitionism, as religion played a significant role in both supporting and opposing slavery during this period, making it an unlikely explanation for the abolitionist movement. 36) How did developments in southeast Asia resemble trends in India? A) The new government didn’t build infrastructure. B) There was a substantial redrawing of the religious map. C) The regional politics of the area continued. D) Bureaucracy was minimized. Answer: C Rationale: Developments in southeast Asia resembled trends in India in that the regional politics of the area continued despite colonial rule, with local rulers and power structures often adapting to or resisting European influence rather than being completely replaced by Western institutions. 37) What did the end of colonization mean to world history? A) It encouraged a level of economic independence. B) It is one of the greatest changes to occur. C) Former colonies want revenge on their colonizers. D) Former colonies have fully recovered their economic status. Answer: B Rationale: The end of colonization marked one of the greatest changes in world history, signifying the dissolution of imperial domination and the emergence of independent nation-states across the globe, reshaping political, economic, and social dynamics on a global scale. 38) What did Indians do to protest British rule? A) peasants had periodic riots B) widows remarried C) left their traditional religions D) supported Muslims in office Answer: A Rationale: Indians protested British rule through various means, including periodic riots by peasants, organized resistance movements, civil disobedience campaigns, and calls for political reforms and independence. 39) What kind of conditions did Africans face in the new African colonies? A) mostly harsh conditions and low pay B) much better wages and free status C) lived in clean and hygienic facilities D) given several acres of land Answer: A Rationale: Africans in the new African colonies often faced harsh conditions and low pay under European colonial rule, as they were subjected to forced labor, exploitation, racial discrimination, and limited access to basic rights and resources. 40) Who was John Mensah Sarbah? A) a missionary of European descent who went to the Ivory Coast B) a scholarly man from the Fante tribe who trained in English law C) an abolitionist from England who championed freed slaves D) a high-caste Indian who said the British had no right to rule in India Answer: B Rationale: John Mensah Sarbah was a scholarly man from the Fante tribe who trained in English law and became a prominent Ghanaian lawyer, politician, and nationalist leader, advocating for indigenous rights and legal reforms during the colonial era. 41) Which are holdings the Europeans had in Africa by 1900? A) Britain developed an empire in west Africa and a north-south axis from southern Africa toward Egypt. B) France formed a united South African state with a large European minority. C) Germany held the Free State of the Congo. D) Belgium possessed Tanganyika and southwest Africa. Answer: A Rationale: By 1900, Britain had developed an empire in west Africa and controlled a north-south axis from southern Africa toward Egypt, establishing colonies, protectorates, and spheres of influence across the continent. 42) How did Europeans show their insensitivity toward local customs? A) inviting witch doctors over for dinner B) worshipping religious symbols of the Bantu C) exporting or destroying religious symbols D) setting up ceremonial apparatus Answer: C Rationale: Europeans showed their insensitivity toward local customs by exporting or destroying religious symbols, artifacts, and cultural practices of indigenous peoples, often imposing Western values and institutions without regard for traditional beliefs and customs. 43) All of the following were accomplishments of John Mensah Sarbah EXCEPT: A) He founded several organizations that disputed African land ownership. B) He tried unsuccessfully to secure African land titles in British legislation. C) He was the first African from his region to be admitted to the English bar. D) He actively urged expanded responsibilities for educated Africans. Answer: D Rationale: All options except D are accomplishments of John Mensah Sarbah. He was known for his efforts to challenge African land ownership disputes, secure African land titles, and advocate for legal reforms to protect indigenous rights during the colonial era. 44) Why did Africa experience a more systemic loss of traditional values than did India? A) The African tribes were more eager to learn about Christianity. B) Christian missionaries made aggressive advances. C) The African leaders didn’t protect their people sufficiently. D) The Africans became convinced that their culture was inferior. Answer: B Rationale: Africa experienced a more systemic loss of traditional values compared to India primarily because Christian missionaries made aggressive advances across the continent, actively seeking to convert indigenous peoples and suppress indigenous religions and cultural practices. 45) How did the British go about changing the caste system? A) making sure they could use animal grease in their rifles B) forbidding Indian widows to remarry C) allowing different castes to mix in prisons and on trains D) lower castes could not sue upper-caste people in British courts Answer: C Rationale: The British attempted to change the caste system by allowing different castes to mix in public spaces such as prisons and on trains, breaking down traditional social barriers and promoting social integration and mobility within Indian society. 46) Why did British officials attack the practices of sati and female infanticide? A) They thought these Hindu practices were barbaric. B) They wanted to appease the Muslims by forbidding it. C) They wanted Indian women to feel inferior. D) They wanted to get more votes for parliamentary British officials. Answer: A Rationale: British officials attacked the practices of sati (widow burning) and female infanticide because they viewed these Hindu practices as barbaric and inhumane, seeking to impose Western values of gender equality and human rights on Indian society. 47) Why did Indians detest the British tax collection system? A) It was less efficient. B) It was more efficient. C) The patronage of local elites decreased. D) The tax system was inequitable. Answer: C Rationale: Indians detested the British tax collection system because it decreased the patronage of local elites, undermining traditional power structures and redistributive mechanisms within Indian society, leading to economic hardships and social unrest among the Indian populace. 48) What are the main issues in assessing the impact of slavery’s decline? A) decline of virulent racism in North America B) how its end added to equality for ex-slaves C) ample land provision for ex-slaves D) replacement forms of coercive labor Answer: D Rationale: The main issues in assessing the impact of slavery's decline include the emergence of replacement forms of coercive labor, such as sharecropping, convict leasing, and debt peonage, which perpetuated systems of exploitation and racial oppression even after formal abolition. 49) What alternative argument did historians come up with to explain the abolition of slavery? A) Industrial capitalists didn’t need to pay wage labor. B) Nineteenth-century Europeans no longer considered themselves superior to Africans. C) It was only for humanitarianism reasons that the British started to abolish slavery. D) It was economic self-interest, not humanitarianism, which drove the abolition of the slave trade. Answer: D Rationale: Historians have proposed the alternative argument that economic self-interest, rather than humanitarianism, drove the abolition of the slave trade, suggesting that changing economic conditions and labor demands influenced the decision to abolish slavery more than moral concerns alone. 50) How did competition among Europeans affect conditions in Africa? A) Some major European nations were happy not to have colonies. B) European nations competed with each other fiercely over colonial expansion in Africa. C) The Europeans believed that the Africans and themselves were equal in the eyes of God. D) The Europeans nations were too busy having wars to intervene in African affairs. Answer: B Rationale: Competition among European nations affected conditions in Africa by leading to fierce colonial rivalries and conflicts over territorial expansion, resources, and geopolitical dominance, driving the scramble for Africa and shaping colonial policies and practices in the region. Short Answer Questions 51) What parts of the world, outside the West, were least touched by the new imperialism? Answer: The parts of the world least touched by the new imperialism outside the West were regions that managed to maintain their independence or resist European colonization to a significant extent. Examples include Japan, which pursued a policy of isolationism and modernization, and areas of Southeast Asia, such as Thailand (Siam), which negotiated treaties to maintain sovereignty amidst European colonial expansion in the region. Additionally, regions with strong centralized states, such as China and Persia (Iran), managed to resist European domination to varying degrees, although they faced significant challenges and pressures from imperialist powers. 52) Compare the nature and impact of colonialism in 19th-century India with the nature and impact of 19th-century colonialism in Africa. Answer: In 19th-century India, colonialism was characterized by British economic exploitation, political domination, and cultural hegemony. The British East India Company initially established control over India through trade and military conquests, eventually leading to direct British rule. The impact of colonialism in India included the disruption of traditional socio-economic structures, the imposition of British legal and administrative systems, the introduction of Western education and technology, and the exploitation of Indian resources for the benefit of the British Empire. In contrast, 19th-century colonialism in Africa was marked by a scramble for territory among European powers, including Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, and Italy. Colonial powers imposed direct rule or established protectorates and spheres of influence over African territories, exploiting natural resources, establishing cash crop economies, and implementing systems of forced labor. The impact of colonialism in Africa included the disruption of indigenous societies, the imposition of arbitrary borders that disregarded ethnic and cultural boundaries, the introduction of Christianity and Western education, and the exploitation of African labor for the benefit of colonial economies. 53) Assess how imperialism brought greater change to the region of southern Africa. Answer: Imperialism brought significant change to the region of southern Africa through European colonization, particularly by Britain and the Dutch (Boers). The colonization of southern Africa led to conflicts, such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Anglo-Boer Wars, resulting in British control over territories like South Africa and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). The discovery of diamonds and gold in southern Africa attracted European settlers and increased competition among colonial powers for control over valuable resources. Imperialism also brought social, economic, and demographic changes to southern Africa, including the displacement and dispossession of indigenous populations, the establishment of racially segregated societies based on discriminatory laws like apartheid, and the exploitation of African labor in mines and plantations. European colonization contributed to the development of infrastructure, such as railways and ports, but often prioritized the interests of colonial settlers and industries over the welfare of indigenous peoples. 54) What was the impact of Islam in 19th-century sub-Saharan Africa? Answer: In 19th-century sub-Saharan Africa, Islam had a significant impact on religious, cultural, and political developments. Islam spread across the region through trade networks, migration, and Islamic missionary activities, particularly in regions like West Africa and the East African coast. Islamic beliefs and practices influenced local customs, languages, and social structures, leading to the emergence of Islamic states and societies. Islam served as a unifying force among diverse ethnic groups and provided a framework for governance, law, and education in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Islamic scholars and leaders played key roles in mediating disputes, promoting literacy and scholarship, and fostering Islamic identity and solidarity among Muslim communities. However, Islamic influence also intersected with indigenous belief systems and cultural traditions, resulting in syncretic forms of religious expression and cultural exchange. 55) Identify and briefly discuss three ways in which nationalism was a novel force for India. Answer: Nationalism emerged as a novel force for India in the 19th century, challenging British colonial rule and advocating for Indian self-determination and independence. Three key aspects of nationalism in India include: 1. Cultural Renaissance: Nationalist leaders, intellectuals, and reformers promoted a revival of Indian culture, heritage, and identity, emphasizing the richness of India's history, literature, and traditions. This cultural renaissance fostered a sense of pride and solidarity among Indians, inspiring resistance against British cultural hegemony and fostering a collective national consciousness. 2. Political Mobilization: Nationalist movements in India mobilized diverse social groups, including intellectuals, students, peasants, workers, and religious communities, around common political goals and demands. Organizations like the Indian National Congress (INC) provided platforms for political activism, advocacy for constitutional reforms, and articulation of nationalist aspirations, leading to the growth of mass-based political movements and campaigns for greater Indian representation and autonomy. 3. Anti-Colonial Struggle: Nationalism in India became synonymous with the struggle for independence from British colonial rule. Nationalist leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Subhas Chandra Bose adopted diverse strategies, including nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, and armed struggle, to challenge British authority and demand self-rule for India. The nationalist movement united Indians across regions, languages, and religions in a common struggle against imperialism, culminating in India's independence in 1947. Essay Questions 56) Why were Africa and southern Asia more deeply affected by the new imperialism than other parts of the non-Western world? Answer: Africa and southern Asia were more deeply affected by the new imperialism for several reasons. Firstly, these regions possessed valuable resources such as minerals, agricultural land, and labor, which attracted European colonial powers seeking economic exploitation and expansion of their empires. Additionally, Africa and southern Asia were characterized by weaker political structures and fragmented societies, making them more vulnerable to European conquest and domination. The advent of industrialization in Europe further increased the demand for raw materials and markets, driving the scramble for colonial territories in these regions. Moreover, technological advancements in transportation and communication facilitated European penetration and control over distant lands, enabling the imposition of colonial rule and the suppression of local resistance more effectively. 57) Compare the nature and impact of 19th-century colonialism in India and Africa. Answer: The nature and impact of 19th-century colonialism differed in India and Africa but shared common themes of economic exploitation, political subjugation, and cultural transformation imposed by European colonial powers. In India, British colonialism was characterized by direct rule, economic exploitation through land revenue systems, and the imposition of British legal and administrative structures. The impact of British colonialism in India included the disruption of traditional socio-economic systems, the introduction of Western education and technology, and the suppression of Indian industries for the benefit of British manufacturers. In Africa, colonialism took various forms, including direct rule, indirect rule, and settler colonialism, depending on the colonial power and the specific region. European colonial powers exploited Africa's resources, established cash crop economies, and imposed systems of forced labor and taxation. The impact of colonialism in Africa included the displacement and dispossession of indigenous populations, the imposition of arbitrary borders that divided ethnic and cultural groups, and the introduction of Christianity and Western education. 58) What caused the new outburst of Western imperialism? Did imperialism result more from Western confidence or from Western insecurity? Answer: The new outburst of Western imperialism in the 19th century was primarily driven by a combination of economic, political, and ideological factors. Industrialization in Europe created a demand for raw materials and markets, motivating European powers to expand their colonial empires to secure access to resources and facilitate economic growth. Additionally, competition among European nations for global dominance, coupled with nationalist and imperialist ideologies, fueled the desire to acquire overseas territories and assert imperial control over non-Western regions. Imperialism resulted from both Western confidence and Western insecurity. On one hand, Western nations were confident in their technological superiority, military power, and cultural superiority, which led them to believe in their right to civilize and dominate non-Western peoples. On the other hand, Western nations also harbored insecurities about their geopolitical position, economic competitiveness, and national prestige, leading them to engage in imperialist ventures as a means of asserting dominance and maintaining strategic advantages over rival powers. 59) In what ways did Africa become more heavily involved in the world economy during the 19th century? Answer: Africa became more heavily involved in the world economy during the 19th century primarily through the expansion of European colonialism and the integration of African economies into global networks of trade and commerce. European colonial powers established control over African territories, exploiting the continent's resources, labor, and markets for their own economic benefit. The introduction of cash crop agriculture, such as palm oil, rubber, cocoa, and cotton, transformed African economies into suppliers of raw materials for European industries. Furthermore, the construction of transportation infrastructure, including railways, roads, and ports, facilitated the extraction and export of African resources to international markets. European colonial powers also imposed trade policies and tariffs that favored their own industries and restricted the development of indigenous African manufacturing and trade networks. As a result, Africa's role in the world economy during the 19th century was largely defined by its subordination to European colonial interests and the extraction of wealth from the continent to fuel European industrialization and economic growth. 60) What kinds of resistance against British rule developed in India and why? Answer: Several forms of resistance against British rule developed in India in response to colonial exploitation, political oppression, and cultural domination. One form of resistance was armed rebellion, exemplified by the Indian Revolt of 1857 (often referred to as the Sepoy Mutiny). This uprising, led by Indian soldiers (sepoys) in the British East India Company's army, was sparked by grievances over religious and cultural issues, including the use of animal fat in rifle cartridges, as well as broader discontent with British rule and policies. Another form of resistance was nonviolent protest and civil disobedience, championed by leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress (INC). Gandhi's strategy of nonviolent resistance, including boycotts, strikes, and peaceful marches, aimed to challenge British authority, expose the injustices of colonial rule, and mobilize mass support for Indian self-rule and independence. Additionally, Indian nationalists organized political campaigns, petitions, and agitations to demand constitutional reforms, representative government, and Indian participation in decision-making processes. Resistance against British rule in India was motivated by a desire for political freedom, economic empowerment, and cultural autonomy. Indians sought to assert their national identity, reclaim their rights and dignity, and challenge the legitimacy of British imperialism through various forms of protest, activism, and solidarity. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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