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Chapter 3 The Marketing Research Process & Defining the Problem and Research
1) Which of the following is the first step in the marketing research process?
A) defining the problem
B) establishing the research objectives
C) establishing the need for marketing research
D) determining methods of accessing data
E) identifying information types and sources
Answer: C
2) Which of the following would serve as a good decision rule for managers in establishing
the need for marketing research?
A) ensuring that one's competitors are conducting market researches
B) determining the value that can be derived from marketing research conducted by
C) determining the costs incurred by other companies in conducting marketing research
D) comparing the value of the marketing research to the cost
E) ensuring that the clients or customers are in favor of conducting the marketing research
Answer: D
3) Conducting a marketing research study is necessary when:
A) the product is in the decline stage of its life cycle.
B) managers require information that is available only from the marketing intelligence system
of the company.
C) companies have cash-flow problems.
D) companies require additional information from the market for decision making.
E) the cost of the research is higher than the value expected from the research.
Answer: D
4) A prescriptive research study:
A) provides information that allows the manager to best remedy the dissatisfaction.
B) describes general marketing phenomena like customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
C) determines the sources of dissatisfaction associated with marketing phenomena.
D) attempts to uncover the factors that cause some event.
E) mainly tests customer satisfaction levels.
Answer: A
5) Jeff is the president of a bank. He wants to find out the satisfaction level of his customers

in Dallas on certain dimensions such as friendliness of employees, convenience of location,
and availability of loans. Jeff needs to conduct:
A) exploratory research.
B) descriptive research.
C) causal research.
D) prescriptive research.
E) diagnostic research.
Answer: B
6) Which of the following is true regarding exploratory research?
A) It is highly structured.
B) It is very formal.
C) It describes the phenomena of interest.
D) It attempts to uncover the factors that cause some event.
E) It helps identify research priorities.
Answer: E
7) Which of the following is true regarding causal research?
A) It describes marketing phenomena.
B) It attempts to uncover the factors that lead to some event.
C) It determines the sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
D) It is undertaken to learn terms and definitions.
E) It helps identify research priorities.
Answer: B
8) Which of the following is true regarding secondary data?
A) Obtaining secondary data is more expensive than collecting primary data.
B) It should always be sought second, after primary data.
C) It refers to data that has already been collected.
D) It takes a lot of time to collect secondary data.
E) It is collected specifically for solving the problem at hand.
Answer: C
9) The most popular form of accessing data is:
A) telephone surveys.
B) online surveys.
C) in-home surveys.
D) face-to-face intercepts.

E) focus groups.
Answer: B
10) Questionnaires are:
A) software programs that aid in online surveying.
B) software programs that provide the best questions for market surveys.
C) data collection forms used when respondents are observed over a period of time.
D) data collection forms used when there is direct interaction with respondents.
E) groups of questions used by a researcher that helps in deciding the best research design.
Answer: D
11) A ________ describes how each sample element is to be drawn from the total population.
A) sample plan
B) sample size
C) sampling unit
D) sample frame
E) sampling process
Answer: A
12) ________ refers to the number of elements of the population that are used to make up the
A) Sampling unit
B) Sample plan
C) Sample frame
D) Sample size
E) Sampling process
Answer: D
13) ________ is the process in which 10% of all respondents in a marketing research study
are randomly selected, re-contacted, and asked if they took part in a research study.
A) Sampling
B) Checking
C) Testing
D) Tabulation
E) Validation
Answer: E
14) Research objectives:

A) specify all the decision alternatives used in the study.
B) state specifically the best research design that should be used to solve the problem.
C) state specifically what information must be produced to solve the problem.
D) are less specific in aiding the researcher in the search for information.
E) are more important than the problem statement in conducting the study.
Answer: C
15) A research objective should specify:
A) the research design used in the research study.
B) the sample size used in the research study.
C) the sampling procedure used in the research study.
D) from whom information is to be gathered.
E) for whom the research is being conducted.
Answer: D
16) John has been hired by a company to conduct a research study on the factors that affect
the attrition of employees in that company. John wants to prepare research objectives that
would be able to represent and include in their scope the true feelings of the employees, for
which he interacts with a few random employees. John recognizes the concept of:
A) quality.
B) attrition.
C) action standards.
D) frame of reference.
E) units of measurement.
Answer: D
17) If you define a problem incorrectly:
A) the error cannot be overcome.
B) correcting the error is time consuming and expensive.
C) it results in type I errors.
D) it results in type II errors.
E) it results in non-sampling errors.
Answer: A
18) Jane is concerned about an error in the problem statement of a research study she has
conducted for her company. The error:
A) can be controlled using a larger sample size.
B) can be measured and, therefore, controlled.

C) can be measured only in percentage terms.
D) cannot be corrected.
E) should not be of concern.
Answer: D
19) A(n) ________ helps managers recognize failures to meet objectives.
A) control system
B) market opportunity analysis
C) opportunity identification system
D) control system for monitoring objectives
E) system for monitoring non-sampling errors
Answer: A
20) The annual sales of a company is below its sales objective. The problem the company is
facing is a:
A) sampling error.
B) non-sampling error.
C) failure to make use of an opportunity.
D) failure to meet an objective.
E) symptom.
Answer: D
21) A(n) ________ occurs when a gap exists between what did happen and what could have
A) sampling error
B) symptom
C) opportunity
D) problem
E) non-sampling error
Answer: C
22) Changes in the level of some key monitor that measures the achievement of an objective
are called:
A) problems.
B) symptoms.
C) signals.
D) errors.

E) measures.
Answer: B
23) Which of the following is true of symptoms?
A) The role of a symptom is to help recognize opportunities.
B) Symptoms are problems that need immediate assessment.
C) Symptoms work as signals that alert us to a problem.
D) Perceived changes in the behavior of some market factor are not symptoms.
E) There is no possible way to identify symptoms early.
Answer: C
24) Dexter learns of a breakthrough in solar panel technology from an online science
magazine. Dexter collects as much secondary information as he can on the topic of interest
and comes up with some very interesting solar panel application ideas that are presently not
in use but can be introduced with the help of the breakthrough technology. Dexter considers
hiring a marketing research firm. In the above scenario, Dexter has:
A) identified a problem through the control process.
B) identified an opportunity.
C) identified a symptom.
D) used a hypothesis to determine the need for research.
E) realized the value of research information.
Answer: B
25) When a researcher is called in after the management has defined the problem, the
researcher should:
A) bring in a fresh, unbiased view of the problem statement.
B) accept management's definition of the problem and start the study.
C) ensure that the research is done with maximum accuracy in the shortest possible time.
D) turn the management's statement of the problem into a generally defined research
E) conduct a self-analysis on his capabilities.
Answer: A
26) Researchers should conduct a situation analysis when:
A) clients seek their help in properly defining the problem.
B) clients define the problem and a researcher has to prepare research objectives.
C) the information needed to define a problem is in the DSS.
D) the information needed to solve the problem is in the internal report system.

E) it is time to write the final marketing research report.
Answer: A
27) ________ are routinely used in all business when a firm desires supplier firms to present
proposals or bids.
E) GIs
Answer: A
28) Experience surveys, case analyses, pilot studies and focus groups are methods of
conducting a(n):
A) problem definition analysis.
B) situation analysis.
C) market research study.
D) organization analysis.
E) research objective analysis.
Answer: B
29) A(n) ________ should be made by a firm's management once the probable cause of a
symptom is identified.
A) conclusion
B) recommendation
C) decision
D) budget
E) objective
Answer: C
30) Once a decision is made regarding the probable cause of a symptom, a firm's
management should specify the:
A) data required for further research.
B) decision alternatives.
C) results of a situation analysis.
D) results of a decision analysis.
E) ITBs.
Answer: B

31) Once the decision alternatives for a problem are decided upon, a manager must try to
determine the:
A) next step in the marketing research process.
B) consequences of the alternatives.
C) reasons for the alternatives.
D) definition of the problem.
E) research objectives of the study.
Answer: B
32) Market research becomes unnecessary when managers are:
A) aware of the causes of a problem at hand.
B) uncertain about consequences of decision alternatives.
C) certain about the consequences of decision alternatives.
D) certain about the symptoms of a problem at hand.
E) uncertain about the symptoms of a problem at hand.
Answer: C
33) ________ helps determine the best decision alternative when the consequences of the
decision alternatives are unknown to the researcher.
A) Research on each decision alternative
B) Research on the identified symptoms of a problem
C) Research on the few most agreed-upon decision alternatives
D) A focus group study
E) A case study
Answer: A
34) ________ are assertions that certain reactions will take place if certain decision
alternatives are implemented.
A) Decisions
B) Conclusions
C) Recommendations
D) Assumptions
E) Symptoms
Answer: D
35) A researcher assesses an existing information state of a manager to:
A) determine the best decision alternative.
B) assess the validity of the manager's assumptions.

C) identify the symptoms of a problem.
D) identify the consequences of a decision alternative.
E) identify consequences of a symptom.
Answer: B
36) Information gaps are discrepancies between:
A) the information collected by a researcher and by a marketer.
B) the information obtained from primary sources and secondary sources.
C) a researcher's and a manager's information states.
D) the current information level and the desired level of information.
E) the decisions and assumptions made by a researcher.
Answer: D
37) Which of the following serves as the basis for marketing research objectives?
A) information gaps
B) company objectives
C) differences between expectations and performance
D) the research budget and the time allotted to research
E) symptoms
Answer: A
38) ________ are statements that are considered true for the purposes of argument or
A) Maxims
B) Hypotheses
C) Aphorisms
D) Assumptions
E) Axioms
Answer: B
39) A(n) ________ is an abstract idea inferred from specific instances that are thought to be
A) hypothesis
B) assumption
C) argument
D) construct
E) symptom
Answer: D

40) An intention to purchase is an example of a:
A) research RFP.
B) research ITB.
C) hypothesis.
D) construct.
E) concept.
Answer: D
41) The definition of a construct that describes the actions to be carried out in order for the
construct to be measured empirically is known as a(n):
A) ostensive definition.
B) contextual definition.
C) operational definition.
D) theoretical definition.
E) stipulative definition.
Answer: C
42) A(n) ________ is the predesignation of some quantity of a measured characteristic that
must be achieved for a research objective in order for a predetermined action to take place.
A) theoretical definition
B) information state
C) situational analysis
D) operational definition
E) action standard
Answer: E
43) The purpose of an action standard is to define:
A) what action will be taken given the results of the research findings.
B) the maximum quantity of a measured characteristic that must be achieved for a research
C) the minimum quantity of a measured characteristic that must be achieved for a research
D) the information requested of the respondent using the respondent's frame of reference.
E) the actions to be taken in order to get the results of the research process.
Answer: A
44) A marketing research proposal contains:
A) important assumptions made by the researcher.

B) the action standards for a project.
C) the timetable for a research project.
D) problem symptoms associated with research.
E) the consequences of all decision alternatives.
Answer: C
45) Which of the following is a breach of ethics?
A) extending the time for the conclusion of a research project in order to meet standards
B) seeking help from experts outside the company free of cost on non-confidential matters
C) using a company's research proposal for the purpose of competitive bidding
D) seeking the help of researchers outside the company on non-confidential matters
E) using a standard procedure rather than a customized one for research purposes
Answer: C
46) All research projects follow an orderly step-by-step process.
Answer: False
47) Company policies dictate whether or not marketing research will be used in decision
Answer: True
48) Firms having cash-flow problems should preferably resort to marketing research.
Answer: False
49) Managers should conduct marketing research if the cost of the research is less than the
value expected from conducting the research.
Answer: True
50) There are three types of research designs: exploratory research, descriptive research, and
causal research.
Answer: True
51) Researchers should conduct marketing research only when they do not have the
information for decision making.
Answer: True
52) Exploratory research is used when a great deal of information is already known about the
problem at hand.
Answer: False
53) The type of research study that describes factors such as consumer attitude, consumer
behavior, or competitor strategies is referred to as descriptive research.
Answer: True

54) Causal research, undertaken to help recognize causes and effects, is usually carried out
through experiments.
Answer: True
55) Primary information is the information that has already been collected for some other
Answer: False
56) Secondary information is collected by research companies and made available to clients
who again sell the information to secondary markets.
Answer: False
57) A carwash franchiser wants to know how car owners in Austin, TX, would respond to a
new promotional message she has just created. She would need to collect secondary data.
Answer: False
58) The final research report is often the client's only record of the research project.
Answer: True
59) Problems are situations in which managers have to make choices among alternatives.
Answer: True
60) A problem statement gives information that helps a manager choose the correct decision
Answer: False
61) Research objectives should specify the unit of measurement used to gather the required
information in a research study.
Answer: True
62) If you define a problem incorrectly, the error can be overcome through reconstruction.
Answer: False
63) When we have a gap between what did happen and what could have happened, we
normally refer to the gap as an opportunity.
Answer: True
64) The two main sources of problems are failure to meet an objective and opportunities.
Answer: True
65) Unless managers have a control system, they will not likely identify problems arising
from failure to meet objectives.
Answer: True
66) A manager increasingly recognizes opportunities when an opportunity identification
system is used.

Answer: True
67) Symptoms are not the problem but are "signals" that alert us to a problem.
Answer: True
68) A problem may also be a perceived change in the behavior of some market factor that
implies an emerging opportunity.
Answer: False
69) Constructs are changes in the level of some key factor that measures the achievement of
an objective.
Answer: False
70) When managers have defined what they think the problem is and the decision that must
be made to resolve it, the researcher has an obligation to help managers ensure they are
defining the problem correctly.
Answer: True
71) A situation analysis is a form of prescriptive research undertaken to gather background
information and data pertinent to the problem area that may be helpful in properly defining
the problem decision.
Answer: False
72) When ITBs or RFPs are used, there is little dialogue between researchers and managers in
terms of defining the problem.
Answer: False
73) RFPs and ITBs are used by companies to get feedback from marketing research firms on
their research projects.
Answer: False
74) The primary method of conducting a situation analysis is to review both internal and
external secondary data.
Answer: True
75) When a firm's management has not defined the problem in terms of a decision to be
made, researchers should first undertake a situation analysis.
Answer: True
76) If only a partial list of causes is made, it is possible that the real cause will be overlooked,
leading ultimately to an incorrect decision.
Answer: True
77) Managers should conduct a marketing research study only if they know the consequence
of a decision alternative with certainty.

Answer: False
78) Conclusions are assertions that certain conditions exist or that certain reactions will take
place if the considered alternatives are implemented.
Answer: False
79) Information state is a discrepancy between the current information level and the desired
level of information at which the manager feels comfortable resolving the problem at hand.
Answer: False
80) Brand preference, brand awareness, and brand recall are examples of constructs.
Answer: True
81) Action standards specify what actions are to be taken during the initial stages of the
marketing research process.
Answer: False
82) The research proposal should be viewed as proprietary information.
Answer: True

Test Bank for Marketing Research
Alvin C. Burns, Ronald F. Bush
9780133074673, 9780134895406, 9780134167404

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