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Chapter 6 Utilizing Exploratory and Qualitative Research Techniques
1) What type of research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by obtaining
free form, nonstandardized, or open-ended observations and statements of what people do
and say.
A) qualitative methods
B) quantitative methods
C) pluralistic methods
D) strategic research methods
E) survey research methods
Answer: A
2) Which of the following is a unique aspect of qualitative research?
A) involves quantifiable response collection
B) utilizes clear and precise methodology
C) provides rich insights into consumer behavior
D) disengages respondents so that they may make their own decisions
E) enhances the ability to predict behavior of respondents
Answer: C
3) Which type of research involves the use of structured questions where the response options
have been predetermined and a large number of respondents are involved?
A) qualitative research
B) quantitative research
C) pluralistic research
D) focus group research
E) Socratic research
Answer: B
4) Which type of research would likely be called "soft" research?
A) qualitative research
B) quantitative research
C) pluralistic research
D) focus group research
E) Socratic research
Answer: A
5) Which type of research would be most appropriate if the managers of the Tide brand at
Procter & Gamble wanted some ideas as to different ways Tide laundry detergent could be

A) quantitative research
B) qualitative research
C) pluralistic research
D) focus group research
E) idea-generation research
Answer: B
6) In understanding the Hispanic market, researchers have found that they prefer to call
themselves Latinos, and that there are vast differences between Latinos in California, Texas
and Florida, the Caribbean, South America and Mexico. Your book describes this
understanding of a market segment as stemming from which type of research?
A) quantitative
B) Hispanic research
C) pluralistic
D) qualitative
E) segmented research
Answer: D
7) Which type of research may begin with exploratory research and then go on to conduct a
full-scale, representative survey?
A) qualitative research
B) quantitative research
C) focus group research
D) quant/qual research
E) pluralistic research
Answer: E
8) Frito-Lay brand managers want to know which of three proposed end-aisle displays work
the best in terms of catching consumers' attention. They set up prototypes of the three
displays in three supermarkets and visit each to observe consumers' head movements as they
approach each display. Which observation technique would the managers be using?
A) direct
B) past records
C) archives
D) indirect
E) in-store observation

Answer: A
9) Which of the following observation techniques involves observing historical records, such
as records of sales calls or warehouse movements?
A) direct
B) archives
C) past records
D) indirect
E) surrogate
Answer: B
10) With which type of observation technique do researchers observe tangible evidence of
some event, such as measuring the amount of graffiti on buildings to indicate the potential
crime in an area?
A) covert
B) archives
C) invented
D) physical traces
E) overt
Answer: D
11) When a "secret shopper" is used to report salespersons' level of customer assistance and
courtesy, which type of observation is being used?
A) overt
B) covert
C) physical traces
D) archives
E) invented
Answer: B
12) An observation technique where the researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are
to be observed and recorded is known as:
A) structured observation.
B) in situ observation.
C) unstructured observation.
D) physical traces.
E) invented observation.
Answer: A

13) What type of observation method is used when human observation may be less accurate,
too costly, or faulty?
A) direct observation
B) auto observation
C) physio-observation
D) mechanical observation
E) archive observation
Answer: D
14) Which of the following was NOT discussed in the textbook as an appropriate condition
for the use of an observation study?
A) There is a short time interval between the beginning and end of the behavior to be
B) The behavior must be amenable to physiological measurement.
C) The behavior is public and therefore readily observed.
D) The behavior is so automatic or repetitive that any personal recall on the respondent's part
is likely to be faulty.
E) All of the above were discussed as appropriate conditions for an observation study.
Answer: B
15) Which of the following was NOT mentioned in the textbook as an advantage of
observational data?
A) Subjects react in a natural manner.
B) It is the only way to gather certain information (i.e. from children).
C) Recall error is maximized.
D) Sometimes observational data may be obtained at less cost.
E) Sometimes observational data may be more accurate.
Answer: C
16) Which of the following was NOT mentioned in the textbook as a limitation of
observational data?
A) Typically, only a small number of subjects are studied.
B) Recall error is maximized.
C) Subjective interpretation of results is required on the part of the researcher.
D) Underlying motives are left unexamined.
E) Underlying attitudes are left unexamined.
Answer: B
17) Which of the following refers to a small group of people brought together and guided by
a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion about some topic?
A) observation group
B) focus groups
C) control group
D) experimental group
E) ethnographic group
Answer: B
18) Which of the following is a characteristic of a nontraditional focus group?
A) meet in a dedicated room
B) use a one-way mirror for client viewing
C) meet for about 2 hours
D) have 6-12 persons
E) may have 25 or even 50 respondents
Answer: A
19) What is the recommended size of a "traditional" focus group?
A) 2 to 20
B) 5 to 10
C) 6 to 12
D) 7 to 15
E) 9 to 25
Answer: C
20) Focus group participants are often interviewed by moderators, referred to as:
A) Heavy Talkers.
B) Qualitative Research Consultants.
C) Introspective Moderators.
D) Qualitative Research Commissioners.
E) FGM Counselors.
Answer: B
21) Which of the following is NOT an advantage of online focus groups over traditional
focus groups?
A) No physical set up is necessary.
B) Participants from anywhere in the world can participate.
C) Participants are comfortable in their homes/offices.

D) The moderator can exchange private messages with participants.
E) Participants' "body language" may be observed.
Answer: E
22) Which one of the following was NOT mentioned in the textbook as an advantage of focus
A) They generate fresh ideas.
B) Hidden cameras record hidden motives.
C) They allow clients to observe the group.
D) They are generally versatile in that they can handle an unlimited number of topics.
E) They allow access to special respondent groups such as lawyers or doctors.
Answer: B
23) One of the disadvantages of focus groups is that:
A) results may be interpreted in an objective fashion.
B) results must be subjectively interpreted.
C) although the cost-per-participant is low, representativeness is also low.
D) although the cost-per-participant is high, representativeness is also high.
E) it is difficult to access special respondent groups, such as lawyers or doctors.
Answer: B
24) Which one of the following is NOT an objective of focus groups?
A) generate ideas
B) understand consumer vocabulary
C) reveal consumer needs
D) determine quantities of proposed new products/services that will be sold in a given market
E) reveal consumer attitudes
Answer: D
25) Focus groups should NOT be used when:
A) there is a need to understand the consumers' vocabulary.
B) there is a need to determine consumers' attitudes.
C) there is a need to predict the sales volume for a new product in a market territory.
D) there is a need to understand consumers' motives.
E) there is a need to know how accepting consumers are of a proposed new package design.
Answer: C
26) Which one of the following best represents the desired composition of a focus group?
A) homogeneous participants

B) heterogeneous participants
C) highly educated and articulate participants
D) participants who vary widely in terms of demographics
E) literate adults
Answer: A
27) Which of the following was NOT mentioned in the textbook as a method focus group
companies use to reduce "no shows"?
A) monetary incentives
B) free products or gift certificates
C) overrecruiting
D) making callbacks on the day preceding the focus group to remind the participant
E) using direct mail lists
Answer: E
28) Often, a critical requirement for a focus group meeting place is:
A) a very large room.
B) a small, cozy room.
C) round-table format allowing participants to see one another.
D) equipment to measure physiological responses of the participants.
E) hidden cameras and recording devices.
Answer: C
29) Which of the following best represents the future of focus groups?
A) Because of their many advantages and the unique abilities added by online focus groups,
the popularity of focus groups is increasing and they are being used on a worldwide basis.
B) Because it is difficult to interpret focus group results, their usage is declining.
C) Focus groups peaked during the 1980s and saw little growth during the 1990s.
D) Focus group use will go down because single source data is increasing.
E) Because of their many disadvantages and the problems associated with online focus
groups, the popularity of focus groups is decreasing worldwide.
Answer: A
30) Which of the following qualitative techniques is characterized as a set of probing
questions posed one-on-one to a subject by an interviewer so as to gain an idea of what the
subject thinks about something or why he or she behaves in a certain way?
A) probing question survey
B) protocol analysis
C) role-playing activity
D) in-depth interview
E) school teacher-probing
Answer: D
31) In which technique below are consumers' values determined, followed by determining
which product or service attributes would be viewed as a means of achieving a desired value?
For example, it is determined that "good health" is highly valued and "soy products replacing
beef" is viewed as a means of achieving "good health."
A) value salience analysis
B) qualitative value interviews
C) quantitative value interviews
D) laddering
E) value gradient analysis
Answer: D
32) The Acme Research firm decides to use a technique that requires a person to place herself
in a decision-making setting and to verbalize everything she considers in making the
decision. Which qualitative technique will she be using?
A) in-depth interview
B) protocol analysis
C) probing question survey
D) role-playing activity
E) value salience analysis
Answer: B
33) Which situations are particularly relevant for the use of protocol analysis?
A) purchases involving a long time frame and several decision factors
B) purchases involving a short time frame and only one or two decision factors
C) purchases involving a long time frame and only one or two decision factors
D) purchases involving a short time frame and several decision factors
E) routine purchases, such as purchasing chewing gum
Answer: A
34) Which type of qualitative research is most useful when it is thought that most respondents
will be hesitant to relate their true opinions?
A) in-depth interview
B) probing question survey

C) projective technique
D) coercion exercises
E) ethnography
Answer: C
35) A researcher for Lipton tea is interested in learning how teenagers think of iced tea, and
she gives a sample of teens the following incomplete sentence: "Teens who drink tea instead
of cola are..." and asks them to finish the sentence. This is an example of a(n):
A) in-depth interview.
B) "Picture This, Picture That" exercise.
C) word differences test.
D) sentence completion test.
E) "Sort Me Up."
Answer: D
36) Borrowed from anthropology, which type of research listed requires marketing
researchers to directly observe, interview, and audio and video record consumers over time?
A) role-playing research
B) ethnographic research
C) ecological research
D) qualitative-immersion research
E) quantitative-immersion research
Answer: B
37) Which of the following qualitative techniques involves determining the amount of
attention or interest by measuring the dilation of the pupil in the eye?
A) pupil dilation test
B) eye-o-gram
C) retina-o-meter
D) pupilometer
E) None of the above; there is no such measurement.
Answer: D
38) A device that determines the level of excitement by measuring the electrical activity in
the respondent's skin is known as:
A) an exits-o-meter
B) a galvanometer
C) a stimuli gauge

D) an electrodermometer
E) None of the above; there is no such measurement.
Answer: B
39) Though they are often used, focus groups are NOT considered qualitative research.
Answer: False
40) Quantitative techniques deal with the "soft side" of marketing research.
Answer: False
41) Quantitative techniques often use structured questions having predetermined response
options and are sometimes referred to as "survey research."
Answer: True
42) Conducting a nationwide telephone survey of several thousand persons using a
representative sampling plan would be an example of quantitative research.
Answer: True
43) A combination of qualitative and quantitative research is referred to as pluralistic
Answer: True
44) Pluralistic research is losing favor in the field of marketing research because of its
extensive and exclusive use of "soft" research methods.
Answer: False
45) Photo-elicitation is a qualitative research technique demonstrated to understand the
nuances of global markets.
Answer: True
46) Observation techniques allow researchers to observe rather than communicate with a
person to obtain information.
Answer: True
47) Observing the trashcans of consumers to find out the extent of recycling would be an
example of using an archive source of information.
Answer: False
48) Using a device attached to a family's TV or recording a sales presentation in a laboratory
are examples of overt observation techniques.
Answer: True
49) Using a "secret shopper" to record and report how sales clerks assisted customers would
be an example of covert observation.
Answer: True

50) Nissan allegedly placed a Japanese observer in a couple's home, and the couple thought
he was there as part of an educational exchange program. Rather, he was observing the
couple's automobile buying behavior for Nissan. This example illustrates that there are ethical
issues associated with observation studies.
Answer: True
51) A researcher is to observe supermarket meat-shopping behavior. She has carefully laid
out an observation form that contains a list of all possible relevant behaviors. This is an
example of structured observation.
Answer: True
52) Machines that count automobiles passing by are likely to be more accurate than humans
counting the autos. This "traffic counting" machine would be an example of mechanical
Answer: True
53) "Faulty recall" occurs when actions or activities are so repetitive or automatic that the
respondent cannot recall specifics about the behavior under question. It is a reason for not
using an observation technique.
Answer: False
54) One advantage of observation studies is that the subjects are not aware that they are being
studied and therefore act in a natural manner.
Answer: True
55) One of the advantages of observational studies is that large numbers of persons may be
observed; therefore, representativeness is increased.
Answer: False
56) Observation studies have the advantage of allowing observation of consumers' motives,
attitudes, and intentions.
Answer: False
57) Focus groups consist of dividing large groups (classes of college students, church groups,
and so on) into several smaller groups. This allows each subgroup to focus on a separate issue
such as price of the product, packaging of the product, usefulness of the product, and so on.
Combining all the subgroup reports together affords clients greater "focus" on their products
and services.
Answer: False
58) Traditional focus groups have 6 to 12 participants and are conducted in a dedicated room
with a one-way mirror for client viewing.

Answer: True
59) Rooms designed especially for focus groups are referred to as focus group facilities.
Answer: True
60) Focus group moderators are sometimes called qualitative research consultants.
Answer: True
61) Focus group reports must translate the qualitative statements of participants into
categories and then report the degree of consensus apparent in the focus groups.
Answer: True
62) There is only one form of online focus group; focus group members meet in a focus
group facility and the focus group is communicated via the Internet to clients who may be in
remote locations.
Answer: False
63) One of the disadvantages of focus groups is that they do not constitute representative
samples of larger populations.
Answer: True
64) Focus groups should be used when something must be predicted or forecast with
Answer: False
65) Focus groups should be composed of persons who are similar in terms of demographics
and other relevant variables.
Answer: True
66) A preferred seating arrangement in a focus group should allow each participant to see the
leader of the focus group but not one another.
Answer: False
67) Moderators of focus groups need not be hired until the focus groups are actually ready to
Answer: False
68) An in-depth interview has the advantages of allowing the interviewer to probe by asking
many additional questions. This leads to rich, sometimes revealing responses.
Answer: True
69) In-depth interviews are especially useful when the researcher wants to understand
decision making at the individual level and the respondent is not influenced by others, as they
may be in a focus group.
Answer: True
70) Laddering is a technique used with in-depth interviews which attempts to determine
which product attributes are linked to values held by consumers.
Answer: True
71) Protocol analysis involves placing people in decision-making situations and asking them
to verbalize everything they consider when making a decision.
Answer: False
72) When the decision process is very short and recall may be faulty, protocol analysis may
be useful to slow down the process.
Answer: True
73) Protocol analysis is NOT useful when the buying takes place over a long period of time,
such as buying a house.
Answer: False
74) McDonald's conducts a study and finds that there is an increase in the number of
consumers who value "healthy foods." These consumers link soy-based meat products with a
healthy diet. McDonald's decides to reintroduce the McLean burger. This example illustrates
the use of a qualitative research technique known as laddering.
Answer: True
75) One way to get consumers to bypass their rational controls and strike up a meaningful
dialogue in focus groups is through the use of projective techniques such as "Sort Me Up" or
"Sort Me Straight."
Answer: True
76) The sentence completion test is one in which respondents are given incomplete sentences
and then asked to complete them in their own words.
Answer: True
77) The picture test, a projective technique, is carried out by asking respondents to fill in
"balloons" drawn above the heads of the actors.
Answer: False
78) In role playing, participants are asked to pretend they are a "third person," such as a
friend or neighbor, and describe how the third person would react in a certain situation.
Answer: True
79) In ethnographic research, marketing researchers act exactly as anthropologists, in that
they enter into an "immersion" state with consumers and observe their behavior by living
with them.
Answer: False
80) Marketing researchers walking with seniors in their walking groups and listening to them
discuss their hopes, fears, worries, health, family and friends would be an example of an
application of ethnographic research.
Answer: True
81) One of the disadvantages of physiological measurements is that even when the
respondent reacts to a stimulus we can't tell if the response is positive or negative.
Answer: True
82) Physiological measurements are NOT useful when the subject matter is something
sensitive and may embarrass persons to the point that they cannot articulate a truthful
Answer: False
83) A study was conducted of online buyers to determine purchasing differences among
buyer segments such as males and females. The research began with a series of focus groups
followed by in-depth interviews. Finally, an online survey was conducted of several thousand
online buyers. If you had to classify this research, which of the following would be most
A) qualitative/quantitative
B) quantitative/qualitative
C) Socratic
D) pluralistic
E) online
Answer: D
84) The tax revenue department of a small town located in a dry county decides to sift
through collected garbage in the town to assess the amount of alcohol consumed. This is an
example of:
A) direct observation.
B) archives.
C) physical traces.
D) quantitative research.
E) none of the above
Answer: C
85) Nissan Motor Corporation sent a Japanese researcher to stay at the home of a California
couple as part of a student exchange program. However, the researcher was really spying on
the couple to better understand automobile buying behavior. This illustrates that:
A) all good observations should be covert.
B) observation raises ethical questions.
C) observation is not a good research technique.
D) structured observation is legal.
E) unstructured observation is legal.
Answer: B
86) Sue Miller, brand manager for Zippo Cat Foods, wanted to gather some information from
cat food buyers. She arranged to conduct several focus groups, each conducted online with as
many as 25 to 50 participants. She also wanted to interact with the focus group participants.
Sue would be using which type of focus group?
A) traditional
B) nontraditional
C) covert
D) overt
E) moderated
Answer: B
87) Earl Chestnut and Ann Arnold were considering conducting a focus group for their
company's cookie brand, Oats N' Raisins. Their objective was to understand when and under
what circumstances cookies are offered as a snack in households. Earl wanted to recruit 25
people representing the different groups of employers in the city, that is, a medical
researcher, a longshoreman, a truck driver, someone from the legal community, and so on.
Ann felt it would be better to have a more homogeneous group such as housewives with kids
still in school. Which of the following should be chosen?
A) Earl's heterogeneous group
B) Ann's homogeneous group
C) a combination of the two but use at least two dozen focus groups to evaluate differences
between the two types
D) None of the above; focus groups should not be used for the objective given.
E) None of the above; pluralistic research should be used.
Answer: B
88) Jamie Sims developed a female public urinal that has the advantage of allowing women
to use the restroom much faster. Jamie knows that waiting lines for women's rooms often are
present in large, heavily used public facilities such as busy airports or spectator events. She
has perfected her urinal and a major plumbing manufacturer is interested in producing and

distributing the device. However, the manufacturer wants Jamie to provide some research
evidence indicating how receptive women are to using the device. Jamie is concerned about
how to conduct the research since the topic is socially sensitive. Given this situation, Jamie
should use:
A) face-to-face focus groups.
B) a large national survey.
C) quantitative research.
D) qualitative, projective technique research.
E) quantitative, projective technique research.
Answer: D
89) Jerri Allen has trained for several months to conduct focus groups. She has just
completed her first focus group as the moderator. Which factor should Jerri remember when
reporting and using focus group results?
A) Qualitative statements must be categorized, and assessments must be made as to the
representativeness of the focus group participants.
B) All statements must eventually be quantified and input into some type of data analysis
software package that allows descriptive statistics to be calculated.
C) Statements must be summarized, and the influence of the focus group leader must be
excluded from the results.
D) Statements are not summarized, but are reported verbatim. Yet the influence of the focus
group leader must still be excluded from the results.
E) Jerri does not need to worry about the report as focus group "reports" simply consist of
providing clients with video and audio recordings of the focus group.
Answer: A
90) Billy Neighbors decides to use a qualitative research technique called laddering. Which
of the following would best describe how laddering could be used by Billy's Pork processing
A) determining values important to consumers (i.e., good health); the routes consumers take
to achieve those values (i.e., exercise, eating good foods, rest); and which specific product
attributes (i.e., eat white meats) are used as a means of achieving the end desired value (i.e.,
good health)
B) determining product attributes important to consumers (i.e., white meats); the routes
consumers take to achieve those attributes (i.e., shopping, reading ads, coupons); and which
specific product attributes (i.e., pork) are used as a means of achieving the end desired value

C) determining bottom rung values important to consumers (i.e., food, shelter, clothing); the
routes consumers take to advance to higher rungs (i.e., education, job search, skill training);
and which specific product attributes (i.e., white meats) are used as a means of achieving the
highest rung (i.e., high self-esteem)
D) determining the step-by-step approach to determining the best method to advertise the
product (i.e., pork) as a healthy, nutritious food (i.e., white meat)
E) None of the above; there is no such qualitative technique.
Answer: A
91) Wisconsin Research Associates is asked to help name a new product that is a new type of
nonfat cheese. Several names are suggested: SkinnyCheese, CheeseSmart, LoFaCheez, and
SansCholes. What would be the most appropriate qualitative technique to determine the
meanings of these names to customers?
A) hidden meanings test
B) protocol analysis
C) word association test
D) balloon test
E) laddering test
Answer: C

Test Bank for Marketing Research
Alvin C. Burns, Ronald F. Bush
9780133074673, 9780134895406, 9780134167404

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