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Chapter 12 Using Basic Descriptive Analysis, Performing Population Estimates, and Testing Hypotheses

1) ________ is defined as the process of describing a dataset by computing a small number of

statistics that characterize various aspects of the data.

A) Data normalization

B) Data mining

C) Data analysis

D) Data coding

E) Data collection

Answer: C

2) Which of the following is NOT a basic type of statistical analysis?

A) differences analysis

B) association analysis

C) financial analysis

D) inferential analysis

E) descriptive analysis

Answer: C

3) ________ analysis is used by marketing researchers to describe the sample dataset in such

a way as to portray the typical respondent and to reveal the general pattern of responses.

A) Differences

B) Association

C) Predictive

D) Inference

E) Descriptive

Answer: E

4) Statistical concepts such as mean, medium, and frequency distribution are forms of

________ analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: E

5) Statistical concepts such as range and standard deviation are forms of ________ analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: E

6) When marketing researchers use statistical procedures to generalize the results of the

sample to the target population it represents, the process is referred to as ________ analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: D

7) Statistical concepts such as standard error and null hypothesis are forms of ________

analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: D

8) ________ analysis helps determine the degree to which real and generalizable differences

exist in the population.

A) Differences

B) Association

C) Predictive

D) Inference

E) Descriptive

Answer: A

9) Statistical concepts such as t tests of differences and analysis of variance are forms of

________ analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: A

10) ________ analysis determines the strength and direction of relationships between two or

more variables.

A) Differences

B) Association

C) Predictive

D) Inference

E) Descriptive

Answer: B

11) Statistical concepts such as correlation and cross-tabulation are forms of ________

analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: B

12) Statistical procedures and models are available to the marketing researcher to help make

forecasts about future events, and these fall under the category of ________ analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: C

13) Multiple regression is a form of ________ analysis.

A) differences

B) association

C) predictive

D) inference

E) descriptive

Answer: C

14) The term ________ applies to any statistical measure used that somehow reflects a

typical or frequent response.

A) reversals of scale endpoints

B) third-person technique

C) central tendency

D) predictive analysis

E) nonsampling error

Answer: C

15) The ________ is a descriptive analysis measure defined as that value in a string of

numbers that occurs most often.

A) uncertainty

B) contrast

C) mode

D) mean

E) median

Answer: C

16) The ________ expresses that value whose occurrence lies in the middle of an ordered set

of values.

A) uncertainty

B) contrast

C) mode

D) mean

E) median

Answer: E

17) The ________ is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers.

A) multiple

B) matrix

C) mode

D) mean

E) median

Answer: D

18) ________ are concerned with depicting the typical difference between the values in a set

of values.

A) Cross-tabulations

B) Multiple regressions

C) Standard deviations

D) Measures of variability

E) Frequency distributions

Answer: D

19) A(n) ________ is a tabulation of the number of times that each different value appears in

a particular set of values.

A) measure of central tendency

B) hypotheses test

C) standard deviation

D) sample size

E) frequency distribution

Answer: E

20) The ________ identifies the distance between lowest value and the highest value in an

ordered set of values.

A) median

B) variance

C) standard deviation

D) sample size

E) range

Answer: E

21) The ________ indicates the degree of variation or diversity in the values in such a way as

to be translatable into a normal or bell-shaped curve distribution.

A) median

B) variance

C) standard deviation

D) sample size

E) range

Answer: C

22) To address ________, the square root of the entire equation for the standard deviation is

taken.

A) break-offs

B) variance

C) inflation

D) inference

E) range

Answer: C

23) The square of standard deviation is known as:

A) a median.

B) variance.

C) standard deviation.

D) sample size.

E) range.

Answer: B

24) A demographic question like, "What is your gender?" should have which of the following

central tendency measure for the responses?

A) mode

B) variance

C) median

D) range

E) mean

Answer: A

25) A demographic question like, "On a scale of 1 to 5, how does Starbucks rate on variety of

its coffee drinks?" should have which of the following central tendency measure for the

responses?

A) mode

B) variance

C) median

D) range

E) mean

Answer: E

26) The ________ procedure is used to produce descriptive statistics for variables with

nominal or ordinal scaling.

A) ANALYZE-DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS-RATIO

B) ANALYZE–DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS–FREQUENCIES

C) ANALYZE-DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS-DESCRIPTIVES

D) ANALYZE-DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS-EXPLORE

E) ANALYZE-DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS-CROSSTABS

Answer: B

27) When reporting scale data to clients, which of the following descriptive measures should

be absolutely included in a standard metric variable table?

A) variance

B) average

C) median

D) mode

E) range

Answer: B

28) Values that are computed from information provided by a sample are referred to as the

sample's:

A) parameters.

B) statistics.

C) median.

D) range.

E) standard deviation.

Answer: B

29) Values that are computed from a complete census, which are considered to be precise and

valid measures of the population, are referred to as:

A) parameters.

B) statistics.

C) median.

D) range.

E) standard deviation.

Answer: A

30) ________ is a form of logic in which you make a general statement about an entire class

based on what you have observed about a small set of members of that class.

A) Inference

B) Variance

C) Median

D) Range

E) Standard deviation

Answer: A

31) ________ is a set of procedures in which the sample size and sample statistics are used to

make an estimate of the corresponding population parameter.

A) Statistical inference

B) Frequency distribution

C) Hypothesis testing

D) Predictive analysis

E) Standard deviation

Answer: A

32) If you have five friends who tell you they all have had a great experience with their

purchase of a Chevrolet, and if you use this fact to decide to buy a Chevrolet, the form of

logic evident here is a(n):

A) median.

B) statistic.

C) inference.

D) variance.

E) parameter.

Answer: C

33) The two types of statistical inferences often used by marketing researchers are:

A) frequency distributions and standard deviations.

B) regression analyses and measures of variability.

C) parameter estimates and hypothesis tests.

D) descriptive analyses and predictive analyses.

E) medians and modes.

Answer: C

34) ________ is the process of using sample information to compute an interval that

describes the range of a parameter such as a population mean or the population percentage.

A) Sample estimation

B) Hypothesis testing

C) Parameter estimation

D) Predictive analysis

E) Regression analysis

Answer: C

35) ________ is used to compare the sample statistic with what is believed to be the

population value prior to undertaking the study.

A) Sample estimation

B) Hypothesis testing

C) Parameter estimation

D) Predictive analysis

E) Regression analysis

Answer: B

36) Ping Golf, Inc., conducts a study in which they use a probability sample of 600 golfers.

They examine the data from the sample and calculate that 28 percent of them own Ping golf

clubs. The 28 percent is the:

A) variance.

B) sample statistic.

C) measure of central tendency.

D) the population parameter.

E) the grand mean.

Answer: B

37) Which of the following refers to a measure of the variability in the sampling distribution

based on what is theoretically believed to occur if we were to take a multitude of independent

samples from the same population?

A) multiple variance analysis

B) variance

C) standard error

D) predictive analysis

E) sample statistic

Answer: C

38) ________ are the degree of accuracy desired by the researcher and stipulated as a level of

confidence in the form of a range with a lower boundary and an upper boundary.

A) Measures of variability

B) Confidence intervals

C) Standard percentages

D) Parameter estimates

E) Statistical inferences

Answer: B

39) Which of the following standard error values corresponds to 95 percent level of

confidence?

A) 2.69

B) 3.14

C) 1.96

D) 2.58

E) 1.52

Answer: C

40) A 99 percent confidence interval allows us to say that if we took many samples from the

population:

A) the whole sample would contain a range that included the population parameter.

B) 99 percent of all the samples would contain a range that included the population

parameter.

C) 99 percent of all the samples would allow us to estimate the mean within ±1 percent.

D) 1 percent of all the samples would contain a range that included the population parameter.

E) 1 percent of all the samples would allow us to estimate the mean within ±1 percent.

Answer: B

41) The proper command sequence in SPSS to generate a confidence interval for a mean is:

A) ANALYZE-COMPARE MEANS-ONE-SAMPLE T TEST.

B) ANALYZE-COMPARE MEANS-MEANS.

C) ANALYZE–COMPARE MEANS-PAIRED SAMPLE T TEST.

D) ANALYZE-COMPARE MEANS-INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T TEST.

E) ANALYZE–COMPARE MEANS-ONE-WAY.

Answer: A

42) ________ is a statistical procedure used to accept or reject the hypothesis based on

sample evidence.

A) Frequency distribution

B) Standard deviation

C) Hypothesis testing

D) Parameter estimation

E) Predictive analysis

Answer: C

43) The ________ value can be determined using either a percentage or a mean.

A) sampling distribution concept

B) measure of central tendency

C) hypothesized population parameter

D) parameter estimation

E) descriptive analysis

Answer: C

44) Which of the following is NOT used to test hypotheses?

A) sample statistic (mean or percentage)

B) parameter estimate

C) standard error of the statistic (mean or percentage)

D) hypothesized parameter value

E) desired level of confidence

Answer: B

45) The ________ holds that our actual sample is one of the many theoretical samples

comprising the assumed bell-shaped curve of possible sample results using the hypothesized

value as the center of the bell-shaped distribution.

A) standard deviation

B) sampling distribution concept

C) standard error of the statistic

D) hypothesized parameter value

E) confidence interval

Answer: B

46) Suppose we wish to test the hypothesis that an internship program allows its interns to

earn $2,750 per semester and let us assume that this hypothesis is, in fact, true. Which of the

following best illustrates the logic of hypothesis testing at the 95% confidence level?

A) From among 100 samples, 95 percent of them would generate means that fell within ±1.96

z scores.

B) From among 99 samples, 100 percent of them would generate means that fell within ±2.58

z scores.

C) From among 100 samples, 95 percent of them would generate means that fell within ±2.58

z scores.

D) From among 100 samples, 99 percent of them would generate means that fell within ±1.96

z scores.

E) From among 95 samples, 100 percent of them would generate means that fell within ±1.96

z scores.

Answer: A

47) Data gathering is defined as the process of describing a dataset by computing a small

number of statistics that characterize various aspects of the data.

Answer: False

48) Descriptive analysis allows a researcher to draw conclusions about the population based

on information in the dataset provided by the sample.

Answer: False

49) The researcher uses difference analysis to determine the degree to which real and

generalizable differences exist in the population to help the manager make an enlightened

decision on which advertising theme to use.

Answer: False

50) Statistical procedures and models are available to the marketing researcher to help make

forecasts about future events, and these fall under the category of association analysis.

Answer: False

51) Statistical concepts such as standard error and null hypothesis are forms of predictive

analysis.

Answer: False

52) Statistical concepts such as correlation and cross-tabulation are forms of association

analysis.

Answer: True

53) The basic data analysis goal involved in all measures of variability is to report a single

piece of information that describes the most typical response to a question.

Answer: False

54) The mode is a descriptive analysis measure defined as that value in a string of numbers

that occurs most often.

Answer: True

55) An alternative measure of central tendency is the variance, which expresses that value

whose occurrence lies in the middle of an ordered set of values.

Answer: False

56) Measures of variability are concerned with depicting the typical difference between the

values in a set of values.

Answer: True

57) A frequency distribution is a tabulation of the number of times that each different value

appears in a particular set of values.

Answer: True

58) The variance identifies the distance between lowest value and the highest value in an

ordered set of values.

Answer: False

59) The standard deviation indicates the degree of variation or diversity in the values in such

a way as to be translatable into a normal or bell-shaped curve distribution.

Answer: True

60) A demographic question such as, "About how many times did you buy fast-food for

lunch last week?" should have the median as the appropriate central tendency measure for its

responses.

Answer: False

61) When reporting descriptive statistics to clients, descriptive measures such as median and

mode need not be included in the standard metric variable table as managers do not relate to

median or modes of scale data.

Answer: True

62) Greek letters are used for sample statistics and Roman letters are used for parameters.

Answer: False

63) Values that are computed from a complete census, which are considered to be precise and

valid measures of the population, are referred to as parameters.

Answer: True

64) Values that are computed from information provided by a sample are referred to as the

sample's parameter.

Answer: False

65) Inference is a form of logic in which you make a general statement about an entire class

based on what you have observed about a small set of members of that class.

Answer: True

66) Measures of central tendency is a set of procedures in which the population size and

sample statistics are used to make estimates of population parameters.

Answer: False

67) Two types of statistical inferences are parameter estimates and hypothesis tests.

Answer: True

68) A hypothesis test is used to approximate the population value through the use of

confidence intervals.

Answer: False

69) Parameter estimation is used to compare the sample statistic with what is believed to be

the population value prior to undertaking the study.

Answer: False

70) To estimate a parameter, you need to know the sample statistic, which is either a mean or

percentage derived from sample data.

Answer: True

71) If you were investigating the percentage of high school students who eat at the local Taco

Bell, the percentage — because it is derived from the sample — is the sample statistic.

Answer: True

72) The standard error will increase if sample size is increased.

Answer: False

73) The standard error will increase if the variation (standard deviation) is increased.

Answer: True

74) The z value associated with a 95 percent confidence interval is either ±1.96.

Answer: True

75) Confidence intervals are the degree of accuracy desired by the researcher and stipulated

as a level of confidence in the form of a range with a lower boundary and an upper boundary.

Answer: True

76) The most commonly used level of confidence in marketing research is the 95% level,

corresponding to 1.96 standard errors.

Answer: True

77) To calculate the mean and to generate a confidence interval estimate of the population

mean, the sequence of menu commands in the SPSS for Windows is ANALYZE;

COMPARE MEANS; ONE SAMPLE T TEST.

Answer: True

78) A practical use of confidence intervals is that they may be used to forecast likely,

pessimistic, and optimistic forecasts.

Answer: True

79) In parameter estimation, a value such as the population mean is estimated based on a

sample's mean and its size.

Answer: True

80) A parameter estimation is a statistical procedure used to accept or reject the hypothesis

based on sample evidence.

Answer: False

81) The hypothesized population parameter value can be determined using either a

percentage or a mean.

Answer: True

82) A hypothesis test gives you the probability of support for your hypothesis based on the

sample evidence and sample size.

Answer: True

83) The logic of hypothesis testing is that if we assume that the hypothesized value is the

population parameter, then, at the 95 percent level of confidence, if we took 100 separate

samples, the z value for 95 of those samples would fall between ±1.96.

Answer: True

Test Bank for Marketing Research

Alvin C. Burns, Ronald F. Bush

9780133074673, 9780134895406, 9780134167404