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Chapter 3
1) A generation is a particular age group, usually consisting of people born within the same
________ time period.
A) 15-year
B) 25-year
C) 30-year
D) 10-year
E) 35-year
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) A generation is a particular age group, usually consisting of people born within the same
25-year time period. People in one generation have different shared experiences than people
in another.
2) The differences among people that lie above the surface of the communication iceberg
________.
A) are less important than those that lie below it
B) are not as readily visible as those that lie below it
C) are those you can easily observe
D) don't allow you to adjust your message
E) don't affect the way that people interpret your message
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) You can observe the differences, which allows you to adjust your message accordingly.
3) The differences that lie above the surface of the communication iceberg and can be easily
observed to enable adjustment of your message include all of the following EXCEPT
A) age
B) gender
C) political orientation
D) physical abilities and disabilities
E) race and ethnicity
Answer: C
Explanation:

C) Political orientation it not addressed here, as it lies below the surface of the
communication iceberg.
4) When communicating with a global audience you should use ________.
A) generation-specific slang to connect with the audience
B) age-neutral words
C) technological terms like GUI or VoIP to clarify your message
D) common texting language that omits capitalization and punctuation
E) popular online chat terms like LOL and OMG
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) When communicating with a global audience, you should use age-neutral words that do
not involve generation-specific slang. That way, everyone will know what you are talking
about. Don't assume that everyone will understand slang, texting language, or technologyrelated terms.
5) When communicating with a global audience you should ________.
A) not use generation-specific slang
B) tailor the message to the stereotypes associated with each audience member
C) use technological terms like GUI or VoIP to clarify your message
D) use common texting language that omits capitalization and punctuation
E) use popular online chat terms like LOL and OMG
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) When communicating with a global audience, you should use age-neutral words that do
not involve generation-specific slang. That way, everyone will know what you are talking
about. Don't assume that everyone will understand slang, texting language, or technologyrelated terms.
6) When communicating with a global audience you should ________.
A) use generation-specific slang
B) tailor the message to the stereotypes associated with each audience member
C) use common technological terms like GUI or VoIP
D) use common texting language that omits capitalization and punctuation
E) not use online chat terms like LOL and OMG
Answer: E

Explanation:
E) When communicating with a global audience, use age-neutral words that do not involve
generation-specific slang. That way, everyone will know what you are talking about. For
example, don't assume that everyone knows what an "emoticon" is or uses the terms
"LOL,""BFF," or "OMG."
7) Which of the following is true of how audience characteristics can affect the interpretation
of a message?
A) Using abbreviations like LOL or OMG can help bridge the communication gap between
people of different ages.
B) Most older people today are comfortable switching their attention back and forth between
communication devices and people.
C) Your vocabulary and the examples you use in your communication must be same for
college graduates and for high-school graduates.
D) Technology-related terms like GUI, VoIP, and WYSIWYG are examples of universal
terms that can be easily understood by people of all backgrounds.
E) When talking to someone with a physical disability, you should alter your verbal or
nonverbal methods to accommodate the person.
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) When talking to someone with a physical disability, you may need to alter your verbal or
nonverbal methods to accommodate the person. As a a general rule for global
communication, it is best to use plain English and explain acronyms and abbreviations to the
audience the first time you use them.
8) Which of the following is true about how men and women interpret information?
A) Women tend to use language to convey information and status.
B) Men tend to ask more questions when they don't understand or are interested in learning
more.
C) Men and women essentially use the same communication styles.
D) Men tend to use language to tell stories and to build rapport.
E) Women tend to use language to develop connections.
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Communication styles differ between the genders. Women tend to use language to develop
connections, whereas men tend to use language to convey information and status. Women
tend to ask more questions when they don't understand or are interested in learning more.
Men are less likely to ask questions because they don't want to appear unknowledgeable.

9) If your audience consists primarily of women, you should ________.
A) use fewer words
B) stay on topic
C) avoid asking questions
D) share stories to connect
E) get to the point quickly
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) If your audience consists primarily of women, take time to share stories to connect and
ask questions.
10) If your audience consists primarily of men, you should ________.
A) use fewer words
B) share stories to connect
C) ask questions
D) take the time to build a rapport
E) slowly build up to the main point
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) If your audience consists primarily of men, stay on topic, use fewer words, and get to the
point quickly.
11) If your audience consists of both men and women, ________.
A) this will make your presentation easier
B) use more words
C) omit questions
D) don't try to build rapport
E) it will be challenging to get to the point for the men, but still ask questions and build
rapport with the women
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) It will require all your talents to balance the needs and preferences of both genders.
12) Your company, a large retailer, is conducting a recruitment drive for disabled war
veterans. Considering the guidelines for communicating sensitively with audience members

with disabilities, which of the following statements would best serve as a heading for a
recruitment message developed for this purpose?
A) Special Recruitment Drive for Vets Crippled in the War
B) Special Recruitment Drive for Handicapped War Veterans
C) Special Recruitment Drive for War Veterans with Physical Disabilities
D) Special Recruitment Drive for War Veterans Afflicted with Disabilities
E) Special Recruitment Drive for War Veterans
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) In messages such as this one, where it is essential to refer to the disabilities of the
audience, you must always put the person first and the disability second. Also, you must
never use outdated terminology that stigmatizes individuals, such as the words crippled,
retarded, afflicted, or diseased.
13) When a message requires you to refer to people's disabilities, you should ________.
A) use words like crippled, retarded, afflicted, or diseased instead of euphemisms
B) always put the person first and the disability second
C) always use euphemisms
D) always use the phrase "handicapped individuals/ employees"
E) avoid altering your verbal or nonverbal methods to accommodate the person
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) In messages where it is essential to refer to the disabilities of the audience, you must
always put the person first and the disability second. Also, you must never use outdated
terminology that stigmatizes individuals, such as the words crippled, retarded, afflicted, or
diseased.
14) When communicating with a global audience you should ________.
A) use generation-specific slang
B) assume that all audience members have the same educational background
C) not use technological terms like GUI or VoIP
D) use common texting language that omits capitalization and punctuation
E) use popular online chat terms like LOL and OMG
Answer: C
Explanation:

C) When communicating with a global audience, you should not assume that everyone uses
the same equipment or the same technical vocabulary you do. Use plain English and explain
acronyms and abbreviations like GUI or VoIP the first time you use them.
15) Conversation ________.
A) is a competition
B) is a collaborative effort between people
C) is designed to force another person to agree with you
D) is aimed at proving you know more than another person
E) is adversarial
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) It's purpose is to connect and learn, to find out what you have in common with someone
else, and exploit your similarities and differences so you can accomplish a goal together.
16) ________ includes all of the socially transmitted behavior patterns of a particular society.
A) Law
B) Religion
C) Science
D) Technology
E) Culture
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Culture includes all of the socially transmitted behavior patterns of a particular society.
Communication involves several cultural components.
17) You are developing a message announcing the availability of English tutorials for foreign
students at your college campus. Which of the following opening statements best
accommodates the language fluency of your intended audience?
A) Are you looking to zero in on a good grade in your next term paper?
B) Are your English skills stopping you from hanging out with your classmates?
C) Do you want to learn to speak, read, and write English with confidence?
D) Do you want to learn the ropes of speaking, reading, and writing in English?
E) Lack of English skills getting your goat?
Answer: C

Explanation:
C) Nonnative English speakers might not understand slang or idioms. When crafting a
message for nonnative speakers, you should carefully consider your words to make sure they
will not confuse or offend your listeners.
18) Which of the following is true about the cultural components of communication?
A) A firm handshake is a universally accepted practice in business.
B) You should always make direct eye contact while conducting business across cultures.
C) When communicating across cultures, use slang and idioms to simplify communication
and aid understanding.
D) In Indian and Mexican cultures, asking personal questions about family is considered
normal and vital when you first meet someone.
E) Japanese business culture is informal and collaborative and is not bound by a strict
hierarchy.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) In many cultures, including India, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia, a person's family is the most
important aspect of his or her life. In cultures such as these, asking personal questions about
family is considered normal and vital when you first meet someone.
19) Which of the following is true about the cultural components of communication?
A) A firm handshake is a universally accepted practice in business.
B) Regardless of the culture, maintaining direct eye contact with the person you are speaking
with is considered a sign of respect.
C) When communicating across cultures, use slang and idioms to simplify communication
and aid understanding.
D) In many cultures, asking personal questions about family is considered normal and vital
when you first meet someone.
E) Japanese business culture is informal and collaborative and is not bound by a strict
hierarchy.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) In many cultures, including India, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia, a person's family is the most
important aspect of his or her life. In cultures such as these, asking personal questions about
family is considered normal and vital when you first meet someone.
20) ________ refers to how close you can stand next to someone without invading his or her
comfort.

A) Public behavior
B) Personal space
C) Greeting behavior
D) Perception of time
E) Ethnocentrism
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) In some cultures, such as Indian and Southeast Asian, people are comfortable standing
closely together.
21) Regardless of the culture, people often make up their minds about you in ________.
A) less than 30 seconds
B) about a minute
C) the first one to three minutes
D) approximately 15 minutes
E) the second hour
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) This is just about the time required to greet someone, so good greeting behavior is very
important.
22) In Mexico, ________.
A) people adhere pretty rigidly to deadlines and times
B) it is common to show up an hour late, and no offense is taken
C) being five minutes late for an appointment is considered very rude
D) arriving 10 minutes late is acceptable, but any later than that is seen as an insult
E) to be considered on time, people must arrive at least 15 minutes early
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Some countries are very rigid about time, while others are more fluid.
23) The Web site ________ serves as an online reference source for people searching for
information about the cultural practices of different countries.
A) Executive Planet

B) Monster
C) Travelocity
D) Culture Club
E) Google
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) This is a very useful resource.
24) In the U.S., ________.
A) bribery is an accepted business practice
B) U.S. companies are forbidden from offering bribes only
C) U.S. companies are forbidden from accepting bribes only
D) U.S. companies are forbidden from offering or accepting bribes
E) bribery is considered unethical but is legal
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) In some countries, bribery is an accepted business practice.
25) The belief that your own culture is superior and the standard by which all other cultures
should be measured is termed ________.
A) ethnocentrism
B) cultural relativism
C) authoritarianism
D) moral relativism
E) xenocentrism
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own culture is superior and the standard by which all
other cultures should be measured. Basically, ethnocentrism means, "We are right. Everyone
else is wrong.We are better than everyone else, too."
26) Martin believes that his culture is the most refined and civilized. He looks down on other
cultures and believes that they would all be better off adopting the practices of his culture.
Martin is ________.
A) xenocentric

B) ethnocentric
C) polycentric
D) monocentric
E) geocentric
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own culture is superior and the standard by which all
other cultures should be measured. Basically, ethnocentrism means, "We are right. Everyone
else is wrong.We are better than everyone else, too."
27) ________ are beliefs that are typically based on stereotypes and negatively impact our
perceptions of other people.
A) Theories
B) Perceptions
C) Assumptions
D) Conclusions
E) Definitions
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Assumptions are beliefs, not objective truths. They are typically based on stereotypes, and
they negatively impact our perception of people from other cultures.
28) Men are good at math. Women communicate well. Asians are excellent students. New
Yorkers are rude and self-centered. All these statements are examples of ________.
A) prototypes
B) stereotypes
C) holotypes
D) archetypes
E) genotypes
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) A stereotype reflects an oversimplified assumption about a group. Stereotypes narrow our
perspective, limit our ideas, and have little to do with reality.
29) Which of the following is true about the various barriers to intercultural communication?

A) There is no correlation between perceived cultural characteristics and the actual traits
rated for real people.
B) Using slang will help clarify the message for nonnative English speakers.
C) Stupidity can be cured with education, but there is no cure for ignorance.
D) Assumptions are objective truths based on careful observation.
E) Ethnocentrism is the desire to learn more about and embrace facets of other cultures and
ethnicities.
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Stereotypes narrow our perspective, limit our ideas, and have little to do with reality. A
widespread study by the National Institute of Health found there was no correlation between
perceived cultural characteristics and the actual traits rated for real people.
30) When communicating across cultures, you should use ________.
A) texting language to facilitate understanding
B) contracted words liked don't and can't for brevity
C) filler words to fill gaps in conversations
D) abbreviations and acronyms for ease of communication
E) examples to clarify communication
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) When communicating across cultures, it is best to speak clearly, repeat things, and use
examples to facilitate understanding.
31) To avoid intercultural communication problems due to language differences, you should
________.
A) avoid using slang
B) use texting language
C) use contracted words
D) use filler words
E) avoid repeating things
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Slang can cause serious intercultural communication problems as it will not be understood
by individuals from other cultures.

32) To help a nonnative English speaker better understand what you are saying, you should
________.
A) repeat things
B) use texting language
C) use slang
D) speak very loudly
E) use filler words
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Speaking louder won't help make a nonnative speaker better understand what you are
saying. Instead, it is best to speak clearly, repeat things, and use examples.
33) To facilitate communication between yourself and a nonnative English speaker,
________.
A) speak louder
B) use slang
C) use examples
D) don't repeat yourself
E) use a local dialect
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Slang causes serious intercultural communication problems, and speaking louder won't
help make a nonnative speaker better understand what you are saying. It is best to speak
clearly, repeat things, and use examples.
34) If you are ________, you might not think your culture is the greatest on earth, but you
have absolutely no interest in learning about any other cultures.
A) ethnocentric
B) xenocentric
C) polycentric
D) close-minded
E) single-minded
Answer: D
Explanation:

D) The characteristic of having absolutely no interest in learning is referred to as closemindedness. By keeping a closed mind, you miss out on interesting conversations, beneficial
ideas, and novel solutions to problems you might be trying to solve.
35) Ginger works in an organization that helps corporations to adopt earth-friendly practices.
Her coworkers come from various ethnicities and backgrounds. However, Ginger shows no
inclination to know about their cultures and prefers to stay with what is familiar to her.
Ginger is ________.
A) monocentric
B) xenocentric
C) polycentric
D) single-minded
E) close-minded
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) The characteristic of having absolutely no interest in learning is referred to as closemindedness. By keeping a closed mind, you miss out on interesting conversations, beneficial
ideas, and novel solutions to problems you might be trying to solve.
36) Ignorance ________.
A) is the same as stupidity
B) means you have no interest in learning
C) cannot be cured with education
D) means you are uninformed
E) is not a major impediment to intercultural communication
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Ignorance means you are uninformed or lack personal experience with a culture. It can be
cured with education.
37) ________–the result of a person's lack of experience with a culture or lack of education
about it– impedes the person's ability to understand a culture.
A) Stupidity
B) Xenocentrism
C) Ignorance
D) Polycentrism
E) Monocentrism

Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Ignorance means you are uninformed or lack personal experience with the culture.
Stupidity means you have no interest in learning, period. Ignorance can be cured with
education.
38) Fear ________ communication.
A) does not affect
B) is a huge impediment to intercultural
C) helps one focus on the heart of
D) is used to overcome hatred in
E) facilitates
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Instead of hearing what someone is truly saying, we misinterpret what is said. We may
start imagining we have heard all sorts of hidden, negative nuances.
39) In order to become a good global communicator you should ________.
A) remember that the U.S. is the center of the world
B) not trust books or movies to give you an accurate picture about other cultures
C) take into account all components of the regional culture
D) use slang and contractions
E) use long paragraphs to get the point across
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) When communicating with people from different cultures, you should make sure you
know what is similar and different about your own culture and the culture of the individual
you are talking to. You should consider the various cultural components of communication.
40) When communicating with people from different cultures, it would be useful to
________.
A) use appropriate idioms to convey your idea
B) use slang and contractions
C) use long paragraphs to get the point across
D) remember that the U.S. is the cultural capital of the world

E) learn a few phrases of another language and use them
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) When communicating with persons from a different culture, it would be useful to become
familiar with their language. People will be grateful because it shows you are interested in
their culture and willing to meet them halfway. To avoid being misunderstood, use simple,
accurate words and avoid contractions or slang.
41) Which of the following is a guideline for facilitating global communication?
A) do not refer to books or movies to learn about other cultures
B) understand body language and its nuances across cultures
C) use contractions and slang when communicating across cultures
D) keep in mind that the world looks up to the U.S. as the cultural leader
E) try to introduce and assimilate persons of other cultures into your own
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) As you become familiar with the behaviors of the culture you are addressing, you will
discover that gestures have different meanings. Observe others and their body language.
42) In order to communicate effectively with individuals from other cultures, you should
________.
A) take the time to learn about their cultures by reading books or watching movies
B) use contractions and slang
C) express your ideas through long paragraphs
D) remember that the U.S. is the cultural capital of the world
E) try to introduce and assimilate persons of other cultures into your own
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Taking the time to learn about other cultures by reading books or watching movies about
them will help you to connect better with people from those cultures.
43) In order to better communicate with people from other cultures, you should ________.
A) assimilate persons of other cultures into your own
B) use contractions and slang to build a close relationship
C) use long paragraphs to get your ideas across

D) be humble and respect their cultures
E) not trust movies or books to give you an accurate picture of their cultures
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) When communicating with persons from other cultures, you should be globally oriented.
You would do well to remember that the United States is not the center of the universe, nor
are its attitudes and behaviors the only acceptable ones in the world. You should be humble
and respect the cultures of others.
44) In order to keep your writing clear and to avoid confusing nonnative English speakers,
you should ________.
A) use filler words
B) use long, descriptive paragraphs
C) avoid the use of texting language
D) use contractions
E) avoid the use of salutations
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) When communicating across cultures, it is best to use correct capitalization and
punctuation. Texting language should not be used in writing. Without capital letters and
periods to guide them, nonnative English speakers may have difficulty reading your message.
45) Which of the following is a guideline to keeping your message simple when
communicating with people from different cultures?
A) use texting language to facilitate understanding
B) use contractions such as can't and don't to shorten your message
C) use long and descriptive paragraphs to get your point across
D) avoid the use of salutations to prevent confusion
E) avoid using filler words to fill gaps in conversations
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Every culture has filler words, or words that fill in gaps in conversations but mean little or
nothing. "Like" and "all" are often used as filler words by Americans. Filler words can
confuse people who don't speak English or who are from other cultures.
46) Which of the following is a filler word?
A) don't

B) LOL
C) like
D) cannot
E) L8
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Filler words fill up gaps in conversation but mean little or nothing. Other examples
include "all" and "um." Avoid these in intercultural communication as they can confuse
nonnative English speakers.
47) In order to simplify your message for nonnative English speakers, you should ________.
A) use texting language
B) use filler words
C) use contractions
D) use short sentences and short paragraphs
E) avoid the use of salutations
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) When communicating with people from different cultures, you should use short sentences
and short paragraphs as nonnative English speakers will have difficulty reading through
wordy text.
48) When communicating with people from other cultures, you should ________.
A) avoid using contractions such as can't and won't
B) use long and descriptive paragraphs
C) use filler words
D) avoid the use of salutations
E) use texting language
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Not all people from other cultures are familiar with contractions such as can't, don't, and
won't. Instead, use full words such as cannot, do not, and will not.
49) Marjorie sends the following message to her company's new supplier based in the U.K. to
inform him of the deadline for receiving his shipment: "Please note that the shipment is due
on or before 6-7-2011." As a global communications expert, you notice that this message is

likely to be misunderstood. How would you rephrase the sentence to better facilitate
communication?
A) Please note that this shipment shouldn't come in any later than 6.7.2011.
B) Please note that the shipment is due on or before 7 June 2011.
C) pls note that the shpmt is due by 6-7-2011
D) Please note that the shipment and all is due by 7-6-2011.
E) We hope that the shipment will be here by 6-7-2011.
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) The original message presents the date in the format that is used in the U.S. A person from
Europe is likely to read the date as 6 July, 2011, when the writer intends it to be 7 June, 2011.
The corrected sentence formats the date in a way that is universally understood.
50) David, a prominent American businessman, wants to build a large ranch in the U.K. He
writes the following message to his real estate agent in the U.K.: "Please buy 1,500 acres of
farmland in Nottinghamshire." As a global communications expert, you notice that this
message is likely to be misunderstood. How would you rephrase the sentence to better
facilitate communication?
A) Please buy 15.00 acres of farmland in Nottinghamshire.
B) Please buy 600 hectares of farmland and all in Nottinghamshire.
C) pls buy 600 hec of farmlnd in nottinghamshire
D) Please buy 1.500 acres of farmland in Nottinghamshire.
E) Please buy 1/500 acres of farmland in Nottinghamshire.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) The original message presents the number of acres to be bought in the format that is used
in the U.S. A person from Europe is likely to read the number as one-and-a-half acres of
farmland, when the writer intends it to be one thousand five hundred acres. The corrected
sentence formats the number in a way that is understood in the U.K.
51) A person born in 1930 would be classified as a(n) ________.
A) Baby Boomer
B) Veteran
C) GenXer
D) GenYer
E) Echo Boomer

Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Persons born between the years 1922 and 1945 are referred to as Veterans, Traditionalists
or of the Silent Generation.
52) Persons born between the years 1946 and 1964 are referred to as ________.
A) Echo Boomers
B) GenXers
C) GenYers
D) Baby Boomers
E) Veterans
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Persons born between the years 1946 and 1964 are referred to as Baby Boomers. Baby
Boomers are typically optimistic people who work hard, are team players, and prefer
informal meetings.
53) Individuals born between the years 1965 and 1980 are referred to as ________.
A) Baby Boomers
B) Echo Boomers
C) GenXers
D) Veterans
E) GenYers
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Persons born between the years 1965 and 1980 are called genXers. They are fairly tech
savvy, though less so than genYers. They enjoy freedom at work but need structure and
direction.
54) If you were born in a year between 1981 and 2000, you would be a ________.
A) Veteran
B) GenYer
C) Baby boomer
D) GenXer
E) Traditionalist

Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Born between the years 1981 and 2000, genYers make up the most tech-savvy generation,
communicating much more online than face to face. They are usually goal-oriented, realistic,
confident, and socially inclined.
55) Which of the following is the most tech-savvy generation, communicating much more
online than face to face?
A) Traditionalists
B) GenYers
C) Baby Boomers
D) GenXers
E) Veterans
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Born between the years 1981 and 2000, genYers make up the most tech-savvy generation,
communicating much more online than face to face.
56) ________ are also known as Echo Boomers.
A) GenYers
B) GenXers
C) Veterans
D) Baby Boomers
E) Traditionalists
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) GenYers, born between the years 1981 and 2000, are also known as Echo Boomers and
Millennials.
57) ________ are also known as Millennials.
A) GenYers
B) GenXers
C) Veterans
D) Baby Boomers
E) Traditionalists

Answer: A
Explanation:
A) GenYers, born between the years 1981 and 2000, are also known as Echo Boomers and
Millennials.
58) Your new manager is a 35-year old GenXer. What would be the most effective way of
communicating your daily updates to him?
A) through a formal printed memo
B) with a text message
C) by e-mail
D) in a quick meeting
E) by social networking
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) GenXers like quick responses and prefer e-mail and voice mail over in-person meetings.
Because they are more independent than the other generations, they typically are not as
comfortable working in groups or having face-to-face meetings.
59) Your new manager is a 55-year old Baby Boomer. You can expect that he would show a
strong preference to communicate with ________.
A) informal meetings
B) instant messaging
C) formal memos
D) text messages
E) social media
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Baby Boomers like to talk in person, so meetings are no problem for them. They are
somewhat tech-literate and typically don't have problems with e-mail or voice mail.
However, texting and social media are not generally something they use as often.
60) ________ are the least tech-literate generation who prefer formal memos, written
communications, or phone calls for important matters.
A) Echo Boomers
B) GenXers
C) Baby Boomers

D) Traditionalists
E) The Millennials
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Veterans are the least tech-literate of the group and often need some technological
support. They prefer formal memos, written communications, or phone calls for important
matters.
61) Which of the following messages is most likely to motivate Veterans?
A) Your experience is respected.
B) You are valued and needed.
C) You have the freedom to do it your own way.
D) You can forget the rules.
E) You will work with other creative people.
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Knowing that other people respect their experience often motivates Veterans.
62) Which of the following messages is most likely to motivate Baby Boomers?
A) Your experience is respected.
B) You are valued and needed.
C) You have the freedom to do it your own way.
D) You can forget the rules.
E) You will work with other creative people.
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Baby Boomers are motivated by knowing that their teams value and need them.
63) Which of the following messages is most likely to motivate GenXers?
A) Your experience is respected.
B) You are valued and needed.
C) You have the freedom to do it your own way.
D) Your work is meaningful.
E) You will work with other creative people.

Answer: C
Explanation:
C) GenXers are motivated by the opportunity to do things their own way without a lot of
structure.
64) Which of the following messages is most likely to motivate GenYers?
A) Your experience is respected.
B) You are valued and needed.
C) You have the freedom to do it your own way.
D) You can forget the rules.
E) You will work with other creative people.
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) GenYers are motivated by the prospect of cooperating with other people and doing
meaningful work.
65) "Earn to spend" is the money approach of which generation?
A) Veterans
B) Baby Boomers
C) Gen X
D) Gen Y
E) The Lost Generation
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) The Gen Y "earn to spend" money approach differs greatly from that of Gen X and
Veterans, who are both more prone to save, and Baby Boomers, who are more prone to buy
now and pay later.
Coping With Age Diversity in the Workforce
Alpine Machines and Tools is a large manufacturer of woodworking machines. The
company's management was recently taken over by Sandra, the owner's 28-year old daughter,
fresh out of management school. Sandra wants to modernize the company and overhaul the
communication systems and organization structure.
66) Sandra has appointed George, a classmate from school, as COO. Her father's trusted
associate Richard, a Baby Boomer, has been retained as Vice President. Considering the
stereotypes of their generations, which of the following organizational changes is likely to
make both George and Richard happy?

A) adopting a top-down decision-making approach
B) adopting e-mails, texting, and social media as the primary means of communication
C) stressing on the intrinsic rewards of work rather than extrinsic rewards such as pay and
benefits
D) a move away from individual contribution and toward self-directed teams
E) adopting a vertical organization structure
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Despite several differences between the generations, both GenYers like George and Baby
Boomers like Richard are team players who enjoy cooperating with others to get work done.
67) Sandra is planning to have a state-of-the-art communications system that will do away
with the current system of communicating through formal memos and face-to-face meetings,
and require that most communication be done by e-mail, instant messaging, online chats, and
webconferencing. Which of the following statements, if true, would support Sandra's move?
A) As a significant proportion of the existing staff is up for retirement in the next couple of
years, Sandra is planning a recruitment drive in nearby colleges to fill those positions.
B) Barring a small team of managers and supervisors, the company's workforce is primarily
made up of semi-skilled laborers.
C) The support of the existing team of top managers, most of whom have been working for
the company for the past three decades, is crucial to Sandra's future plans for the company.
D) The company is a market leader in the industry.
E) The company recently acquired a local competitor.
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) The new recruits are likely to be comprised mainly of GenYers, who are as a group
extremely tech savvy and communicate much more online than face-to-face. They would be
very comfortable collaborating via online chats and Wikis.
68) Sandra is planning to have a state-of-the-art communications system that will do away
with the current system of communicating through formal memos and face-to-face meetings,
and require that most communication be done by e-mail, instant messaging, online chats, and
webconferencing. Which of the following statements, if true, would undermine Sandra's
move?
A) As a significant proportion of the existing staff is up for retirement in the next couple of
years, Sandra is planning a recruitment drive in nearby colleges to fill those positions.
B) The company's workforce is primarily made up of young college graduates.

C) To run the company effectively, Sandra is counting on support from the existing team of
top managers, most of whom have been working for the company for the past three decades.
D) The company is a market leader in the industry.
E) The company recently acquired a local competitor.
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) The existing team of top managers is comprised mostly of Baby Boomers and Veterans,
who would not be comfortable working in a technology-driven environment.
69) Sandra anticipates that a significant proportion of the company's existing staff will retire
over the next couple of years. As part of her modernization strategy, Sandra is planning to
replace these employees with young GenYers fresh out of college. Which of the following
organizational changes is most likely to motivate the new recruits?
A) establishing individual, rather than team, responsibilities
B) offering higher pay and better benefits
C) making the work more meaningful
D) focusing on authority and discipline
E) providing a structured work environment
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) GenYers are motivated by the prospect of cooperating with other people and doing
meaningful work.
70) Sandra wishes to enlist the support of the Baby Boomers in the organization. Considering
the typical characteristics of their generation, which of the following rewards should she offer
to let them know that they are valued and needed by the organization?
A) more freedom at work
B) higher pay and benefits
C) more meaningful work
D) job satisfaction
E) more structure at work
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) The preferred rewards of Baby Boomers are title, recognition, and money.

71) Age, gender, physical abilities and disabilities, education, technological background, and
race and ethnicity are all characteristics that lie above the communication iceberg and can be
easily observed.
Answer: True
Explanation:
The differences among people lie above and below the surface of the communication iceberg.
Those differences that lie above the surface of the iceberg are those you can easily observe
and adjust your message accordingly. Age, gender, physical abilities and disabilities,
education, and technological background are all characteristics that lie above the
communication iceberg.
72) Men typically tend to ask more questions when they don't understand something or are
interested in learning more.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Men are less likely to ask questions because they don't want to appear unknowledgeable.
Women tend to ask more questions when they don't understand or are interested in learning
more.
73) You should not refer to a person's disabilities at all in speaking or writing, unless doing
so is essential to your message.
Answer: True
Explanation:
You must not refer to people as handicapped or disabled either in speaking or writing. In fact,
don't refer to their disabilities at all, unless doing so is absolutely essential to your message. If
you must do so, always put the person first and the disability second.
74) When speaking to nonnative speakers, you should try to use slang or idioms to
communicate your message clearly to your audience.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Nonnative English speakers might not understand you if you talk too fast or use slang or
idioms. Carefully consider your words to make sure they will not confuse or offend your
listeners.
75) Regardless of culture, maintaining good eye contact with the person you are
communicating with is essential.
Answer: False
Explanation:

In some cultures, people expect you to look at them when you talk to them. In others, people
do not. In order to avoid offending your audience, you should maintain eye contact with your
audience only if it is acceptable in their culture.
76) The individual traits of the majority of people in a community usually closely mirror the
stereotypes attributed to them.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Stereotypes narrow our perspective, limit our ideas, and have little to do with reality. In fact,
a widespread study by the National Institute of Health found there was no correlation
between perceived cultural characteristics and the actual traits rated for real people.
77) A person can be said to be close-minded when he has absolutely no interest in learning
about other cultures.
Answer: True
Explanation:
Close-mindedness is closely related to ethnocentrism. If you are close-minded, you might not
think your culture is the greatest on earth,but you have absolutely no interest in learning
about any other cultures.
78) There is no cure for ignorance.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Being ignorant about a culture is different than being stupid. Ignorance simply means you are
uninformed or lack personal experience with the culture. Stupidity means you have no
interest in learning, period. Ignorance can be cured with education. There is no cure for
stupidity.
79) Emotions like fear and hatred interfere with communication.
Answer: True
Explanation:
Emotions like fear and hatred interfere with communication. Instead of hearing what
someone is truly saying, we misinterpret what's said.
80) When communicating with a person from a different culture, it would help to become
familiar with their language.
Answer: True
Explanation:
When communicating with individuals from another culture, you should learn a few phrases
of another language and use them. People will be grateful because it shows you are interested
in their culture and willing to meet them halfway.

81) Reading books and watching movies or shows about other cultures will help us better
understand those cultures.
Answer: True
Explanation:
In order to learn more about a culture, you should take the time to read books or watch
movies about that culture.
82) When communicating with people from other cultures, you should always remember that
the U.S. is the center of the world in terms of culture.
Answer: False
Explanation:
You should be globally oriented when communicating with people from other cultures. You
must remember that the United States is not the center of the universe, nor are its attitudes
and behaviors the only acceptable ones in the world. Be humble and respect the cultures of
others.
83) Using texting language that omits punctuation and capitalization, and abbreviated words
is the most suitable for global communication as this type of language is brief and easy to
understand.
Answer: False
Explanation:
When communicating with a global audience, you should use correct capitalization and
punctuation. Texting language should not be used to write. Without capital letters and periods
to guide them, nonnative English speakers may have difficulty reading your message.
84) In order to communicate effectively across cultures, you should use filler words to fill
gaps in conversations.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Every culture has filler words, or words that fill in gaps in conversations but mean little or
nothing. "Like" and "all" are often used as filler words by Americans. Filler words can
confuse people who don't speak English or who are from other cultures and should not be
used in global communication.
85) Contractions such as can't and don't should be used in global communication instead of
cannot and do not because contractions are briefer and easier to understand.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Not all people from other cultures are familiar with contractions. Instead of contractions like
can't, don't, and won't, you should use full words such as cannot, do not, and will not.

86) An American will write February 3, 2011 as 2.3.2011; a European will write the same
date as 3.2.2011.
Answer: True
Explanation:
Different cultures format dates and numbers in different ways. While Americans put the
month first, followed by the date and the year, Europeans put the date first, followed by the
month and the year.
87) GenYers are the most tech-savvy generation, communicating much more online than face
to face.
Answer: True
Explanation:
GenY'ers make up the most tech-savvy generation, communicating much more online than
face to face. They are very comfortable collaborating via online chats and Wikis. They
generally prefer text messages to e-mails.
88) Baby Boomers like quick responses and prefer e-mail and voice mail over in-person
meetings.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Baby Boomers like to talk in person, so meetings are no problem for them. They are
somewhat tech-literate and typically don't have problems with e-mail or voice mail.
However, texting and social media are not generally something they use as often.
89) GenXers are motivated by the opportunity to do things their own way without a lot of
structure.
Answer: True
Explanation:
GenXers value freedom at work and enjoy doing things their own way.
90) Veterans believe in buying now and paying later.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Veterans believe in saving and in paying cash for their purchases.
91) You are developing a message providing details of a support group for mothers of
children with Down syndrome. Considering the characteristics of your audience, describe
how you would adjust your message to facilitate communication, giving examples wherever
appropriate.

Answer: Since the audience consists only of women, one should take time to share stories to
connect and ask questions. A reference to disabilities is absolutely essential to the message,
so one should do so by putting the person first and the disability second. For example, one
should say "mothers of children with Down syndrome" rather than "mothers of mentally
handicapped children." That way, one's focus is on the whole person, not the disability.
Finally one should never use outdated terminology that stigmatizes individuals, such as the
words crippled, retarded, afflicted, or diseased.
92) Describe the ten cultural components of communication?
Answer:
1) Language fluency: You should consider if your audience consists of nonnative-English
speakers. If so, you must find out how much English the audience knows, how they learned
it, and if they are fluent in the language. Nonnative English speakers might not understand
you if you talk too fast or use slang or idioms.
2) Age: How does your audience view younger or older people? Are you older or younger
than your audience? How does this impact their perception of you? People in some cultures
show more respect for older people than Americans typically do. In many of these cultures,
you are to address older people by their titles.
3) Gender: Are gender roles strongly defined in the culture? This goes beyond the male and
female communication styles you learned about earlier. In many regions of the world, gender
roles are very strongly defined, affecting how people dress and how they are supposed to
interact publicly with the opposite sex.
4) Family: How important is family to your audience? How does this impact their lives? In
many cultures, including India, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia, a person's family is the most
important aspect of his or her life. In cultures such as these, asking personal questions about
family is considered normal and vital when you first meet someone.
5) Religion: How important is religion to members of the culture, and how does it affect
people's lives? This will affect how you should interact with them. In many cultures, religion
permeates all aspects of life, both at home and at work.
6) Eating behavior: How do people in the culture eat?With their hands? A particular hand?
Utensils? What type? What do people eat or, more importantly, not eat? This will affect what
you eat when visiting others and how you eat without embarrassing yourself or offending
others.
7) Greeting behavior: How do people in the culture greet each other? Do they shake hands,
hug, or bow? Should you take off your shoes when entering their homes or bring a gift? Good
greeting behavior creates a good first impression.
8) Business and public behavior: How do you address someone when you first meet at work?
By first name or last name? Should you make small talk before discussing business? Can you
ask personal questions? Is bribery an accepted business practice? Should you always
negotiate? Some business cultures are more formal than others and adhere to a strict
hierarchy; other business cultures are informal and collaborative. Some cultures view the

negotiating process as an enjoyable part of business and therefore take their time. In other
cultures, people just want to make a decision as quickly as possible.
9) Personal space: Personal space refers to how close you can stand next to someone without
invading his or her comfort. This differs from culture to culture. Also, in some cultures,
people expect you to look at them when you talk to them. In others, people do not like that.
10) Perception of time: How important is punctuality? Some cultures are more rigid about
time, whereas others are more fluid.
93) What are ethnocentrism and close-mindedness? Why are both barriers to effective
intercultural communication?
Answer: Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own culture is superior and the standard by
which all other cultures should be measured. Basically, ethnocentrism means, "We are right.
Everyone else is wrong.We are better than everyone else, too." Ethnocentrism not only makes
communication difficult, it almost guarantees misunderstanding and anger at an individual
level, and potential conflict at a national level.
Close-mindedness is closely related to ethnocentrism. If you are close-minded, you might not
think your culture is the greatest on earth,but you have absolutely no interest in learning
about any other cultures. By keeping a closed mind, you miss out on interesting
conversations, beneficial ideas, and novel solutions to problems you might be trying to solve.
You are also less likely to do things like make new friends and eat new foods. You will
confine yourself to a world with very rigid boundaries and limited potential.
94) What are assumptions? How can this barrier to intercultural communication be
overcome?
Answer: Assumptions are beliefs, not objective truths. They are typically based on
stereotypes, and they negatively impact our perception of people from other cultures. We
make assumptions based on stereotypes because it is very hard to mentally process all of the
complicated information about other people in the world and spend time understanding the
different ways people behave. Instead,we find it easier to put people into categories and to
accept cultural stereotypes, especially those promoted by the media. In order to overcome this
barrier to intercultural communication, observe your own reactions the next time you meet
someone from another culture. Do you find yourself thinking "Oh, she's from that country. I
know what she is like." Or, "That's weird.Why does she do that? That's stupid." Or, "I can't
understand him at all." If thoughts such as these cross your mind, you are probably thinking
in terms of stereotypes. Say "no" to those thoughts. Instead, ask questions and get to know
the person. Once you begin to examine your assumptions, you are on your way to
overcoming a significant barrier to good intercultural communication.
95) List the six major barriers to intercultural communication. Have you personally
experienced any of these barriers when communicating with people of other cultures?
Describe the steps you took or can take to overcome the barrier(s).
Answer: The six major barriers to communication are:
1) ethnocentrism,
2) assumptions,

3) language differences,
4) close mindedness,
5) ignorance, and
6) fear.
Student answers on how to overcome these barriers may vary based on their personal
experiences, but could touch on the following points:
1) Ethnocentrism: Remember that every culture has something to offer and try to learn as
much as we can about people, cultures, and their views.
2) Assumptions: Reexamine assumptions by comparing stereotypes with traits of real people
you know.
3) Language differences: Speak clearly, avoid slang, repeat things, and use examples. Also
listen carefully. Don't talk down to nonnative speakers. Learn to speak a new language.
4) Close-mindedness: Remember that every culture has something to offer and try to learn as
much as we can about people, cultures, and their views.
5) Ignorance: Educate yourself about other cultures.
6) Fear: Overcome fear by familiarizing yourself with a culture and by reexamining your
assumptions.
96) You will be staying in a foreign country as part of a student exchange program in your
college. You realize that you are completely ignorant of that country's culture. How can this
act as a barrier in your communication with people in that country? Keeping in mind the tips
for facilitating global communication, identify some steps you can take to overcome this
barrier.
Answer: You are ignorant about a culture if you are uninformed or lack personal experience
with the culture. Ignorance can be a serious impediment when it comes to communicating
with people from other cultures. It could result in cultural gaffes that could have
consequences ranging from offending people and losing potential friends to unknowingly
breaking the law in some countries. Ignorance can be cured by education.
This can involve a variety of steps that will facilitate global communication:
1) Educate yourself about the ten cultural components of communication as they relate to that
culture. Learn the cultural values and norms in that country in relation to language fluency,
age, gender roles, primacy of family, religion, eating behavior, greeting behavior, business
and public behavior, personal space, and perception of time.
2) Learn a few phrases of the new language.
3) Understand the body language of the culture.
4) Read books and watch movies and shows regarding that country and culture.
5) Find out how dates and numbers are formatted in that country.

97) How can you be an active listener when communicating with a person from a different
culture?
Answer: When you talk to someone from another culture, you are probably talking to a
nonnative English speaker or someone who speaks with an accent. The person is likely to use
different words or put words together in a different order to communicate a message. Listen
carefully. Let the person finish the entire message and don't interrupt. You should be able to
figure out what the speaker means, even if he or she doesn't say things the way you would.
You should be able to figure out what he or she means by the context of the conversation.
98) How can you keep your messages simple to facilitate global communication?
Answer: In order to keep your writing clear and to the point and to avoid confusing nonnative
English speakers, you can do the following:
1) Use correct capitalization and punctuation. Don't use texting language to write. Without
capital letters and periods to guide them, nonnative English speakers may have difficulty
reading your message.
2) Avoid "filler" words. Every culture has filler words, or words that fill in gaps in
conversations but mean little or nothing. "Like" and "all" are often used as filler words by
Americans. Filler words can confuse people who don't speak English or who are from other
cultures.
3) Use short sentences and short paragraphs. Nonnative English speakers have difficulty
reading through wordy text. Again, keep your message short and simple.
4) Avoid contractions. Not all people from other cultures are familiar with contractions.
Instead of using can't, don't, and won't, use full words such as cannot, do not, and will not.
5) Use the correct salutation. A salutation is the proper greeting used to start a message.
6) Also, remember to use correctly formatted dates and numbers.
99) Rewrite the following message so that it can be better understood by a culturally diverse
audience: r u looking for a good used car at a grt $? You can find the perfect used car at Ace
Autos! We offer like the best prices in Athens for buying or trading-in cars. You won't find a
better deal anywhere else!
Answer: The above message uses texting language, filler words, and contractions–all of
which can confuse nonnative English speakers. The message can be rewritten as follows:
Are you looking for a good used car at a great price? You can find the perfect used car at Ace
Autos! We offer the best prices in Athens for buying or trading-in cars. You will not find a
better deal anywhere else!
100) Summarize the communication and interaction styles of various generations ranging
from the veterans to the geners. Also describe what motivates them at work.
Answer:
● Geners make up the most tech-savvy generation, communicating much more online than
face to face. They are very comfortable collaborating via online chats and Wikis. They

generally prefer text messages to e-mails. Gener’s are motivated to cooperate with other
people and do meaningful work.
● Geners are fairly tech-savvy. They like quick responses and prefer e-mail and voice mail
over in-person meetings. Because they are more independent than the other generations, they
typically are not as comfortable working in groups or having face-to-face meetings. They are
motivated by the opportunity to do things their own way without a lot of structure.
● Baby Boomers like to talk in person, so meetings are no problem for them. They are
somewhat tech-literate and typically don't have problems with e-mail or voice mail.
However, texting and social media are not generally something they use as often. They are
motivated by knowing that their teams value and need them.
● Veterans are the least tech-literate of the group and often need some technological support.
They prefer formal memos and written communications or phone calls for important matters.
They are also more accustomed to work situations that rely on the chain of command than
collaboration. Knowing that other people respect their experience often motivates them.

Test Bank for Keys to Business Communication
Carol J. Carter
9780132658737, 9780136103332, 9780133890846

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