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Chapter 5
1) All of the following are true of poor writing skills EXCEPT
A) They are likely to cause your readers to draw the wrong conclusions about you.
B) They may make readers think you are disorganized and don't know your topic very well.
C) They can lead people to believe you are uneducated or careless.
D) They may not impress people but they won't impair their ability to understand your
message.
E) They can make your audience think that you don't care about what you're writing.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Poor writing skills are likely to cause your readers to draw the wrong conclusions about
you. Without good writing skills, it won't matter how educated or clever you are – people
won't understand your messages.
2) ________ is the process of capturing your thoughts, organizing them, and putting them on
paper.
A) Reading
B) Writing
C) Distributing
D) Proofing
E) Giving feedback
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Writing is really just an extension of thinking.
3) An annotated outline ________.
A) is a bare-bones outline
B) is an outline with additional notes and reference information
C) is written to be read to your audience
D) makes writing your first draft a bit more difficult
E) should not be written on index cards
Answer: B
Explanation:

B) Adding notes and reference information to a bare-bones outline makes it an annotated
outline. This is not written for your audience to read, but so that you can have all the
information you need in one place. It makes writing your first draft a lot easier.
4) Including an actual introduction and closing ________.
A) is never done in an outline
B) must be done in a bare-bones outline
C) cannot be done in an annotated outline
D) is a poor idea for any outline
E) is sometimes done in an annotated outline
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) While it may seem premature to write these sections for the outline, it is sometimes done
because these sections help define the contents of the body of the message.
5) A first draft should ________.
A) always be written slowly and painstakingly
B) contain polished writing
C) not contain any spelling mistakes
D) be grammatically perfect
E) flow logically from topic to topic
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Your first draft will generally be roughly written, meaning it may have spelling or
grammar mistakes, and it may even be missing information. However, it should flow
logically from one topic to another and address most of the information in your annotated
outline.
6) If your annotated outline is very detailed ________.
A) you spent too much time on it
B) you should go back and cut it down
C) you will have to add more content to it to create a first draft than if you started with a
bare-bones outline
D) you may only have to connect its points to make the information flow so it becomes a first
draft
E) you will need to fill in the blanks between outline topics and jot down additional ideas for
each point

Answer: D
Explanation:
D) If your annotated outline is extremely detailed, you may only have to connect its points to
make the information flow so it becomes a first draft. If your annotated outline is more
sparse, you will need to fill in the blanks between outline topics, jot down additional ideas for
each point, and put in placeholders like "???" or "XXX" for items you can't think of at the
moment.
7) ________ refers to a state of mind in which you believe that you cannot think of anything
to write.
A) Free-writing
B) Writer's block
C) Annotated outlining
D) Dovetailing
E) Mind mapping
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) The actual block is caused by the anxiety that what you write won't be good enough.
8) Writer's block ________.
A) means writing your first draft as quickly as possible to keep up with your thoughts
B) is writing slowly and deliberately, so that you fix any mistakes before moving on to the
next sentence
C) is caused by the anxiety that you are writing too fast
D) can be eliminated by giving yourself permission to write a first draft that's not perfect
E) is caused by thinking that writing anything is better than writing nothing at all
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Writer's block refers to a state of mind in which you believe that you cannot think of
anything to write. The truth is, you can always think of something to write. The actual block
is caused by the anxiety that what you write won't be good enough. Eliminate the worry by
giving yourself permission to write a not-so-great first draft knowing that you will rewrite the
copy several times until it's good.
9) ________ a blueprint for writing.
A) Words are
B) Sentences are

C) Paragraphs are
D) Tone is
E) An outline is
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) An architect would never build a house without a plan, and you shouldn't write anything
without some sort of outline.
10) All of the following are considered the "bricks and mortar" for writing EXCEPT
A) words
B) paragraphs
C) outline
D) tone
E) sentences
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) An outline is a blueprint for writing.
11) Positive words ________.
A) erode goodwill
B) increase the reader's resistance to your message
C) put the reader in the right frame of mind to act on your message
D) make it less likely the reader will accept on your message
E) build hostility
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Positive words help put the reader in the right frame of mind to accept your message and
act on it.
12) Which of the following would be most appropriate in a message informing an employee
that he did not get the promotion he requested?
A) I'm very truly sorry to say you didn't get the promotion - better luck next time.
B) Sadly, another candidate was just more impressive to the decision makers and got the
promotion instead of you.

C) Thank you for your interest but after careful consideration another candidate received the
promotion.
D) Although you have some admirable qualities, we are rejecting you for the promotion.
E) I wish that you would have done a better job in the interview so that the committee would
have given you the promotion.
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) This statement projects a positive image by thanking the candidate for his interest. It
conveys the bad news clearly but sensitively using positive phrasing.
13) If you don't submit your paperwork by the end of the week, you will lose your chance of
being considered for this project.
Which of the following best rewrites the statement above using positive language?
A) We can't consider you for this project unless you submit your paperwork by Friday at the
very latest.
B) If you submit your paperwork by the end of the week you will be considered for this
project.
C) If you don't want to lose out on being considered for this opportunity be sure to submit
your paperwork by the end of the week.
D) Please send in your paperwork by the end of the week or we will not consider you for this
project.
E) Only those who submit paperwork by Friday will be considered.
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) All of the other statements use negative language (can't, unless, lose, not, only etc). This
statement uses positive language to make the same point.
14) Using positive words to convey a negative message ________.
A) is unethical
B) will confuse the reader
C) is not as effective as using negative words to do so
D) make it more likely your audience will accept it
E) ensure that your audience will be happy
Answer: D
Explanation:

D) Positive words help put your reader in the right frame of mind to accept your message and
act on it. While they may not make the audience happy about the bad news, they do a better
job than negative words to create goodwill and leave a good impression.
15) To write effectively avoid using ________.
A) weak terms
B) powerful phrases
C) verbs that take the place of a noun phrase
D) positive language
E) unbiased language
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Avoid using weak terms and instead use nouns and verbs that convey real power.
16) We will do all of the work necessary ________ the user's guide.
Which of the following best completes the statement above?
A) to create
B) for the creation of
C) in the process to create
D) to do the creating of
E) creative
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) This strong verb best completes the sentence.
17) Nouns that end in "-ment," "-ion," and "-al" ________.
A) erode goodwill
B) put the reader in the right frame of mind to accept your message
C) convey real power
D) needlessly categorize people
E) are more powerfully rewritten as verbs
Answer: E
Explanation:

E) People often use nouns when they should use verbs. For example, instead of saying "we
made the decision," say "we decided."
18) It is necessary that you complete work by October 30.
Which of the following would make the sentence above more powerful?
A) replace "It is necessary that you" with "You must"
B) replace "It is necessary that you" with "You are required to"
C) replace "It is necessary that you" with "It would be appreciated if"
D) replace "complete work" with "are in completion of the work"
E) replace "complete work" with "make the work complete"
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Replacing the weak phrase, "it is necessary" with the strong word "must" makes for the
strongest, most emphatic sentence.
19) "Very" ________.
A) should never be used in business writing
B) is one of the commonly overused modifiers
C) should be used as much as possible
D) and other modifiers make for more efficient and concise writing
E) is an important word to use as it builds goodwill in your reader
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Avoid overusing adjectives and adverbs that result in cluttered writing. Use exactly the
right word instead of the wrong word with too many modifiers.
20) Overusing adjectives and adverbs like "very" and "really" ________.
A) is not possible; these qualifiers make for very lively and effective writing
B) is encouraged to make your writing more accessible to the average reader
C) should be avoided, as it can result in cluttered writing
D) must not be done, since it unfairly categorizes people
E) is fine if you can't think of exactly the right word to use
Answer: C
Explanation:

C) Use exactly the right word instead of the wrong word with too many modifiers.
21) Shipping out defective products for the launch would be ________ for our reputation.
Which of the following would be the least effective way to fill in the blank in the statement
above?
A) dreadful
B) disastrous
C) terrible
D) awful
E) very, very bad
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) For effective, uncluttered writing use exactly the right word instead of the wrong word
with too many modifiers.
22) It is really important that we finish this project on time, as late fees will be assessed for
each day we exceed the deadline.
Which of the following suggested changes would make the statement above most effective?
A) replace "really" with "pretty"
B) replace "important" with "significant"
C) replace "really important" with "so advisable"
D) replace "really important" with "inconsequential"
E) replace "really important" with "essential"
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Avoid overusing adjectives and adverbs; use exactly the right word instead of the wrong
word with too many modifiers.
23) All of the following are ways to avoid gender bias EXCEPT
A) using gender specific terms like policeman and policewoman
B) making your subject plural and using "they," "them," and "theirs"
C) alternating "he" with "she" throughout your document
D) using "her or she" if it doesn't sound too awkward
E) making "you" the subject of your statements
Answer: A

Explanation:
A) To avoid sexist language use the same terms for both men and women. Instead of
policeman and policewoman, use police officer.
24) Which of the following uses bias-free language?
A) We are looking for a new receptionist; she must be personable, punctual, and professional.
B) I am expecting a visit from an insurance agent; when he or she arrives please notify me
immediately.
C) A good leader knows that his actions are just as important as his words.
D) Successful businessmen know how to communicate effectively.
E) When a decision is made on which candidate is to receive the promotion, he will be
notified by phone.
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) This statement does not assume that the insurance agent is male. By using he or she this
statement avoids gender bias.
25) Which of the following is NOT good advice for avoiding gender bias?
A) say "fire fighter" instead of "fireman"
B) say "the average person" instead of "the common man"
C) say "flight attendant" instead of "stewardess"
D) say "chairwoman" instead of "chairperson"
E) say "worker" instead of "workman"
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Avoid sexist language by using the same terms for both men and women. In this case, that
would mean using "chairperson" instead of either "chairwoman" or "chairman."
26) ________ are abbreviations that contain the first letters of the words involved and are
pronounced as a word.
A) Acronyms
B) Slang words
C) Idioms
D) Expressions
E) "Text-lish"

Answer: A
Explanation:
A) If you must use an acronym, spell it out the first time you use it.
27) When writing for business, avoid all of the following EXCEPT
A) slang words
B) unbiased language
C) overuse of adverbs and adjectives
D) trite phrases
E) unknown acronyms
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Unbiased language is language that does not unnecessarily or unfairly categorize people in
ways related to their genders, races, ethnicities, ages, or disabilities.
28) ________ is language that's particular to a culture, profession, or group.
A) Trite phrasing
B) Text-lish
C) Jargon
D) Biased language
E) Passive voice
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Using jargon is hard to avoid in many industries. If you know your audience members
well enough, you might decide they will understand your jargon. Otherwise, ordinary words
and simple explanations are best.
29) In business messages, do not use terms like BTW or OMG, sometimes referred to as
"________."
A) idioms
B) text-lish
C) trite phrases
D) weak phrases
E) jargon
Answer: B

Explanation:
B) Using these text-message-like terms can be difficult to understand and undermine your
professionalism.
30) Using jargon ________.
A) is an effective way to communicate with a general audience
B) unfairly categorizes people in ways related to their genders, races, ethnicities, ages, or
disabilities
C) rarely involves acronyms
D) is unacceptable and offensive in most industries
E) is appropriate if you know that your audience will understand the terms
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Jargon is language that's particular to a culture, profession, or group. Using jargon is hard
to avoid in many industries. If you know your audience members well enough, you might
decide they will understand your jargon. Otherwise, ordinary words and simple explanations
are best.
Consider the excerpt from a company-wide e-mail below:
We are really really happy to announce that Anne Franco will be promoted to regional
manager for the Northwest. Anne's been on the job for many years and really knows her stuff.
And she still has great energy for someone her age. Her expertise is in CRM systems, and she
is an SME in OD. I'm sure that like me you are all on cloud nine to hear this news!
31) This excerpt contains all of the following EXCEPT
A) overuse of adverbs or adjectives
B) acronyms
C) idioms
D) age bias
E) text-lish
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) This excerpt does not include text-message-like terms. It does overuse adverbs (really
really happy), include age bias (for someone her age), use acronyms (CRM, SME, OD), and
include idioms (on cloud nine).
32) The first sentence would be best improved by ________.
A) replacing "very very" with "really and truly"

B) replacing "very very" with "really really"
C) replacing "very very happy" with "thrilled"
D) replacing "happy" with "pleased"
E) replacing "very very happy" with "glad"
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) For effective, uncluttered writing use exactly the right word instead of the wrong word
with too many modifiers.
33) What is your assessment of the second and third sentences?
A) They are best as is.
B) The excerpt would be best improved if both were simply deleted.
C) The excerpt would be best improved by replacing them with the following: "Anne has the
experience and enthusiasm to excel in this position."
D) The excerpt would be best improved by deleting the second sentence but keeping the third
as is.
E) The excerpt would be best improved by replacing them with the following: "Anne's age
won't slow her down, and gives her the benefit of many years of experience."
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) As is these sentences unnecessarily allude to Anne's age. What is relevant is not the
number of years she has been working or how old she is, but that she has the experience and
enthusiasm to succeed in the position.
34) How might the fourth sentence be improved?
A) by omitting any references to Anne's skills
B) by spelling out the acronyms
C) by replacing the acronyms with in-depth technical explanations
D) by replacing the specific descriptions of Anne's skills with a general statement about how
wonderful she is
E) by replacing it with a statement that Anne is among the most accomplished women in the
company
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) To ensure that the company-wide audience understands Anne's particular skills, spelling
out these acronyms would be helpful. Replacing the specific information with general praise

loses the intent of the original statement. Making a comment that Anne is among the most
accomplished women in the company is not only general, it is also sexist.
35) Which of the following would be best in a business letter?
A) Enclosed please find the documents that you requested.
B) As per your request here are the relevant documents.
C) Due to the fact that you asked for them, here are the documents.
D) Here are the documents you requested.
E) Please accept from me these documents that you so kindly requested.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Trite phrases are the jargon of the business world. They mean nothing and take up more
space. Worse, they become dated over time. This choice concisely states the same point as
the others, minus the excess fuss.
36) If your message contains longer words ________.
A) this makes you look smarter
B) it shows that you are more sophisticated
C) the message will be easier to read
D) replacing them with acronyms will save space and make your message more accessible
E) substituting shorter, simpler ones will make your message more understandable
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Some believe that longer words make them look smarter and more sophisticated. The truth
is, long words can interfere with understanding. Short words are easier to read.
37) Writing "use" instead of "utilize" in a message
A) makes you appear sophisticated
B) shows that you are smarter than your audience
C) makes it more likely that you will be understood
D) will interfere with your audience's comprehension
E) is inappropriate in a business message
Answer: C
Explanation:

C) Some believe that longer words make them look smarter and more sophisticated. The truth
is, long words can interfere with understanding. Short words are easier to read.
38) Active voice ________.
A) means the subject of your sentence is not doing the acting
B) means the subject of your sentence is receiving the action
C) typically uses helping verbs like "be," "is," or "are"
D) is more likely to engage the reader's attention
E) is less personal than passive voice
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Active voice means that the subject of your sentence is performing the action. If you want
to keep your readers attention and understand what you are saying, use the active voice
whenever possible.
39) Which sentence is written in the active voice?
A) The candidate will be informed by the interviewer if he or she receives the job.
B) The project was completed on time by the marketing team.
C) The paperwork must be filled out by the applicant by Friday.
D) The director will notify us if we receive the contract.
E) The answer will be given to us by the committee on Monday.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) In this choice the subject of the sentence (the director) does the action (will notify), so it
uses active voice. In all the others, the subject receives the action.
40) Which sentence is written in the passive voice?
A) The defendant was questioned by the prosecutor.
B) The reporter took notes during the trial.
C) The defense attorney called a witness to the stand.
D) The jury reached its verdict.
E) The judge presided over the case.
Answer: A
Explanation:

A) In this choice the subject of the sentence (the defendant) receives the action (was
questioned), so it uses passive voice.
41) Writing in the second person ________.
A) is usually less preferable than writing in the third person
B) means referring directly to your reader as "you"
C) is less likely to command your reader's attention
D) is not as direct as the third person
E) takes up more room than writing in the third person
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Writing in the second person is often better than writing in third person. When you refer to
your reader as "you," people reading your writing feel like you are speaking directly to them.
42) Which of the following sentences is written in the second person?
A) Applicants should submit documentation by Friday.
B) This form should be filled out by the business owner.
C) Consider having a colleague proofread your paperwork.
D) We recommend that interested parties contact their lawyers.
E) The deadline for prospective students is March 3.
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) This is the only choice that refers directly to the reader ("your paperwork").
43) Whenever possible, put the important idea or action ________ a sentence.
A) at the beginning of
B) in the middle of
C) at the end of
D) in parentheses within
E) in a subordinate clause within
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Putting the important idea or action at the beginning of a sentence, preferably within the
first seven words, means that the reader does not have to wait until the end of the sentence to
understand the point.

44) Putting the important idea within the first seven words of a sentence ________.
A) is not advised as it tends to confuse the reader
B) is less effective than putting it at the end of the sentence
C) is less desirable than putting in in the middle of the sentence
D) ensures that the reader understands the point of the sentence right away
E) makes it likely that the reader's attention will wander off
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Putting the important idea or action at the beginning of a sentence, preferably within the
first seven words, means that the reader does not have to wait until the end of the sentence to
understand the point.
45) Use ________ sentences to combine ideas that are of equal importance.
A) simple
B) compound
C) complex
D) ineffective
E) single-clause
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Each clause in a compound sentence can stand on its own as a complete sentence if ended
with a period.
46) Simple sentences ________.
A) should be used as little as possible in business writing
B) are the most difficult type of sentence to read and write
C) consist of two clauses connected by a conjunction
D) should be mixed with compound sentences
E) can be broken into two shorter sentences
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) It's a good idea to mix simple sentences with compound sentences so that the message
doesn't sound choppy.
47) A(n) ________ sentence consists of one major idea and one or more minor ideas.

A) simple
B) compound
C) complex
D) single-clause
E) independent
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) The major idea is called the independent clause because it can stand on its own as a
complete sentence. The minor idea is called the dependent clause because it cannot stand on
its own as a sentence and depends on the independent clause for meaning.
48) Which of the following sentences contains two clauses that can each stand on their own
as complete sentences if ended with a period?
A) The new flat screen monitor is essential for efficient space management.
B) It is very important to back up your computer on a regular basis.
C) Although we really tried, we did not meet the deadline.
D) We just signed the lease on our new offices and we will move into the new space next
month.
E) Despite their best efforts, the marketing team was not awarded the new contract.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) This sentence can be turned into two shorter sentences as follows: We just signed the lease
on our new offices. We will move into the new space next month.
49) When writing for an online audience ________.
A) longer words are better than shorter words
B) expect that your readers will just scan the text
C) know that readers are more likely to read the text word for word
D) you will lose your audience's attention if you use short sentences
E) use longer sentences than you would in writing that will be read as hardcopy
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Just as short words are easier to read than long words, short sentences are easier to read
than long sentences. This is especially true when a person is reading online. In fact, online

readers tend to scan text rather than read it word for word, so the shorter the sentence, the
better.
50) A hook sentence ________.
A) shouldn't be used in long paragraphs
B) is only appropriate in paragraphs with 3 or fewer simple sentences
C) includes supporting details
D) should be long and complex
E) grabs the attention of readers
Answer: E
Explanation:
E) A hook sentence gets readers' attention and encourages them to read on.
51) A(n) ________ paragraph begins with supporting sentences and ends with the main
sentence.
A) direct
B) pivoting
C) indirect
D) hook
E) compound-complex
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) This arrangement is useful for persuading people. It lets you make all of your points
before you present your conclusion.
52) A(n) ________ paragraph is best when you want to define, explain, or describe
something.
A) direct
B) pivoting
C) indirect
D) hook
E) compound-complex
Answer: A
Explanation:

A) This arrangement begins with the main sentence, followed by supporting sentences. It is
probably the most common way to arrange a paragraph, and the easiest.
53) A pivoting paragraph ________.
A) starts with a sentence that offers a contrasting or negative idea before delivering the main
idea
B) is useful when you want to persuade people
C) is the easiest way to arrange a paragraph
D) is not recommended if you are comparing and contrasting ideas
E) is the most common way to arrange a paragraph
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) This arrangement is useful when you are comparing and contrasting ideas within a single
paragraph.
54) A ________ is a word, phrase, or sentence that serves as a bridge between the previous
idea and the next idea.
A) main idea
B) transition
C) hook
D) contradiction
E) pivot
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Without transitions, paragraphs seem choppy and unconnected, and readers can feel like
they're jumping from one paragraph to the next.
55) All of the following are transition words that contradict EXCEPT
A) although
B) despite
C) without a doubt
D) even so
E) but
Answer: C
Explanation:

C) The transition "without a doubt" doesn't contradict, it emphasizes.
56) In general, the best writing has a(n) ________ tone.
A) unprofessional
B) formal
C) conversational
D) "me" attitude
E) highly stylized
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) The best writing is both businesslike and friendly, and always courteous.
57) The first step in the review process is to ________.
A) make sure you have a mix of simple, compound, and complex sentences
B) examine paragraph structure
C) get rid of extra words that add bulk but no meaning
D) determine whether the document conveys the ideas you intended
E) correct any spelling and grammar mistakes
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Don't worry about sentence and paragraph construction at this point. Instead look over the
document to make sure it contains all the ideas you intended.
58) It was an unexpected surprise that the workshop, which took place at 12 noon, turned out
to be so well attended.
Which of the following does the best job of rewriting the statement above, removing extra
words that add bulk but no meaning?
A) It was a surprise that the noon workshop was so well attended.
B) It was a surprise that the workshop, which took place at 12 noon, was so well attended.
C) It was an unexpected surprise that the 12 noon workshop was so well attended.
D) Unexpected surprise! Well-attended workshop at noon.
E) It was a surprise that the noon workshop turned out to be so well attended.
Answer: A
Explanation:

A) This statement retains all the meaning of the original but contains no unnecessary words
that add bulk. It is redundant to say "unexpected" surprise; surprises by definition are
unexpected. It is redundant to say "12" noon; there is no such thing as 9 noon or 11 noon. The
clause "which took place..." can be shortened to a word; the clause "turned out to be.." can be
shortened to a phrase.
59) All of the following contain repetitive ideas that can be written more concisely EXCEPT
A) the basic fundamentals of the subject
B) the reason is because we were understaffed
C) disrupted our regular routine
D) was a pleasant surprise
E) there was no advance warning
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) This phrase contains no unnecessary language. A surprise may or may not be pleasant, so
this adjective adds meaning. In the other choices each phrase contains redundant words that
can be eliminated. In each case the words in parentheses could be removed without changing
the meaning of the phrase: (basic) fundamentals; reason (is because); (regular) routine;
(advance) warning.
60) Which of the following is NOT a suggested way to tighten up your writing?
A) shorten clauses to phrases
B) eliminate evidence that backs up your points
C) eliminate irrelevant words (filler words) and ideas
D) eliminate repetitive ideas
E) shorten phrases to words
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) To tighten your message you get rid of any extra words that add bulk but no meaning to
your draft. Evidence that supports your points is critical to an effective message, and should
not be eliminated. In fact, when you begin the review process by determining whether your
document conveys the ideas you intended, you check to make sure you provided evidence to
back up your points.
61) Which of the following is a piece of advice for improving the readability of your
message?
A) combine several short sentences into longer, more complex sentences
B) rewrite vague sentences clearly

C) revise unclear sentences rudely to avoid vagueness
D) keep your paragraphs long
E) combine paragraphs discussing subtopics of the same general topic
Answer: B
Explanation:
B) Rewrite vague sentences clearly, but not rudely. Break up long sentences into several short
sentences. Divide paragraphs when you move from one subtopic, or aspect of the topic, to
another.
62) Large, dense blocks of text ________.
A) highlight important information
B) make important ideas more prominent
C) are preferable to lists for making it easier for readers to grasp your points
D) should be converted to numbered lists when describing step-by-step instructions
E) are best rewritten as bulleted lists when the order of your points matters
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) Large, dense blocks of text easily hide important ideas until those ideas become almost
invisible. The fastest way to make them visible again is to put them in a list. Use numbers
when the order of your points matters, bullets when the order of your points is not important.
63) Important ideas become ________ in bulleted lists.
A) harder to miss
B) almost invisible
C) more difficult to understand
D) less process-oriented
E) likelier to be overlooked
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Large, dense blocks of text easily hide important ideas until those ideas become almost
invisible. The fastest way to make them visible again is to put them in a list. Use numbers
when the order of your points matters, bullets when the order of your points is not important.
64) ________ means that each item on a list should be in the same grammatical form.
A) Parallel construction

B) Dovetailing
C) Bulleting
D) Pivoting paragraphs
E) Dangling participle
Answer: A
Explanation:
A) Parallel construction means that each item on the list should be constructed similarly. For
example, if the first item begins with a noun, the rest should as well. If the first item begins
with a verb, the rest should as well.
65) Which of the following contains a grammatical mistake?
A) Everyone is excited about the merger.
B) Your supervisor and colleagues all speak very highly of you.
C) The bank has their own procedure for hiring.
D) We are happy that you chose us.
E) We are happy to serve you.
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) Because "bank" is singular, the possessive pronoun should be singular. Written correctly
this sentence should be, "The bank has its own procedure for hiring."
66) You and your colleague Jane have an appointment next week at your client's office.
Which of the following sentences states this grammatically correctly?
A) Me and Jane have an appointment next week at our client's office.
B) Jane and myself have an appointment next week at our client's office.
C) At our client's office, Jane and me have an appointment next week.
D) Jane and I have an appointment next week at our client's office.
E) Jane and yourself have an appointment next week at we client's office.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) The correct case of the personal pronoun here is "I." You can see this if you break up the
sentence and use the pronoun by itself. You would say, "I have an appointment," not "me
have an appointment," or "myself have an appointment."
67) Which of the following sentences contains a grammatical error?

A) Already familiar with news being announced, Joan found it hard to pay attention during
the long presentation.
B) Reviewing the document, the proofreader found many errors that needed to be corrected.
C) Unwilling to keep silent any longer, the speaker's presentation was interrupted with a
dissenting opinion.
D) Agreeing to extend the deadline, the professor informed the student that she had an extra
week to complete her paper.
E) Not having eaten before the meeting, the speaker was dismayed to notice that her stomach
growled throughout her presentation.
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) This statement has a dangling participle. A dangling participle is an action that appears to
be performed by the subject, but actually has nothing to do with the subject. The speaker's
presentation was not unwilling to keep silent, someone else was. You have to indicate "who"
interrupted the presentation: "Unable to restrain himself any longer, the unhappy audience
member interrupted the speaker's presentation with a dissenting opinion."
68) Which of the following sentences contains a grammatical error?
A) Hoping to negotiate a good deal, the shopper haggled with the salesperson.
B) Unaware that food and drinks were not permitted in the store, the woman ate a hot dog
and french fries in the furniture department.
C) The children played in the park, teeming with people out to enjoy the first warm day of
spring.
D) Fragrant with the aromas of garlic and truffles, the couple waited in the restaurant.
E) The speaker was ill at ease in the auditorium with its dim lighting and poor acoustics.
Answer: D
Explanation:
D) This sentence has a misplaced modifier. The couple isn't fragrant with the aroma of garlic
and truffles, the restaurant is. Revised: The couple waited in the restaurant, fragrant with the
aromas of garlic and truffles.
69) Spell-checkers ________.
A) are not infallible so they aren't worth using
B) never make incorrect suggestions to replace words
C) do not allow you to add words to them
D) find all mistakes
E) have trouble with homonyms

Answer: E
Explanation:
E) Don't forget to run your spell-checker, but remember that it is just a rough spelling check.
It won't find all mistakes. One such case is homonyms, words that sound alike but are spelled
differently, and have completely different meanings. If you type "threw" when you mean
"through," the spell-checker won't flag it.
70) If you ask someone to review your final draft before sending it, ________.
A) you are wasting your time and theirs
B) it's best if the people who review it are as unlike your audience as possible
C) let the reviewer know the purpose of the document and its intended audience
D) you run the risk of diluting your own message
E) don't specify the type of feedback you want, as this will prejudice the reviewer's
evaluation
Answer: C
Explanation:
C) You should also include the type of feedback you want, the date it is due, and a sincere
thank-you. It's best if the people who review your document know your actual audience or
are similar to your audience. That way, you get feedback from a realistic virtual audience
before distributing the document to your real audience.
71) Poor writing may cause your readers to not care about your message.
Answer: True
Explanation:
If your writing is awkward, disorganized, or rife with grammar and spelling mistakes, it can
lead your readers to believe that you don't care about what you're writing. And if you don't
care about what you're writing, why should they?
72) An annotated outline is written to be read by your audience.
Answer: False
Explanation:
It is written for you, so all the information you need is in one place.
73) A first draft does not need to be perfect.
Answer: True
Explanation:
It may contain spelling and grammatical mistakes, and even be missing information. The
most important thing is to get it done.

74) Free-writing refers to the state of mind in which you believe you cannot think of anything
to write.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Feeling unable to write anything is actually called writer's block. Free-writing is when you
write quickly to just get all your thoughts down on paper.
75) An outline should never include an actual introduction or closing.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Annotated outlines sometimes contains these sections because they help define the contents.
76) Using positive words to convey a negative message is unethical.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Positive words help put the reader in the right frame of mind to accept your message and act
on it. Conveying negative news with positive language will build goodwill, and maintain the
relationship.
77) Nouns that end in "-ment," "-ion," and "-al" are more powerfully rewritten as verbs.
Answer: True
Explanation:
For example, it is more effective to say "assist" or "help," than to say "provide assistance."
78) Using the phrase "gave our consent" is more powerful than simply stating, "consented."
Answer: False
Explanation:
The opposite is actually true. Nouns that end in "-ment," "-ion," and "-al" are more
powerfully rewritten as verbs.
79) It is better to use exactly the right word instead of the wrong word with too many
modifiers.
Answer: True
Explanation:
Avoid overusing adjectives and adverbs like "very" and "really," which can result in cluttered
writing.
80) To avoided cluttered writing, replace "so very, very sad" with "devastated."
Answer: True

Explanation:
Avoid overusing adjectives and adverbs like "very" and "really," which can result in cluttered
writing. It is better to use exactly the right word instead of the wrong word with too many
modifiers.
81) Using bias-free language means never referring to people's gender, race, ethnicity, age or
disability.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Biased language occurs when you use words and phrases that needlessly or unfairly
categorize people in ways related to these traits. Only allude to them if the information is
relevant to your message.
82) To avoid gender-biased language, say "artisan" instead of "craftsman."
Answer: True
Explanation:
Whenever possible use a gender-free term.
83) If you must use an acronym, spell it out the first time you use it.
Answer: True
Explanation:
This will ensure that readers previously unfamiliar with the acronym will understand your
message.
84) If in a message you change "as per your question regarding" to "regarding," you change
the meaning of the original phrase.
Answer: False
Explanation:
The original phrase is wordy and trite. The substitution says the same thing in a more concise
manner.
85) The following sentence uses the active voice: Marjorie was sent a letter by the claims
adjuster.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Since the subject of the sentence (Marjorie) does not perform the action of the sentence (was
sent), the sentence does not use the active voice. Active voice follows: The claims adjuster
sent a letter to Marjorie.
86) If you can, it is best to wait a day or at least a few hours after finishing your draft before
reviewing it.

Answer: True
Explanation:
Doing so will give you a certain distance from the material and makes you more objective
when you revise it later.
87) After you complete any reorganization of your message, get rid of any extra words that
add bulk but no meaning to your draft.
Answer: True
Explanation:
Tighten up your writing. Your reader's time is limited, so get to the point.
88) If you're writing about a sensitive subject, it's better to be vague than to state clearly what
you mean.
Answer: False
Explanation:
Readers can detect when you're hedging. It's better to state clearly what you mean. Readers
will respect you for it. Keep in mind, though, that clearly does not mean rudely.
89) It's best that the people who review your document know your actual audience or are
similar to you audience.
Answer: True
Explanation:
That way, you get feedback from a realistic virtual audience before you distribute the
document to your real audience.
90) If you ask someone to review your draft you shouldn't specify a date that feedback is due,
since the person is doing you a favor.
Answer: False
Explanation:
You should specify a date. Ask the reviewer to contact you if he or she cannot review the
document in the time allotted. You should also thank the reviewer for taking the time to help
you.
91) Gianna knows that writing is not her strong suit, but she doesn't think it's important
enough to warrant effort to improve her skills. "My writing won't win me any prizes, but I'm
sure people can figure out what I mean." What would you say to Gianna about her attitude?
Answer: Your goal as a communicator is to make messages understood. If your poor writing
skills make it a chore for your audience to figure out what you're saying, it's less likely that
your message will be understood. It's also more likely that there will be some
misunderstanding of your content. This will require clarification and follow up, wasting
valuable time of yours and your audience. Poor writing skills will also damage your

reputation, giving the impression that you are uneducated, careless, disorganized, or worse,
that you don't care about the topic you are writing about. So poor writing skills can affect not
only the communication of a message, but the reputation and success of its writer.
92) What is the difference between a bare-bones outline and an annotated outline?
Answer: A bare-bones outline simply lists the topics you plan to write about, in the order you
plan to write about them. An annotated outline adds to that notes, quotes, and reference
information that help you "fill in the blanks." Sometimes it contains the actual introduction
and closing because those sections help define the contents. An annotated outline is not
written to be read by your audience; its written for you, so all the information you need is in
one place.
93) Rewrite the following message using positive language:
I'm sad to say that we will not be awarding you the contract for the Armstrong project. We
felt that other vendors had better ideas and a much better price. We might have another
project that you could bid on, but it's not as big as this one.
Answer: Answers will vary; an example follows:
Thank you for the proposal you submitted for the Armstrong project. We decided to accept a
bid from another company that better suited our needs. We would, however, like to notify
you about another project that you might be interested in bidding on.
94) Give the strong verb that replaces each of the following weak nouns:
carry out the negotiation
are in agreement
do the writing, editing, and revision
Answer: negotiate; agree; write, edit, and revise
95) Improve the sentences below by replacing each "wrong word" with too many modifiers
with a better choice.
I am so so happy that you will be joining us.
I think it's a really bad thing to do.
I am very, very angry with you for failing to inform me of the problem.
Answer: Answers will vary; suggestions follow:
I am thrilled that you will be joining us.
I think it's an awful thing to do.
I am furious with you for failing to inform me of the problem.
96) Suggest some ways that you can avoid gender-biased language in your writing.
Answer: You can avoid sexist language by using the same terms for both men and women.
Avoid using only male pronouns. You can do this by making your subject plural, and using

"they," "them," and "theirs" instead of "he," "him," and "his." You can also alternate "he"
with "she," using both throughout your document. Or you can use "he or she" if it doesn't
sound too awkward. Some writers prefer using the word "you" to avoid the entire problem.
97) Point out the improvements that could be made to the copy below:
Attention moms! If you are a SAHM mom looking to find a way to score some cash while the
little one is slumbering, read on.
Answer: Attention parents! If you are a stay-at-home mom or dad who'd like to earn some
money while your child is napping, read on.
98) Review the excerpt below and improve its readability by making it more concise:
This home improvement project, which is very complicated, needs to be completed by June at
the very latest. We hired a contractor for the purpose of completing this work for us as
quickly as possible. Never at any time did we contemplate taking on this task ourselves
because he have no actual experience doing construction projects like this.
Answer: This complicated home improvement project needs to be completed by June. We
hired a contractor to complete this work for us. We never contemplated doing it ourselves
since we have no experience with construction.
99) Revise the following list to have parallel construction:
Work to be completed:
* Finish first draft
* Check that all important points are included
* readability needs improvement
* Fixing spelling
* Grammar mistakes must be corrected
Answer: Parallel construction means that each item on the list should be constructed
similarly. For example, if the first item begins with a noun, the rest should as well. If the first
item begins with a verb, the rest should as well. If each item starts with a verb, the verbs
should be in the same tense. Whichever part of speech you decide to begin with, be consistent
throughout. The list below is revised so that each item begins with a present tense verb:
Work to be completed:
* Finish first draft
* Check that all important points are included
* Improve readability
* Fix spelling mistakes
* Correct grammar mistakes
100) Do you need to have someone else review your message before you send it?

Answer: The last step in the review and revision process is getting and incorporating
feedback to make your writing stronger and more effective. Depending on the type of
document you're writing, you may or may not want to ask another person to read it and give
you feedback. If you are sending a routine e-mail to someone, you can probably skip this
step.

Test Bank for Keys to Business Communication
Carol J. Carter
9780132658737, 9780136103332, 9780133890846

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