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Chapter 16 The West and the World: Discovery, Colonization, and Trade Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Europe’s colonial and trade expansion after 1450 depended above all on its superiority in A) land armies. B) population size. C) high-quality gunnery. D) resistance to tropical disease. Answer: C Rationale: Europe's colonial and trade expansion after 1450 was heavily reliant on its superiority in high-quality gunnery. The advancement of gunnery technology, including the development of cannons and firearms, gave European powers a significant military advantage over indigenous populations in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. This superiority in firepower enabled Europeans to assert control over new territories, establish colonies, and dominate trade networks. 2) Spain’s expansion in the Americas was made particularly easy by A) the absence of prior civilization among the Indians. B) the impact of imported diseases on the Indian population. C) Spain’s leadership in European banking and commerce. D) competition between Protestant and Catholic missionaries sent out by Spain. Answer: B Rationale: Spain's expansion in the Americas was made particularly easy by the impact of imported diseases on the Indian population. Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza, introduced by European explorers and settlers, decimated indigenous communities that lacked immunity to these pathogens. This demographic collapse weakened native resistance and facilitated Spanish conquest and colonization. 3) Europe’s rise as a world trading power was accompanied by the decline in the international commercial role of A) the Middle East. B) India. C) Russia. D) North Africa. Answer: A Rationale: Europe's rise as a world trading power was accompanied by the decline in the international commercial role of the Middle East. Before the rise of European maritime empires, the Middle East, particularly cities like Constantinople and Baghdad, served as crucial hubs of trade between Asia, Africa, and Europe. However, with the establishment of direct sea routes to Asia by European powers in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the Middle East gradually lost its position as the primary intermediary in global trade networks. 4) In contrast to patterns in most earlier slaveholding societies, slavery in the Americas was distinctive because A) not only slaves themselves, but also their children, were kept in slavery. B) slaves were seized among peoples of different race and culture from the slave owners. C) extensive commercial agriculture, undertaken for exports, depended on slavery. D) revolts by slaves, though they did occur, were difficult to organize. Answer: C Rationale: Slavery in the Americas was distinctive because extensive commercial agriculture, undertaken for exports, depended on slavery. Unlike many earlier slaveholding societies where slavery was primarily associated with domestic service or agricultural subsistence, the economies of European colonies in the Americas, particularly in regions such as the Caribbean and Brazil, relied heavily on large-scale plantation agriculture for export crops such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton. Slavery became integral to the profitability of these cash crop economies, with enslaved laborers forced to work under brutal conditions to produce goods for global markets. 5) Most Latin American haciendas A) produced food for sale in Latin American markets. B) relied on slave labor. C) were directed by absentee owners in Spain. D) relied on traditional village ownership of the land. Answer: A Rationale: Most Latin American haciendas produced food for sale in Latin American markets. Haciendas were large agricultural estates or plantations typically owned by wealthy landowners or colonial elites. These estates produced a variety of crops, including grains, fruits, vegetables, and livestock, primarily for local consumption and regional trade within Latin America. While some haciendas did rely on coerced labor systems such as encomienda or debt peonage, they were not predominantly based on slave labor as in other regions like the Caribbean or Brazil. 6) By the late 18th century, governors of the provinces of Latin America were A) chosen from among the wealthiest creoles. B) sent out from Spain or Portugal. C) hostile to the missionary efforts of the Catholic church. D) eager to develop extensive manufacturing. Answer: B Rationale: By the late 18th century, governors of the provinces of Latin America were sent out from Spain or Portugal. As part of the colonial administrative system, the Spanish and Portuguese crowns appointed viceroys, governors, and other colonial officials to oversee the governance of their overseas territories in Latin America. These appointed officials were often loyal bureaucrats or nobles who represented the interests of the colonial powers and enforced colonial policies and regulations in the colonies. 7) After Columbus discovered America in 1492, Portugal responded by A) increasing its efforts to find gold and a route to India. B) attacking Spain. C) planning a voyage to America. D) abandoning its plans for exploring new territories. Answer: A Rationale: After Columbus discovered America in 1492, Portugal responded by increasing its efforts to find gold and a route to India. Portugal, already engaged in maritime exploration and trade, sought to expand its influence and wealth by exploring new trade routes to Asia and Africa. This included efforts to find a direct sea route to India to bypass the overland trade routes controlled by Muslim intermediaries and secure access to valuable spices, textiles, and other luxury goods. 8) Vasco de Gama reached India in A) 1488. B) 1492. C) 1497. D) 1501. Answer: C Rationale: Vasco de Gama reached India in 1497. As a Portuguese explorer, de Gama successfully sailed around the southern tip of Africa, known as the Cape of Good Hope, and reached the port of Calicut on the southwestern coast of India. This voyage established a direct sea route from Europe to India, opening lucrative trade opportunities and initiating Portuguese maritime dominance in the Indian Ocean. 9) The Portuguese reached China in A) 1497. B) 1514. C) 1542. D) 1550. Answer: B Rationale: The Portuguese reached China in 1514. Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares is credited with being the first European to reach China's southern coast in 1513 or 1514. His expedition established early contacts between Portugal and the Ming Dynasty, paving the way for subsequent Portuguese trade and diplomatic missions to China. 10) Ferdinand Magellan was the first to reach A) North America. B) Hawaii. C) the Philippines. D) the Caribbean. Answer: C Rationale: Ferdinand Magellan was the first to reach the Philippines. As a Spanish explorer, Magellan led the first expedition to circumnavigate the globe from 1519 to 1522. While he did not personally complete the journey, his expedition reached the Philippines in 1521, where Magellan was killed in a skirmish with indigenous inhabitants. Despite his death, his fleet continued the voyage back to Spain, completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth. 11) Northern Europeans took the lead in explorations in the ________ century. A) 14th B) 15th C) 16th D) 17th Answer: C Rationale: Northern Europeans took the lead in explorations in the 16th century. During this period, countries such as England, France, and the Netherlands became increasingly active in maritime exploration and colonization efforts, expanding their reach into new territories across the globe. 12) In the early modern period, Muslim and Hindu traders focused on A) regional trade. B) trading South America. C) finding a route to China. D) avoiding contact with Europeans. Answer: A Rationale: In the early modern period, Muslim and Hindu traders focused on regional trade. Instead of seeking new sea routes or distant lands like the Europeans, Muslim and Hindu traders primarily engaged in commerce within established regional networks, trading goods such as spices, textiles, and luxury items across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. 13) Until about 1800, European control in Africa was mostly A) inland. B) along the coast. C) in southern Africa. D) in western Africa. Answer: B Rationale: Until about 1800, European control in Africa was mostly along the coast. European powers established coastal trading posts, forts, and settlements along the African coastline to facilitate trade, secure access to resources, and support maritime navigation rather than penetrating deeply into the interior of the continent. 14) That Europeans never found the golden treasures they sought, they did gain access to vast supplies of A) copper. B) silver. C) lapis lazuli. D) iron. Answer: B Rationale: Europeans never found the golden treasures they sought in Africa or the Americas, but they did gain access to vast supplies of silver. Silver became one of the most valuable commodities acquired by Europeans through trade and colonization, particularly from regions such as the Spanish colonies in the Americas where extensive silver mining operations were established. 15) After the battle of Lepanto in 1571, the greatest competitors Europeans faced were A) the Portuguese. B) the Chinese. C) the Scandinavians. D) other Europeans. Answer: D Rationale: After the battle of Lepanto in 1571, the greatest competitors Europeans faced were other Europeans. While the battle marked a significant victory for European naval forces against the Ottoman Empire, European powers continued to compete with each other for dominance in trade, colonization, and maritime supremacy, leading to rivalries and conflicts among European nations. 16) By the 17th century, the Europeans used their wealth to A) buy land in Africa. B) improve their own manufacturing base. C) build more settlements in the Americas. D) import luxury items from China. Answer: B Rationale: By the 17th century, Europeans used their wealth to improve their own manufacturing base. The accumulation of wealth from overseas trade, colonization, and resource extraction enabled European powers to invest in domestic industries, technological advancements, and infrastructure development, laying the foundation for the growth of capitalism and industrialization. 17) European exploration of Africa was limited by A) lack of navigable rivers. B) a lack of desire to explore the region. C) a belief that Africa held nothing the Europeans needed. D) lack of organized kingdoms. Answer: A Rationale: European exploration of Africa was limited by a lack of navigable rivers. The dense rainforests, vast deserts, and rugged terrain of Africa posed significant challenges to European explorers and navigators, limiting their ability to penetrate deep into the interior of the continent and establish direct trade routes or settlements. 18) The first European settlements established by the Portuguese and the French were along the ________ of Africa. A) east coast B) west coast C) central region D) northern coast Answer: B Rationale: The first European settlements established by the Portuguese and the French were along the west coast of Africa. European powers established trading posts, forts, and colonies along the western coast of Africa to facilitate trade in gold, ivory, slaves, and other commodities with African kingdoms and to serve as bases for maritime navigation and exploration. 19) The African slave trade began in the ________ century. A) 15th B) 16th C) 17th D) 18th Answer: B Rationale: The African slave trade began in the 16th century. With the expansion of European colonialism and the establishment of plantation economies in the Americas, European traders initiated the transatlantic slave trade to meet the labor demands of plantations, mines, and other industries in the New World, leading to the forced migration of millions of Africans across the Atlantic Ocean. 20) Overall, the impact of the massive slave trade on West Africa was A) economically detrimental. B) mixed. C) politically stabilizing. D) beneficial in that it helps promote unity among kingdoms. Answer: B Rationale: Overall, the impact of the massive slave trade on West Africa was mixed. While the slave trade brought economic benefits to some African societies through increased trade and access to European goods, it also resulted in social disruption, political instability, and the loss of human capital. Additionally, the slave trade facilitated the rise of powerful states and empires involved in the trade while contributing to the depopulation of certain regions and the displacement of communities. 21) Spanish control of Central America was complete by A) 1500. B) 1550. C) 1600. D) 1650. Answer: B Rationale: Spanish control of Central America was complete by 1550. By this time, Spanish expeditions, conquests, and colonization efforts had established Spanish dominance over much of Central America, including present-day Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. 22) ________ was the leading feature of the new society formed in Latin America. A) Violence B) Aggression toward the Spanish and Portuguese C) Catholicism D) Excitement Answer: C Rationale: Catholicism was the leading feature of the new society formed in Latin America. The Spanish and Portuguese colonizers imposed Catholicism as the dominant religion, leading to the conversion of indigenous peoples and the integration of Catholic practices, beliefs, and institutions into the social, cultural, and political fabric of Latin American societies. 23) “Mestizos” refers to A) the style of Spanish architecture used in Central America. B) people of mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry. C) the Spanish conquistadors. D) native South Americans. Answer: B Rationale: “Mestizos” refers to people of mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry. The term emerged in colonial Latin America to describe individuals of mixed European and indigenous heritage, reflecting the complex racial and cultural dynamics resulting from intermarriage and social interactions between Spanish colonizers and indigenous populations. 24) The encomienda was a(n) A) early form of labor control. B) a large estate created by the Spanish. C) another word for the Spanish. D) type of government the Spanish put in place in South America. Answer: A Rationale: The encomienda was an early form of labor control. It was a system implemented by Spanish colonial authorities in the Americas, granting Spanish conquistadors and settlers the right to extract labor and tribute from indigenous communities in exchange for protection and Christianization. 25) The French did not establish centralized administration in Canada because A) they were more interested in the West Indian islands. B) they found the system will would be most effective. C) they met increasing resistance. D) the French king did not want to give too much power to an official ruling so far from France. Answer: A Rationale: The French did not establish centralized administration in Canada because they were more interested in the West Indian islands. Unlike their Spanish and Portuguese counterparts who focused on establishing centralized colonial administrations, the French prioritized economic pursuits such as the fur trade in regions like Canada and the Caribbean. 26) Which of the following helped motivate European expansion? A) the need for copper because of weakness in international trade B) the desire to push back and circumvent Buddhism C) competition among European monarchs for power and prestige D) the belief that Europe had much to learn from the religions and customs of other peoples Answer: C Rationale: Competition among European monarchs for power and prestige helped motivate European expansion. European rulers sought to enhance their wealth, influence, and status by competing with rival powers in overseas exploration, colonization, and trade, leading to the establishment of vast colonial empires. 27) Which of the following was most involved in European-dominated world trade by 1700? A) China B) Africa C) the Middle East D) India Answer: B Rationale: Africa was most involved in European-dominated world trade by 1700. European powers established extensive trade networks in Africa, exploiting the continent's resources, labor, and markets for commodities such as gold, ivory, slaves, and raw materials, contributing to Africa's integration into the global economy. 28) American Indian traditions remained important in which of the following areas of Latin American civilization? A) organization of the central state B) military technology C) village governments D) commercial agriculture Answer: C Rationale: American Indian traditions remained important in the area of village governments in Latin American civilization. Despite Spanish colonization and the imposition of European institutions, indigenous communities in Latin America retained elements of their traditional governance structures, social practices, and cultural norms, particularly at the local level. 29) Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas shared which of the following features? A) relatively advanced manufacturing technology B) prior experience in overseas trade C) vulnerability to diseases brought by Europeans D) popular belief in a polytheistic religion Answer: D Rationale: Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas shared the feature of a popular belief in a polytheistic religion. Both regions were characterized by diverse indigenous belief systems and spiritual practices, including animism, ancestor worship, and the veneration of multiple deities, reflecting the cultural and religious diversity of their populations. 30) Which of the following factors explains why American Indians were relatively rarely enslaved by Europeans? A) some groups had extensive experience with agriculture. B) population increased rapidly C) missionary protection D) European belief in the spiritual equality of all humans Answer: C Rationale: Missionary protection explains why American Indians were relatively rarely enslaved by Europeans. European missionaries, particularly Catholic priests, advocated for the protection of indigenous peoples from enslavement and exploitation, emphasizing their humanity and dignity in opposition to the practice of forced labor and exploitation prevalent in colonial societies. 31) By 1750, Latin America was characterized by which of the following? A) There was a high degree of local self-government. B) There was a balance between Protestantism and Catholicism. C) There was a percentage of Indians and people of mixed blood in the population. D) It had a substantial dependence on western Europe for markets and finished products. Answer: C Rationale: By 1750, Latin America was characterized by a significant percentage of Indians and people of mixed blood in the population. The colonization of Latin America by the Spanish and Portuguese led to the intermixing of indigenous populations with European settlers, resulting in a diverse demographic landscape characterized by mestizos, mulattos, and other mixedrace groups. 32) Which of the following accurately describes the slave trade? A) European merchants made minimal profits from it. B) Slave traders roamed over the whole of sub-Saharan Africa. C) Actual seizure of Africans for slavery was accomplished by Middle Eastern merchants and officials. D) The Atlantic slave trade was one of the largest forcible exchanges of human beings in history. Answer: D Rationale: The Atlantic slave trade was one of the largest forcible exchanges of human beings in history. European powers, particularly Portugal, Spain, Britain, France, and the Netherlands, forcibly transported millions of African men, women, and children across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas to work as slaves on plantations and in other labor-intensive industries, resulting in profound social, economic, and demographic consequences. 33) Which of the following countries in Europe was a significant colonial power by the 18th century? A) Italy B) Portugal C) Tunisia D) Germany Answer: B Rationale: Portugal was a significant colonial power by the 18th century. During the Age of Exploration and subsequent colonial expansion, Portugal established extensive overseas territories and trading posts in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, including Brazil, Goa, Macau, and various colonies in Africa, contributing to its status as a major European colonial power. 34) In the early modern period, China’s attitude toward world trade is best described by which of the following? A) They were eager to become a part of the world economy. B) They were hesitant about opening too many contacts in the world. C) They were well aware of Western gains in trade. D) They sought to avoid all interaction with the outside world. Answer: B Rationale: In the early modern period, China’s attitude toward world trade is best described as hesitant about opening too many contacts in the world. Despite being aware of Western gains in trade and possessing advanced commercial and maritime capabilities, China adopted a policy of maritime isolationism and restricted foreign trade to limited port cities under strict government regulation, reflecting its desire to maintain domestic stability and cultural integrity. 35) Which of the following was most responsible for causing the Europeans to explore the larger world in the early modern period? A) a need for gold B) a desire to conquer more territory C) the wish to learn about other cultures D) competition with the Middle East Answer: A Rationale: A need for gold was most responsible for causing the Europeans to explore the larger world in the early modern period. European powers sought to expand their wealth, power, and influence by acquiring precious metals such as gold and silver from overseas territories, leading to the exploration and colonization of distant lands in search of valuable resources and trade opportunities. 36) Which of the following European countries started the age of exploration? A) France B) Germany C) Italy D) Portugal Answer: D Rationale: Portugal started the age of exploration. In the 15th century, Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama and Bartolomeu Dias pioneered maritime exploration by establishing sea routes to Africa, Asia, and the Americas, laying the foundation for subsequent European expansion and colonization during the Age of Exploration. 37) Which of the following explains why the Portuguese attacked the Indians on their second trip to India? A) They wanted to conquer the region. B) They were hostile to non-Christians. C) They wanted to intimidate them into greater trade. D) They were retaliating. Answer: C Rationale: The Portuguese attacked the Indians on their second trip to India because they wanted to intimidate them into greater trade. Portuguese explorers and traders sought to establish control over lucrative spice trade routes and monopolize commerce in the Indian Ocean region, resorting to aggressive tactics, including military force, to secure their economic interests and assert dominance over local trading networks. 38) Which of the following events occurred around the time that the British and Dutch began to displace the Spanish in world exploration? A) political instability in Spain B) the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 by Britain C) war between Spain and Italy D) a treaty between the British, Dutch, Spanish Answer: B Rationale: The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 by Britain occurred around the time that the British and Dutch began to displace the Spanish in world exploration. The decisive naval victory of the English fleet over the Spanish Armada marked a turning point in European maritime supremacy and facilitated the rise of Britain and the Netherlands as dominant naval powers, enabling them to challenge Spanish and Portuguese dominance in overseas trade and colonization. 39) Which country first explored Australia? A) Britain B) France C) the Dutch D) Spain Answer: C Rationale: The Dutch first explored Australia. Dutch explorers, including Willem Janszoon and Dirk Hartog, made early voyages to the Australian continent in the early 17th century, charting parts of its coastline and establishing brief contacts with indigenous peoples, predating later British exploration and colonization efforts in Australia. 40) Which of the following best describes government relations to trading companies? A) Governments did not rigorously supervise trading companies. B) Governments owned the trading companies. C) Governments thought it was best to stay out of the business of trading companies. D) The governments viewed them has competition. Answer: A Rationale: Governments did not rigorously supervise trading companies. During the early modern period, European governments granted charters to trading companies, such as the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company, authorizing them to conduct overseas trade and colonization on behalf of the state. However, these companies operated with significant autonomy and enjoyed considerable commercial freedom, often pursuing their own interests and agendas with limited government oversight. 41) Which of the following best describes the global economy emerging in the 17th and 18th centuries? A) Much of the world sold goods generated by cheap labor to the West. B) Most of the world was actively involved in exploration and trade. C) Most countries were dependent upon exports of luxury goods. D) Trading companies became huge cross-country conglomerates. Answer: A Rationale: Much of the world sold goods generated by cheap labor to the West in the 17th and 18th centuries. This period saw the rise of European colonialism and the expansion of global trade networks, characterized by the extraction of raw materials and agricultural products from colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, which were then manufactured into finished goods in Europe and sold back to colonies and other markets. 42) The global economy in the 17th and 18th centuries affected women in what way? A) Men were responsible for production, which meant women were relegated to domestic tasks. B) Women began to participate in the global economy as merchants. C) Women worked away from the home in increasing numbers. D) Women were not affected. Answer: A Rationale: Men were responsible for production, which meant women were relegated to domestic tasks in the global economy of the 17th and 18th centuries. Traditional gender roles prevailed during this period, with men predominantly engaged in commerce, trade, and manufacturing activities, while women were primarily responsible for domestic labor, childcare, and household management. 43) Which of the following countries were not drawn into production for the world market in the 17th and 18th centuries? A) England B) Russia C) Spain D) Portugal Answer: B Rationale: Russia was not drawn into production for the world market in the 17th and 18th centuries. Unlike other European powers such as England, Spain, and Portugal, Russia remained largely isolated from global trade networks and focused on internal development and territorial expansion, with limited engagement in international commerce and manufacturing. 44) How did the Portuguese rule Angola? A) they annexed the territory in the 16th century B) they established a colony with the local governor C) through corrupt local officials D) through military power Answer: C Rationale: The Portuguese ruled Angola through corrupt local officials. Rather than directly governing the territory through colonial administration, the Portuguese authorities often relied on collaboration with indigenous elites and intermediaries, including local governors and chiefs, to maintain control and exploit the region's resources for the benefit of Portugal. 45) Which of the following best describes the method of government and used by Spain and Portugal in Latin America? A) European-born men held virtually all of the administrative positions. B) They allied with local governments. C) They set up a military state. D) They created one large viceroyalty. Answer: A Rationale: European-born men held virtually all of the administrative positions in the method of government used by Spain and Portugal in Latin America. The Spanish and Portuguese colonial administrations in Latin America were characterized by the dominance of peninsulares, or individuals born in Europe, who held key political, economic, and social positions of power, while creoles, or locally-born individuals of European descent, were often excluded from high-ranking positions and faced discrimination. 46) Which of the following explains why the Spanish did not attempt to enslave many American Indians? A) They did not believe in slavery. B) Catholic leaders opposed it. C) The imported significant number of slaves. D) They did not need additional labor. Answer: B Rationale: Catholic leaders opposed it explains why the Spanish did not attempt to enslave many American Indians. Despite the prevalence of forced labor and exploitation in Spanish colonies, particularly in mining and agriculture, Catholic clergy and theologians, influenced by humanitarian concerns and religious doctrine, advocated for the protection and fair treatment of indigenous populations, leading to legal restrictions on their enslavement and efforts to convert them to Christianity. 47) The hacienda system resembled which of the following? A) slavery B) indentured servitude C) European serfdom D) a religious state Answer: C Rationale: The hacienda system resembled European serfdom. In Latin America, particularly in regions with large-scale agricultural production, such as Mexico and Peru, the hacienda system was characterized by large landholdings controlled by wealthy landowners, or hacendados, who exercised authority over dependent laborers, known as peons, in a manner similar to European feudal lords and their serfs. 48) Which of the following correctly compares Latin America and the English colonies of North America by 1750? A) Latin America had a less sizable and active merchant class than did the English colonies. B) Literacy and printing were more extensive in Latin American than in English colonies. C) Major English American cities had more baroque cathedrals and public buildings than did Spanish colonial cities. D) Spain phased out colonial controls voluntarily for Latin America, whereas the North American colonies had to fight for independence. Answer: A Rationale: Latin America had a less sizable and active merchant class than did the English colonies. While both regions experienced significant colonial development and economic growth, the English colonies of North America had a more robust and influential merchant class, driven by a diversified economy, thriving trade networks, and entrepreneurial spirit, compared to the more hierarchical and agrarian-based societies of Latin America. 49) Compared to the rest of the world, in the early modern period the West A) accumulated economic and military power at a faster rate. B) was less globally influential than other societies. C) was highly ambivalent about expansion. D) regarded merchants as a lower tier of society. Answer: A Rationale: Compared to the rest of the world, in the early modern period, the West accumulated economic and military power at a faster rate. Western European powers, fueled by technological innovations, colonial expansion, and overseas trade, experienced rapid economic growth and military dominance, enabling them to establish global empires and exert significant influence over international affairs during the early modern era. 50) Compared to the Spanish and Portuguese, Dutch and British exploration differed in what way? A) It was state-sponsored. B) It owed much to the private initiative of merchant groups. C) It was not successful. D) The British explorers were more interested in spreading Christianity. Answer: B Rationale: Dutch and British exploration owed much to the private initiative of merchant groups. Unlike the centralized and state-sponsored exploration efforts of the Spanish and Portuguese, Dutch and British exploration in the early modern period was largely driven by private enterprise and commercial interests, with merchant companies such as the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company playing a dominant role in financing and organizing overseas expeditions and trade ventures. Short Answer Questions 51) What was mercantilism? How did it impact the economy? Answer: Mercantilism was an economic theory and policy prevalent in Europe during the early modern period, characterized by state intervention to promote national economic interests, particularly through the accumulation of wealth, especially gold and silver. Mercantilist policies aimed to achieve a favorable balance of trade by exporting more than importing, promoting domestic industries, and acquiring colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. These policies often involved government regulation, tariffs, subsidies, and monopolies to protect domestic industries and maximize state revenues. While mercantilism contributed to the growth of national economies and colonial empires, it also led to economic competition, conflicts, and exploitation of colonies for the benefit of the mother country. 52) How did Spain govern its New World colonies? Answer: Spain governed its New World colonies through a system of centralized administration and colonial bureaucracy. The Spanish Crown exercised direct control over its overseas territories through appointed viceroys, governors, and royal officials, who were responsible for enforcing colonial laws, collecting taxes, and maintaining order. The colonial government was hierarchical, with peninsulares (Spanish-born officials) holding the highest positions of power, while creoles (American-born individuals of European descent) often faced limitations on their participation in government and faced discrimination. Spain implemented the encomienda system, granting land and indigenous labor to Spanish settlers in exchange for their responsibility to Christianize and protect native populations, although this system often led to abuse and exploitation of indigenous peoples. 53) What was the impact of the hacienda system? Answer: The hacienda system had a profound impact on the social, economic, and political landscape of Latin America. Haciendas were large agricultural estates, often owned by wealthy landowners (hacendados), that produced cash crops such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton. This system relied heavily on coerced labor, including indigenous peoples, enslaved Africans, and peons (landless laborers), who worked under harsh conditions with minimal pay. The hacienda system contributed to the concentration of land and wealth in the hands of a few elite landowners, perpetuated social hierarchies and inequalities, and reinforced the dominance of European-descended elites in colonial society. Additionally, haciendas played a central role in shaping rural communities, cultural practices, and labor relations in Latin America. 54) What were slaves used for in the New World? Why were they believed to be needed? Answer: Slaves in the New World were primarily used for labor-intensive activities in agriculture, mining, construction, and domestic service. They were believed to be needed to support the burgeoning colonial economies and exploit the abundant natural resources of the Americas. European colonizers relied on slave labor to cultivate cash crops such as sugar, tobacco, cotton, and coffee, which were in high demand in global markets. Slaves were also used in mining operations to extract precious metals and minerals, as well as in urban areas as household servants and skilled artisans. The perceived need for slaves was driven by the profitability of plantation agriculture and the desire to maximize production and profits, leading to the establishment of the transatlantic slave trade and the brutal exploitation of African labor in the New World colonies. 55) What was the impact of Catholic missions in Latin America? Answer: Catholic missions in Latin America had a multifaceted impact on indigenous populations, colonial society, and the spread of Christianity. Missionaries, primarily members of religious orders such as the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits, played a central role in the conversion and acculturation of indigenous peoples to Catholicism, often through coercive means such as forced baptism, religious instruction, and the suppression of indigenous cultural practices and beliefs. While missions provided social services such as education, healthcare, and agricultural assistance, they also facilitated the expansion of Spanish and Portuguese colonial authority and the subjugation of native populations. The Catholic Church's influence extended beyond religious matters to encompass social control, economic exploitation, and political legitimacy in the colonial hierarchy, contributing to the formation of a distinctively Catholic and hierarchical society in Latin America. Essay Questions 56) What was new about the world economy that developed between 1450 and 1800? Answer: During the period between 1450 and 1800, several significant changes occurred in the world economy. One of the most notable developments was the emergence of a global trading network facilitated by European exploration and colonization. This period saw the establishment of long-distance trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, the Americas, and Asia, known as the Columbian Exchange. The exchange of goods, resources, and cultures between the Eastern and Western hemispheres transformed the global economy by introducing new crops, technologies, and commodities. Additionally, the rise of mercantilism, characterized by state intervention in economic affairs to promote national interests, led to the expansion of overseas empires, the growth of colonial economies, and the rise of commercial capitalism. The influx of precious metals from the Americas, such as silver and gold, fueled inflation, economic growth, and the rise of global trade networks. Overall, the period witnessed the integration of diverse regions into a single interconnected global economy, laying the foundations for modern capitalism and globalization. 57) What motivated western Europeans to explore and colonize in the wider world? Why were they able to do so? Answer: Western Europeans were motivated to explore and colonize the wider world for various economic, religious, political, and technological reasons. One primary motivation was the desire to find new trade routes to Asia in search of valuable spices, silks, and other luxury goods. Additionally, European monarchs sought to expand their empires, acquire overseas territories, and assert dominance over global trade networks to enhance their wealth, power, and prestige. Religious motivations also played a significant role, as Europeans sought to spread Christianity to non-Christian regions and convert indigenous populations to Catholicism. Technological advancements in navigation, shipbuilding, and cartography, such as the development of the compass, astrolabe, and caravel, enabled Europeans to undertake long-distance voyages across the oceans with greater accuracy and efficiency. Furthermore, the fragmentation of Islamic trade routes due to the decline of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires created opportunities for European exploration and trade expansion. The combination of these factors allowed Western Europeans to establish colonial empires, dominate global trade networks, and reshape the course of world history during the Age of Exploration. 58) By the 17th century, what were the economic ramifications of the colonization of the Americas? Answer: The colonization of the Americas had profound economic ramifications by the 17th century, contributing to the emergence of a global economy and transforming the economic landscape of Europe, Africa, and the Americas. One significant impact was the influx of precious metals, particularly silver and gold, from Spanish colonies in the Americas, which fueled inflation, increased liquidity, and stimulated economic growth in Europe. The availability of precious metals also facilitated the expansion of global trade networks and financed European wars, colonial ventures, and mercantilist policies. Additionally, the plantation economy in the Caribbean and Brazil, reliant on enslaved African labor, produced lucrative cash crops such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton for export to Europe, enriching colonial powers and contributing to the rise of capitalist economies. The transatlantic slave trade, which forcibly transported millions of Africans to the Americas, fueled the growth of plantation agriculture and provided cheap labor essential for colonial prosperity. Furthermore, the Columbian Exchange, the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds, reshaped dietary habits, agricultural practices, and ecological systems, leading to both positive and negative economic consequences. Overall, the colonization of the Americas had far-reaching economic effects, laying the foundations for modern capitalism, globalization, and economic interdependence. 59) Why did the Americas become colonized by the Europeans, whereas Africa in this period was not? Answer: Several factors contributed to the differential colonization of the Americas by Europeans compared to Africa during this period. One key factor was the geographical proximity of the Americas to Europe, which made it more accessible and facilitated exploration and colonization efforts. The discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 sparked European interest in establishing overseas colonies, leading to subsequent waves of exploration and conquest. Additionally, the perceived wealth and abundance of resources in the Americas, including precious metals, fertile land, and lucrative cash crops, incentivized European powers to establish colonies and extract wealth from the region. Furthermore, the devastating impact of diseases introduced by Europeans, such as smallpox, measles, and influenza, significantly reduced indigenous populations in the Americas, weakening resistance to European colonization and facilitating conquest. In contrast, Africa's vast size, diverse geography, and formidable natural barriers, such as deserts, rivers, and tropical diseases, posed greater challenges to European exploration and conquest. Moreover, Africa's long-standing trade networks, powerful states, and military resistance made it more difficult for Europeans to establish colonial dominance over the continent. Additionally, the abundance of resources and wealth in Africa, such as gold, ivory, and slaves, fueled competition and conflicts among indigenous states and European powers, leading to the establishment of trading posts rather than extensive colonization. 60) Identify some of the main features of the Latin American civilization that developed for the first time in this period. Answer: The development of Latin American civilization during this period was characterized by several distinctive features that emerged as a result of the encounter between indigenous American cultures and European colonization. One significant aspect was the fusion of indigenous and European cultures, languages, and traditions, known as mestizaje or cultural syncretism. This blending of cultures gave rise to a unique cultural identity characterized by a mixture of indigenous, European, and African influences, reflected in art, music, cuisine, and religious practices. The dominance of Catholicism as the dominant religion played a central role in shaping Latin American society and culture, leading to the construction of churches, cathedrals, and religious festivals that became central to community life. The establishment of colonial institutions, such as the encomienda and hacienda systems, introduced new social hierarchies based on race, ethnicity, and class, with Europeans and creoles occupying the highest social strata, while indigenous peoples and Africans faced exploitation and marginalization. The plantation economy, centered on cash crops such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton, relied on coerced labor, including enslaved Africans and indigenous laborers, leading to the development of large-scale agricultural estates known as haciendas. Additionally, the introduction of new crops and animals from Europe, Africa, and Asia through the Columbian Exchange transformed agricultural practices, dietary habits, and ecological landscapes in Latin America. Overall, the period witnessed the emergence of a distinctively Latin American civilization shaped by the complex interplay of indigenous, European, and African influences. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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