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Chapter 12 Western Civilization: The Middle Ages Multiple-Choice Questions 1) During the early Middle Ages, Christianity tended to spread from A) south to north. B) east to west. C) west to east. D) north to south. Answer: A Rationale: Christianity spread from regions like North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean (south) into Europe (north) during the early Middle Ages due to missions, trade routes, and the conversion of rulers, such as Clovis of the Franks and the Anglo-Saxon kings in England. 2) Which of the following areas in western Europe developed strong feudal monarchies? A) Italy and Germany B) France and Germany C) England and Italy D) Spain and France Answer: D Rationale: Strong feudal monarchies developed primarily in France and parts of Spain. The Carolingian Empire in France and the Kingdom of France, along with the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Aragon in Spain, saw the emergence of powerful feudal monarchies during the medieval period. 3) Which of the following organizations was new to western Europe in the Middle Ages but already established in various parts of Asia? A) guilds B) church councils C) militias D) agricultural collectives Answer: A Rationale: Guilds, associations of craftsmen or merchants for mutual aid and protection, were relatively new to Western Europe during the Middle Ages but had existed in various forms in Asia for centuries, particularly in regions like the Islamic Caliphates and China. 4) Popes long had an advantage over kings through their A) larger armies. B) more extensive bureaucracy. C) ability to inspire popular revolts. D) ability to pass their office from father to son. Answer: B Rationale: Popes held an advantage over kings through their more extensive bureaucracy, including the Roman Curia, which managed church affairs across Europe and provided the papacy with significant political and administrative influence. 5) _______ was a sign of the decline of medieval society. A) A declining population B) A decline of Christian beliefs C) Mongol invasions of western Europe D) The disappearance of the aristocracy Answer: A Rationale: A declining population was a sign of the decline of medieval society, indicating factors such as famine, disease, and economic stagnation that contributed to a decrease in population growth during certain periods of the Middle Ages. 6) An early Western technological lead over other civilizations developed in A) sword making. B) clock making. C) production of silk cloth. D) coal mining. Answer: B Rationale: An early Western technological lead over other civilizations developed in clock making, particularly with the invention of mechanical clocks during the late Middle Ages in Europe, which were more advanced and accurate than those found elsewhere at the time. 7) The high point of medieval institutions and values in Western Europe occurred in the ________ centuries. A) 10th and 11th B) 11th and 12th C) 12th and 13th D) 13th and 14th Answer: C Rationale: The high point of medieval institutions and values in Western Europe occurred in the 12th and 13th centuries, marked by advancements in architecture, law, theology, and culture, as well as the peak of feudalism and the emergence of universities. 8) Feudalism helped lead to early types of parliaments in western Europe because it A) stressed the rights of individuals. B) stressed mutuality and consultation between lord and vassals. C) revived Greek and Roman democratic ideals. D) stressed the importance of religious liberty. Answer: B Rationale: Feudalism helped lead to early types of parliaments in Western Europe because it emphasized mutuality and consultation between lords and vassals, fostering a system where feudal lords gathered to advise the king and negotiate matters of governance. 9) Many medieval authors wrote in A) Latin. B) French. C) English. D) Greek. Answer: A Rationale: Many medieval authors wrote in Latin, the language of the Roman Catholic Church and scholarship during the Middle Ages, which served as a lingua franca for educated individuals across Western Europe. 10) Medieval philosophy that had been influenced by Aristotle emphasized A) empirical scientific research. B) rational thought. C) the importance of Christian faith alone. D) the validity of Muslim as well as Christian religious ideas. Answer: B Rationale: Medieval philosophy influenced by Aristotle emphasized rational thought, drawing on Aristotelian logic and metaphysics to reconcile Christian theology with classical philosophy and explore concepts such as natural law and ethics. 11) In Western manorialism, serfs owed lords A) military service. B) participation in the council of the manor. C) a portion of their harvests and work service. D) sexual access to wives and daughters. Answer: C Rationale: Serfs owed lords a portion of their harvests and work service as part of the feudal system, which sustained the lord's estate and provided resources for the lord's protection and administration. 12) In Western feudalism, vassals owed lords A) military service. B) justice and defense. C) voting rights. D) retirement benefits and a living wage. Answer: A Rationale: Vassals owed lords military service as part of their feudal obligations, providing armed forces in times of conflict or at the lord's command to defend the lord's lands and interests. 13) Merchants gained an important position in medieval society because A) the landed aristocracy disappeared as kings gained strength. B) medieval Christianity valued money-making as a sign of God’s favor. C) central governments exercised weak controls over cities and commerce. D) the revival of Greek and Roman ideals supported merchant prestige. Answer: C Rationale: Merchants gained importance in medieval society due to weak central government control over cities and commerce, allowing merchants to amass wealth and influence through trade and economic activities. 14) Between 500 to 1000, most people A) lived in cities. B) were members of the clergy. C) lived on self-sufficient agricultural estates. D) served in the king’s army. Answer: C Rationale: Between 500 and 1000, most people lived on self-sufficient agricultural estates, engaging in farming and subsistence agriculture as part of the manorial system prevalent during the early Middle Ages. 15) Few cultural developments of any note took place between 500 and 1000 because A) Europe was in a state of disarray with high poverty. B) education emphasized copying the accomplishments of the past. C) intellectuals refused to share their knowledge. D) the church destroyed all evidence of classical scholarship. Answer: A Rationale: Few cultural developments occurred between 500 and 1000 due to Europe's state of disarray, marked by political instability, economic hardship, and social upheaval, which hindered significant cultural advancements during this period. 16) Papal missionaries were responsible for A) spreading Christianity to England and Ireland. B) the first crusade. C) feudalism. D) preserving the Roman imperial system. Answer: A Rationale: Papal missionaries were responsible for spreading Christianity to England and Ireland during the early Middle Ages, initiating missions to convert pagan tribes and establish Christian communities in these regions. 17) The Franks were A) Gauls. B) French. C) Germanic. D) Romans. Answer: C Rationale: The Franks were a Germanic tribe that inhabited the region of Gaul (modern-day France) during the early Middle Ages, eventually forming the Carolingian Empire under Charlemagne's rule. 18) Charles Martel was responsible for A) founding the Frankish dynasty. B) defeating the Muslims at the Battle of Tours. C) unifying Europe under one king. D) creating the Holy Roman Empire. Answer: B Rationale: Charles Martel, also known as "The Hammer," was responsible for defeating the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe and preserving Christianity in the region. 19) When Charlemagne died in 814 C.E., his empire A) continued to function. B) was transformed into the kingdom of the Franks. C) was divided into three parts. D) became part of the Holy Roman Empire. Answer: C Rationale: When Charlemagne died in 814 C.E., his empire was divided into three parts among his grandsons, leading to the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and the eventual rise of separate kingdoms in Western Europe. 20) Medieval European culture centered on A) small towns. B) Catholic Christianity. C) kingdoms. D) feudalism. Answer: B Rationale: Medieval European culture centered on Catholic Christianity, which influenced all aspects of life, including art, education, politics, and social norms, serving as a unifying force in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. 21) ________ was responsible for creating ties between the lords of England the those of France after 1066. A) The Duke of Gloucheshire B) William the Conqueror C) Charlemagne II D) Odoacer Answer: B Rationale: William the Conqueror, after his victory at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, became the King of England and established ties between the English lords and the lords of France through his dual role as the Duke of Normandy in France and the King of England. 22) The Hundred Years War was fought because A) the pope was attempting to control territory in England. B) Germany invaded France. C) England tried to claim control of territory in France. D) Muslims attempted to invade Spain. Answer: C Rationale: The Hundred Years War was fought because England tried to claim control of territory in France, particularly the French throne, leading to a series of conflicts between the two powers from 1337 to 1453. 23) The Magna Carta A) granted freedom to serfs. B) confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims. C) extended the power of the king. D) established the right of the government to tax. Answer: B Rationale: The Magna Carta confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims by limiting the power of the English king and establishing certain legal principles and rights for English nobles, laying the groundwork for constitutional government. 24) Parliaments tended to represent the interests of A) privileged groups. B) individual voters. C) districts. D) religious groups. Answer: A Rationale: Parliaments tended to represent the interests of privileged groups, such as the nobility and wealthy landowners, who held significant influence in the legislative process and were often the primary participants in parliamentary proceedings. 25) Parliaments were able to advise the crown on policy issues because they A) were experts and the king respected their advice. B) had the right to rule on matters of taxation. C) had the final vote on policy issues. D) typically threatened to revolt. Answer: B Rationale: Parliaments were able to advise the crown on policy issues because they had the right to rule on matters of taxation, granting them leverage in negotiations with the monarch and enabling them to influence royal decisions and policies. 26) Gothic architecture had which of the following features? A) short rounded towers B) pointed arches C) limited buttresses to sustain large windows D) massive circular domes Answer: B Rationale: Gothic architecture is characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses, which allowed for greater height and lightness in buildings compared to earlier architectural styles, contributing to the vertical emphasis and spacious interiors of Gothic cathedrals. 27) Serfdom differed from slavery in which of the following respects? A) Serfs could be sold. B) Serfs usually had no rights to the family’s land. C) Serfs could not be evicted from their land. D) Serfs could freely leave their manors. Answer: C Rationale: Serfdom differed from slavery in that serfs could not be evicted from their land, as they were tied to the land they worked on and were subject to the authority of the lord but had certain rights and protections within the manorial system. 28) Which of the following relate to the decline of characteristic medieval warfare? A) the bow B) the rise of professional armies C) the decline of chivalry D) the new Christian disapproval of killing Answer: B Rationale: The rise of professional armies contributed to the decline of characteristic medieval warfare, as monarchs began to rely less on feudal levies and instead recruited trained soldiers, leading to changes in military tactics, organization, and the nature of warfare. 29) Peasants received which of the following benefits from their landlords? A) reduced rent in return for labor B) access to the manor house C) free food D) protection Answer: D Rationale: Peasants received protection from their landlords in exchange for various obligations and services, such as labor on the lord's demesne, payment of rents and taxes, and military service if required, as part of the feudal relationship between lords and peasants. 30) Popes were the only ones who could do which of the following? A) appoint bishops B) regulate doctrine C) preach D) give the sacraments Answer: B Rationale: Popes had the authority to regulate doctrine within the Roman Catholic Church, determining official teachings and beliefs, interpreting scripture, and issuing decrees and pronouncements on matters of faith and morality. 31) Which of the following occurred during the reign of Charlemagne? A) What later became known as the Holy Roman Empire emerged. B) France conquered Germany. C) Education disappeared from Europe. D) A feudal monarchy was created. Answer: A Rationale: During the reign of Charlemagne, what later became known as the Holy Roman Empire emerged, marking a significant expansion of Frankish power and influence in Western Europe under Charlemagne's rule. 32) Which of the following was a weakness of the German Holy Roman Emperors? A) They refused to recognize France as a country. B) They were based in Italy. C) They did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations. D) The relied on the peasants for support. Answer: C Rationale: A weakness of the German Holy Roman Emperors was that they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations, leading to challenges in centralizing power and maintaining authority over the diverse territories within the empire. 33) Beginning in the 10th century, which of the following was responsible for increasing order in Europe? A) stronger feudal units and powerful monarchies B) the demise of feudalism C) Viking invasions D) the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle Answer: A Rationale: Beginning in the 10th century, stronger feudal units and powerful monarchies contributed to increasing order in Europe by consolidating authority, establishing centralized rule, and enforcing legal and administrative structures across various territories. 34) What is considered the high point of medieval European civilization? A) 500 to 1000 C.E. B) 600 to 800 C.E. C) 1000 to 1300 C.E. D) 1450 to 1750 C.E. Answer: C Rationale: The high point of medieval European civilization is considered to be from 1000 to 1300 C.E., characterized by advancements in art, architecture, education, trade, and the consolidation of feudal monarchies and institutions. 35) Which of the following best describes the official goals of the Crusades? A) to reconquer and defend the Holy Land from Muslims B) to take back Jerusalem from Jews C) to free Constantinople from Turkish control D) to spread Catholicism to eastern Europe Answer: A Rationale: The official goals of the Crusades were to reconquer and defend the Holy Land from Muslims, particularly Jerusalem, which was considered a sacred Christian territory. 36) Which of the following is typical of the activities of reform-minded popes such as Gregory VII? A) an insistence that all priests remain unmarried B) a requirement that all members of the clergy avoid alcohol C) an attempt to force pagans to leave towns D) a tendency to accept the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor over religious matters Answer: A Rationale: Activities of reform-minded popes such as Gregory VII included an insistence that all priests remain unmarried as part of efforts to reform the clergy and address issues of corruption and immorality within the Church. 37) Which of the following was an effect of monasteries on European civilization? A) The negatively affected the economy. B) They were all corrupt. C) They helped preserve and further learning. D) They didn’t produce any product and relied on local farmers Answer: C Rationale: Monasteries had a significant effect on European civilization by helping to preserve and further learning through the copying and preservation of manuscripts, the establishment of scriptoria, and the promotion of education and intellectual pursuits. 38) Which of the following was the most significant political structure in the High Middle Ages? A) feudal lords B) local mayors C) the feudal monarchy D) the papacy Answer: C Rationale: The most significant political structure in the High Middle Ages was the feudal monarchy, characterized by the centralization of power under monarchs, the establishment of royal courts and bureaucracies, and the assertion of royal authority over feudal lords and territories. 39) The end of the Middle Ages is characterized by which of the following? A) monarchs were beginning to recruit professional armies B) monarchs lost the ability to tax C) the church grew stronger D) the power of local aristocrats was destroyed Answer: A Rationale: The end of the Middle Ages is characterized by monarchs beginning to recruit professional armies, marking a shift away from feudal levies and toward centralized military forces and professional soldiers under royal command. 40) The discovery of Hellenistic scientific works lead to which of the following? A) experiments B) little new empirical research C) condemnation of the works by the church D) a criticism of Hellenistic science Answer: B Rationale: The discovery of Hellenistic scientific works during the Middle Ages did not lead to significant new empirical research but rather resulted in little new experimentation or advancement in scientific knowledge during this period, as the focus was more on preserving and translating classical texts rather than conducting new scientific inquiries. 41) Which of the following literary types emerged during the medieval period? A) the Hellenistic romance B) the dialogue C) early English sagas written in the vernacular D) Latin poetry Answer: C Rationale: Early English sagas written in the vernacular emerged during the medieval period, representing a significant development in literature as they were written in the language of the common people rather than Latin or Greek, making them more accessible to a wider audience. 42) Which of the following contributed to the development of an agricultural economy in the 9th and 10th centuries? A) increasing political stability B) an influx of farmers from eastern Europe and Asia C) the use of a lighter plow D) the oxen collar Answer: A Rationale: Increasing political stability contributed to the development of an agricultural economy in the 9th and 10th centuries by providing a conducive environment for investment in agriculture, land improvement, and the expansion of agricultural production. 43) Which of the following was an effect of increasing trade during the medieval period? A) cultural exchange with non-Western societies B) wars with Asian countries over spices C) the decline of Mediterranean trade in favor of land routes D) an increase in trade-in-kind Answer: A Rationale: An effect of increasing trade during the medieval period was cultural exchange with nonWestern societies, as trade networks facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, technologies, and cultural practices between Europe and regions such as the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. 44) Which of the following affected the relationship between church and state in the 13th and 14th centuries? A) The ability of kings to determine religious matters had increased. B) The church was weaker during this time. C) Church leaders consolidated their influence over Western religious life. D) Kings increasingly used the clergy as advisors. Answer: B Rationale: The church being weaker during the 13th and 14th centuries affected the relationship between church and state, as it diminished the church's ability to exert significant political influence and control over secular affairs, allowing secular authorities to assert more independence and authority. 45) Which of the following was a key technological development in the Middle Ages? A) use of the hoe B) the printing press C) use of the wheel D) new yokes for horses Answer: D Rationale: A key technological development in the Middle Ages was the introduction of new yokes for horses, which allowed for more efficient and effective harnessing of horses for agricultural purposes, improving productivity in farming and transportation. 46) The backwardness of western Europe in the early postclassical centuries showed in which of the following? A) large city size B) political disunity and frequent warfare C) high levels of intellectual life D) lack of spiritual concerns Answer: B Rationale: The backwardness of Western Europe in the early postclassical centuries showed in political disunity and frequent warfare, as the collapse of centralized authority and the decline of the Roman Empire led to a fragmented and conflict-ridden political landscape characterized by warfare among various kingdoms and tribes. 47) During the Middle Ages, monks advanced which of the following? A) scholarly research and writing B) political structures C) resistance to feudalism D) development of popular protest against manorialism Answer: A Rationale: During the Middle Ages, monks advanced scholarly research and writing by copying and preserving ancient texts, producing new works of literature, philosophy, and theology, and establishing centers of learning such as monastic schools and universities. 48) How did Gregory VII win his argument with Henry IV over investiture? A) He persuaded him during a public debate. B) He threatened to have Henry IV killed. C) He excommunicated Henry IV. D) He kidnapped Henry IV’s family. Answer: C Rationale: Gregory VII won his argument with Henry IV over investiture by excommunicating Henry IV, thereby placing him under spiritual censure and threatening his legitimacy as ruler, which forced Henry IV to seek reconciliation with the pope to restore his standing within the Church. 49) Compared to Japanese feudalism, Western feudalism A) emphasized group loyalty. B) functioned to check central power. C) was much harsher. D) allowed serfs more freedom. Answer: B Rationale: Compared to Japanese feudalism, Western feudalism functioned to check central power by dispersing authority among various lords and vassals, leading to a decentralized political system characterized by overlapping jurisdictions and competing power centers. 50) What was the relationship between warfare and technology in western Europe? A) Constant fighting during the Middle Ages limited growth in Europe. B) Warfare stimulated technological advances. C) Technological improvements helped to reduce the number of casualties during wars. D) Technological developments could not keep pace with the needs of soldiers. Answer: B Rationale: Warfare stimulated technological advances in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The constant need for better weapons, armor, and military tactics drove innovation in metallurgy, siege warfare, navigation, and other fields. For example, the development of better armor, such as plate armor, and advancements in siege weaponry, like trebuchets, were direct responses to the demands of medieval warfare. Additionally, the Crusades spurred technological exchange between Europe and the Middle East, leading to the adoption of new military technologies and techniques. Short Answer Questions 51) In what ways did guilds and guild values differ from capitalist institutions? Answer: Guilds differed from capitalist institutions in several ways: 1. Social Structure: Guilds operated within a hierarchical system where members had specific roles and responsibilities based on their craft or trade. In contrast, capitalist institutions are often characterized by a flatter organizational structure with less emphasis on hierarchical roles based on skill or trade. 2. Regulation of Trade: Guilds regulated trade within their respective crafts or trades, setting standards for quality, pricing, and apprenticeship. Capitalist institutions, on the other hand, operate within free-market principles with less regulation and more competition. 3. Apprentice System: Guilds typically had strict apprenticeship systems where individuals had to undergo training and education before becoming full-fledged members of the guild. In capitalism, there is no formal apprenticeship system, and individuals can enter the workforce more freely. 4. Collective Ownership: Guilds often emphasized collective ownership and control of resources and production facilities within their trade or craft. In contrast, capitalist institutions often prioritize private ownership and individual entrepreneurship. 52) List three differences between the political structure of western Europe around 1300 and the political structure in the time after Charlemagne (9th century). Answer: 1. Centralization of Power: Around 1300, Western Europe saw the emergence of more centralized monarchies, where kings wielded greater authority over their realms. In contrast, after Charlemagne (9th century), political power was more decentralized, with fragmented kingdoms and feudal lords holding significant autonomy. 2. Feudal System: After Charlemagne, the feudal system became more entrenched, with local lords exercising substantial power over their territories and vassals. By around 1300, while feudalism still existed, monarchs had started to consolidate power, leading to a weakening of feudal structures and a shift towards more centralized governance. 3. Role of the Church: In the 9th century, the Church played a crucial role in political affairs, often exerting influence over secular rulers and acting as a unifying force in fragmented Europe. By 1300, while the Church remained influential, monarchs had begun to challenge papal authority, leading to conflicts such as the Investiture Controversy. 53) List four signs of the decline of medieval Western civilization. Answer: 1. Economic Decline: Declining trade routes, agricultural productivity, and urbanization contributed to economic stagnation and decline in medieval Western civilization. 2. Political Fragmentation: The fragmentation of political power into smaller feudal entities led to instability, frequent conflicts, and a lack of centralized governance, weakening the overall political structure of medieval Western Europe. 3. Social Unrest: Increasing social inequality, unrest among peasant populations, and conflicts between different social classes signaled a breakdown in social cohesion and stability within medieval Western society. 4. Cultural Stagnation: The decline of learning institutions, such as monasteries and universities, along with a reduction in intellectual pursuits and cultural achievements, marked a period of cultural stagnation in medieval Western civilization. 54) How did medieval parliaments differ from modern parliaments? Answer: Medieval parliaments differed from modern parliaments in several ways: 1. Representation: Medieval parliaments often represented only specific segments of society, such as the nobility, clergy, and bourgeoisie, rather than the entire population. Modern parliaments typically aim for more comprehensive representation, including various social, economic, and demographic groups. 2. Power Structure: In medieval parliaments, power was often concentrated in the hands of the monarchy or aristocracy, with limited decision-making authority granted to parliamentary bodies. Modern parliaments, however, operate with a more balanced distribution of power between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. 3. Legislative Process: Medieval parliaments had less formalized legislative processes compared to modern parliaments, with decision-making often based on consensus-building among privileged classes rather than democratic voting procedures. Modern parliaments follow established parliamentary procedures and rules for lawmaking and governance. 4. Role of Monarchy: In medieval parliaments, the monarchy played a dominant role, often controlling the agenda and influencing legislative outcomes. In contrast, modern parliaments operate with greater independence from the monarchy or executive branch, exercising more oversight and checks on executive power. 55) Why were some Christian leaders hostile to scholasticism? Answer: Some Christian leaders were hostile to scholasticism for several reasons: 1. Conflict with Tradition: Scholasticism, with its emphasis on rational inquiry and philosophical analysis, sometimes conflicted with traditional religious doctrines and interpretations, leading to concerns among conservative Christian leaders about its potential to undermine faith. 2. Perceived Threat to Authority: Scholasticism encouraged questioning and critical thinking, which some Christian leaders viewed as a challenge to their authority and the established religious hierarchy. They feared that scholasticism might empower individuals to challenge religious orthodoxy and undermine ecclesiastical control. 3. Influence of Non-Christian Philosophy: Scholasticism drew heavily from Greek and Arabic philosophical traditions, such as Aristotle and Avicenna, which some Christian leaders regarded with suspicion or hostility due to their non-Christian origins. They worried that the incorporation of non-Christian ideas into theological discourse could dilute or distort Christian teachings. 4. Fear of Heresy: The rigorous intellectual methods employed in scholasticism sometimes led to speculative or controversial theological conclusions that were perceived as heretical by conservative Christian leaders. They feared that scholasticism might inadvertently promote heterodox beliefs or sow seeds of doubt among the faithful. Essay Questions 56) Compare Japanese and Western feudalism. What did the systems have in common? What caused the systems? How did they differ? Answer: Commonalities: 1. Decentralized Power: Both Japanese and Western feudalism were characterized by a decentralized political system where power was fragmented among local lords or nobles who exercised control over their respective territories. 2. Feudal Hierarchy: Both systems operated on a hierarchical structure with a lord-vassal relationship at the core, where vassals swore loyalty to their lords in exchange for protection and land tenure. 3. Land Tenure: Land ownership and control were central to both systems, with land serving as the primary source of wealth, power, and social status for feudal lords and their vassals. Causes: 1. Political Fragmentation: In both Japan and Western Europe, the collapse of centralized authority, such as the Roman Empire in the West and the Heian court in Japan, led to a power vacuum that was filled by local lords who established their own domains. 2. Military Necessity: Feudalism emerged in response to the need for localized defense and security against external threats, such as invasions, raids, and civil unrest, which required the delegation of military authority to regional lords. 3. Economic Factors: Economic changes, such as the decline of long-distance trade and the shift towards agrarian economies, contributed to the rise of feudalism by reinforcing the importance of landownership and local self-sufficiency. Differences: 1. Social Structure: Japanese feudalism was characterized by a rigid social hierarchy based on the hereditary division of labor and status, with the samurai warrior class at the top, followed by peasants, artisans, and merchants. In contrast, Western feudalism had a more fluid social structure with overlapping hierarchies based on landownership, military service, and religious affiliation. 2. Role of the Samurai: In Japanese feudalism, the samurai class held significant political and military power, serving as the warrior elite and enforcing the authority of the daimyo lords. In Western feudalism, military power was dispersed among various noble families and knights, with no equivalent centralized warrior class like the samurai. 3. Political Organization: Japanese feudalism was organized around the shogunate system, where a military dictator (shogun) ruled in the name of the emperor, while Western feudalism was characterized by fragmented political authority, with multiple competing kingdoms, principalities, and city-states. 57) Why did feudalism arise in the West? How had it changed by the time of feudal monarchies and parliaments? Answer: Feudalism arose in the West primarily due to: 1. Decline of Centralized Authority: The collapse of the Roman Empire and the subsequent fragmentation of political power left Western Europe vulnerable to invasion, raiding, and internal conflict, prompting the development of localized systems of governance and defense. 2. Insecurity and Instability: In response to external threats and internal disorder, regional lords and nobles sought to consolidate power within their domains, leading to the emergence of feudal relationships based on land tenure and military service. 3. Economic Changes: Shifts in economic organization, such as the decline of long-distance trade and the breakdown of urban centers, fostered a reliance on local agricultural production and self-sufficiency, reinforcing the importance of landownership and feudal obligations. By the time of feudal monarchies and parliaments, feudalism had changed in several ways: 1. Centralization of Power: Feudal monarchies began to consolidate power and assert greater authority over their realms, gradually centralizing political control and weakening the autonomy of feudal lords. 2. Emergence of Representative Institutions: Feudal monarchies established representative bodies, such as parliaments and estates-general, to advise and consent to royal policies, providing a forum for negotiation and cooperation between monarchs and nobles. 3. Legal and Administrative Reforms: Feudal monarchies implemented legal and administrative reforms to standardize laws, taxation, and governance across their territories, reducing the arbitrary power of feudal lords and promoting uniformity and stability. 4. Decline of Feudal Obligations: The rise of professional armies, changes in warfare, and economic transformations led to the decline of traditional feudal obligations, such as military service and labor dues, as feudal relationships evolved into more contractual and monetary arrangements. 58) Compare feudalism and manorialism, noting similarities and differences. Answer: Similarities: 1. Agricultural Economy: Both feudalism and manorialism were agricultural systems where land was the primary source of wealth and economic production. 2. Social Hierarchy: Both systems were characterized by hierarchical social structures with distinct roles and obligations for different classes of people, such as lords, vassals, serfs, and peasants. 3. Land Tenure: Landownership and control were central to both feudalism and manorialism, with lords holding large estates and granting land to vassals or peasants in exchange for various forms of service or rent. Differences: 1. Political Organization: Feudalism primarily refers to the political and military relationships between lords and vassals, focusing on the distribution of political authority and military obligations. Manorialism, on the other hand, pertains to the economic and social organization of agricultural estates, emphasizing the relationship between lords and peasants for the management of land and labor. 2. Scope of Control: Feudalism encompassed broader political and military structures, including the obligations of vassals to provide military service to their lords. Manorialism, meanwhile, focused more narrowly on the management of individual manors or estates, where lords exercised authority over agricultural production and labor. 3. Economic Focus: Feudalism addressed political and military aspects of medieval society, such as the feudal hierarchy and obligations of loyalty and protection. Manorialism, however, concentrated on the economic aspects of medieval life, such as agricultural production, land management, and the organization of labor on manorial estates. 59) Given its lack of political unity, to what did the medieval West owe its cohesion as a civilization? Answer: The cohesion of medieval Western civilization can be attributed to several factors: 1. Cultural and Religious Unity: Despite political fragmentation, medieval Western Europe shared a common cultural and religious heritage rooted in Christianity. The Catholic Church provided a unifying force, promoting religious beliefs, cultural values, and social norms that transcended political boundaries. 2. Feudal Relationships: The feudal system fostered bonds of loyalty and allegiance between lords and vassals, creating a network of personal relationships that contributed to social cohesion and stability within local communities. 3. Economic Interdependence: Despite decentralized political authority, medieval Europe was economically interconnected through trade networks, agricultural exchange, and commercial activities. Economic interdependence encouraged cooperation and mutual dependence among different regions and social classes. 4. Shared Threats: External threats, such as Viking raids, Muslim invasions, and conflicts with neighboring powers, often compelled medieval Europeans to unite for common defense and survival, fostering a sense of collective identity and solidarity. 60) Why did the West avoid a radical decline such as that of Kievan Russia in the 13th and 14th centuries? Answer: The West avoided a radical decline similar to that of Kievan Russia in the 13th and 14th centuries due to several factors: 1. Political Fragmentation: The decentralized political structure of Western Europe, characterized by competing kingdoms, principalities, and city-states, provided resilience against external threats and internal upheavals. Unlike Kievan Russia, where centralized authority collapsed under Mongol rule, Western Europe maintained diverse centers of power that could resist external pressures. 2. Economic Resilience: Western Europe's diversified economy, with thriving trade networks, agricultural production, and urban centers, provided a foundation for resilience and recovery in the face of challenges. Unlike Kievan Russia, which relied heavily on agriculture and suffered from economic disruption under Mongol rule, Western Europe had more resilient economic foundations. 3. Institutional Stability: Western Europe benefited from stable institutions, such as the Catholic Church, feudal system, and emerging representative bodies like parliaments, which provided stability, continuity, and mechanisms for governance and conflict resolution. These institutions helped mitigate the impact of external shocks and internal strife, enabling Western Europe to adapt and survive tumultuous periods. 4. Geographic Factors: Western Europe's geographic diversity, with natural barriers like mountains, rivers, and seas, contributed to its defense and security, making it less vulnerable to external invasions and conquests compared to the flat plains of Kievan Russia. Geography provided Western Europe with strategic advantages and buffers against external threats, facilitating its survival and eventual resurgence. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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