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Chapter 12: Speeches to Inform 12.1 Multiple Choice 1. Information is defined as a. concepts or processes. b. extended explanations and definitions. c. a collection of fact and figures. d. facts and figures that have been given human significance. Answer: c. a collection of fact and figures. Rationale: Information is typically considered a collection of facts and figures, not just concepts or processes, and it may or may not have human significance. 2. Jamal is giving a speech to describe the differences between values and beliefs. His speech is most likely to take the form of a(n) a. demonstration. b. oral report. c. explanation. d. lecture. Answer: c. explanation. Rationale: Jamal's speech is focused on describing differences, which fits the purpose of an explanation where he would clarify concepts without necessarily demonstrating them. 3. In the early fall, TV weather persons will often spend some time during one of their segments explaining the criteria by which an Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico storm might be judged a hurricane. This information would most likely be presented as a(n) a. explanation. b. demonstration. c. oral report. d. lecture. Answer: a. explanation. Rationale: This scenario involves clarifying a concept (what constitutes a hurricane), which aligns with the purpose of an explanation. 4. A talk by the famous chef Wolfgang Puck about his career as a television chef is most likely to take the form of a(n) a. speech of explanation. b. demonstration. c. oral report. d. lecture. Answer: d. lecture. Rationale: A talk about Wolfgang Puck's career is likely to involve storytelling and sharing experiences, which aligns with the format of a lecture. 5. Probably the most complex and most difficult of the different types of informative speeches is the a. lecture. b. speech of definition. c. oral report. d. demonstration. Answer: a. lecture. Rationale: A lecture typically involves a more complex presentation of information compared to other forms of speeches, requiring the speaker to organize and deliver content in a comprehensive manner. 6. Lateesha is going to explain how to make a tomato in the shape of a flower. Her speech will probably take the form of a(n) a. explanation. b. oral report. c. lecture. d. demonstration. Answer: d. demonstration. Rationale: Lateesha's speech involves showing how to do something, which is characteristic of a demonstration. 7. When a speaker seeks to explain and illustrate a process, he/she is probably developing a(n) a. speech of illustration. b. speech of demonstration. c. oral report. d. lecture. Answer: b. speech of demonstration. Rationale: The speaker is explaining and illustrating a process, which is the primary purpose of a demonstration speech. 8. Your friends keep asking you how you make such wonderful homemade cookies. So you decide to have a party and respond to their curiosity. Your presentation is most likely to take the form of a. a speech of definition. b. instructions and demonstration. c. an oral report. d. a lecture. Answer: b. instructions and demonstration. Rationale: Since you are showing your friends how to make cookies, your presentation would involve providing instructions and demonstrating the process. 9. A speech that arranges and interprets information gathered in response to a request made by a group is a(n) a. lecture. b. speech of instruction. c. oral report. d. speech of definition. Answer: c. oral report. Rationale: An oral report typically involves arranging and interpreting information gathered in response to a specific request or inquiry from a group. 10. Tawanda has been asked to explain the new accounting procedures that will be instituted by the bank. Her presentation will most likely take the form of a(n) a. speech of demonstration. b. oral report. c. speech of instruction. d. explanation or lecture. Answer: b. oral report. Rationale: Tawanda's presentation is likely to involve explaining the new procedures, which fits the format of an oral report where information is presented in response to a request or specific topic. 11. In an informative speech, clarity is largely the result of a. effective analysis of the audience. b. the purpose and occasion of the speech. c. effective organization and choice of words. d. the topic under discussion. Answer: c. effective organization and choice of words. Rationale: Clarity in an informative speech is primarily achieved through how the information is organized and presented, as well as the choice of words to ensure understanding. 12. If a speech to inform leaves the audience confused largely due to the effect of poor organization and imprecise language, the speaker likely devoted too little attention to the feature of a. coherence. b. motivation. c. associating new ideas with familiar ones. d. clarity. Answer: d. clarity. Rationale: Clarity in a speech is about making sure the message is easily understood, which is compromised by poor organization and imprecise language. 13. If your principle strategy was to meet the audience's requests with the information and the recommendations you present, what type of informative speech would you be giving? a. speech of definition b. lecture c. oral report d. demonstration Answer: c. oral report Rationale: An oral report typically involves presenting information and recommendations in response to a specific request or inquiry from the audience. 14. If you were searching for information for an informative speech, which of the following would you most likely consider as possible topics? a. people b. places c. things d. all of the above e. none of the above Answer: d. all of the above Rationale: All of the options (people, places, and things) are potential topics for an informative speech, as they can all provide factual information to the audience. 15. If you are researching a topic for an informative speech and find yourself overwhelmed with the abundance of information (e.g., 15 examples are available), what advice does the textbook offer to combat this issue? a. Sample it. b. Rotate it. c. Table it. d. Distribute it. Answer: a. Sample it. Rationale: When overwhelmed with information, sampling it involves selecting a representative subset to manage the volume and complexity. 16. If your audience is bogged down and has become confused and bored, which aspect of clarity have you most likely neglected? a. keeping your speech moving forward b. using transitions to show relationships among ideas c. simplifying when possible d. keeping your vocabulary precise and accurate Answer: c. simplifying when possible Rationale: Simplifying complex ideas and concepts can help prevent audience confusion and boredom, improving clarity. 17. Jane tried to make her point clear and relevant to her listeners by pointing out the similarities between conducting a job search and shopping. What essential feature(s) of the speech to inform was she relying upon? a. clarity b. the association of new ideas with familiar ones c. motivational appeal d. packaging or clustering ideas Answer: b. the association of new ideas with familiar ones Rationale: Jane was associating the new idea of conducting a job search with the familiar concept of shopping, making her point more understandable and relatable. 18. Tiffany is delivering her speech on aspects of the Vietnam War through mass media. What could Tiffany use to help her audience better understand her speech? a. cluster the ideas b. construct relevant visualizations c. motivate the audience d. simplify the ideas Answer: b. Construct relevant visualizations. Rationale: Visual aids can help clarify complex information and make it more accessible to the audience, especially when discussing historical events like aspects of the Vietnam War. 19. When we assume a topic is interesting to our audience because we find it interesting, which essential quality of informative speeches are we ignoring? a. clarity b. associating new ideas with familiar ones c. packaging or clustering ideas d. motivating your audience Answer: d. motivating your audience Rationale: Ignoring the audience's interest and assuming they will find a topic interesting because we do overlooks the importance of motivating the audience to engage with the information. 20. One of the primary jobs of an informative speech is to a. bring coherence and focus to information. b. persuade and actuate the audience. c. entertain and relax the audience. d. appeal to the emotions of the audience. Answer: a. bring coherence and focus to information. Rationale: The primary goal of an informative speech is to provide information in a coherent and focused manner, not necessarily to persuade, entertain, or appeal to emotions. 21. Informative speeches of explanations or lectures are most often arranged in what organizational pattern? a. chronological b. topical c. spatial d. causal Answer: b. topical Rationale: Explanatory or lecture-style speeches typically organize information by topic, presenting information in a logical sequence of related ideas. 22. What does the textbook mean by the phrase, "involve your listeners"? a. Use the factors of attention to maintain the interest of the audience. b. Use slang and jargon to give the speech a conversational tone. c. Spend equal amounts of time explaining each main point. d. Use technical language to add to your credibility. Answer: a. Use the factors of attention to maintain the interest of the audience. Rationale: Involving the audience means engaging them through various factors of attention, such as using stories, examples, humor, and rhetorical questions to maintain their interest and connection to the speech. 23. If you were going to give a speech demonstrating how to bake a cake, what organizational patterns would you most likely use? a. topical and causal b. causal and spatial c. topical and chronological d. chronological and spatial Answer: d. chronological and spatial Rationale: A demonstration of how to bake a cake would likely follow a chronological order of steps (mixing ingredients, baking, decorating) and a spatial order (showing where ingredients and tools are placed and how they are used). 24. In general, the speech explanation, focusing as it does on various aspects of the same object or idea, will most likely use which pattern of organization? a. causal b. spatial c. chronological d. topical Answer: d. topical Rationale: A speech of explanation, which focuses on various aspects of the same object or idea, would most likely use a topical organization to present information in a logical and coherent manner. 25. Repetition in informative speeches is important in all of the following ways EXCEPT a. learning a simple fact. b. learning complex material. c. reinforcing an idea. d. motivating the audience. Answer: a. learning a simple fact. Rationale: While repetition can be important for reinforcing ideas, motivating the audience, and aiding in learning complex material, it may not be as crucial for learning a simple fact which can be easily grasped with one mention. 26. Informative speeches given on the topic of supply and demand should use what organizational pattern? a. chronological b. topical c. spatial d. causal Answer: d. causal Rationale: Speeches on supply and demand would likely use a causal organization to explain the causeand-effect relationships between supply, demand, and other economic factors. 27. When giving a demonstration speech on how to sew a button on a shirt, the speaker is most likely to encounter the technical problem of a. rate. b. size. c. the coordination of verbal and visual materials. d. motivation. Answer: b. size. Rationale: The size of the button and the needle can be a technical problem in a demonstration speech on sewing a button, as selecting the right size is crucial for the demonstration to be effective. 28. According to the textbook, the speech about "The Geisha" illustrates the virtues of a good informative speech. What organizational pattern did the speech use? a. chronological b. causal c. problem-solution d. topical Answer: d. topical Rationale: The speech about "The Geisha" likely used a topical organization, presenting information about different aspects of the topic in a structured and logical manner. 12.2 True/False 1. The key theme in the chapter on informative speeches is that mere information is tremendously valuable and relevant to our lives. Answer: False Rationale: The key theme is likely to emphasize how information, when presented effectively, can be valuable and relevant, rather than stating that mere information is inherently valuable and relevant. 2. Knowledge is information that has been given human significance. Answer: True Rationale: Knowledge is often seen as information that has been processed and understood by humans, giving it significance and meaning in our lives. 3. Information, in and of itself, tells us nothing. Answer: True Rationale: Information, without context or interpretation, does not provide meaning or understanding and therefore, does not "tell" us anything. 4. Lectures, demonstrations, and oral reports are the three most common ways in which people package information to meet the needs of others. Answer: True Rationale: These are indeed common ways to present information, as lectures provide detailed explanations, demonstrations show how something is done, and oral reports convey information in response to specific requests. 5. The purpose of a lecture is to increase the audience's understanding or appreciation of a particular field of knowledge or activity. Answer: True Rationale: A lecture is often used to provide detailed explanations and insights into a specific topic, aiming to increase the audience's understanding or appreciation of it. 6. As a physics major, you have been asked to explain the difference between a meteor and an asteroid. Your talk will probably take the form of a speech of explanation. Answer: False Rationale: Explaining the difference between a meteor and an asteroid is more likely to be a speech of definition, as you would be clarifying the meaning of these terms rather than explaining a complex process. 7. A speech of explanation is a speech that explains complex processes. Answer: False Rationale: A speech of explanation can explain various types of topics, not just complex processes. It aims to clarify and make things understandable, whether they are simple or complex. 8. Mary has been asked by her boss to take some time and orient the new employee. Mary will probably be giving the new worker a lecture on how the company works. Answer: False Rationale: Orienting a new employee is more likely to involve a demonstration or an oral report, as Mary would be showing or explaining the company's operations rather than delivering a formal lecture. 9. A demonstration seeks to present concepts or processes in ways that make them relevant to listeners. Answer: True Rationale: Demonstrations aim to show how something is done or how it works, making concepts or processes more relevant and understandable to the audience. 10. Oral reports arrange and interpret information gathered in response to a request made by a group. Answer: True Rationale: Oral reports involve presenting information gathered in response to a specific request or inquiry from a group, often arranging and interpreting the information to make it understandable and relevant. 11. Your boss has asked you to report on the implications of the new Telecommunications Act on the development of the new Internet server. Your talk will probably take the form of an oral report. Answer: True Rationale: An oral report is a likely format for presenting information gathered in response to a specific request, such as reporting on the implications of a new act on a project. 12. The structuring principle for organizing the body of an oral report is to select an organizational pattern best suited to the speaker's needs. Answer: False Rationale: The structuring principle for organizing the body of an oral report is to select an organizational pattern best suited to the topic and the audience, not just the speaker's needs. 13. Four options to consider when a speaker encounters information overload are sample it, bite it, distribute it, and table it. Answer: False Rationale: The options for dealing with information overload are typically to sample it (select a representative subset), table it (set it aside for later), distribute it (share it with the audience), or simplify it, not "bite it." 14. If you have gathered too much information to use in your speech, you could always put some of it into a table or some other form and make it available to the audience after the speech. Answer: True Rationale: Providing additional information in a handout or other form after the speech can be a useful way to share excess information with the audience without overwhelming them during the presentation. 15. Reiteration and rephrasing are techniques that can enhance clarity. Answer: True Rationale: Reiteration (repeating key points) and rephrasing (expressing the same idea in different words) can help reinforce understanding and clarity for the audience. 16. If you have several examples that could be used in the speech, you should select only two or three examples to deliver orally. Answer: True Rationale: Selecting a few key examples to deliver orally can help maintain audience interest and avoid overwhelming them with excessive detail. 17. If you have too much information to deliver orally, you can sample it, table it, rotate it, or distribute it. Answer: True Rationale: These are valid strategies for managing and presenting excessive information in a speech, allowing the speaker to effectively convey key points without overloading the audience. 18. In a speech to inform, mixing new information with the old will depend on how well the speaker knows the audience. Answer: True Rationale: Mixing new information with familiar information can help make the new information more understandable and relevant to the audience, but the extent to which this is done will depend on the audience's prior knowledge and understanding. 19. Whenever possible, information should be simplified. Answer: True Rationale: Simplifying information can make it easier for the audience to understand and retain, especially when dealing with complex or technical topics. 20. Mnemonic devices in your outline can provide memory triggers. Answer: True Rationale: Mnemonic devices, such as acronyms or rhymes, can help the speaker remember key points and the overall structure of the speech, enhancing delivery and retention. 21. The attention you, as the speaker, must pay to motivational appeals increases proportionately with the "voluntariness" of the audience's presence. Answer: False Rationale: The level of attention paid to motivational appeals does not necessarily increase with the voluntariness of the audience's presence. Motivational appeals should be tailored to the audience's needs and interests, regardless of their voluntary attendance. 22. New information can be retained more easily when we know it can be useful. Answer: True Rationale: When we perceive information as useful or relevant, we are more likely to pay attention to it and retain it in memory. 23. Repetition is an important tool for informative speeches. Answer: True Rationale: Repetition can help reinforce key points and make them more memorable for the audience. 24. Most speeches of explanation and lectures use a topical organizational pattern. Answer: True Rationale: A topical organizational pattern is common in speeches of explanation and lectures, as it allows the speaker to organize information by topics or main points. 25. Involving your audience in a speech requires using the factors of attention. Answer: True Rationale: Involving the audience in a speech requires using various factors of attention, such as stories, examples, and rhetorical questions, to maintain their interest and engagement. 26. Informative speeches rarely use a topical organizational pattern. Answer: False Rationale: Informative speeches often use a topical organizational pattern to organize information into logical and coherent segments based on topics or main points. 27. Most speeches of demonstration follow a topical or causal pattern of organization. Answer: False Rationale: Most speeches of demonstration follow a spatial or chronological pattern of organization, focusing on how something is done or how it works rather than explaining causes or organizing by topics. 28. Cheryl is delivering a speech on the effects of identity theft. The organizational pattern that she will most likely use is effect-cause pattern. Answer: True Rationale: An effect-cause pattern is appropriate for a speech on the effects of identity theft, as it allows Cheryl to first present the effects and then explain the causes of identity theft. 29. Multiple channels should be used when delivering a speech because they reinforce ideas. Answer: True Rationale: Using multiple channels, such as visual aids and verbal explanations, can help reinforce ideas and improve audience understanding and retention. 12.3 Short Answer 1. What is the main purpose of the speech to inform? Answer: The purpose of a speech to inform is to make information clear and relevant to the lives of others. 2. What is the difference between knowledge and information? Answer: Knowledge is information that has been given human significance. Information is a collection of facts and figures. 3. List the three types of informative speeches. Answer: The three types of informative speeches are: (1) explanation or lecture, (2) demonstrations, and (3) oral reports. 4. What is a demonstration? Answer: Demonstrations explain processes or both explain and illustrate the processes. 5. Identify and briefly describe the four essential qualities of informative speeches. Answer: The answer should identify the characteristics of clarity through effective speech organization (limiting the main points, using transitional phrases, and keeping the speech moving forward and careful wording). The speech should also associate new ideas with familiar ones. The association of ideas will help the audience to grasp new ideas more readily. Clustering ideas as well as using mnemonic devices will help the audience to remember the ideas presented. The last area should include motivating the audience to listen by using the factors of attention. 6. What are some of the standard subject areas that could be used in choosing a topic? Answer: Some of the standard subject areas are: people, places, things, events, ideas, and procedures. 7. What techniques might help you manage the information you collect when there seems to be an overwhelming amount? Answer: The researcher/speaker could sample it, rotate it, table it, or distribute it. 8. Marc plans to give an informative speech on recycling. He has an over abundance of information. Since he is insistent on conveying all of the information to his audience, what can he do? Answer: He can sample the information, rotate it, table it, or distribute it. 9. List the three ways that you can achieve clarity through word choice when delivering a speech. Answer: (1) Keep your vocabulary precise, accurate, not too technical; (2) Simplify when possible; and (3) Use reiteration to clarify complex ideas. 10. What techniques can be effective in connecting new ideas with familiar ones? Answer: Metaphors and analogies can be very effective in connecting new ideas with familiar ones. 11. Why should speakers try to associate new ideas being presented with those already known to the audience? Answer: Audiences grasp new facts and ideas more readily when they can associate them with what they already know. 12. Give an example of how a metaphor or analogy could be used to connect new ideas with familiar ones. Answer: Any number of possibilities exist. For example, comparing the presidency of state to a ship, where the president is the captain of the ship. Or comparing democracy to a raft; it floats but everyone gets their feet a little wet. 13. Give an example of a relevant visualization for the topic of eating disorders. Answer: One example could be: "Mary appears to be losing weight. She claims she just isn't hungry and begins to avoid meeting her friends for dinner. Late one night, her roommate hears her in the bathroom vomiting and when she asks Mary if she's all right, Mary answers that everything is OK. In this scene we have several warning signs for a possible eating disorder." 14. If your speech topic was to inform the audience about the four steps in getting a professional tattoo, what organizational pattern would you use to deliver the speech? Answer: The chronological organizational pattern would be used. 15. Why are multiple channels of communication useful in informative speeches? Answer: Because they help reinforce ideas and allow the audience to remember information better. 12.4 Essay Questions 1. Solomon wants to give a speech on investing in mutual funds. He has an over abundance of material. In addition to the information, he will be using jargon in his speech. What forethought and strategies would Solomon use for the speech? Answer: The answer should include an explanation of the three ways to achieve clarity by limiting main points, using transitional phrases to show the relationship among the ideas, and keep the speech moving forward. In order for Solomon to achieve clarity through wording, an explanation should include the ways to achieve clarity that are identified in the textbook. He can also simplify information whenever possible. Solomon must also motivate the audience and keep them interested in the topic. Solomon might also do an audience analysis prior to writing the speech to determine what the audience already knows. 2. Rhonda is writing a speech on the ways to invest money that she will be presenting to freshmen students. What type of speech will she most likely write and what would be the best organizational pattern for the speech? Answer: Rhonda would write a speech of explanation. The best organizational pattern for this speech would probably be a topical pattern because the speech will describe several ways that a student can invest money. 3. Describe how you would present a demonstration speech on the topic, "How to redesign your basement." Answer: The successful answer will apply the general principles of serial presentation and absolute clarity to the hobby or activity described. The introduction will talk about previewing the speech and encouragement of the listeners. The body will settle any pertinent questions of rate, size, or the coordination of verbal and visual materials. The conclusion will review the steps covered and leave open the possibility of gaining further information. 4. Your instructor has asked you to define the concept of rhetorical sensitivity for your speech class. Explain how you would go about structuring a speech of explanation on this topic. Answer: The answer should address the considerations raised regarding the structure of the introduction, body, and conclusion for a speech of explanation. Because this is not a voluntary situation for most in the audience, the introduction must attempt to create curiosity and establish a need as to why the class should listen. Body could be developed topically in terms of the characteristics of rhetorical sensitivity and their impact on communication. The conclusion should provide a short summary and stress again the need for becoming a more rhetorically sensitive communicator. 5. Discuss how you would develop a lecture on "The Essential Qualities of Informative Speeches." Answer: Since an audience dealing with a lecture may not be voluntary, the speaker must make a special effort to include motivational elements by relating the topic to the needs and interests of the audience. The body of the speech should extend the motivational elements by providing a viewpoint or rationale as to why these qualities are so important. The organizational pattern could be developed topically. The conclusion should call upon the audience to consider and apply these principles when they construct their own informative speeches. Test Bank for Principles of Public Speaking Kathleen M. German, Bruce E. Gronbeck, Douglas Ehninger, Alan H. Monroe 9780205857548, 9780205843893

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