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Chapter 11: Using Visual Media 11.1 Multiple Choice 1. "A picture is worth a thousand words" if a. the picture adds information that is more easily understood visually than aurally. b. your audience is middle-aged. c. the speaker is suffering from extreme speech fright. d. there are significant language differences between speaker and audience. Answer: a. the picture adds information that is more easily understood visually than aurally. Rationale: The saying "a picture is worth a thousand words" implies that visual information can often convey complex ideas more effectively than spoken or written explanations, particularly when the visual information is easier to understand than a verbal description. 2. An important reason for using visual aids is to a. aid in comprehension and memory. b. give the audience something to talk about. c. get feedback from the audience. d. take up time in your speech. Answer: a. aid in comprehension and memory. Rationale: Visual aids can help the audience better understand and remember the information presented, as visuals can make concepts more concrete and easier to recall. 3. Mary lists the essential steps in changing the oil of a car on a poster for her demonstration speech. This poster serves to aid Mary's speech by a. adding persuasive impact to her message. b. adding to Mary's logos by showing her listeners that she is well prepared. c. enhancing listener comprehension and memory. d. defining in detail the points to be covered in the speech. Answer: c. enhancing listener comprehension and memory. Rationale: The poster helps the audience visualize the steps, making them easier to understand and remember, thus enhancing comprehension and memory. 4. Myra is preparing to do a demonstration on the basic steps in tap dance. What would be the most effective visual aid for Myra's speech? a. simple pictures b. diagrams c. her own body d. chalkboard drawings Answer: c. her own body Rationale: In a tap dance demonstration, using her own body to demonstrate the steps would be the most effective visual aid, as it provides a live and dynamic representation of the content. 5. Small photos should NOT be passed around the room by the audience because they a. intensify the emotional reactions of your audience. b. can be lost. c. are disruptive. d. are a substitute for the real thing. Answer: c. are disruptive. Rationale: Passing small photos around can be disruptive to the flow of the presentation, as it may cause distractions and interruptions. 6. When photographs are used as visual aids they must be a. passed around so that everyone can see them. b. standard sizes. c. supplemented with other visual aids. d. enlarged to ensure that everyone is able to see them. Answer: d. enlarged to ensure that everyone is able to see them. Rationale: Enlarging photographs ensures that everyone in the audience can see the details clearly, enhancing the effectiveness of the visual aid. 7. All of the following are rules about using visual aids in business presentations EXCEPT a. prepare a professional look. b. always make something to take away. c. know the equipment before you start. d. always use photographs. Answer: d. always use photographs. Rationale: While photographs can be useful visual aids in business presentations, it is not a rule that they must always be used. The effectiveness of visual aids depends on the context and content of the presentation. 8. Which type of visual aid is especially effective at making statistical information more accessible to listeners? a. bar graphs b. charts c. simple pictures d. chalkboard drawings Answer: a. bar graphs Rationale: Bar graphs are particularly effective for presenting statistical information in a clear and accessible manner. They allow for easy comparison between different categories or groups of data, making trends and patterns readily apparent to the audience. The visual representation of data in bar graphs helps listeners grasp numerical information quickly and easily, enhancing understanding and retention. This makes bar graphs a suitable choice for conveying statistical information during presentations or speeches. While charts (b) and simple pictures (c) can also be effective visual aids, they may not be as specifically tailored for presenting statistical data. Chalkboard drawings (d) are generally less structured and may not provide the precision and clarity needed for conveying statistical information effectively. Therefore, bar graphs (a) are the most suitable option for this purpose. 9. __________ show relationships among various parts of a whole or between variables across time. a. Charts and tables b. Graphs c. Chalkboard drawings d. Models Answer: b. Graphs Rationale: Graphs are visual representations of data that show relationships among various parts of a whole or between variables across time, making them effective for illustrating trends and patterns in data. 10. If you are trying to explain a complex relationship like the amount of time spent studying to grades earned, which type of visual aid would be most appropriate? a. a bar graph b. a line graph c. a pie graph d. a pictograph Answer: b. a line graph Rationale: A line graph would be most appropriate for illustrating the relationship between the amount of time spent studying and grades earned because it can show how one variable changes in relation to another over time, making the relationship clearer to the audience. 11. If you were trying to explain the popular support for GOP presidential hopefuls from July through December 2006, what would be the most effective visual aid? a. a bar graph b. a line graph c. a pie graph d. a pictograph Answer: b. a line graph Rationale: A line graph would be most effective for showing the popularity trends of GOP presidential hopefuls over time, as it can visually represent the changes in support levels from July through December 2006. 12. You wish to show your audience that your state produces more industrial goods than any of the other 49 states. What is the best choice of visual aid for this purpose? a. chalkboard drawings b. videotape c. pictograph d. flowchart Answer: c. pictograph Rationale: A pictograph, which uses images or symbols to represent data, would be the best choice to visually illustrate that your state produces more industrial goods than any other state. This visual aid can make the comparison clear and easy to understand. 13. Which of the following graphs can be misleading? a. pie graphs b. bar graphs c. line graphs d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above Rationale: All types of graphs can be misleading if not properly constructed or if the data is misrepresented. It's important to ensure that graphs accurately represent the data they are intended to convey. 14. You can avoid misrepresenting information in your graphs by using a. clearly delineated lines. b. bold and contrasting colors. c. consistent measurements. d. a bar code. Answer: c. consistent measurements. Rationale: Consistent measurements, such as using the same scale for all data points, can help ensure that the information in your graphs is accurately represented and not misleading. 15. __________ condense large blocks of information into a single representation. a. Graphs b. Charts and tables c. Chalkboard drawings d. Models Answer: b. Charts and tables Rationale: Charts and tables are used to condense large amounts of information into a single, easy-tounderstand representation, making complex data more accessible to the audience. 16. A(n) __________ unveils ideas one at a time on separate sheets. a. flowchart b. flipchart c. pictograph d. table Answer: b. flipchart Rationale: A flipchart is a visual aid that unveils ideas one at a time on separate sheets, allowing the presenter to control the flow of information and focus the audience's attention. 17. What are the two special types of charts? a. color and black and white b. line and bar c. complex and simple d. flip and flow Answer: d. flip and flow Rationale: Flipcharts and flowcharts are two special types of charts used as visual aids in presentations. Flipcharts unveil ideas one at a time on separate sheets, while flowcharts show the flow of a process or system. 18. Reduced- or enlarged- scale replicas of real objects are called a. graphs. b. charts. c. models. d. chalkboard drawings. Answer: c. models. Rationale: Models are reduced- or enlarged-scale replicas of real objects, used to illustrate concepts or ideas in a tangible way, making them easier for the audience to understand. 19. Tables and charts should be designed to a. be complex to the audience. b. be overwhelming to the audience. c. convey information simply and clearly. d. be lengthy. Answer: c. convey information simply and clearly. Rationale: Tables and charts should be designed to convey information simply and clearly, making complex data more accessible and understandable to the audience. 20. You are speaking to raise funds for a local animal shelter. Which of the following would be the most effective visual aid to show how much of the shelter's income is spent on specific areas like preventative surgery (spay/neutering), boarding strays, administration, veterinary services, etc? a. a model b. a line graph c. a pie chart d. a table Answer: c. a pie chart Rationale: A pie chart would be the most effective visual aid for showing how much of the shelter's income is spent on specific areas, as it can visually represent the proportions of the total income allocated to each category, making it easy for the audience to understand the distribution of funds. 21. All of the following are considerations for choosing a visual aid EXCEPT a. the characteristics of the audience and occasion. b. the ability to integrate verbal and visual materials effectively. c. the ability to distort the information presented. d. the potential of computer-generated materials. Answer: c. the ability to distort the information presented. Rationale: Considerations for choosing a visual aid should focus on how well it complements your message and enhances audience understanding, rather than its potential to distort information. 22. If you select visual aids based upon your assessment of what your listeners already know about your subject, which consideration for selecting and using visual aids are you applying? a. the communicative potential of various visual materials b. your ability to integrate verbal and visual materials effectively c. the characteristics of the audience and occasion d. the potential of computer-generated visual materials Answer: c. the characteristics of the audience and occasion Rationale: Selecting visual aids based on what your audience already knows about your subject is an example of considering the characteristics of the audience and occasion. 23. The district manager wants to use visual aids to present a report of projected future profits to the central office. What decision about visual aids should the district manager consider? a. the characteristics of the audience and occasion b. the communicative potential of various visual materials c. your ability to integrate verbal and visual material effectively d. the potential of computer-generated visual materials Answer: a. the characteristics of the audience and occasion Rationale: When deciding on visual aids for a presentation, the district manager should consider the characteristics of the audience and the occasion to ensure the visual aids are appropriate and effective. 24. If you select your visual aids after considering what will affect the way your listeners think or feel, which consideration for selecting and using visual aids are you addressing? a. the characteristics of the audience and occasion b. the communicative potential of various visual materials c. your ability to integrate verbal and visual materials d. the potential of computer-generated visual materials Answer: a. the characteristics of the audience and occasion Rationale: Considering how the audience will think or feel about your visual aids relates to the characteristics of the audience and occasion, as you want the visual aids to resonate with the audience. 25. All of the following are suggestions for getting maximum benefit from visual aids EXCEPT a. use color to create interest. b. use black and white for clarity. c. keep the visual aids clear and simple. d. make the visual aids neat. e. both a and b Answer: b. use black and white for clarity. Rationale: While using black and white can provide clarity, it is not a suggestion for getting maximum benefit from visual aids. Using color to create interest and keeping visual aids clear and simple are more relevant suggestions. 26. A practical guideline for preparing visual aids would be to a. use noncontrasting colors. b. make sure charts and graphs are packed with ample information. c. keep visual aids clear and simple. d. keep yourself between the visual and the audience. Answer: c. keep visual aids clear and simple. Rationale: Keeping visual aids clear and simple helps ensure that they are easy for the audience to understand and enhances their effectiveness in supporting your message. 27. To help integrate verbal and visual materials effectively, you should a. use color to create interest. b. make visual aids clear and simple. c. set up your visuals in the center of the audience. d. all of the above. e. both a and b. Answer: e. both a and b. Rationale: Using color to create interest and keeping visual aids clear and simple can help integrate verbal and visual materials effectively by making the visual aids engaging and easy to understand. 28. If you were giving a speech to an audience on the seven warning signs of cancer and you want them to take some materials home, when would be the best time to distribute a copy? a. before the speech b. during the speech c. after the speech d. only if they ask for it Answer: c. after the speech Rationale: Distributing materials after the speech allows the audience to focus on your presentation without being distracted by the materials. It also gives them a takeaway to reinforce the information presented. 29. Given the advice regarding the distraction that may result from visual aids and your desire to provide materials for the audience to take away from your presentation, when would be the best time to hand out this material? a. before you begin your speech b. when you address this material in your speech c. after your speech is finished d. as the audience members walk into the room. Answer: c. after your speech is finished Rationale: Handing out materials after your speech is finished ensures that the audience is not distracted by them during your presentation and allows them to focus on your message. It also provides a takeaway for reinforcement. 30. All of the following are suggestions for using computer-generated materials EXCEPT a. use computer graphics to create an atmosphere. b. use computer-generated visuals for flipcharts. c. enhance the computer-generated image in other ways. d. enlarge small computer-generated diagrams. e. both a and b. Answer: b. use computer-generated visuals for flipcharts. Rationale: While computer-generated visuals can be used for flipcharts, it is not a specific suggestion for using computer-generated materials. Other suggestions, such as using computer graphics to create an atmosphere and enhancing images, are more relevant. 11.2 True/False 1. Visual materials aid listener comprehension and memory. Answer: True Rationale: Visual aids can help listeners better understand and remember information presented orally, as they provide a visual representation that complements the spoken words. 2. The primary benefit of visual aids is their ability to help the speaker remember and comprehend his/her message better. Answer: False Rationale: While visual aids can help the audience remember and comprehend the speaker's message, their primary benefit is to enhance the audience's understanding and retention of the information, not the speaker's. 3. We understand ideas better and remember them longer if we see them as well as hear them. Answer: True Rationale: Research suggests that incorporating visual aids into presentations can improve understanding and retention of information, as seeing and hearing information simultaneously can enhance cognitive processing. 4. While visuals may aid in comprehension, they add little to the persuasive impact of your message. Answer: False Rationale: Visual aids can enhance the persuasive impact of a message by making it more engaging and memorable, thereby helping to reinforce key points and arguments. 5. Almost every profession has its own scopic regime. Answer: True Rationale: The concept of a "scopic regime" refers to the particular ways of seeing and understanding that are specific to different professions or fields of study. 6. A photograph in a speech about photography is an example of an actual object. Answer: True Rationale: In the context of visual aids, an actual object can include photographs, which are physical representations of real objects or scenes. 7. Using an actual object or a prop could serve as a distraction. Answer: False Rationale: While it is possible for an actual object or prop to serve as a distraction if not used effectively, when used appropriately, they can enhance the audience's understanding and engagement with the presentation. 8. A photograph of a location in Norway is an example of an actual object. Answer: False Rationale: A photograph of a location in Norway is not an actual object; it is a visual representation of a real object or scene. 9. Your physical presence in front of an audience makes a powerful visual statement. Answer: True Rationale: The speaker's physical presence, including body language, facial expressions, and gestures, can enhance the delivery of a message and make a strong visual impact on the audience. 10. If you were to give a speech on how to do ballet, the most effective visual aid for the speech would be you. Answer: True Rationale: For a speech on how to do ballet, the most effective visual aid would likely be the speaker demonstrating ballet movements, as this would provide a live and dynamic representation of the content. 11. One advantage of an overhead projection over a chalkboard drawing is that you can turn the projector off. Answer: True Rationale: With an overhead projection, you can easily turn the projector off to switch between visual aids or to remove the visual entirely, providing more flexibility compared to a chalkboard drawing, which is static once drawn. 12. If you wanted to make statistical information more accessible to listeners, bar graphs are particularly effective. Answer: True Rationale: Bar graphs are indeed particularly effective for making statistical information more accessible to listeners. They visually represent data using bars of varying lengths, allowing for easy comparison between different categories or groups of data. The clear and straightforward presentation of numerical information in bar graphs helps listeners understand trends, patterns, and relationships within the data quickly and easily. Therefore, using bar graphs can enhance the audience's comprehension and retention of statistical information during presentations or speeches. 13. Line graphs show the relationships between two or more variables over time. Answer: True Rationale: Line graphs are commonly used to show trends or relationships between variables over time, making them effective for visually representing data that changes continuously. 14. A speaker who is raising funds for a local organization could use a pie graph to show how much of its income was spent on various items. Answer: True Rationale: Pie graphs are effective for showing parts of a whole, making them suitable for illustrating how funds are allocated across different categories or items. 15. Pictographs signify size or number through the use of photographs. Answer: False Rationale: Pictographs use pictures or symbols to represent data, but they do not necessarily use photographs. The use of pictures or symbols helps make the data more visually appealing and easier to understand. 16. Pictographs function like line graphs, but use pictures instead of lines to represent size and numbers. Answer: False Rationale: Pictographs use pictures or symbols to represent data, but they do not function like line graphs. Line graphs use lines to represent trends or relationships between variables over time. 17. Regardless of the type of graph that you choose to use, the information should NOT be distorted. Answer: True Rationale: It is important to accurately represent data in visual aids to avoid misleading the audience. Distorting information can lead to misunderstandings and incorrect conclusions. 18. The use of a flipchart can help indicate the actions that might be taken across time. Answer: False Rationale: A flipchart is a visual aid that unveils ideas one at a time on separate sheets, typically used to present information sequentially or to emphasize key points, but it does not inherently indicate actions across time. 19. If you were going to discuss the spread of Lyme disease in the United States, you would probably be wise to use a flowchart. Answer: False Rationale: A flowchart is not typically used to represent the spread of a disease. Other visual aids, such as maps or diagrams, may be more appropriate for illustrating the spread of Lyme disease. 20. The occasion does dictate the type of visual aid needed. Answer: True Rationale: The type of visual aid needed can depend on the occasion, including factors such as the nature of the presentation, the audience, and the content being presented. Adjusting the visual aid to suit the occasion can enhance its effectiveness in supporting the speaker's message. 21. Visual aids should only be used in informative speeches. Answer: False Rationale: Visual aids can be used in both informative and persuasive speeches to enhance understanding, retention, and engagement with the audience. 22. The occasion may dictate the type of visual aid needed. Answer: True Rationale: The occasion, including the nature of the presentation and the audience, can influence the choice of visual aids. Adapting the visual aids to suit the occasion can improve their effectiveness. 23. Visual aids that are descriptive or written will NOT help an audience to think the way you do. Answer: False Rationale: Descriptive or written visual aids can help the audience understand and engage with the speaker's ideas, even if they may not fully replicate the speaker's thought process. 24. A key conclusion to be drawn from advice on the use of visual aids is to make sure all members of the audience can see and follow what you do or show. Answer: True Rationale: One of the key considerations when using visual aids is to ensure they are visible and clear to all audience members, regardless of their seating arrangement. 25. It is possible that visual aids can be intriguing to the point where your audience is distracted from your message. Answer: True Rationale: Visual aids should enhance, not detract from, the speaker's message. If visual aids are too complex or distracting, they can take attention away from the speaker and the message. 26. If you were going to use electronic messages from films or overhead projectors, you should speak at your normal voice tone. Answer: False Rationale: When using electronic messages from films or overhead projectors, it is important to adjust your voice tone and pace to ensure that your message is effectively communicated alongside the visual aids. 27. A speaker should practice using visual aids while rehearsing the speech. Answer: True Rationale: Practicing with visual aids helps the speaker become familiar with their use, ensuring that they are integrated smoothly into the presentation and enhancing the speaker's confidence. 28. You should hand your listeners a copy of the materials you wish them to consider before your speech begins. Answer: False Rationale: Providing materials to the audience before the speech begins can lead to distractions and may cause the audience to focus more on the materials than on the speaker's presentation. 29. If you are going to use visual aids, it is very important that you give thought to how you will compensate orally for the distraction they will likely cause. Answer: True Rationale: When using visual aids, the speaker should consider how to effectively integrate them into the presentation and how to verbally reinforce key points to compensate for any potential distractions. 30. Computer graphics can be used to create an atmosphere for the listener. Answer: True Rationale: Computer graphics can be used to create visually appealing images and backgrounds that help set the tone and atmosphere for the presentation, enhancing the audience's engagement and understanding. 11.3 Short Answer 1. Why is it a good idea to keep the visual aid between yourself and the audience? Answer: You want to keep audience attention focused on the message of your speech and placing the object between the speaker and the audience helps. If the speaker stands in front of the visual aid he/she risks blocking the audience's view and disrupting their focused attention, frustrating them. 2. Visual materials support the speaker in that they help the listener comprehend and remember. What else do they do? Answer: Visual materials add persuasive impact to a message. 3. In what ways can visual aids enhance comprehension and memory? Answer: We tend to understand ideas better and remember them longer if we see them as well as hear them. Visuals make information easier to understand, retain, and recall. 4. What are the functions of visual aids? Answer: Visual aids enhance the presentations in two ways: (1) They aid listener comprehension and memory, and (2) they add persuasive impact to your message. 5. Michael is giving a speech to demonstrate how to put on firefighter equipment. What would be the most effective visual aid for his speech? Answer: The most effective visual aid for Michael's speech would be actual objects. 6. Identify the various types of visual aids available to the speaker. Answer: Actual objects or props, photographs, your own body, videotapes and films, chalkboard or whiteboard drawings, transparent and computerized overhead projections, graphs, charts and tables, and models are among the visual aids available to speechmakers. 7. What are three reasons that visual aids are effective tools? Answer: (1) Visual aids can make your presentation more persuasive; (2) They enhance your audience's estimate of your credibility and appearance of professionalism; and (3) Presenters using visual aids require less meeting time to achieve their results. 8. What three rules are offered for using visual aids in business? Answer: (1) Prepare a professional look. (2) Always make something to take away. (3) Know the equipment before you start. 9. What are the advantages of using an overhead projector as compared to chalkboard drawings? Answer: You can turn the overhead projector off, thereby removing a distraction. You can uncover one part of your transparency at a time, keeping the remainder covered so as to control the flow of information. You can prepare transparencies before the speech, giving them a more professional appearance. 10. How might you use a pie graph to discuss the use of contributions for United Way? Answer: A pie graph could be used to show the percentage of each dollar received and how it is distributed between all the services supported by United Way. 11. How might you use a line graph in developing a speech about the university budget and student fees? Answer: Since a line graph can show the relationship between two or more variables, a line graph could be used to show the relationship between the budget and student fees over time. This might demonstrate the impact of student fees on the overall budget or even the distribution of student fees for various services. 12. Identify the two special types of charts and discuss how they function. Answer: (1) Flipcharts unveil ideas one at a time on separate sheets. (2) Flowcharts show relationships among ideas or facts on a single sheet. 13. What are the eight ways that you can get maximum benefit from using visual aids? Answer: (1) Use color to create interest; (2) Keep visual aids clear and simple; (3) Make the visual aids large enough to be seen easily; (4) Make the visual aids neat; (5) Decide in advance how to handle your visual aids; (6) Coordinate visual, verbal, and electronic messages; (7) Hand your listeners a copy of the materials that you wish to reflect on after the speech; and (8) Remember that your message is more important than your visual media. 14. How should visual aids be handled? Answer: Prepare and practice with the visual aids well in advance, especially for demonstration speeches. Consider what visual aids will be used and figure out how to handle actual objects and other visuals. 11.4 Essay Questions 1. Lerna decides to give a demonstration speech about how to make homemade egg noodles, a procedure she has helped her mother with countless times. What considerations might Lerna be wise to consider about the use of visual aids in her preparation? Answer: The answer should identify which types of visual aids would be most helpful and address issues of selecting and using types of visual aids. 2. You want to give a five-minute speech to persuade the audience to stop buying products made from the fur of animals. Which considerations about the use of visual aids would you be wise to take into account for your presentation? Answer: The answer should discuss the importance of visuals in a persuasive speech, indicate what kinds of visuals the speaker might wish to use and why, and discuss the mechanics of using the visuals in a five-minute speech. For example, does the speaker wish to bring in a live animal of a type used for fur coats? What strategic considerations might the speaker address in preparing to use such a visual? 3. Explain what type of visual aid would be best if you wanted to discuss the spread of AIDS throughout the United States. Answer: It would seem that a map of the United States showing in sequence or chronologically the spread of the disease would be helpful. This could be accomplished with a flipchart or a chalkboard drawing, but an overhead projection that allowed for the overlay of successive time periods would probably be more effective. The overhead projector would allow the speaker to control the display of information most effectively. If computer projection equipment were available, the development of a slide show would probably be the most effective of all the options. 4. What are some tips and reminders to assist you in preparing and using visual aids in your presentation? Answer: (1) Good visuals reinforce the spoken message; (2) Have a presentational plan; (3) Words and graphics should not be complex: remember KISS (keep it simple, stupid!); (4) Design visuals to maximize their effectiveness; and (5) Use but don't abuse available technology to produce visuals. Test Bank for Principles of Public Speaking Kathleen M. German, Bruce E. Gronbeck, Douglas Ehninger, Alan H. Monroe 9780205857548, 9780205843893

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