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Chapter 10: Delivering Your Speech 10.1 Multiple Choice 1. Audra has been asked to make the sales presentation to the Rockford Corporation executives. This is a crucial presentation and winning this account will ensure that she becomes a partner in the agency. Which method of presentation should Audra employ? a. impromptu b. manuscript c. memorized d. extemporaneous Answer: d. extemporaneous Rationale: Audra should employ the extemporaneous method because it allows her to speak with notes or an outline, providing structure while allowing for flexibility and adaptation to the audience's reactions. 2. Of the various methods of speech presentation, which method seems to be the preferred method? a. the manuscript method b. the memorized method c. the impromptu method d. the extemporaneous method Answer: d. the extemporaneous method Rationale: The extemporaneous method is often preferred because it allows for a more natural and conversational delivery while still allowing for some level of preparation and organization. 3. A speech that is delivered on the spur of the moment with little preparation is called a. impromptu. b. extemporaneous. c. manuscript. d. memorized. Answer: a. impromptu. Rationale: An impromptu speech is delivered without preparation, often in response to a specific prompt or situation. 4. One of the disadvantages of an impromptu method of presentation is a. a tendency to wander aimlessly using disconnected images and reactions. b. a stilted, inflexible expression. c. the sacrificing of freshness and spontaneity. d. an inability to take advantage of audience feedback. Answer: a. a tendency to wander aimlessly using disconnected images and reactions. Rationale: Without preparation, there is a risk of the speaker straying off-topic or not presenting ideas in a coherent manner. 5. Tom, having just returned from Japan, is asked at the beginning of the local Rotary Club meeting to give a short presentation on his trip. His method of presentation will most likely be a. manuscript. b. memorized. c. impromptu. d. extemporaneous. Answer: c. impromptu. Rationale: Given the short notice and informal nature of the request, Tom is likely to deliver an impromptu speech. 6. The secretary of state is making a formal announcement to the press about recent terrorist actions taken against U.S. embassies overseas. Which method of presentation would be best suited to his remarks? a. impromptu b. extemporaneous c. manuscript d. memorized Answer: c. manuscript Rationale: A formal announcement to the press requires careful wording and precision, which are best achieved through a manuscript. 7. A speech that is delivered when extremely careful wording is required is called a. impromptu. b. memorized. c. manuscript. d. extemporaneous. Answer: c. manuscript. Rationale: A manuscript speech allows the speaker to carefully craft and rehearse the wording before delivery, ensuring precision and clarity. 8. The most appropriate time for the use of a manuscript in presenting a speech is a. when a speaker is very nervous. b. when you are reading a speech written by someone else. c. when extremely careful wording is required. d. when you have very little time for preparation. Answer: c. when extremely careful wording is required. Rationale: A manuscript is best used when the speaker needs to ensure that the wording is precise and accurate, such as in formal or important speeches. 9. All of the following are factors of intelligibility EXCEPT a. volume. b. rate. c. conversationality. d. pronunciation. Answer: c. conversationality. Rationale: While conversationality can affect the overall effectiveness of a speech, it is not a factor directly related to intelligibility, which focuses on the clarity and understanding of the message. 10. The crispness and precision with which we form words vocally refers to a. enunciation. b. pronunciation. c. variety. d. stress patterns. Answer: a. enunciation. Rationale: Enunciation refers to the clarity and distinctness with which words are pronounced, contributing to the overall intelligibility of speech. 11. __________ refers to language use that is unique to a particular group or region. a. Volume b. Rate c. Dialect d. Stress Answer: c. Dialect Rationale: Dialect refers to the specific form of a language that is unique to a particular group or region, including variations in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. 12. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about dialects? a. Dialects are based on regional or ethnic patterns. b. Dialects are defined as a change in pitch. c. One dialect is better than another. d. Dialects are entertaining. Answer: a. Dialects are based on regional or ethnic patterns. Rationale: Dialects are linguistic variations that are often based on regional, social, or ethnic patterns, and no dialect is inherently superior to another. 13. If you are concerned about improving your voice, all of the following exercises can be done EXCEPT a. breath control. b. control of pitch. c. pronunciation control. d. articulatory control. Answer: c. pronunciation control Rationale: While pronunciation is important for clarity, improving voice typically focuses more on aspects like breath control, pitch control, and articulatory control. 14. Which characteristic of vocal variety refers to the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice? a. rate b. pitch c. force d. pauses Answer: b. pitch Rationale: Pitch refers to the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice and is an important aspect of vocal variety. 15. Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and pauses are referred to as vocal a. intonation. b. variety. c. pauses. d. dialect. Answer: b. variety. Rationale: Vocal variety refers to the variations in a speaker's voice, including changes in rate, pitch, pauses, and emphasis, which can make the speech more engaging and effective. 16. Which characteristic of vocal variety refers to the frequency of sound waves used by the speaker? a. rate b. pitch c. emphasis d. pauses Answer: b. pitch Rationale: Pitch refers to the frequency of sound waves and is an important aspect of vocal variety that can convey meaning and emotion in speech. 17. When the verbal message does not match the nonverbal message, people will a. usually believe the nonverbal message. b. usually believe the verbal message. c. not believe the speaker. d. want more information about the speaker. Answer: a. usually believe the nonverbal message. Rationale: Nonverbal communication, including body language and tone of voice, often conveys more meaning than verbal communication, so people tend to believe the nonverbal message when there is a discrepancy. 18. Which characteristic of vocal variety should be used to replace the meaningless fillers used by speakers such as "you know" and "Uh?" a. variations in rate b. variations in pitch c. variations in intelligibility d. variation in the use of pauses Answer: d. variation in the use of pauses Rationale: Using pauses strategically can help eliminate meaningless fillers and improve the overall clarity and effectiveness of speech. 19. Movement and stance, facial expressions, and gestures are examples of a. proxemics communication. b. verbal communication. c. informal communication. d. nonverbal communication. Answer: d. nonverbal communication. Rationale: Nonverbal communication encompasses all forms of communication that do not involve spoken or written words, including body language, facial expressions, and gestures. 20. If you are concerned with the physical layout of the room and the degree of separation between the speaker and the audience, you are most likely concerned with issues of a. movement and stance. b. proxemics. c. facial expressions. d. gestures. Answer: b. proxemics. Rationale: Proxemics refers to the study of how people use space in communication, including the physical distance between speakers and the arrangement of objects in a space. 21. The use of space by human beings is called a. kinesics. b. kinesthetics. c. proxemics. d. cryogenics. Answer: c. proxemics. Rationale: Proxemics is the study of how people use space in communication, including the physical distance between individuals and their orientation towards each other. 22. If you were planning the use of physical shifts from one place to another, you would most likely be addressing the concept of a. proxemics. b. posture. c. movement. d. gestures. Answer: c. movement. Rationale: Movement refers to physical shifts from one place to another, which is a key aspect of nonverbal communication. 23. What dimension of nonverbal communication is being displayed by the speaker when a listener looks at the speaker's face to discern the emotional state of the speaker? a. adaptors b. regulators c. affect displays d. descriptive gestures Answer: c. affect displays Rationale: Affect displays are nonverbal behaviors that convey emotions or feelings, such as facial expressions that reveal the speaker's emotional state. 24. Affect displays are generated most generally through a. gestures. b. intelligibility. c. facial expression. d. vocal variation. Answer: c. facial expression. Rationale: Affect displays, which convey emotions or feelings, are primarily generated through facial expressions. 25. If you were focusing on the issue of relaxation versus rigidity, you would probably be concerned with a. proximity. b. facial expressions. c. posture. d. gestures. Answer: c. posture. Rationale: Posture refers to the position of the body, including the degree of relaxation or rigidity, and can convey a range of nonverbal messages. 26. Using your hands to demonstrate the size of the fish that got away would involve the use of a. conventional gestures. b. descriptive gestures. c. indicators. d. relational gestures. Answer: b. descriptive gestures. Rationale: Descriptive gestures are movements that illustrate or describe an idea, such as using hands to demonstrate the size of an object. 27. __________ are physical movements that are symbols with specific meanings assigned by custom and convention. a. Gestures b. Regulators c. Illustrators d. Affect displays Answer: a. Gestures Rationale: Gestures are specific physical movements that have symbolic meanings assigned by custom and convention. 28. Physical movements that are symbols with specific meanings assigned by custom are called a. conventional gestures. b. descriptive gestures. c. indicators. d. affect displays. Answer: a. conventional gestures. Rationale: Conventional gestures are specific movements that have predetermined meanings assigned by custom or culture. 29. Physical movements that describe the idea to be communicated are called a. conventional gestures. b. descriptive gestures. c. indicators. d. emblems. Answer: b. descriptive gestures. Rationale: Descriptive gestures are movements that describe or illustrate the idea being communicated, often using hand or body movements. 30. Movements of the hands, arms, or other parts of the body that express feelings are called a. conventional gestures. b. descriptive gestures. c. indicators. d. emblems. Answer: c. indicators. Rationale: Indicators are nonverbal movements that express feelings or emotions, often through gestures or body language. 10.2 True/False 1. Public speaking is a special form of oral relationship. Answer: True Rationale: Public speaking involves a speaker delivering a message to an audience, creating a form of oral communication that is distinct from other forms of communication. 2. Delivery is a word suggesting the oral transfer of information and understanding from one person to others. Answer: True Rationale: Delivery in public speaking refers to the manner in which a speaker presents their message orally to an audience, aiming to transfer information and understanding effectively. 3. Extemporaneous speeches are done on the spur of the moment. Answer: False Rationale: Extemporaneous speeches are delivered with notes or an outline, allowing for some preparation and planning, but not as much as a fully written manuscript. 4. Impromptu speaking requires specific and careful preparation. Answer: False Rationale: Impromptu speaking is done without preparation, relying on the speaker's ability to think quickly and respond to a prompt or situation in the moment. 5. When confronted with strict time limits for your speech, the manuscript method of presentation would be best. Answer: True Rationale: The manuscript method involves reading a speech verbatim from a written text, allowing for precise control over the timing of the speech, which can be useful when strict time limits are imposed. 6. The conversational speaker creates an intrapersonal relationship with the audience. Answer: False Rationale: A conversational speaker aims to create a two-way, interpersonal relationship with the audience, engaging them in a dialogue-like manner. 7. The conversational speaker creates a two-way, interpersonal relationship with the audience. Answer: True Rationale: A conversational speaker seeks to engage the audience in a way that feels like a conversation, creating a sense of connection and interaction. 8. Conversational style speakers cannot create a sense of a two-way, interpersonal relationship when they stand behind a lectern. Answer: False Rationale: Conversational speakers can still create a sense of a two-way, interpersonal relationship with the audience even when standing behind a lectern, through their tone, gestures, and engagement with the audience. 9. In lively conversation, you probably speak at a rate of between 120 and 150 words per minute. Answer: False Rationale: In lively conversation, people often speak at a rate of 150 to 200 words per minute, reflecting the energetic and dynamic nature of the conversation. 10. In an animated conversation you may speak at a rate of 200 to 250 words per minute. Answer: True Rationale: In highly animated or excited conversations, people may speak at a faster rate, around 200 to 250 words per minute, to convey their enthusiasm or intensity. 11. Rate is the number of words spoken per minute. Answer: True Rationale: Rate refers to the speed at which a person speaks, typically measured in words per minute. 12. Enunciation refers to the crispness and precision with which you form words. Answer: True Rationale: Enunciation is the clarity and distinctiveness with which words are pronounced, contributing to the overall intelligibility of speech. 13. The "lip lazy" phenomena is related to the intelligibility factor of enunciation. Answer: True Rationale: "Lip lazy" refers to the tendency of some speakers to not fully articulate words, which can affect the intelligibility of their speech. 14. To be intelligible, a speaker must meet the audience's expectation regarding acceptable pronunciation. Answer: True Rationale: Intelligibility in speech is achieved when the speaker's pronunciation meets the audience's expectations and allows them to understand the message clearly. 15. Changes in rate, pitch, range, and variation are a dialect. Answer: False Rationale: Changes in rate, pitch, range, and variation are characteristics of vocal variety, not a dialect, which refers to a specific form of a language that is unique to a particular group or region. 16. Judgments we make about the speaker's education, reliability, and capacity for leadership based upon their dialect are called vocal stereotypes. Answer: True Rationale: Vocal stereotypes are judgments or assumptions made about a person's education, reliability, or leadership based on their dialect or accent. 17. A way to discover your optimum pitch is to sing the musical scale as far as you can both up and down. Answer: True Rationale: Singing the musical scale can help you explore your vocal range and discover your optimum pitch for speaking, which can improve the quality and effectiveness of your voice. 18. Vocal variety is the change in rate, pitch, stress, and pauses. Answer: True Rationale: Vocal variety refers to the variations in a speaker's voice, including changes in rate, pitch, stress (emphasis), and pauses, which can make the speech more engaging and effective. 19. Emphasis is the way that a speaker changes the rate, pitch, and pauses of his/her voice. Answer: False Rationale: Emphasis refers to the way a speaker emphasizes certain words or phrases to convey meaning or importance, which may involve changes in rate, pitch, and pauses, but is not limited to these aspects. 20. Silence can be a highly effective communicative tool. Answer: True Rationale: Silence can be used strategically in speech to emphasize a point, allow for reflection, or create dramatic effect, making it a powerful communicative tool. 21. Your physical behavior carries messages through the visual channel. Answer: True Rationale: Nonverbal communication, including body language and gestures, conveys messages visually and can complement or reinforce the verbal message. 22. A speaker's nonverbal cues tend to distract from the verbal message. Answer: False Rationale: Nonverbal cues can enhance the verbal message by adding emphasis, clarity, or emotional depth, rather than distracting from it. 23. Proxemics is the study of body movement. Answer: False Rationale: Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive space in communication, including the physical distance between individuals and their orientation towards each other. 24. The formality of the occasion will influence how the speaker will use physical space. Answer: True Rationale: The formality of the occasion can influence how a speaker uses physical space, such as the arrangement of chairs, podium placement, and overall presentation style. 25. The use of space by human beings is called proxemics. Answer: True Rationale: Proxemics refers to the study of how people use and perceive space in communication, including the use of personal space, territoriality, and spatial arrangement in social interactions. 26. As you come into the room, you see that the chairs have all been lined up into neat rows and pushed back away from the front of the room. A large podium dominates the front of the room with a small light shining down on the top. This suggests the speaker wants to increase the perceived formality of the situation. Answer: True Rationale: The arrangement of chairs in neat rows, the placement of a large podium, and the use of a spotlight suggest that the speaker intends to create a formal and structured environment for the presentation. 27. Establishing eye contact with the audience creates a visual bond. Answer: True Rationale: Eye contact can help establish a connection with the audience, convey sincerity and confidence, and create a sense of engagement and rapport. 28. Facial details often confuse listeners who are trying to interpret the content of your message. Answer: False Rationale: Facial expressions can enhance communication by conveying emotions, emphasizing key points, and providing additional context to the verbal message. 29. To circle your thumb and forefinger while raising the remaining three fingers is a conventional gesture meaning everything is OKAY. Answer: True Rationale: This gesture, known as the "okay" or "OK" gesture, is commonly used in many cultures to indicate that everything is fine or okay. 30. The display of strong emotion within the public setting of a speech is inappropriate. Answer: False Rationale: The display of emotion can be appropriate in a speech if it is genuine and enhances the message, such as expressing passion for a topic or empathy towards the audience. 10.3 Short Answer 1. Why is the extemporaneous speech best suited to most occasions? Answer: The extemporaneous speech represents a middle course between the memorized or read speech and the speech that is delivered impromptu, combining the advantages of careful preparation with those of conversationality. 2. Which type of speech presentation will most likely lead to difficulty responding to audience feedback? Why? Answer: The memorized speech is likely to lead to difficulty responding to audience feedback. Since the words are predetermined, you can't easily adjust them as the speech progresses. 3. How can a speaker organize an impromptu speech? Answer: (1) Point step: which is to tell your listeners your main point; (2) Reason step: tell the audience the reason why you point is worth considering; (3) Support step: support your reason with supporting material; and (4) Restatement step: summarize by restating your main point. 4. What is conversationality? Answer: Conversationality is the development of a two-way, interpersonal style of communication with the audience. It allows the speaker to talk with the audience, not at them. The speaker sounds spontaneous, rather than rehearsed. 5. What is intelligibility? Answer: Intelligibility refers to the ease with which a listener can understand what you're saying. 6. What is enunciation? Answer: Enunciation refers to the crispness and precision with which you form words. 7. What are vocal stereotypes? Answer: Vocal stereotypes are judgments that people make of the speaker's credibility based on dialect. 8. What three generalizations about nonverbal communication should guide your speechmaking? Answer: (1) Speakers reveal and reflect their emotional states through their nonverbal behavior. (2) The speaker's nonverbal cues enrich or elaborate the message that comes through the words. (3) Nonverbal messages form a reciprocal interaction between speaker and listener. 9. Why should meaningless fillers, sometimes used by speakers, be discouraged? Answer: These fillers suggest hesitancy and lack of confidence, thereby undermining your credibility and the effectiveness of your ideas. 10. In a speaking situation, what are three factors that influence your use of space? Answer: (1) The formality of the occasion, (2) The nature of the material, and (3) Your personal preference. 11. In what ways do movement and posture communicate ideas to the audience? Answer: Movement and posture communicate ideas to the audience in that if a person stands stiff and erect, it indicates a formal occassion or that the speaker is tense and afraid. The speaker who leans forward indicates an interest in the audience. The speaker who sits casually on the table may suggest informality and readiness to engage in dialogue. The opposite can occur as well. That is, pacing, bouncing, or swaying is distracting to the audience. 12. How do facial expressions enhance the meaning of your words? Answer: Facial expressions express your feelings, providing the listener with cues that help him/her interpret the contents of the message. The display elements of your face, especially the eyes, help to establish a visual bond between the speaker and the listener. 13. What are indicators? Answer: Indicators are movements of the hands, arms, and other parts of the body that express feelings. 14. What are four ways that the speaker can use the channels of communication to communicate effectively with the audience? Answer: There are seven ways. The student may choose four of the seven. (1) Signal your relationship with the audience through proxemics; (2) Adapt the physical setting to the speaker's communicative needs; (3) Adapt the gestures and movements to the size of the audience; (4) establish eye contact with the audience, looking specific individuals in the eye; (5) Use your body to communicate your feelings; (6) Regulate the pace of your presentations with bodily movement; (7) Use your full repertoire of gestures. 15. What should you do nonverbally when addressing a large audience in a large room? Why? Answer: You should use larger gestures, broader shifts of your body, and increase vocal energy because of the distance involved. The audience will not be able to see or interpret subtle movements and gestures. 10.4 Essay Questions 1. Examine and evaluate the delivery strategies of either a famous speaker, such as the current president of the United States, a well-known newscaster, or yourself. Answer: A successful answer will choose materials from the entire chapter to illustrate and support the delivery patterns the student identifies as helpful or distracting. If the speaker chosen was a politician, the student could consider the method of presentation such as a manuscript using a teleprompter at a convention or an extemporaneous method at a campaign rally. The answer should examine both how the speaker uses his/her body and voice. George Bush, for example, has a relatively limited range of body movement. Bill Clinton, even though he is from Arkansas, has a very soft and nearly midwestern style of pronunciation. Other considerations could be easily developed. 2. What is delivery? Answer: Delivery is a word suggesting the oral transfer of information and understanding from one person to others. Delivery is the way a stream of sound is shaped into intelligible meaning and the way the body is used to help with intelligibility, emphasis, and emotional expressivity. 3. Explain the four ways a speaker should make him/her self intelligible. Answer: (1) Adjust the volume of the voice; (2) Control the rate; (3) Enunciate clearly; (4) Meet the standards of pronunciation. 4. List and explain three exercises that will improve vocal control. Answer: (1) To improve breath control, you can say the entire alphabet, using only one breath. As you practice, say the letters slowly so that when you exhale the breath becomes slow and more controlled. In other words, exhalation should take twice or three times as long as the inhalation. (2) To improve the control of pitch, sing "low, low, low, low," dropping one note of the musical scale each time you sing the word until you reach the lowest tone that you can produce. Then sing your way back up the scale. This time you are singing "high, high, high, high," going up the musical scale to the highest note that you can reach. Alternate singing low and high until you find the notes that you're most comfortable. This is called optimal pitch. When you give your speeches, you should give them at your optimal pitch. (3) To control articulation, pronounce each of the following word groups, making sure that each word can be distinguished from the others. Have someone check your accuracy: jest, gist, just; thin, think, thing; roost, roosts, ghost, ghosts; begin, began, begun; wish, which, witch; affect, effect; twin, twain, twine. Or you can try tongue twisters. 5. You are going to be speaking to an audience of about 150 people in a small auditorium with fixed seating. What can you do to develop a rather informal and personal atmosphere for the speech? Answer: The answer should apply the guidelines for adapting nonverbal behavior to your presentation and discuss how to establish this informal atmosphere. Since the seats are fixed, the speaker cannot re-arrange the seating so other methods will need to be used. The speaker can move from behind a podium and might even come down into the audience to establish a more personal distance. It will be important to establish eye contact and to engage as many of the members of the audience as possible. Feelings will need to be demonstrated and gestures will need to be animated. An energetic and enthusiastic use of gestures will help to establish a positive relationship between the audience and the speaker. Smile! Look as if you are enjoying yourself. Test Bank for Principles of Public Speaking Kathleen M. German, Bruce E. Gronbeck, Douglas Ehninger, Alan H. Monroe 9780205857548, 9780205843893

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