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Chapter 10 Africa and Islam Multiple-Choice Questions 1) African monarchies were characterized by A) tight central controls over subjects. B) claims to divine authority combined with bargains with local leaders. C) no central empire, but a network of alliances across the African continent. D) encouragement to better manufacturing and transport systems. Answer: B Rationale: African monarchies often operated under a system where the ruler claimed divine authority, portraying themselves as intermediaries between the spiritual and earthly realms. However, they also recognized the authority of local leaders and tribes, often making bargains or alliances with them to maintain control and stability within their realms. 2) African family structure featured A) extensive memorization and use of kin contacts. B) female domination of family life. C) care of children by tribe rather than by parents. D) no marked characteristics assigned to males and to females as genders. Answer: A Rationale: African family structure was often characterized by extensive memorization of kinship networks and the utilization of these contacts for social and economic support. Kinship ties were crucial for maintaining social cohesion and providing a sense of identity and belonging within the community. 3) African religion stressed A) a single creator god embodied by the king. B) a creator god buttressed by lesser gods and spirits. C) a belief that humans cannot justly destroy any creature of nature. D) stories of the gods collected in the holy book, Baku. Answer: B Rationale: African religion often emphasized the belief in a single creator god, who was accompanied by a pantheon of lesser gods and spirits. These lesser deities and spirits were believed to exert influence over various aspects of life, such as nature, fertility, and the afterlife. 4) The most important migrating agricultural people in Africa were the A) Bantu. B) Swahilis. C) Kushites. D) Berbers. Answer: A Rationale: The Bantu people were known for their extensive migrations across sub-Saharan Africa, spreading their agricultural techniques, languages, and cultural practices throughout the region. Their migrations played a significant role in shaping the demographic and linguistic landscape of Africa. 5) Islam initially spread to sub-Saharan Africans mainly among A) upper-class bureaucrats. B) artists. C) women. D) lower-class workers and slaves. Answer: A Rationale: Islam initially spread among the upper-class bureaucrats and ruling elites in sub-Saharan Africa, who were often the first to adopt the religion due to their interactions with Muslim traders and merchants from North Africa and the Middle East. These elites played a crucial role in disseminating Islam to other social strata within their societies. 6) The Swahili coast is in A) north Africa. B) east Africa. C) south Africa. D) west Africa. Answer: B Rationale: The Swahili coast is located along the eastern coast of Africa, stretching from Somalia in the north to Mozambique in the south. This region was characterized by a network of trading cities and ports where Swahili culture, language, and commerce flourished. 7) Iron was introduced below the Sahara by A) 800 B.C.E. B) 900 B.C.E. C) 1000 B.C.E. D) 1100 B.C.E. Answer: C Rationale: Ironworking technology was introduced below the Sahara in Africa around 1000 B.C.E. This technological advancement revolutionized agriculture, toolmaking, and warfare in the region, contributing to significant socio-economic changes and the emergence of complex societies. 8) The geography of Africa resulted in A) large African empires that spanned multiple regions. B) small empires in isolated areas. C) large empires that were limited by geography. D) a single language that spread across all regions. Answer: C Rationale: The geography of Africa, characterized by diverse landscapes such as deserts, savannas, and rainforests, often limited the size and territorial expansion of African empires. Geographic features such as natural barriers and ecological zones constrained the ability of rulers to maintain centralized control over vast territories. 9) Languages in sub-Saharan Africa derive from ________ basic languages. A) 2 or 3 B) 3 or 4 C) 4 or 5 D) 5 or 6 Answer: C Rationale: Languages in sub-Saharan Africa derive from approximately four or five basic language families, each with numerous distinct languages and dialects. These language families include Niger-Congo, Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and Khoisan, among others. 10) In some northern and western African societies, ________ helped to ensure order. A) government bureaucracies B) stable local units and tight family bonds C) regional kingdoms D) a common language Answer: B Rationale: In some northern and western African societies, stable local units and tight family bonds helped to ensure social order and cohesion. Strong kinship ties, communal solidarity, and mutual support within extended family networks were essential for maintaining social stability and resolving disputes within the community. 11) Religion in Africa A) was unified into one belief system. B) came to Africa via European traders. C) provided rites and beliefs to deal with illness and natural disasters. D) did not emphasize divine spirits. Answer: C Rationale: Religion in Africa provided rites and beliefs to deal with illness and natural disasters, reflecting the spiritual and cultural beliefs of various African societies. These beliefs often incorporated the worship of ancestral spirits, nature deities, and supernatural forces, along with rituals aimed at healing, protection, and appeasing spiritual entities in times of crisis. 12) Ghana emerged by A) 200 C.E. B) 300 C.E. C) 400 C.E. D) 500 C.E. Answer: B Rationale: Ghana emerged as a powerful empire by around 300 C.E., becoming a prominent center of trade and political authority in West Africa. Its wealth and influence were derived from controlling trans-Saharan trade routes and taxing trade goods passing through its territory. 13) Islamic sailors exported resources from Africa to A) Europe. B) China. C) Japan. D) Tibet. Answer: B Rationale: Islamic sailors exported resources from Africa to China, participating in the maritime trade networks that connected East Africa with the Indian Ocean world. African commodities such as gold, ivory, spices, and slaves were traded for goods from China, contributing to the economic prosperity of both regions. 14) Swahili A) developed in southern Africa after the Bantu migrations. B) was a combination of Arabic and native African languages. C) was spoken mostly in western Africa. D) was used predominately in religious rituals. Answer: B Rationale: Swahili developed along the East African coast as a trade language and cultural synthesis between Arabic traders and indigenous African communities. It is a Bantu-based language with significant Arabic influence, reflecting centuries of interaction and exchange along the Swahili coast. 15) The use of camels in Africa A) did not occur until around 700 C.E. B) was not widespread; horses were preferred. C) revolutionized trading opportunities. D) was limited to southern Africa. Answer: C Rationale: The use of camels in Africa revolutionized trading opportunities, particularly across the Sahara Desert and other arid regions where traditional means of transportation were impractical. Camels enabled merchants to traverse long distances more efficiently, facilitating trade networks and the exchange of goods between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. 16) Muslims traded for the cola nut because it was A) a stimulant not mentioned in the Qur’an. B) in high demand among Europeans. C) easy to transport. D) used in many Middle-eastern recipes. Answer: A Rationale: Muslims traded for the cola nut because it was a stimulant not mentioned in the Qur’an, making it permissible for consumption according to Islamic dietary laws. The cola nut, native to West Africa, became a valuable commodity in trans-Saharan trade networks due to its cultural significance and demand for its stimulating properties. 17) Increasing trade caused A) growing social inequalities. B) improved kinship ties among distant families. C) the use of a standard currency across Africa. D) the development of a dominant religion. Answer: A Rationale: Increasing trade in Africa contributed to growing social inequalities, as wealthy merchants and elites benefited disproportionately from commercial exchanges while marginalized communities faced economic exploitation and social marginalization. Trade routes and commercial networks facilitated the accumulation of wealth and power among certain individuals and social groups, exacerbating existing disparities within African societies. 18) The first great African kingdoms arose in the ________ Sahara region. A) western B) eastern C) central D) southern Answer: D Rationale: The first great African kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, arose in the western Sahara region of West Africa. These kingdoms flourished along the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, benefiting from trans-Saharan trade routes and access to valuable resources such as gold, salt, and slaves. 19) The Ghanese king expressed his power A) by creating a strong military. B) by enslaving conquered peoples. C) through ceremony and ritual. D) by forcing merchants to bow in his presence. Answer: C Rationale: The Ghanese king expressed his power through ceremony and ritual, emphasizing symbolic displays of authority and divine legitimacy. Rituals such as court ceremonies, religious ceremonies, and royal rituals were central to the king's expression of political power and social status, reinforcing his role as a sacred ruler and mediator between the spiritual and earthly realms. 20) Ghana’s defense depended upon A) arrangements with local military groups. B) professional soldiers. C) alliances with leaders in northern Africa. D) hired mercenaries. Answer: A Rationale: Ghana's defense depended upon arrangements with local military groups, including alliances with regional leaders, tribal militias, and warrior societies. The king of Ghana maintained power and security through diplomatic relationships and military alliances with neighboring communities, rather than relying solely on a standing army or hired mercenaries for defense. 21) ________ was a major center of Islamic scholarship. A) Mali B) Ghana C) Timbuktu D) Songhai Answer: C Rationale: Timbuktu emerged as a major center of Islamic scholarship during the medieval period, particularly known for its prestigious universities, libraries, and Islamic learning institutions. Scholars and students from across the Islamic world flocked to Timbuktu to study various fields of knowledge, including theology, law, medicine, astronomy, and literature, making it a renowned hub of intellectual and cultural exchange in West Africa. 22) Zimbabwe reached its height around A) 1200 C.E. B) 1300 C.E. C) 1400 C.E. D) 1500 C.E. Answer: B Rationale: Zimbabwe reached its height around 1300 C.E., during the medieval period, when it became a flourishing center of trade, agriculture, and political power in southern Africa. The Great Zimbabwe, the capital of the kingdom, was renowned for its impressive stone architecture, sophisticated urban planning, and extensive trading networks, reflecting the wealth and influence of the kingdom during this period. 23) African kingdoms in the 13th century A) did not last as long as European kingdoms. B) had fairly tight political organizations. C) were larger than European kingdoms. D) saw a slow advance of trade. Answer: C Rationale: African kingdoms in the 13th century were often larger than European kingdoms, encompassing vast territories and diverse ethnic groups. These kingdoms, such as Mali, Songhai, and Zimbabwe, had well-developed political organizations and centralized authority, controlling extensive regions and engaging in long-distance trade networks that connected Africa with the wider world. 24) African polytheism often included a belief in A) a chief divinity who created the universe. B) the absence of evil. C) the need for religious fervor. D) reincarnation. Answer: A Rationale: African polytheistic belief systems often included a belief in a chief divinity who created the universe, along with a pantheon of lesser deities, ancestral spirits, and nature spirits. These belief systems varied across different African societies but commonly emphasized the existence of a supreme being or creator god responsible for the origin and order of the cosmos, reflecting the spiritual and cosmological worldview of African cultures. 25) Within urban society, artisans A) were considered members of the lowest class. B) lived in state-supported facilities. C) were held to be ritually unclean. D) had an important place. Answer: D Rationale: Within urban society, artisans had an important place, as they played essential roles in crafting goods, producing commodities, and supporting economic activities in urban centers. Artisans belonged to skilled occupational groups specializing in various crafts such as metalworking, pottery, weaving, and woodworking, contributing to the cultural, economic, and technological development of African societies. 26) Which of the following factors complicated African agriculture? A) rich soil in many areas B) diseases that ravaged livestock C) insistence by most tribes that agriculture was suitable only for women D) invasive species of plants Answer: B Rationale: Diseases that ravaged livestock complicated African agriculture, posing significant challenges to pastoralist societies reliant on livestock for food, transportation, and economic livelihoods. Epidemics and diseases such as rinderpest, trypanosomiasis, and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia decimated cattle herds, leading to food shortages, economic instability, and social disruption in affected communities across Africa. 27) Although African societies lagged behind Asia in technology, they excelled at which of the following? A) extensive iron use B) silk production C) water-driven mills for grain D) the use of windmills Answer: A Rationale: Although African societies lagged behind Asia in technology, they excelled at extensive iron use, demonstrating advanced metallurgical techniques and widespread utilization of iron tools, weapons, and implements across various sectors of African economies and societies. Ironworking played a crucial role in agricultural production, craft specialization, trade, and military affairs, contributing to the economic and technological advancement of African civilizations. 28) Which of the following goods were traded by the Sudan to North Africa? A) lapis lazuli B) copper C) salt D) wheat Answer: C Rationale: Salt was one of the major goods traded by the Sudan to North Africa, as the Saharan region of West Africa, known as the "Sudan" in Arabic, was rich in salt deposits. Salt was a valuable commodity essential for human survival, food preservation, and animal husbandry, and it formed a significant component of trans-Saharan trade networks, facilitating economic exchange between the savanna and desert regions of Africa. 29) Which of the following was a major African kingdom before 1400? A) Gibraltar B) Bali C) Nigeria D) Ethiopia Answer: D Rationale: Ethiopia was a major African kingdom before 1400, known for its ancient civilization, Christian heritage, and strategic location in the Horn of Africa. The Ethiopian kingdom, centered on the highlands of modern-day Ethiopia, emerged as a powerful state with a rich cultural legacy, including the development of the Ge'ez script, the construction of monolithic churches at Lalibela, and the adoption of Christianity as the state religion. 30) Which of the following had a significant impact on African trading networks between 200 C.E. and 700 C.E.? A) A flurry of shipbuilding activity on the west coast enabled African merchants to reach other continents to pursue trading opportunities. B) Discovery of important mineral deposits in central Africa brought merchants from around the world to Africa for trading purposes. C) Widespread use of camels enabled merchants from north Africa to cross the Sahara in search of trading opportunities. D) Civilizations throughout Africa that had been opposed to trade for religious and cultural reasons began to embrace it and benefitted greatly within a short amount of time. Answer: C Rationale: Widespread use of camels enabled merchants from North Africa to cross the Sahara in search of trading opportunities, facilitating the expansion of trans-Saharan trade networks and the integration of West Africa into the broader Afro-Eurasian trading system. Camels, well-suited to desert environments, provided a reliable means of transportation for goods and commodities across the arid expanses of the Sahara, promoting commerce, cultural exchange, and economic development in the region. 31) Zimbabwe is known to have developed which of the following features? A) written codes of law B) monumental buildings C) clear government functions and territorial boundaries D) great kindness to the aged and sick Answer: B Rationale: Zimbabwe is known for its development of monumental buildings, particularly the stone structures found at the Great Zimbabwe archaeological site. These structures, including walls, towers, and palaces, indicate the existence of a sophisticated architectural tradition and centralized authority within the Zimbabwean kingdom, highlighting its political, economic, and cultural significance in sub-Saharan Africa during the medieval period. 32) By 1200, sub-Saharan Africa and western Europe differed in which of the following? A) size of kingdoms B) importance of Islam C) use of printing D) presence of farming Answer: A Rationale: By 1200, sub-Saharan Africa and western Europe differed significantly in the size of their kingdoms. Sub-Saharan African kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali, and Zimbabwe, were often larger and more centralized than their European counterparts, encompassing vast territories and diverse ethnic groups. In contrast, western European kingdoms during this period tended to be smaller and more fragmented, characterized by feudalism and decentralized political structures. 33) Which of the following best explains why it is difficult to trace the history of sub-Saharan Africa before the modern period? A) The records have been lost. B) Most African societies did not develop writing. C) Dominant cities destroyed the records of the peoples they conquered. D) Archaeological information is rich. Answer: B Rationale: Most African societies did not develop writing systems before the modern period, which makes it difficult to trace their history through written records. Instead, much of Africa's premodern history is reconstructed through archaeological evidence, oral traditions, and external accounts from travelers, traders, and foreign observers. While archaeological information can provide valuable insights into ancient African civilizations, the absence of written records poses challenges for historians seeking to reconstruct the continent's early history. 34) Which of the following was an effect of animal diseases in Africa? A) limited livestock and animal transportation B) fewer domesticated animals C) the need for fences to separate sick animals D) lack of food Answer: A Rationale: An effect of animal diseases in Africa was limited livestock and animal transportation. Epidemics and diseases such as rinderpest, trypanosomiasis, and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia decimated livestock herds, leading to a decline in the availability of domesticated animals for transportation, agricultural labor, and food production. This had significant implications for pastoralist societies reliant on livestock for their economic livelihoods and social organization. 35) Which are the four regions of sub-Saharan Africa? A) west, central, east, and southern B) west, east, northern, and southern C) central, desert, grasslands, and coastal D) southern, coastal, mountains, and grasslands Answer: A Rationale: The four regions of sub-Saharan Africa are commonly identified as west, central, east, and southern. These regions encompass diverse geographical, ecological, and cultural landscapes, reflecting the continent's rich diversity of climates, ecosystems, and ethnic groups. Each region has its unique history, languages, traditions, and socio-economic characteristics, contributing to the complexity and dynamism of Africa's cultural and geographical tapestry. 36) During the postclassical period, which region of sub-Saharan Africa had the most elaborate political units? A) east B) south C) west D) the island of Zanzibar Answer: C Rationale: During the postclassical period, the west region of sub-Saharan Africa had the most elaborate political units, characterized by the emergence of powerful kingdoms such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. These kingdoms were known for their centralized authority, sophisticated political institutions, extensive trade networks, and cultural achievements, making them dominant players in the political landscape of medieval Africa. 37) During the postclassical period, the Bantu people migrated into which region? A) the central and southern subcontinent B) the west and central subcontinent C) the west and the grasslands of the subcontinent D) the east and coastal subcontinent Answer: A Rationale: During the postclassical period, the Bantu people migrated into the central and southern subcontinent of Africa, spreading their language, culture, and agricultural techniques across vast regions of the continent. The Bantu migrations played a significant role in shaping the demographic, linguistic, and cultural landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to the diffusion of Bantu languages, the expansion of agricultural societies, and the formation of new ethnic groups and political entities. 38) By 500 C.E., which region of Africa was agriculturally developed? A) the west B) central Africa C) the south D) the east coast Answer: A Rationale: By 500 C.E., the west region of Africa was agriculturally developed, with established farming communities and agricultural practices supporting sedentary settlements, food production, and economic activities. Agriculture played a crucial role in the socio-economic development of West Africa, providing food security, surplus production for trade, and the foundation for the rise of complex societies and political institutions in the region. 39) Which of the following was responsible for spreading agriculture in Africa? A) the discovery of iron B) the migrations of the Bantu peoples C) a climate shift D) the domestication of cattle Answer: B Rationale: The migrations of the Bantu peoples were primarily responsible for spreading agriculture in Africa, as they expanded from their homeland in West Africa to other parts of the continent, carrying with them agricultural techniques, crops, and cultural practices. The Bantu migrations facilitated the diffusion of ironworking skills, the cultivation of staple crops such as yams, millet, sorghum, and the establishment of agricultural societies across sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to population growth, cultural exchange, and social complexity. 40) As a result of trade, which of the following happened? A) Civil wars broke out. B) Muslim traders began to annex territory. C) Timbuktu developed into a large trading center. D) Numerous trading villages were built along the west coast. Answer: C Rationale: As a result of trade, Timbuktu developed into a large trading center, serving as a key hub for trans-Saharan trade routes and facilitating commercial exchange between West Africa, North Africa, and the Mediterranean world. Timbuktu's strategic location on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, along with its access to major river systems such as the Niger River, contributed to its growth as a vibrant commercial and cultural crossroads, attracting merchants, scholars, and travelers from diverse regions and civilizations. 41) The Sudanic kingdoms are characterized by which of the following? A) They began to develop around 250 B.C.E. B) They developed around the Nile region. C) They arose as a result of trade with Muslims. D) They controlled a substantial amount of territory in west Africa. Answer: C Rationale: The Sudanic kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, arose as a result of trade with Muslim merchants from North Africa and the Middle East. The introduction of Islam through trade networks played a significant role in the political and cultural development of these kingdoms, leading to the adoption of Islamic institutions, practices, and beliefs among the ruling elites and urban populations. The Sudanic kingdoms benefited from their strategic position along trans-Saharan trade routes, which facilitated economic exchange and cultural interaction between West Africa and the wider Islamic world. 42) Which of the following allowed the Ghanese king to sustain a lavish court? A) attacks on nearby kingdoms B) raids into west African kingdoms C) a tax imposed upon Muslims D) taxes on trade and on every donkey or camel bearing salt Answer: D Rationale: The Ghanese king was able to sustain a lavish court primarily through taxes on trade and on every donkey or camel bearing salt. The taxation of trade routes, particularly those involving the lucrative salt and gold trade, provided a significant source of revenue for the Ghanaian kingdom, allowing the king to finance his court and maintain political stability. These taxes were imposed on merchants traveling through Ghanaian territory, contributing to the wealth and power of the central government and its ruling elite. 43) Bantu settlements prior to 1500 can be characterized by which of the following? A) They were stable and long-lasting. B) They were short-lived. C) They were part of larger political units D) They were all ruled by monarchies. Answer: B Rationale: Bantu settlements prior to 1500 were characterized by their relatively short-lived nature. Bantu migration patterns involved the gradual expansion of agricultural communities into new territories, with settlements being established and abandoned cyclically as population pressures, environmental factors, and social dynamics influenced patterns of settlement and land use. These settlements were often small-scale and decentralized, lacking the permanence and political centralization associated with large urban centers or complex state formations. 44) Which of the following is a characteristic of African civilization in the 15th century? A) homogeneity B) political unity C) lack of advisory councils to the king D) the tendency to embrace a divine monarch Answer: D Rationale: A characteristic of African civilization in the 15th century was the tendency to embrace a divine monarch. Many African societies exhibited a political and religious worldview that emphasized the divine authority of the ruling monarch, who was often regarded as a sacred or semi-divine figure with significant spiritual and temporal powers. This concept of divine kingship played a central role in African political culture, legitimizing the authority of rulers, reinforcing social hierarchies, and fostering a sense of collective identity and loyalty among subjects. 45) Which of the following limited the African economy? A) limitations on technology B) inability to trade outside of Africa C) constant civil wars kept the economy from growing D) large populations Answer: A Rationale: Limitations on technology limited the African economy. Despite the presence of rich natural resources and vibrant trade networks, the African economy faced constraints related to technological underdevelopment, particularly in areas such as metallurgy, transportation, and agricultural productivity. The absence of advanced technologies and techniques hindered economic growth, innovation, and efficiency, contributing to disparities in development between Africa and other regions of the world during the medieval period. 46) Which of the following was a characteristic of African society? A) weak family structures B) families devoted considerable time to children C) women were heads of the family D) children were separated from their mothers as early as possible Answer: B Rationale: A characteristic of African society was that families devoted considerable time to children. Family and kinship networks played a central role in African social organization, providing emotional support, economic security, and cultural identity for individuals within the community. Children were valued as important members of the family unit, and parents typically invested significant time and resources in their upbringing, education, and socialization, reflecting the strong emphasis on familial ties, intergenerational bonds, and communal values in African societies. 47) In the Bantu regions, which of the following was characteristic of architecture? A) The circle was the basic geometric unit. B) Art and architecture tended to favor the use of ivory. C) Homes tended to be square. D) Most temples were built in the ziggurat style. Answer: A Rationale: In the Bantu regions, the circle was the basic geometric unit characteristic of architecture. Bantu architecture often featured circular or oval-shaped structures, such as huts, dwellings, and enclosures, constructed using locally available materials such as mud, thatch, wood, and grass. The circular design of Bantu architecture reflected practical considerations related to climate, social organization, and cultural traditions, as well as symbolic meanings associated with concepts of community, harmony, and continuity in Bantu societies. 48) Compared to Ghana, Mali was able to A) create alliances with Islamic traders. B) develop a more extensive bureaucracy and legal system. C) conquer large amounts of territory in the north. D) avoid going into debt. Answer: B Rationale: Compared to Ghana, Mali was able to develop a more extensive bureaucracy and legal system. The Mali Empire, which succeeded the Ghana Empire, achieved significant political and administrative centralization under rulers such as Sundiata Keita and Mansa Musa, who expanded the empire's territorial control, established administrative institutions, and implemented legal reforms to govern the diverse populations within their realm. Mali's bureaucratic apparatus, including royal courts, provincial governors, and specialized officials, facilitated the administration of justice, the collection of taxes, and the regulation of trade and commerce, contributing to the empire's stability and prosperity. 49) Both the Mali and Songhai kingdoms A) went bankrupt due to the elaborate lifestyles of their kings. B) did not utilize a civil service. C) were Islamic. D) depended on alliances with local lords. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because both the Mali and Songhai kingdoms were Islamic. Islam played a significant role in the governance, culture, and society of these empires, influencing their legal systems, education, and trade networks. 50) The regional kingdoms that arose by 1400 C.E. A) had elaborate legal systems. B) were loosely organized. C) were polytheistic. D) were Islamic. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because the regional kingdoms that emerged by 1400 C.E. were generally loosely organized. These kingdoms often had fragmented power structures, with authority dispersed among various local rulers or lords rather than centralized in a strong, centralized state. This decentralization contributed to the fluidity and flexibility of their governance systems. Short Answer Questions 51) Summarize the characteristic structure of African kingdoms. Answer: African kingdoms typically had decentralized power structures with authority vested in local rulers or chiefs. They often relied on kinship ties, tribute systems, and decentralized administrative systems rather than centralized bureaucracies. 52) What was the effect of Bantu migration? Answer: The Bantu migration led to the spread of Bantu languages, agricultural techniques, and ironworking across sub-Saharan Africa. It also facilitated the development of complex societies and cultures in various regions as Bantu-speaking peoples interacted with and assimilated local populations. 53) Why was Islam useful to many of the Sudanic kings? Answer: Islam provided Sudanic kings with a unifying ideology that helped legitimize their rule, facilitated trade connections with Muslim merchants, and provided access to Islamic learning and scholarship. Additionally, Islam allowed Sudanic kings to establish diplomatic relations with other Islamic states. 54) How did African traditions differ from Islamic traditions regarding women? Answer: African traditions often afforded women more rights and freedoms compared to Islamic traditions. In many African societies, women could inherit property, engage in economic activities, and participate in political decision-making to varying extents, whereas Islamic traditions, particularly in more conservative interpretations, often placed greater restrictions on women's roles and autonomy. 55) Describe the accomplishments of Sundiata. Answer: Sundiata, the founder of the Mali Empire, is renowned for his military conquests, consolidation of power, and establishment of a prosperous and well-governed state. He unified the Mandinka people and expanded Mali's territory through military campaigns, promoting trade and Islam throughout the region. Sundiata's reign laid the foundation for Mali's status as a significant medieval African empire. Essay Questions 56) Compare and contrast the political structures of sub-Saharan Africa with those of western Europe in the postclassical period. Answer: In the postclassical period, sub-Saharan African political structures were often decentralized, with power distributed among local chiefs or kings in kinship-based societies. In contrast, Western Europe saw the emergence of feudalism, characterized by a hierarchical system of lords, vassals, and serfs, with power concentrated in the hands of monarchs and nobility. While both regions had aristocracies and varying degrees of centralization, African societies tended to be less rigidly stratified and more fluid in their political organization compared to the highly structured feudal system of Western Europe. 57) How did trade with the Middle East impact developments in Africa? Answer: Trade with the Middle East had significant impacts on Africa, including the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies. It facilitated the spread of Islam into Africa, leading to the establishment of Islamic states and the integration of African societies into broader networks of trade and culture. Additionally, trade with the Middle East stimulated economic growth, urbanization, and cultural exchange in various regions of Africa. 58) What were the main advantages and disadvantages of Africa's characteristic religious culture? Answer: Africa's characteristic religious culture, which often incorporated animism, ancestor veneration, and polytheism, provided a strong sense of community, identity, and social cohesion. It also offered explanations for natural phenomena and provided moral guidance. However, these traditional religious beliefs could sometimes hinder social and technological advancements by resisting changes or innovations perceived as conflicting with established practices. Additionally, the introduction of Islam and Christianity in Africa led to cultural syncretism and sometimes conflicts between traditional beliefs and the new faiths. 59) What would a Middle Eastern traveler particularly approve of, and what would he particularly disapprove of, in the Sudanic kingdoms around 1200? Answer: A Middle Eastern traveler around 1200 would likely approve of the vibrant trade networks, Islamic culture, and prosperous cities in the Sudanic kingdoms. They would appreciate the wealth generated from trans-Saharan trade, the adoption of Islam by ruling elites, and the presence of mosques and Islamic scholarship. However, they might disapprove of certain indigenous religious practices, cultural customs, or governance structures that diverged from Islamic norms. 60) Describe the relationship between technology and trade in the postclassical period as it relates to Muslim traders. Answer: In the postclassical period, Muslim traders played a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies across vast trade networks stretching from the Middle East to Africa, Europe, and Asia. Technologies such as improved shipbuilding techniques, navigational instruments like the astrolabe, and agricultural innovations like irrigation systems helped enhance trade efficiency and expand the scope of commerce. In turn, trade provided incentives for the development and adoption of new technologies, as merchants sought ways to improve transportation, communication, and production methods to meet the demands of expanding markets. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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