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Multiple Choice 1. While only 9% of the world’s population lived in cities in 1900, approximately what percent will be city dwellers in 2030 if present trends continue? a. 30% b. 60% c. 80% d. 90% Answer: b. 60% 2. Although the human species has existed on the earth for at least 100,000 years, cities began to appear how many years ago? a. 50,000 b. 25,000 c. 10,000 d. 5,000 Answer: c. 10,000 3. What city did Richard Henry Dana allude to in his classic Two Years Before the Mast? a. New York b. Pittsburgh c. Boston d. San Francisco Answer: d. San Francisco 4. Although historians have studied cities for centuries, in which of the academic disciplines listed below were cities first studied systematically? a. economics b. political economy c. sociology d. political science Answer: c. sociology 5. When did early sociologists begin to turn their attentions to cities? a. the late 17th century b. the mid-18th century c. the late 19th century d. the mid-20th century Answer: c. the late 19th century 6. Early scholars of urbanization portrayed the city as: a. a place of unlimited opportunity b. a dangerous place where community and family were threatened c. a place where both opportunity and danger coexisted d. the main cause of industrialization Answer: b. a dangerous place where community and family were threatened 7. The area of study in which urbanists try to understand why cities are located in particular places, is called: a. urban geography b. urban ecology c. social psychology d. none of the above Answer: a. urban geography 8. The area of study in which urbanists try to understand why people disperse within cities the way they do, is called: a. urban geography b. urban ecology c. social psychology d. none of the above Answer: b. urban ecology 9. The “Anatomy” of modern North American cities has been characterized by: a. declining urban population growth b. population migration to the Sunbelt region c. the growth of exurbs d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above 10. Demographers suggest that the growth of exurban regions far beyond the urban core results from: a. the desire of many people to live a simpler life b. a disdain for suburban life c. a breakdown of the traditional family unit d. the exodus of business and industry from central cities Answer: d. the exodus of business and industry from central cities 11. According to Macionis and Parrillo, the most important consequence of declining population growth in central cities for people who remain is: a. less opportunity to build a sense of community b. less choice in consumption as a result of industry flight c. more free space d. less federal funding and political representation Answer: d. less federal funding and political representation 12. By social structure, urbanists mean: a. transportation, buildings, and public utilities b. patterns of city life shaped by wealth and power disparities c. patterns of city life shaped by individual choice d. none of the above Answer: b. patterns of city life shaped by wealth and power disparities 13. Which of the following is (are) true concerning urban growth in a global context? a. Growth rates are the highest in the developing world. b. Urbanization is an unmistakable trend everywhere. c. Poverty and disease result from urbanization for many people. d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above 14. Which of the factors listed below is/are quality of urban life indicators? a. level of material wealth b. degree of safety and security c. sense of community d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above True/False 15. Cities are inextricably connected to the larger societies of which they are a part, and have been the economic, political, and artistic core of various civilizations. Answer: True 16. Cities have been the dominant type of human settlement since 2000 B.C.E. Answer: False 17. San Francisco, once known as Yerba Buena (“good herbs”), has always been an easygoing city. Answer: False 18. The Industrial Revolution was seen by the first urban sociologists as an important factor influencing the character of urban life, and contributed to their relatively pessimistic evaluation of cities. Today, however, cities are viewed more neutrally. Answer: True 19. Cities stimulate us so much because they provide each resident or visitor with very different experiences. Answer: False 20. Aristotle suggested that people come to the city for security and remain to pursue “the good life.” Answer: True 21. Invasion and succession is a well-documented ecological process by which whole sections of a city change. Answer: True 22. While the study of the economics of land use within cities was dominated by an ecological model emphasizing internal competition among residents until the 1960s, today many urbanists embrace the urban political economy perspective, which highlights the influence of external political forces. Answer: True 23. The economic function of medieval cities is greater than that of contemporary cities. Answer: False 24. All advocates of the urban political economy perspective are Marxists. Answer: False 25. The relatively recent decline in urban population growth is primarily a result of an aging population desiring more comfortable living arrangements and business and industry flight from central cities. Answer: True 26. Los Angeles is the largest city in the United States. Answer: False 27. About 30 cities in the United States have more than 1 million residents. Answer: False 28. An important aspect of a city’s social structure is the racial, ethnic, and gender character of its economic and political disparity. Answer: True 29. Because cities concentrate everything human into a relatively small space, they intensify the effects of class, ethnicity, gender and race. Answer: True 30. The world’s cities are growing by approximately 1 million people each week. Answer: True 31. While Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East are experiencing higher levels of urbanization, North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Asia are experiencing much lower rates. Answer: False 32. Although people come to the city hoping to find “the good life,” many do not find it. Answer: True 33. Strong, community-oriented neighborhoods have weakened in recent decades, and some areas have disappeared altogether. Answer: True 34. A focus on the potential material benefits of city life alone is justified given that the majority of people residing in cities experience safety, security, and community. Answer: False Essay/Discussion 35. Explain why historical and comparative analyses are necessary for understanding cities and contemporary existence. Answer: Historical and comparative analyses are necessary for understanding cities and contemporary existence because they provide context and perspective on how urban environments have evolved over time and how they differ across different societies and cultures. By studying the history of cities and comparing them across different contexts, researchers can gain insights into the underlying processes and dynamics that shape urban life. Historical analyses allow us to trace the development of cities from their origins to the present day. This helps us understand the factors that have influenced the growth and development of cities, such as technological advancements, economic changes, and social movements. By studying historical patterns, we can identify recurring themes and understand how cities have adapted to changing circumstances. Comparative analyses, on the other hand, allow us to compare cities across different geographic regions and cultural contexts. This helps us understand how factors such as geography, culture, and governance influence the structure and function of cities. By comparing cities, we can also identify best practices and learn from the successes and failures of different urban models. Together, historical and comparative analyses provide a rich and nuanced understanding of cities and contemporary existence. They help us appreciate the diversity of urban experiences and the complex interactions between people, culture, and the built environment. 36. According to anthropological and historical accounts, it took approximately 10,000 years for the dominant type of human settlement to change from nomadic to village to urban. Since the mid-18th century, however, urbanization has increased much more rapidly. What explanations are currently offered for this phenomenon? Answer: The rapid increase in urbanization since the mid-18th century is attributed to several interconnected factors: 1. Industrialization: The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century, led to significant technological advancements and changes in the economy. This resulted in the growth of industries and the expansion of urban areas to accommodate factory workers. 2. Population growth: The overall population growth, coupled with rural-urban migration, contributed to the rapid increase in urban populations. Factors such as improvements in healthcare and sanitation led to longer life expectancy and higher birth rates, further fueling urbanization. 3. Urbanization as a development strategy: Many governments and policymakers have viewed urbanization as a key driver of economic development. As a result, there has been a deliberate effort to promote urbanization through infrastructure development, industrialization, and urban planning. 4. Globalization: The increasing interconnectedness of economies and cultures through globalization has contributed to the growth of cities as hubs of commerce, culture, and innovation. Globalization has also facilitated the movement of people across borders, leading to increased urbanization in many parts of the world. 5. Technological advancements: Advances in transportation and communication technologies have made it easier for people to travel and stay connected, reducing the barriers to urban living. This has contributed to the growth of cities as centers of economic and social activity. Overall, the rapid increase in urbanization since the mid-18th century can be attributed to a combination of economic, social, and technological factors that have transformed the way people live and work in cities. 37. What are the four main analytical fields within contemporary urban sociology and what does each contribute to our understanding of urban life? Answer: 1. Urban ecology: Urban ecology examines the interrelationships between people and their urban environment. It focuses on how urban environments are structured, how they change over time, and how these changes affect individuals and communities. This field contributes to our understanding of urban life by highlighting the importance of physical spaces, such as neighborhoods and public spaces, in shaping social interactions and behaviors. 2. Urban economics: Urban economics studies the economic aspects of urban areas, including the distribution of resources, employment patterns, and the impact of economic policies on urban development. This field contributes to our understanding of urban life by showing how economic factors influence the growth and decline of cities, as well as the quality of life for urban residents. 3. Urban politics: Urban politics examines the political dynamics within cities, including the role of local governments, political organizations, and community groups in shaping urban policies and decision-making processes. This field contributes to our understanding of urban life by highlighting the complexities of urban governance and the ways in which political power is exercised and contested in urban settings. 4. Urban sociology: Urban sociology focuses on the social aspects of urban life, including social relationships, cultural practices, and social inequalities. This field contributes to our understanding of urban life by exploring how urbanization affects social structures and processes, such as social networks, identity formation, and social mobility. 38. What role, if any, does emergent United States capitalism play in the shaping of the study of urban sociology? Answer: Emergent United States capitalism played a significant role in shaping the study of urban sociology. The rapid industrialization and urbanization that occurred in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to profound social, economic, and cultural changes in urban areas. These changes created new challenges and opportunities for urban residents, which in turn, sparked interest among sociologists in studying the social dynamics of urban life. One key aspect of emergent United States capitalism that influenced the study of urban sociology was the rise of industrial capitalism and the growth of large cities. Industrial capitalism brought about significant changes in the organization of work, the structure of urban economies, and the composition of urban populations. Sociologists were interested in understanding how these changes were impacting urban life, including issues related to social inequality, urban poverty, and social disorganization. Another aspect of emergent United States capitalism that shaped the study of urban sociology was the emergence of new social movements and political ideologies. The labor movement, for example, emerged in response to the harsh working conditions faced by many urban workers, leading sociologists to study issues related to labor relations, class conflict, and social change. Similarly, the rise of progressivism and other reform movements sparked interest among sociologists in studying the role of government and social institutions in addressing urban problems. Overall, emergent United States capitalism played a crucial role in shaping the study of urban sociology by highlighting the complex interplay between economic, political, and social forces in shaping urban life. 39. Explain the primary analytical difference between the older urban ecology and the newer urban political economy model. Answer: The primary analytical difference between the older urban ecology and the newer urban political economy model lies in their focus and theoretical foundations. Urban ecology: The older urban ecology model, influenced by the biological concept of ecology, focused on the spatial distribution of urban populations and activities. It emphasized the study of the city as a complex ecosystem, with a focus on factors such as land use, transportation patterns, and the distribution of social groups within the city. Urban ecologists sought to understand how these spatial patterns influenced social interactions and behaviors. Urban political economy: The newer urban political economy model, on the other hand, focuses on the political and economic forces that shape urban development. It emphasizes the role of capitalism, power relations, and social conflict in shaping urban life. Urban political economists argue that cities are not just physical spaces but are also sites of social struggle and political contestation. They highlight the role of government policies, corporate interests, and social movements in shaping urban development. In summary, while urban ecology focuses on spatial patterns and interactions within the city, urban political economy emphasizes the broader political and economic forces that influence urban development. 40. Why do the authors of your text suggest that we must not simply analyze statistics, but must also “go and make our visit” to the city if we are to fully comprehend urban life? Do you agree or disagree with their argument? Answer: The authors suggest that visiting the city is essential for fully comprehending urban life because it allows us to go beyond statistical data and experience the city firsthand. While statistics provide valuable information about urban populations and trends, they can only offer a partial and abstracted view of urban life. By visiting the city, we can observe the physical environment, interact with residents, and experience the social and cultural dynamics of urban life. I agree with the authors' argument. Visiting the city provides a more holistic and nuanced understanding of urban life that cannot be captured through statistics alone. It allows us to see how people interact with their environment, how social relationships are formed, and how communities are built. Additionally, visiting the city can help us develop empathy and a deeper appreciation for the complexities of urban life, which can inform more effective urban policies and interventions. 41. Explain the two main reasons given by demographers for the recent slowing of central city urban growth and the quickening of exurban growth. Answer: Demographers attribute the recent slowing of central city urban growth and the quickening of exurban growth to two main factors: 1. Suburbanization: Suburbanization, the movement of people from central cities to suburbs, has been a significant trend in many urban areas. This trend is driven by factors such as improved transportation infrastructure, the availability of affordable housing, and the desire for larger homes and more green space. As a result, many central cities have experienced slower population growth, while exurban areas on the outskirts of cities have seen rapid growth. 2. Economic factors: Economic factors also play a role in the shifting patterns of urban growth. The decline of traditional industries in central cities, such as manufacturing, has led to job losses and population decline in some urban areas. At the same time, the growth of industries such as technology and finance has led to job growth in suburban and exurban areas, attracting people to these areas in search of employment opportunities. These two factors, suburbanization and economic shifts, have contributed to the recent slowing of central city urban growth and the quickening of exurban growth in many urban areas. 42. What is meant by social structure and why is it an important analytical consideration for some urbanists? How does it relate to individual choice and the quality of urban life? Answer: Social structure refers to the patterned relationships between individuals and groups in society, including social institutions, cultural norms, and hierarchies of power and privilege. For some urbanists, social structure is an important analytical consideration because it helps explain how social relationships and institutions shape individual behavior and the quality of urban life. Social structure influences individual choice by providing a framework of norms, values, and expectations that guide behavior. For example, social structures such as laws, regulations, and social norms influence where people choose to live, work, and socialize in urban areas. Social structures also affect the quality of urban life by shaping access to resources, opportunities, and social networks. For example, social structures that create inequalities in income, education, and housing can lead to disparities in the quality of life between different groups in urban areas. Understanding social structure is therefore important for urbanists because it helps explain how social forces shape urban life and how these forces can be addressed through policy and planning to improve the quality of life for all residents. Test Bank for Cities and Urban Life Plus John J. Macionis, Vincent N. Parrillo 9780205902583, 9780205206377,9780133869804

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