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Multiple Choice 1. The height of the “Great Immigration” period took place a. between 1800 and 1850. b. between 1920 and 1950. c. between 1880 and 1910. d. between 1945 and 1970. Answer: c. between 1880 and 1910. 2. In 2010, foreign-born people represented __________ percent of Miami’s total population. a. 33.5 b. 46.5 c. 60.6 d. 91.3 Answer: c. 60.6 3. Since 1960, the majority of immigrants have been a. illegal. b. people of color. c. people of European origins. d. None of the above Answer: b. people of color. 4. The process known as “chain migration” describes the idea that a. once migration from a given area begins, it grows at an increasing rate. b. immigrants tend to settle near friends and relatives. c. immigrants often go back to their country of origin. d. men migrate first, then women and children follow. Answer: b. immigrants tend to settle near friends and relatives. 5. Throughout the 1800s, most of the United States’ black population a. lived in the South and in rural areas. b. lived in urban areas. c. was relatively wealthier than today. d. was concentrated around northeastern cities. Answer: a. lived in the South and in rural areas. 6. Which of the following did not contribute to black migration to the North? a. urban decentralization b. the growth of industrial production that followed World War II c. the decline of southern agriculture d. farm mechanization Answer: a. urban decentralization 7. Karl and Alma Taeuber’s study shows that a. blacks were less segregated in 1960 than in 1970. b. segregation can be measured by an index of dissimilarity. c. the segregation index for San Jose in California was the highest in the United States d. racism is the main cause of segregation. Answer: b. segregation can be measured by an index of dissimilarity. 8. What is the fastest growing nonwhite population in the United States? a. Hispanics b. Asians c. African Americans d. None of the above Answer: a. Hispanics 9. Chinese Americans a. account for 1% of the total U.S. population. b. have been blocked from immigrating because of the Chinese Exclusion Act. c. overwhelmingly occupy professional and technical positions. d. have a median family income that has fallen below the national average. Answer: a. account for 1% of the total U.S. population. 10. Puerto Ricans a. enjoy open migration privileges. b. are less segregated from whites than Mexican Americans. c. are among the wealthiest Hispanics in the United States. d. are the largest Hispanic group in the United States. Answer: a. enjoy open migration privileges. 11. Mexican Americans a. largely reside in rural areas. b. are well integrated into U.S. neighborhoods. c. account for 32 percent of Los Angeles’s population. d. tend to follow extended family residence patterns. Answer: c. account for 32 percent of Los Angeles’s population. 12. All but which of the following groups contribute to the Muslim population in Canada? a. Egyptians b. French c. Indians d. Indonesians Answer: b. French 13. Native Americans who migrate to the city a. tend to concentrate in ghettos. b. quickly earn higher incomes. c. experience a cultural clash. d. have drug problems. Answer: b. quickly earn higher incomes. 14. Female participation in the labor force a. was very limited among upper- and middle-class women throughout the 19th century. b. increased rapidly after 1850. c. dropped during World War II. d. was about 90 percent in 2000. Answer: a. was very limited among upper- and middle-class women throughout the 19th century. 15. Chicago was incorporated as a city in a. 1673. b. 1763. c. 1833. d. 1897. Answer: c. 1833. 16. Chicago’s access to other areas of the country through railroads and water systems allowed it to become a. the largest service center in America. b. a large manufacturing center. c. the primary destination of immigrants. d. None of the above Answer: b. a large manufacturing center. 17. The Hull House a. was founded by Richard Daley. b. was located in a middle-class neighborhood of Chicago. c. addressed the needs of immigrant women and families. d. fought against unions. Answer: c. addressed the needs of immigrant women and families. 18. The Chicago political machine a. has been controlled by Italian immigrants. b. came to power in 1900. c. focused on maintaining the quality of the central business district. d. worked on improving the living conditions in poorer black neighborhoods. Answer: c. focused on maintaining the quality of the central business district. 19. Gerald Suttles’s study of the Addams area on Chicago’s West Side suggests that a. poor neighborhoods are highly disorganized and lack social order. b. each ethnic or racial group claim their own territory. c. African Americans form closely knit communities. d. Mexican Americans are the most disadvantaged urban minority. Answer: b. each ethnic or racial group claim their own territory. True/False 20. Immigration to the United States is higher now than ever before. Answer: False 21. Ethnic and racial diversity is increasing in cities. Answer: True 22. The majority of new immigrants come from Asia and Latin America. Answer: True 23. New York is no longer the main destination of immigrants. Answer: False 24. Hispanics represent nearly half of Los Angeles’s population. Answer: True 25. The period of Great Migration from the South followed the period of Great Immigration from Europe. Answer: True 26. Since the 1970s, racial residential segregation has steadily decreased in the United States. Answer: True 27. Most of the ten most segregated metropolitan areas are in the North, while the ten least segregated metropolitan areas are in the South. Answer: True 28. One in five residents in San Francisco is Chinese. Answer: True 29. Japanese Americans represent an increasing share of Asian Americans. Answer: False 30. In the United States, Korean self-employment is higher than white self-employment. Answer: True 31. Hispanics have surpassed African Americans and have become the nation’s largest minority. Answer: True 32. Puerto Ricans are the poorest of all Hispanics. Answer: True 33. There is a high level of female-headed families among Puerto Ricans. Answer: True 34. About 9 in 10 Mexican Americans live in rural areas. Answer: False 35. Asians are stereo typed as a “model minority.” Answer: True 36. The largest Arab-American settlement is in Dearborn, MI. Answer: True 37. Only a fourth of all Native Americans live in urban areas. Answer: False 38. Open space is often allocated to male-oriented activities. Answer: True 39. Chicago was destroyed by fire in 1871. Answer: True 40. Chicago has never had a black mayor. Answer: False Essay/Discussion 41. What do immigrants bring to cities? Answer: Immigrants bring a variety of benefits to cities, enriching them in numerous ways. They often bring diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences that contribute to the cultural vibrancy of urban areas. Economically, immigrants can fill labor gaps, start businesses, and contribute to innovation and entrepreneurship. They also contribute to the tax base, helping to fund public services and infrastructure. Socially, immigrants can strengthen communities by fostering diversity and multiculturalism, which can lead to greater tolerance and understanding among residents. Overall, immigrants play a crucial role in shaping the dynamic and inclusive nature of cities. 42. How has the representation of different ethnic and racial groups changed in cities throughout this century? Answer: The representation of different ethnic and racial groups in cities has evolved significantly throughout this century. Factors such as migration patterns, urbanization, and social policies have influenced these changes. In many cities, there has been a noticeable increase in the representation of minority groups, driven by factors such as immigration, natural population growth, and efforts to promote diversity and inclusion. This trend has led to more diverse and multicultural urban environments, with a greater presence of various ethnic and racial groups. However, challenges such as segregation, discrimination, and disparities in access to resources and opportunities continue to impact the representation and integration of different groups in cities. 43. How can urban spaces be dominated by a specific gender? Explain and give examples. Answer: Urban spaces can be dominated by a specific gender through various social, cultural, and structural factors that influence the design, use, and perception of these spaces. One key factor is the historical and cultural norms that define how different genders are expected to behave and occupy public spaces. For example, in some societies, there may be expectations or restrictions that limit women's presence in certain areas or activities, leading to the dominance of men in those spaces. Another factor is the design and planning of urban spaces, which can inadvertently favor one gender over another. For instance, the lack of safe and accessible public transportation can disproportionately affect women, limiting their mobility and access to different parts of the city. Similarly, the presence or absence of amenities such as public restrooms or childcare facilities can influence who feels welcome and comfortable in a particular space. Additionally, social dynamics and perceptions of safety can also play a role in gender domination of urban spaces. Women may avoid certain areas or activities due to concerns about harassment or violence, leading to the concentration of men in those spaces. Overall, addressing gender domination in urban spaces requires a multifaceted approach that considers social norms, urban planning, and safety concerns to create more inclusive and equitable environments for all genders. 44. Compare the experience of Asian Americans and African Americans in United States cities. What factors explain the differences and similarities? Answer: 1. Historical Context: • African Americans: They have a long history in the United States, starting from the time of slavery. They have faced centuries of systemic racism, segregation, and discrimination, leading to deeply rooted social and economic disparities. • Asian Americans: Their history in the U.S. is more varied, with waves of immigration starting in the 19th century. They have faced discrimination, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. 2. Socioeconomic Status: • African Americans: Historically, they have faced significant barriers to education, employment, and wealth accumulation, leading to higher rates of poverty and lower socioeconomic status on average. • Asian Americans: While some Asian American groups have faced socioeconomic challenges, others, like Indian and Japanese Americans, have achieved higher levels of education and income compared to the national average. 3. Immigration Patterns: • African Americans: The majority of African Americans are descendants of enslaved Africans brought to the U.S. during the transatlantic slave trade, which has shaped their experiences and communities. • Asian Americans: Asian Americans comprise diverse ethnic groups with varying immigration histories. Some arrived as low-wage laborers, while others came as highly skilled immigrants, impacting their integration and experiences in U.S. cities. 4. Cultural Factors: • African Americans: They have a distinct cultural heritage, including music, art, and literature, which has been influential in American culture. • Asian Americans: Similarly, Asian Americans have contributed to American culture, with unique traditions, cuisine, and cultural practices that enrich the fabric of U.S. cities. 5. Discrimination and Racism: • African Americans: They have been subject to systemic racism, including housing discrimination, police brutality, and unequal access to opportunities, impacting their experiences in U.S. cities. • Asian Americans: While also facing discrimination, especially during periods of antiAsian sentiment, they have not experienced the same level of historical oppression as African Americans. 6. Community and Identity: • African Americans: They have strong community ties and a shared history of struggle, which has fostered a sense of solidarity and cultural pride. • Asian Americans: Similarly, Asian Americans often form tight-knit communities, preserving their cultural heritage and providing support networks in U.S. cities. 7. Political and Social Movements: • African Americans: They have been at the forefront of civil rights movements, advocating for equal rights and social justice, which has shaped the political landscape in U.S. cities. • Asian Americans: While also involved in social and political activism, their movements have been more varied, reflecting the diversity of Asian American communities and their respective challenges. 8. Contemporary Issues: • African Americans: They continue to face issues such as police violence, mass incarceration, and disparities in education and healthcare, which impact their experiences in U.S. cities. • Asian Americans: Recent challenges include the rise of anti-Asian hate crimes and discrimination, highlighting ongoing issues of racism and xenophobia in U.S. cities. In summary, while both Asian Americans and African Americans have faced discrimination and challenges in U.S. cities, their experiences are shaped by unique historical, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. Understanding these differences is crucial for addressing systemic inequalities and promoting inclusivity and equity in urban communities. Test Bank for Cities and Urban Life Plus John J. Macionis, Vincent N. Parrillo 9780205902583, 9780205206377,9780133869804

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