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Chapter 1 Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment 1.1 Opening Note to Students on Active Learning 1) For most college students, reading A) is extremely difficult. B) has become overlearned. C) has been replaced by video games. D) automatically produces understanding. Answer: B Rationale: Reading becoming "overlearned" implies that it has become a routine or habitual activity for college students, suggesting that they are accustomed to reading due to the academic demands of college. This choice reflects the common experience of students who engage in extensive reading as part of their coursework. 2) After reading a section in a textbook, students A) typically understand everything in the section. B) will know it by heart. C) often cannot remember the material. D) usually recall every idea in it. Answer: C Rationale: This choice reflects the reality that many students struggle with retaining information after reading a textbook section, indicating a common difficulty in recalling the material even immediately after reading. It acknowledges the challenge of memory retention in academic settings. 3) When studying a textbook, A) it is a good idea to ignore chapter outlines. B) you should read the chapter only once. C) try not to think about the material as you read it. D) you should pay attention to the outlines, summaries, and footnotes. Answer: D Rationale: Paying attention to chapter outlines, summaries, and footnotes helps students grasp the main points and key concepts of the material more effectively. This choice aligns with effective study strategies that emphasize active engagement with the text and utilizing supplementary materials provided by the textbook. 1.2 Science 1) Scientific thinking can be conducted A) while fishing. B) in a laboratory setting. C) with the aid of computers, statistics, and other equipment. D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: Scientific thinking is not limited to a specific environment; it can occur in various settings, including everyday activities like fishing, as well as in laboratories where experiments are conducted, and with the aid of technological tools like computers and statistical analysis. This choice reflects the diverse contexts in which scientific thinking can occur. 2) ________ is a process of formulating specific questions and then finding answers in order to better understand nature. A) Scientific research B) Psychoanalysis C) Romanticism D) History Answer: A Rationale: Scientific research involves the systematic formulation of questions and the search for answers through observation, experimentation, and analysis. This choice distinguishes scientific research from other processes like psychoanalysis, romanticism, and historical inquiry by highlighting its focus on understanding nature through empirical investigation. 3) According to your text, what is the "essence" of science? A) the facts B) its way of thinking C) the hardware D) its theories Answer: B Rationale: The essence of science lies in its way of thinking, which emphasizes critical inquiry, evidence-based reasoning, hypothesis testing, and the pursuit of knowledge through systematic observation and experimentation. This choice reflects the fundamental approach and mindset underlying the scientific method. 4) The essence of science is A) a logical way of acting. B) a logical way of thinking. C) laboratory equipment, statistical procedures, and computers. D) the applied products of science. Answer: B Rationale: Science is fundamentally characterized by a logical way of thinking, involving the formulation of hypotheses, the testing of these hypotheses through experimentation and observation, and the interpretation of results based on evidence and logic. This choice captures the core cognitive process that defines scientific inquiry. 5) Who systematically posed questions to citizens of his era to reveal their ignorance and make them uncomfortable? A) Socrates B) Thales C) Galileo D) Hippocrates Answer: A Rationale: Socrates is renowned for his method of questioning, known as the Socratic method, through which he engaged others in dialogue to stimulate critical thinking, uncover ignorance, and provoke self-reflection. This choice aligns with Socrates' historical role as a philosopher who challenged conventional wisdom through questioning. 6) The Scopes monkey trial A) took place in Africa. B) featured the great debate between Dr. Darwin and Mr. Scopes. C) pitted scientific evolutionary theory against Leviticus. D) debated the teaching of concepts of evolution in high school classes. Answer: D Rationale: The Scopes monkey trial, also known as the Scopes Trial, was a legal case in the United States that centered on the teaching of evolution in public schools. This choice accurately describes the trial's focus on the inclusion of evolutionary theory in high school curricula and its clash with creationist viewpoints. 7) Our modern equivalent of the Scopes trial is A) the use of genetics in medical diagnoses. B) seen in almost every domestic dispute brought to the courts. C) today's attempts to get the "intelligent design" concept into school science classes. D) the academic debates over heredity versus environment. Answer: C Rationale: The modern equivalent of the Scopes trial refers to ongoing debates over the inclusion of intelligent design, a concept associated with creationism, in school science curricula alongside or instead of evolutionary theory. This choice highlights a contemporary issue related to the teaching of evolution in educational settings. 8) The ancient Greek philosopher executed as a subversive was A) Socrates. B) Herodotus. C) Aristotle. D) Plato. Answer: A Rationale: Socrates, the ancient Greek philosopher, was sentenced to death by the Athenian state on charges of impiety and corrupting the youth. This choice accurately identifies Socrates as the philosopher who faced execution for his teachings and philosophical inquiries. 9) Scientists are pervasive ________; that is, they constantly challenge accepted wisdom in their search for more complete answers. A) optimists B) skeptics C) pessimists D) laureates Answer: B Rationale: Scientists are characterized by skepticism, as they continuously question and critically evaluate existing knowledge and hypotheses in their pursuit of deeper understanding and more comprehensive explanations of natural phenomena. This choice reflects the inherent skepticism and critical inquiry inherent in scientific practice. 10) A good scientist must A) be unwilling to tolerate uncertainty. B) deny anything that is uncertain. C) focus only on what is certain about the world around us. D) be willing to tolerate uncertainty. Answer: D Rationale: Uncertainty is inherent in scientific inquiry, as new evidence may challenge existing theories, and knowledge is continually revised and refined. A good scientist acknowledges and embraces uncertainty, recognizing it as a natural aspect of the pursuit of knowledge and understanding in science. This choice underscores the importance of openness to uncertainty in scientific practice. 11) Scientific censorship A) must be balanced against the importance of freedom to exchange ideas. B) primarily occurred in communist countries. C) is often necessary to advance science. D) never occurs in the United States. Answer: A Rationale: Scientific censorship poses a threat to the free exchange of ideas, which is essential for the advancement of science. Balancing the need for censorship against the importance of freedom ensures that necessary information is not suppressed while also addressing concerns such as national security or ethical considerations. 12) A scientist's pursuit of curiosity can best be described as A) passive B) idle. C) peripatetic. D) active Answer: D Rationale: A scientist's pursuit of curiosity involves active engagement in seeking knowledge, conducting experiments, and exploring new ideas. It is not a passive or idle endeavor but rather an active quest for understanding and discovery. 13) Skinner noted that a motivator for scientists is A) curiosity. B) fame. C) money. D) the questioning reflex. Answer: A Rationale: B.F. Skinner recognized curiosity as a primary motivator for scientists. Curiosity drives scientists to explore the unknown, ask questions, and seek answers through experimentation and research. 14) Active curiosity A) is a major characteristic of scientists. B) is the only characteristic that differentiates scientists from others. C) should be discouraged in children. D) is of little use to scientists. Answer: A Rationale: Active curiosity, characterized by a strong desire to explore, investigate, and understand the world, is indeed a major characteristic of scientists. It propels them to ask questions, seek answers, and engage in research to further knowledge and understanding. 15) The term ________ in science means discoveries that are unanticipated, fortuitous, or "lucky." A) essential B) primary C) serendipity D) heuristic Answer: C Rationale: Serendipity refers to unexpected discoveries in science that occur by chance rather than through deliberate investigation. These discoveries often result from fortunate accidents or observations made while pursuing other research goals. 16) Charles Gross discovered a single neuron that was sensitive to stimuli when he A) presented multi-colored squares to the monkey. B) allowed graduate students to pick the stimuli to show the monkey. C) disconnected the apparatus and allowed the monkey to react naturally. D) waved "good night" to the monkey. Answer: D Rationale: Charles Gross discovered the neuron while waving "good night" to the monkey. This accidental observation led to the identification of a single neuron that was sensitive to stimuli, demonstrating the role of serendipity in scientific discovery. 17) A scientist's curiosity leads to discoveries because of A) lack of rigidity. B) pure luck and long hours of research. C) a prepared mind, luck, and long hours of research. D) a prepared mind and the knowledge of the latest technological advances. Answer: C Rationale: A scientist's curiosity often leads to discoveries due to a combination of factors including a prepared mind (having relevant knowledge and expertise), luck (serendipitous observations), and long hours of research (persistent exploration and experimentation). 18) Scientists and artists A) use entirely different methods in their work. B) are entirely different kinds of people. C) engage in a mix of artistic and intellectual endeavors. D) are thoroughly alienated from each other. Answer: C Rationale: Scientists and artists often engage in a mix of artistic and intellectual endeavors. Both pursue creativity, problem-solving, and expression in their respective fields, and there is often overlap in approaches and techniques used. 19) Both scientists and artists A) would argue that art and science are fundamentally different. B) engage in a mix of artistic and intellectual pursuits. C) represent their ideas visually. D) present verifiable truths. Answer: B Rationale: Both scientists and artists engage in a mix of artistic and intellectual pursuits. While scientists focus on empirical evidence and testing hypotheses, artists often explore subjective experiences and emotions. However, both rely on creativity, critical thinking, and experimentation in their work. 20) Which of the following statements is true? A) Youngsters who are good at science or math cannot be proficient in the arts. B) While scientists have great curiosity about nature, artists have little or none. C) Science and art have a great deal in common. D) Science and art have little in common. Answer: C Rationale: Science and art share commonalities in their processes of creativity, exploration, and expression. Both fields involve observation, experimentation, and interpretation of the world around us. Many scientific discoveries have been inspired by artistic endeavors, and art often draws upon scientific concepts for inspiration and expression. 21) Who is considered the first great medical illustrator? A) Thales B) Verocchio C) Hippocrates D) da Vinci Answer: D Rationale: Leonardo da Vinci is considered the first great medical illustrator due to his detailed anatomical drawings, which were groundbreaking in their accuracy and helped advance medical knowledge during his time. 22) Leonardo da Vinci is a good example of someone who combined art and A) culture. B) science. C) theology. D) business. Answer: B Rationale: Leonardo da Vinci is renowned for seamlessly integrating art and science, as evidenced by his anatomical drawings and inventions, showcasing his multidisciplinary approach to understanding the natural world. 1) Believing in something because your family has always accepted it as true is an example of A) intuition. B) rationalism. C) tenacity. D) superstition. Answer: C Rationale: Tenacity refers to the persistence of belief despite contradictory evidence or reasoning, often influenced by upbringing or tradition rather than rational inquiry. 2) Which of Helmstadter's common methods of acquiring knowledge is characterized by acceptance of an idea because it has always been accepted? A) tenacity B) intuition C) rationalism D) authority Answer: A Rationale: Tenacity involves adhering to beliefs simply because they have been ingrained over time, without critically examining or questioning their validity. 3) The belief that symptom substitution will occur if enuretic children are treated by conditioning therapies, even in the face of consistent contradictory evidence, is an example of A) tenacity. B) rationalism. C) empiricism. D) science. Answer: A Rationale: This scenario exemplifies tenacity because it involves persisting in a belief despite evidence to the contrary, without engaging in empirical investigation or scientific scrutiny. 4) Believing in something because the President tells you it is true is an example of A) authority. B) civic duty. C) tenacity. D) intuition. Answer: A Rationale: Accepting a belief based solely on the word of an authoritative figure, such as the President, reflects an appeal to authority rather than independent critical analysis or evidence-based reasoning. 5) The method of acquiring knowledge in which an individual has a hunch or "gut feeling" but does not rationally examine facts is A) authority. B) tenacity. C) intuition. D) empiricism. Answer: C Rationale: Intuition involves relying on instinctive feelings or hunches rather than deliberate reasoning or empirical evidence to form beliefs or make decisions. 6) "Research methods examinations are always easy; this is a research methods exam; therefore, this exam is easy" is an example of A) intuition. B) rationalism. C) empiricism. D) sick humor. Answer: B Rationale: This statement illustrates a form of rationalism known as deductive reasoning, where a conclusion is drawn from general premises. However, the conclusion may not necessarily be true, as it depends on the accuracy of the premises. 7) Rationalism develops knowledge by the use of A) observation. B) empirical facts. C) reasoning. D) reasoning and observation. Answer: C Rationale: Rationalism relies on the power of reasoning, logic, and deduction to develop knowledge and understanding, independent of empirical observation or sensory experience. 8) One problem with using rationalism to obtain knowledge is that A) the premises may be unimportant. B) the premises may not be true. C) observations may be representative, but there may be exceptions. D) observations may not be completely representative. Answer: B Rationale: A key challenge of rationalism is that the conclusions drawn are only as reliable as the truthfulness of the premises upon which they are based. If the premises are false, the conclusions may also be invalid, highlighting a limitation of this method of knowledge acquisition. 9) Empiricism gains knowledge through A) intuition. B) reasoning. C) observation. D) reasoning and intuition. Answer: C Rationale: Empiricism relies on the observation of sensory experiences and empirical evidence to gain knowledge. It emphasizes the importance of direct observation and experimentation rather than relying on intuition or pure reasoning. 10) Understanding or knowing the world through observation of real events is called A) rationalism. B) empiricism. C) tenacity. D) intuition. Answer: B Rationale: Empiricism is the epistemological approach that emphasizes the importance of sensory experience and observation of real events in acquiring knowledge about the world. It stands in contrast to rationalism, which prioritizes reason and innate ideas. 11) In which method of acquiring knowledge must the major and minor premises be true if we are to draw a correct conclusion? A) tenacity B) intuition C) authority D) rationalism Answer: D Rationale: Rationalism relies on deductive reasoning, where conclusions are drawn from premises. For the conclusion to be valid, both major and minor premises must be true, ensuring the correctness of the conclusion. 12) Which of the following methods of gaining knowledge is developed through reasoning processes alone? A) rationalism B) empiricism C) raison d'etre D) science Answer: A Rationale: Rationalism emphasizes the role of reason and logical inference in acquiring knowledge. It does not rely on sensory experience or empirical evidence but rather on innate ideas and logical deductions. 13) Which of the following methods of gaining knowledge employs the use of actual sense data? A) empiricism B) intuition C) extrasensory perception D) tenacity Answer: A Rationale: Empiricism relies on the collection and interpretation of sensory data or direct observation of the world to acquire knowledge. It emphasizes the importance of empirical evidence over intuition or other non-observable factors. 14) Of the following methods of acquiring knowledge, which is the most demanding in terms of adequacy of information? A) tenacity B) intuition C) authority D) empiricism Answer: D Rationale: Empiricism is the most demanding method in terms of adequacy of information because it requires rigorous observation, experimentation, and empirical evidence to support knowledge claims. It emphasizes the need for reliable and sufficient data to draw conclusions about the world. 15) A researcher observes many babies and sees them all cry. She concludes that babies often cry. This is an example of A) empiricism. B) intuition. C) rationalism. D) tenacity. Answer: A Rationale: This scenario exemplifies empiricism because the researcher derives her conclusion from direct observation and sensory experiences of babies crying. Empiricism emphasizes the importance of real-world observation in acquiring knowledge. 16) Which of the following methods of acquiring knowledge places the most demands on the nature of evidence and procedures for study? A) intuition B) tenacity C) empiricism D) authority Answer: C Rationale: Empiricism places the most demands on the nature of evidence and study procedures because it requires systematic observation, experimentation, and collection of empirical data to support knowledge claims. It emphasizes the importance of rigorous methods and reliable evidence in acquiring knowledge. 17) A person who does not believe that the north pole exists because he or she has never seen it is demonstrating A) rational empiricism. B) naive empiricism. C) tenacious empiricism. D) sophisticated empiricism. Answer: B Rationale: This person is demonstrating naive empiricism by basing their belief solely on their lack of personal observation without considering other evidence or knowledge from reliable sources. Naive empiricism relies on simplistic or incomplete observations without critical analysis or consideration of alternative explanations. 18) One limitation of the use of empiricism is that A) observations may not be representative. B) logical processes can be incorrect. C) costly equipment is necessary. D) basic premises must be true. Answer: A Rationale: One limitation of empiricism is that observations may not always be representative of the broader population or phenomena being studied. Sampling bias, experimental error, or other factors can lead to non-representative observations, limiting the generalizability of empirical findings. 19) ________ empiricism includes observing phenomena, not only directly but also indirectly through direct observation of their impact on other objects. A) Rational B) Tenacious C) Sophisticated D) Naive Answer: C Rationale: Sophisticated empiricism involves not only direct observation but also indirect observation by examining the impact of phenomena on other objects. This approach allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the observed phenomena. 20) Which of the following brings together elements of both empiricism and rationalism? A) colloquia B) science C) scientology D) phenomenology Answer: B Rationale: Science integrates elements of both empiricism (observation and experimentation) and rationalism (logical reasoning and deduction) to formulate hypotheses, test them, and draw conclusions based on evidence. 21) Science is a way of thinking that integrates both A) tenacity and intuition. B) ad hoc and post hoc reasoning. C) rational logic and empirical observation. D) a priori hypotheses and tenacity. Answer: C Rationale: Science combines rational logic (logical reasoning) with empirical observation (evidencebased investigation) to form hypotheses, conduct experiments, and derive conclusions, thereby integrating both aspects into its methodology. 22) The statement, "I won't believe it unless I see it" is an example of A) naive empiricism. B) rational empiricism. C) sophisticated empiricism. D) tenacity. Answer: A Rationale: The statement reflects a simplistic reliance on direct observation alone, without considering indirect evidence or the possibility of unseen phenomena, thus illustrating the concept of naive empiricism. 23) The method of acquiring knowledge that makes the most demands on the information is A) empiricism. B) rationalism. C) science. D) tenacity Answer: C Rationale: Science imposes rigorous demands on information through systematic observation, experimentation, and logical analysis, making it the method of acquiring knowledge that requires the most comprehensive and rigorous use of information. 24) Which of the following does science NOT use? A) empiricism B) astrology C) rationalism D) general principles Answer: B Rationale: Science does not use astrology as a method for acquiring knowledge because astrology relies on unfounded beliefs about celestial influences rather than empirical evidence and rational analysis. 25) A researcher observes children, logically thinks about his observations, and produces a theory. He is using A) science. B) empiricism. C) theorism. D) rationalism. Answer: A Rationale: The researcher is engaging in the scientific method by systematically observing phenomena, analyzing the data logically, and formulating a theory based on empirical evidence, thus demonstrating the application of scientific thinking. 26) Which of the following statements is accurate? A) Scientific thinking represents an integration of rationalism and direct empirical observation. B) Scientific endeavors are completely separate from social parameters. C) Scientific thinking is primarily based on intuition. D) There was no science before Copernicus, Galileo, or Newton. Answer: A Rationale: Scientific thinking involves integrating rationalism (logical reasoning) with direct empirical observation (evidence-based inquiry), enabling the formulation of hypotheses, experimentation, and the advancement of knowledge. This integration is fundamental to the scientific method. 1.4 Emergence of Science 1) The "orderliness belief" suggests that A) although the universe is not orderly, being orderly and precise yourself can make it more orderly. B) early men had a fallacy that the universe was orderly. C) the universe operates in an orderly, lawful manner. D) the ancient religions and their gods demanded orderly worship. Answer: C Rationale: The "orderliness belief" asserts that the universe operates in an orderly, lawful manner, which is a fundamental premise underlying the development of scientific inquiry and understanding. 2) Between 6000-4000 B.C. A) the Egyptians started primitive trading networks. B) the Sumerians created one of the strongest empires in history. C) the Babylonians and Egyptians flourished and lived in complex, stable societies. D) humans only had polished stone tools. Answer: C Rationale: During this period, the Babylonians and Egyptians flourished, establishing complex and stable societies characterized by advancements in agriculture, architecture, and governance, rather than merely relying on polished stone tools. 3) Which of the following did people NOT do between 6000-4000 B.C.? A) complicated business skills dependent on navigation B) write important books on astronomy, medicine, and surgery C) have a unified concept of the universe in which gods played an important role D) have a unified conception of the universe in which astrology played an important role Answer: D Rationale: Between 6000-4000 B.C., astrology as a unified conception of the universe wasn't developed. Astrology, as a systematic study of celestial bodies' movements and positions influencing human affairs, emerged later in ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamia and Egypt, around the 2nd millennium B.C. Before that, while celestial observation was present, it wasn't structured into a coherent system of astrological beliefs. 4) Benjamin Farrington emphasized two characteristics of the skills men had up until 1,000 B.C. These were A) practical skills and knowledge for the sake of knowledge. B) religious, abstract knowledge and conceptualizations of the universe and practical skills. C) practical skills and more abstract general ideas about nature. D) abstract general ideas about nature and skill at pleasing the gods. Answer: C Rationale: Farrington highlighted practical skills and more abstract general ideas about nature up until 1000 B.C. This reflects the transition from purely practical skills towards a blend of practicality and abstract conceptualizations, marking an important stage in human intellectual development. 5) Which of the following is correct? A) By about 1000 B.C., humans had still not developed any measurable civilization. B) Technology is a recent development of the twentieth century. C) There was no hint of science until the eighteenth century. D) By 1000 B.C., there had developed a rich legacy of human skills. Answer: D Rationale: By 1000 B.C., human civilizations had indeed developed a rich legacy of skills encompassing various domains such as agriculture, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. This period witnessed significant advancements, laying the groundwork for subsequent civilizations. 6) The great surge from neolithic stone tools into the age of metals occurred during A) The Golden Age. B) 6000-4000 B.C. C) the antediluvian era. D) the Age of Enlightenment. Answer: B Rationale: The transition from neolithic stone tools to metalworking occurred between 6000-4000 B.C., marking a significant leap in human technological advancement, particularly in metallurgy. 7) According to Farrington (1949), endeavors such as metallurgy and agriculture are based on A) a cooperative decision by a community. B) an assessment of the needs of the community. C) the application of practical, empirical skills. D) the development of abstract, theoretical ideas. Answer: C Rationale: Farrington argues that endeavors like metallurgy and agriculture are rooted in the application of practical, empirical skills rather than abstract, theoretical ideas. This underscores the importance of hands-on experience and experimentation in technological advancements. 8) According to Farrington (1949), people develop abstract, general ideas about nature by A) developing rhetorical skills. B) utilizing leisure time. C) engaging in metallurgy and agriculture. D) building on a long involvement in practical skills. Answer: D Rationale: Farrington suggests that abstract, general ideas about nature are developed through a long involvement in practical skills, emphasizing the role of experience and observation in shaping conceptualizations about the natural world. 9) Science began to flourish and grow into a powerful social movement during the A) Dark Ages. B) Eisenhower presidency. C) Golden Age. D) late Renaissance (seventeenth century). Answer: D Rationale: Science began to flourish and evolve into a significant social movement during the late Renaissance, particularly in the seventeenth century. This period witnessed groundbreaking advancements in various scientific fields, laying the foundation for modern scientific inquiry. 10) Human civilizations were settled in the eastern Mediterranean region by about A) 1000 A.D. B) 6000 B.C. C) 1000 B.C. D) the time of the Roman Empire. Answer: B Rationale: Human civilizations were settled in the eastern Mediterranean region by about 6000 B.C., marking the early stages of organized human societies in this region. 11) The development of abstract, general information comes about through A) a renunciation of practical, everyday operations. B) a rejection of craftsmanship and artisanship. C) a long involvement in using empirical skills and concrete manipulations of the physical environment. D) the study of abstract subjects such as astronomy and biology. Answer: C Rationale: The development of abstract, general information is primarily attributed to a long involvement in using empirical skills and concrete manipulations of the physical environment. This hands-on experience forms the basis for abstract conceptualizations. 12) How do we classify the early (5000-4000 B.C.) skills of the Mediterranean artisans? A) abstract skills B) empirical skills C) religious D) rationalistic skills Answer: B Rationale: The early skills of Mediterranean artisans between 5000-4000 B.C. are best classified as empirical skills, emphasizing practical experience and observation rather than abstract or religious attributes. 13) Science has been one of western civilization's ways of acquiring knowledge since A) the Middle Ages. B) the Romans, 4,400 years ago. C) the Greeks, 2,400 years ago. D) Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and Darwin. Answer: C Rationale: Science as a systematic method for acquiring knowledge can be traced back to ancient Greece, particularly to figures like Thales, who lived around 624–546 BC. Thales and subsequent Greek philosophers laid the groundwork for empirical observation and rational inquiry, marking the beginning of scientific thought in Western civilization. 14) Scientists and physicians believe they can predict the same outcome of a disease in different patients based on A) the orderliness belief. B) tenacity and intuition. C) biological bases of behavior. D) rational principles. Answer: A Rationale: The "orderliness belief" suggests that scientists and physicians rely on the implicit assumption that the physical world operates in an orderly and predictable manner. This belief underpins their confidence in predicting disease outcomes across different patients based on observed patterns and principles. 15) The first Greek philosopher to combine an empirical rational view of the universe is A) Anaximander. B) Socrates. C) Xenophanes. D) Thales. Answer: D Rationale: Thales is credited as one of the earliest Greek philosophers to merge empirical observation with rational inquiry to understand the universe. His approach marked a departure from mythological explanations and laid the foundation for scientific exploration. 16) Thales' philosophy A) speculated about a natural cosmology in which earth was the basic substance. B) stressed the observation of natural events in an unnatural universe. C) stressed the observation of natural events in a natural universe. D) stressed the mysticism of gods, demons, and spirits. Answer: C Rationale: Thales emphasized the observation of natural events in a natural universe. He proposed that water was the fundamental substance from which everything originated, representing an early attempt at explaining natural phenomena through empirical reasoning rather than supernatural beliefs. 17) Which of the following was an early empiricist? A) Estiabanes B) Thales C) Ptolmy D) Plato Answer: B Rationale: Thales was an early empiricist who relied on observation and experience to understand the world. His philosophical inquiries into natural phenomena marked a significant departure from the prevailing mythological explanations of his time. 18) The ancient and implicit belief that the physical world is predictable is called A) the empirical tradition. B) the orderliness belief. C) the rationalistic tradition. D) the predictability belief. Answer: B Rationale: The "orderliness belief" refers to the implicit assumption that the physical world operates in a predictable and orderly manner. This belief is foundational to the development of science and scientific inquiry, as it underpins the pursuit of knowledge through observation and experimentation. 19) The basic components necessary for the emergence of science had been developed by A) 600 B.C. B) the twelfth through the thirteenth centuries. C) the sixteenth century. D) 5000 B.C. Answer: A Rationale: By 600 B.C., ancient Greek philosophers like Thales had laid down the fundamental components of scientific inquiry, including empirical observation, rational thinking, and the formulation of naturalistic explanations for observed phenomena. These components formed the basis for the emergence of science as a distinct discipline. 20) The "orderliness belief" of Whitehead (1925) refers to A) Copernicus' belief that the planets are arranged in order of size. B) the implicit belief that the universe is orderly and predictable. C) the preoccupation of the ancient Egyptians with order. D) the observation that order always emerges out of chaos. Answer: B Rationale: Whitehead's "orderliness belief" refers to the implicit conviction that the universe operates in an orderly and predictable manner. This belief is foundational to scientific inquiry, as it provides the basis for formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments, and making predictions about natural phenomena. 21) The pre-Socratic period A) neglected to include Thales. B) occurred in Greece around 600-400 B.C. C) occurred after the Trojan War. D) occurred in Egypt around 2600-2400 B.C. Answer: B Rationale: The pre-Socratic period refers to the era in ancient Greece from around 600 to 400 B.C., characterized by the philosophical inquiries of thinkers predating Socrates. Thales is considered one of the early pre-Socratic philosophers, so option B is correct. 22) Thales is notable for a view of the world that A) emphasized religious and mystic experiences. B) rejected speculation altogether. C) excluded attention to observational details. D) combined empiricism and rationalism. Answer: D Rationale: Thales is notable for combining empiricism (relying on sensory experience) and rationalism (employing reason and logic) in his worldview. He sought naturalistic explanations for phenomena rather than resorting to religious or mystical explanations, making option D the correct choice. 23) Thales speculated that the basic substance of the universe was A) water. B) phlogiston. C) air. D) fire. Answer: A Rationale: Thales proposed that the fundamental substance of the universe was water. This idea is significant because it represents one of the earliest attempts at a naturalistic explanation of the cosmos, supporting option A. 24) Hippocrates was A) the first physician. B) an Ionian rationalist in Plato's tradition. C) an empiricist. D) the first physician to see the importance of ethics. Answer: C Rationale: Hippocrates is known as the "father of medicine" and is considered an empiricist because he emphasized the importance of clinical observation and experience in understanding and treating diseases, making option C the correct choice. 25) An early concept of evolution on earth was put forth by A) Thales. B) Anaximander. C) Aristophanes. D) Hippocrates. Answer: B Rationale: Anaximander, a pre-Socratic philosopher, proposed an early concept of evolution that suggested living beings originated from a primal substance and gradually evolved over time. This idea predates modern evolutionary theory, making option B the correct choice. 26) Empirical and theoretical considerations of geological change over time were developed by A) Hippocrates B) Xenophanes C) Plato D) Socrates Answer: B Rationale: Xenophanes, another pre-Socratic philosopher, made empirical and theoretical observations about geological change over time. He noted fossil evidence and proposed theories about the formation of the Earth's crust, supporting option B. 27) The Ionian scientist-philosopher who first employed experimental methods was A) Nebulus. B) Ionis. C) Strato. D) Thales. Answer: C Rationale: Strato, a Hellenistic philosopher of the Ionian school, is credited with being one of the first to employ experimental methods in scientific inquiry. This experimentation marked a significant shift in the approach to studying the natural world, making option C the correct choice. 28) A basic assumption of early artisans, which was essential for the application of their skills in a reliable manner, was A) rationalism. B) philosophical mysticism. C) intuition. D) the orderliness belief. Answer: D Rationale: Early artisans often relied on the belief in the orderliness of nature, which allowed them to apply their skills reliably. This assumption underpinned their understanding of how natural processes worked, supporting option D. 29) Hippocrates' treatments for disease involved A) clinical observations of patients. B) prayer and exorcism. C) many powerful medicines. D) both A and C. Answer: A Rationale: Hippocrates' approach to medicine was based on careful clinical observation of patients and naturalistic treatments rather than relying on supernatural or mystical explanations, supporting option A. 30) Who was the first to begin actual experimentation? A) Socrates B) Strato C) Thales D) Aristotle Answer: B Rationale: Strato is credited with being one of the first to begin actual experimentation in scientific inquiry. His use of experimental methods marked a significant advancement in the study of the natural world, making option B the correct choice. 31) Thales lived in A) Athenia. B) Parthenon. C) Ionia. D) Galiccia. Answer: C Rationale: Thales, one of the Seven Sages of Greece and often considered the first Western philosopher, lived in the ancient Greek city of Miletus, which was located in the region of Ionia. 32) The earliest descriptions of an orderly and knowable universe are found in A) Ionian philosophy. B) the writings of Plato. C) Peripatetic philosophy. D) the work of Ptolemy. Answer: A Rationale: Ionian philosophy, particularly the ideas of thinkers like Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes, emphasized the search for natural explanations for phenomena, laying the groundwork for understanding the universe as orderly and governed by laws rather than supernatural forces. 33) Both Thales and Hippocrates employed A) leeches in the treatment of disease. B) careful observation in natural conditions. C) mysticism and intuition. D) systematic, experimental manipulations. Answer: B Rationale: Both Thales, the early philosopher, and Hippocrates, the father of medicine, relied on careful observation of the natural world to form their theories and practices, emphasizing empirical observation over mystical or intuitive explanations. 34) Strato was A) an early artisan and maker of the famous Stradivarius violins. B) a rationalist. C) an empiricist. D) an early Greek physician who rivaled Hippocrates. Answer: C Rationale: Strato of Lampsacus was a philosopher and scientist from ancient Greece who is known for his empiricist approach to natural philosophy, emphasizing the importance of observation and experience in understanding the world. 35) Hippocrates was one of the first people to attribute the cause of illness to A) political events. B) natural events. C) incomplete exorcisms. D) an invasion of body cavities by demons and spirits. Answer: B Rationale: Hippocrates believed that illnesses had natural causes rather than being due to supernatural forces, laying the foundation for modern medical understanding by attributing illnesses to natural events and environmental factors. 36) The ancient Greeks A) excelled in rationalistic philosophies but never developed empiricism. B) developed scientific models but did not develop cosmologies. C) developed both rationalism and empiricism. D) did not use scientific methods. Answer: C Rationale: The ancient Greeks contributed significantly to both rationalistic philosophies, as seen in the works of philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, and empiricism, as exemplified by the observational approaches of figures like Hippocrates and Thales. 37) In the history of science, A) rationalism was the first tradition to emerge. B) ratiocination served as the cornerstone of modern science. C) authority quickly became the primary tradition of scientists. D) empiricism was the first tradition to emerge. Answer: D Rationale: Empiricism, rooted in observation and experience, was foundational in the development of early scientific inquiry, preceding the more abstract and deductive approaches associated with rationalism. 38) Greek empirical science declined for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) the decrease in the use of slavery. B) the upper class beginning to focus on pure reason and abstract truths. C) the growing stratification of society. D) the increasing social power of religion. Answer: A Rationale: The decline of Greek empirical science was influenced by factors such as the shift towards abstract reasoning, social stratification, and the influence of religion, but not directly related to the decrease in the use of slavery, which was not a primary factor in the decline of empirical inquiry. 39) After about 400 B.C., observations of orderliness and regularity in the physical world were taken as evidence that A) philosophy was useless. B) there was more than one deity. C) nature was controlled by divine intelligence. D) nature was capricious and uncontrollable. Answer: C Rationale: Observations of orderliness and regularity in the physical world led some ancient Greeks to conclude that nature was governed by a divine intelligence or rational principle, reflecting the shift towards more abstract and mystical interpretations of the natural world. 40) After 400 B.C., Greek philosophy became A) increasingly abstract, rational, and mystical. B) increasingly involved with questioning the existence of divine intelligence. C) increasingly abstract, rational, and empirical. D) more focused on understanding and controlling nature. Answer: A Rationale: Following the 5th century BCE, Greek philosophy tended towards abstraction, rationalism, and mysticism, with thinkers like Plato and the Neo-Platonists exploring metaphysical concepts and the nature of reality rather than focusing solely on empirical observation and natural explanations. 41) Which of the following may have been partly responsible for the decline of Greek empiricism? A) the Peloponnesian Wars B) the emergence of Christianity C) stratification of society into occupational and status classes D) the Trojan War Answer: C Rationale: The stratification of Greek society into occupational and status classes could have contributed to the decline of Greek empiricism by creating barriers to the free exchange of ideas and knowledge. As society became more stratified, opportunities for intellectual pursuits may have been limited to certain classes, hindering the spread and development of empirical thought. 42) The technical and empirical skills and knowledge of the early Greeks were primarily passed on through A) the mystical philosophers. B) the code of Hammurabi. C) scrupulously documented writings. D) the oral tradition. Answer: D Rationale: The early Greeks primarily passed on their technical and empirical skills and knowledge through the oral tradition. Before the widespread use of writing, knowledge was transmitted orally from generation to generation through practices such as storytelling, teaching, and apprenticeships. 43) For the Greeks, ________ represented the culmination of their philosophical legacy. A) empiricism and rationalism B) the pursuit of pure reason C) the pursuit of hedonism D) empiricism and pragmatism Answer: B Rationale: For the Greeks, the pursuit of pure reason represented the culmination of their philosophical legacy. This is evident in the works of philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, who emphasized the importance of reason and logic in understanding the world and seeking truth. 44) The value of using sense data was rediscovered during A) the French Revolution. B) the post-Platonic period. C) the medieval years. D) the Renaissance. Answer: C Rationale: The value of using sense data was rediscovered during the medieval years, particularly through the efforts of scholars like Thomas Aquinas who integrated empirical observation with theological inquiry, leading to advancements in natural philosophy and early science. 45) The value of empirical science during the medieval age was A) to contradict theological dogma. B) to challenge ancient Greek thought. C) to help illustrate divine workings. D) to question the validity of religious teachings. Answer: C Rationale: During the medieval age, the value of empirical science lay in helping to illustrate the divine workings. Medieval scholars sought to understand the natural world as a reflection of God's creation, leading to the development of natural philosophy and early scientific inquiry within the framework of Christian theology. 46) Some of the theological constraints placed on empiricism by the medievals were weakened by A) church authorities who believed that progress was important. B) the revival of classical and Islamic empirical science in the thirteenth century. C) the influence of Renaissance art. D) the influx of Hindus and Muslims from the Indian subcontinent. Answer: B Rationale: The theological constraints placed on empiricism by the medievals were weakened by the revival of classical and Islamic empirical science in the thirteenth century. The translation and study of ancient Greek and Islamic texts reintroduced empirical methods and rational inquiry, challenging some of the previous theological restrictions on scientific investigation. 47) From the end of the twelfth century, there was a general trend toward A) a decrease in the use of scientific methods. B) learning about phenomena by using scientific methods. C) rational mysticism. D) reliance on intuition and reason to acquire knowledge. Answer: B Rationale: From the end of the twelfth century, there was a general trend toward learning about phenomena by using scientific methods. This period saw the rise of universities and the increased study of natural philosophy, leading to advancements in empirical observation and experimentation. 48) Early empirical science was submerged until A) the French Revolution. B) its rescue by Socrates and Plato. C) the late Renaissance. D) the Magna Carta. Answer: C Rationale: Early empirical science was submerged until the late Renaissance when there was a revival of interest in empirical observation and experimentation. During this period, thinkers like Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei laid the groundwork for modern empirical science. 49) Which of the following events helped science to become established during the thirteenth century? A) the transfer of church authority from Rome to Avignon B) the teachings of Francis Bacon C) the development of medical schools D) an edict from Pope Pius II Answer: C Rationale: The development of medical schools helped science to become established during the thirteenth century by providing institutions for the systematic study of anatomy, physiology, and other medical sciences, fostering empirical observation and experimentation. 50) Which of the following is true? A) Medieval Christianity, whatever its abstract notions, was primarily an empirical and scientific social movement. B) Medieval Christianity preserved and even enhanced empirical science. C) Medieval Christianity totally rejected all empirical science. D) The suppression of Galileo's discoveries is an example of the medieval Christian's complete suppression of science. Answer: B Rationale: Medieval Christianity preserved and even enhanced empirical science. Despite some theological constraints, medieval scholars integrated empirical observation with theological inquiry, leading to advancements in natural philosophy and early science. The suppression of Galileo's discoveries occurred later, during the Renaissance and early modern period, and cannot be solely attributed to medieval Christianity. 51) The emergence of modern science occurred during the A) Bubonic Plague. B) twentieth century. C) fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. D) Industrial Revolution. Answer: C Rationale: The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked the period of significant advancements in science, including the works of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and others, which laid the foundation for modern scientific thought and methodologies. 52) The most basic tenet in medieval thought was that A) the king was the ultimate source of truth. B) the most important way to discover information was by combining rationalism and empiricism. C) the scriptures were the ultimate source of truth. D) the directly observable was most important. Answer: C Rationale: In medieval thought, particularly during the Middle Ages, the scriptures, or religious texts, were considered the ultimate source of truth, guiding all aspects of life including knowledge and morality. 53) The most basic tenet of medieval thought was probably that A) scientific methods were superior to the scriptures. B) truth was attainable by reading animal entrails. C) truth could be discovered by empirical inquiries. D) the ultimate source of truth was to be found in the scriptures. Answer: D Rationale: The medieval worldview was deeply influenced by religious beliefs, where the scriptures were considered the ultimate authority and the source of truth, shaping all aspects of society and knowledge. 54) There were two major constraints on empirical science during the medieval years. These constraints were that science could not contradict A) either the government or the church. B) theological dogma and had to be used in the service of religion. C) theological dogma and had to be used in the service of humanity. D) the government and had to be used in the service of humanity. Answer: B Rationale: In medieval times, scientific inquiry was limited by the requirement that it align with theological doctrines and serve the interests of religion, reflecting the dominance of religious authority over intellectual pursuits. 55) The value of using the senses was rediscovered by A) Francis Bacon and St. Augustine. B) Aldous Huxley and Francis Bacon. C) Louis Pasteur and Ernst Mach. D) Roger Bacon and Thomas Aquinas. Answer: D Rationale: Roger Bacon and Thomas Aquinas emphasized the importance of empirical observation and sensory experience in acquiring knowledge, marking a shift towards a more empirical approach to understanding the world. 56) The concept of mind-body dualism was conceived by A) Marquis de Sade. B) Rene Descartes. C) Francis Bacon. D) Thomas Aquinas. Answer: B Rationale: Rene Descartes proposed the concept of mind-body dualism, suggesting that the mind and body are distinct entities, which had a profound impact on modern philosophy and psychology. 57) About when did modern science emerge? A) the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries B) the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries C) the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries D) the twentieth century Answer: A Rationale: Modern science emerged during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with significant advancements in various fields including astronomy, physics, and biology, leading to the establishment of scientific methodologies and principles. 58) Science achieved independent status as a way of understanding nature by the A) beginning of the eighteenth century. B) beginning of the nineteenth century. C) end of the eighteenth century. D) end of the nineteenth century. Answer: B Rationale: By the beginning of the nineteenth century, science had gained autonomy as a distinct way of understanding nature, separate from theological and philosophical doctrines, laying the groundwork for further scientific progress. 59) The most rapid development in science occurred during A) the end of the twentieth century. B) the Eisenhower presidency. C) the beginning of the twentieth century. D) World War II. Answer: A Rationale: The end of the twentieth century witnessed rapid advancements in science and technology across various fields, including the development of computers, the internet, genetic engineering, and space exploration. 60) Science had achieved an independent status by the beginning of A) the nineteenth century. B) the seventeenth century. C) the Middle Ages. D) the Renaissance. Answer: A Rationale: By the beginning of the nineteenth century, science had established itself as an independent discipline with its own methodologies, theories, and institutions, separate from theological and philosophical frameworks. 61) Science had become an accepted social institution by A) the Renaissance. B) the twentieth century. C) the medieval period. D) the nineteenth century. Answer: B Rationale: Science as an accepted social institution was solidified by the twentieth century, evidenced by the establishment of scientific organizations, funding for research, and widespread recognition of scientific advancements globally. 62) Science is A) primarily a development of the twentieth century. B) alive and well but hidden in laboratories in big universities. C) primarily a recent phenomena. D) not really a recent or modern development. Answer: D Rationale: While scientific methodologies and practices have evolved over centuries, the foundations of scientific inquiry can be traced back to ancient civilizations. Therefore, science is not exclusively a recent or modern development. 63) The view that science and technology are closely linked has fostered the notion that A) science itself is a fairly recent phenomenon. B) science itself is actually an old phenomenon. C) technology is necessary in scientific research. D) technology is better than science. Answer: A Rationale: The close relationship between science and technology has led some to mistakenly believe that science itself is a recent phenomenon, when in fact, scientific inquiry has been ongoing for centuries. 64) Scientists A) indulge their curiosity. B) seldom follow-up their "hunches." C) never question their research. D) have no real goals. Answer: A Rationale: Curiosity is a driving force behind scientific inquiry, leading scientists to explore new hypotheses, conduct experiments, and pursue knowledge in their respective fields. 65) The overriding goal of science A) is to develop more effective medicine. B) is to develop knowledge about the universe. C) is yet to be determined. D) differs from one decade to another as science advances. Answer: B Rationale: The primary goal of science is to systematically acquire knowledge about the natural world, including its laws, mechanisms, and phenomena, contributing to a deeper understanding of the universe. 66) Prediction in science is A) seldom accurate. B) making a "good guess." C) the overriding goal of science. D) rarely attempted. Answer: B Rationale: Prediction in science often involves making educated guesses based on available evidence and theoretical frameworks, allowing scientists to anticipate outcomes and formulate hypotheses for further investigation. 1.5 Psychology 1) Evolutionary theory A) has had little impact on psychological science. B) has profoundly affected psychological science. C) deals with the history of social revolutions. D) is a biological concept that does not apply to psychology. Answer: B Rationale: Evolutionary theory has profoundly influenced psychological science by providing a framework for understanding the adaptive functions of behaviors and cognitive processes in humans and other animals. 2) An evolutionary concept that supports research on animals in order to understand human behavior is A) geological formations. B) psychophysics. C) phylogenetic continuity. D) mind-body dualism. Answer: C Rationale: Phylogenetic continuity is an evolutionary concept that suggests similarities in behavior and cognitive processes across different species, allowing researchers to study animal behavior to gain insights into human behavior. 3) The discipline of psychology is devoted to A) the scientific study of behavior. B) the study of the psyche. C) understanding social systems. D) performing various kinds of psychotherapy. Answer: A Rationale: Psychology is primarily dedicated to the scientific study of behavior, including its cognitive, emotional, and physiological underpinnings, as well as the factors that influence human and animal behavior. 4) The Darwinian concept of natural selection A) was taken directly from the nineteenth century humanitarian movement. B) emphasized individual differences, and later led to psychological testing. C) described the choices that people are free to make when they are not bound by ethics. D) down-played the biological changes that can occur over generations. Answer: B Rationale: The Darwinian concept of natural selection, emphasizing individual differences in reproductive success and survival, laid the groundwork for understanding variation in psychological traits and behaviors, eventually leading to the development of psychological testing and research on individual differences. 5) Which of the following did NOT contribute to the evolution of psychology? A) biology B) astronomy C) physiology D) astrology Answer: D Rationale: Astrology, unlike the other options listed, is not a scientific discipline. While biology, astronomy, and physiology have all contributed valuable insights to psychology, astrology is based on belief systems and does not offer empirical evidence or scientific principles relevant to the field of psychology. 6) Psychology as an independent scientific discipline started in the laboratory of A) Wilhelm Wundt. B) Ernst Weber. C) Ivan Pavlov. D) Sigmund Freud. Answer: A Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt is widely regarded as the founder of experimental psychology. He established the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879, marking the beginning of psychology as an independent scientific discipline. 7) Wilhelm Wundt's work was known as A) structural functionalism. B) structuralism. C) functionalism. D) behaviorism. Answer: B Rationale: Wundt's work was primarily associated with structuralism, which aimed to analyze the basic elements of consciousness through introspection and identify the underlying structure of the mind. 8) The trend in early psychology in America was a movement from A) Gestalt psychology to functionalism. B) behaviorism to structuralism. C) functionalism to structuralism. D) structuralism to functionalism. Answer: D Rationale: Early psychology in America transitioned from structuralism, which focused on the structure of consciousness, to functionalism, which emphasized the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in adapting to the environment. 9) A study focused on the clinical treatment of children would most typically have developed from A) structural functionalism. B) functionalism. C) structuralism. D) Gestalt psychology. Answer: B Rationale: Functionalism, with its emphasis on understanding the purpose and function of behavior, would be more likely to lead to studies focused on clinical treatment, particularly in understanding how children adapt and function in various contexts. 10) Psychology as an independent discipline had its roots in the laboratory of A) Wilhelm Wundt. B) Ernst Mach. C) Sigmund Freud. D) Alfred Binet. Answer: A Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt is credited with establishing the first psychology laboratory, marking the beginning of psychology as an independent scientific discipline. 11) Gestalt psychology focuses on A) specific individual behaviors. B) the whole, which is less than the sum of its parts. C) the whole, which is greater than the sum of its parts. D) analyzing the whole in separate parts. Answer: C Rationale: Gestalt psychology emphasizes the perception of wholes, asserting that the whole is different from the sum of its parts and focusing on understanding how individuals perceive and organize sensory information into meaningful patterns. 12) The chief spokesperson for early behaviorism was A) Edward Hull. B) Francis Galton. C) Edward Watkins. D) John Watson. Answer: D Rationale: John Watson is considered the chief spokesperson for early behaviorism, particularly with his influential work in the early 20th century, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and the rejection of introspection and mentalistic explanations. 13) Behaviorism is the study of A) actions caused by the conscious mind. B) instinctive animal behaviors. C) specific actions. D) unconscious processes causing behavior. Answer: C Rationale: Behaviorism focuses on the study of observable behaviors and the environmental factors that influence them, rather than internal mental processes such as consciousness or unconscious processes. 14) A study of test taking behavior under stressful conditions is most typical of which type of psychology? A) behaviorism B) psychoanalytic C) functional structuralism D) structural functionalism Answer: A Rationale: Behaviorism would be most concerned with studying observable actions and behaviors, such as test-taking behavior under stressful conditions, and examining how environmental factors and past experiences influence these behaviors. 15) Conscious experience, creativity, and personal growth are central ideas in A) humanistic psychology. B) behaviorism. C) psychophysics. D) psychobiology Answer: A Rationale: Humanistic psychology places a strong emphasis on the subjective experiences of individuals, including consciousness, creativity, and personal growth. It focuses on the whole person and their potential for self-actualization, making it the most appropriate option among the provided choices. 16) Humanistic psychology A) was never influential. B) grew out of behaviorism. C) never developed into a "school" of psychology. D) is the major psychotherapeutic model today. Answer: C Rationale: Humanistic psychology did develop into a recognized school of psychology but did not become as dominant or widespread as other schools such as behaviorism or psychoanalysis. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 17) A major concept in Humanistic Psychology is A) social stratification. B) self-actualization. C) the unconscious mind. D) learning. Answer: B Rationale: Self-actualization, the realization of one's potential and the pursuit of personal fulfillment, is a central concept in humanistic psychology, aligning with its focus on individual growth and fulfillment. 18) Cognitive psychology A) now routinely addresses applied issues. B) has no history as an academic discipline. C) focuses on academic research with no possible applied value. D) grew out of nineteenth-century humanism. Answer: A Rationale: Cognitive psychology deals with mental processes such as perception, memory, and problemsolving. Over time, it has increasingly addressed practical issues such as education, therapy, and human-computer interaction, making option A the correct choice. 19) The "school" of psychology that emphasized holistic experience was A) functionalism. B) structuralism. C) Gestalt psychology. D) humanistic psychology. Answer: C Rationale: Gestalt psychology emphasized the importance of considering the whole perceptual experience rather than breaking it down into individual elements, aligning with the notion of holistic experience. 20) The field that studies perception, learning, and memory is A) behaviorism. B) humanistic psychology. C) psychoanalysis. D) cognitive psychology. Answer: D Rationale: Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with mental processes such as perception, memory, and learning, making it the appropriate choice among the options provided. 21) In the early 20th century, a group of people generally barred from higher education were A) Caucasians. B) Protestants. C) women. D) the wealthy. Answer: C Rationale: In the early 20th century, women were often excluded from higher education institutions and faced significant barriers to entry, making option C the correct choice. 22) In the early twentieth century, women A) were generally well accepted as professionals in psychology. B) entered graduate schools in great numbers. C) were discriminated against by university graduate programs. D) earned nearly 35% of the advanced degrees in psychology Answer: C Rationale: Women faced discrimination and were often excluded or discouraged from pursuing higher education, including graduate programs in psychology, making option C the most accurate choice. 23) Edward B. Tichener was the mentor for the first female to earn a Ph.D. degree in psychology. Nevertheless, he A) refused to offer her a job after graduation. B) disagreed with the position of the university to grant her the degree. C) never allowed her to attend his weekly research meetings. D) refused to allow her to teach. Answer: C Rationale: Despite being the mentor for the first female to earn a Ph.D. in psychology, Tichener did not permit her to attend his weekly research meetings, reflecting the gender biases and discrimination prevalent during that time. Therefore, option C is the correct choice. 24) In addition to women, what group experienced heavy discrimination in the early 20th century in psychology graduate schools? A) African Americans B) Chinese C) Mexicans D) None of the above Answer: A Rationale: African Americans experienced heavy discrimination in psychology graduate schools during the early 20th century, facing barriers similar to those encountered by women. This discrimination persisted due to racial segregation and institutionalized racism prevalent in the United States at the time. 25) The groundbreaking work of Kenneth and Mamie Clark heavily influenced the A) developmental theories of Piaget. B) early behavioral treatments of depression. C) development of functionalism in the United States. D) Supreme Court decision ending racial segregation in public schools. Answer: D Rationale: Kenneth and Mamie Clark's research on racial segregation and its psychological effects on children was instrumental in the Supreme Court's decision to end racial segregation in public schools with the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Their work provided empirical evidence of the detrimental impacts of segregation on African American children's self-esteem and academic achievement. 26) The dominant clinical model of psychotherapy in the 1930s and 1940s was A) rational emotive therapy. B) psychoanalysis. C) behaviorism. D) cognitive therapy. Answer: B Rationale: Psychoanalysis, pioneered by Sigmund Freud, was the dominant clinical model of psychotherapy in the 1930s and 1940s. It emphasized exploring unconscious conflicts and childhood experiences to understand and alleviate psychological distress. 27) Which of the following is NOT an example of an effort to integrate ideas from different schools and disciplines? A) behavioral medicine B) behavioral neuroscience C) didactic science D) health psychology Answer: C Rationale: Didactic science refers to a method of teaching rather than an effort to integrate ideas from different schools and disciplines. Behavioral medicine, behavioral neuroscience, and health psychology, on the other hand, represent interdisciplinary fields that integrate concepts from psychology, medicine, biology, and other disciplines to understand health-related behaviors and disorders. 28) ________ precipitated a shift in psychology from an academic discipline to a largely applied field. A) Sigmund Freud B) University Solidarity C) Charles Darwin D) World War II Answer: D Rationale: World War II precipitated a shift in psychology from primarily an academic discipline to a largely applied field. Psychologists played critical roles during the war, leading to increased recognition of the practical applications of psychological principles in areas such as personnel selection, training, and mental health treatment. 29) Most psychologists represent ________ psychology, which integrates many schools, such as behaviorism or Gestalt psychology. A) integrated B) mainstream C) combined D) selected Answer: B Rationale: Most psychologists represent mainstream psychology, which integrates various schools of thought, such as behaviorism, psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, and humanistic psychology, among others. 30) Although psychology had its roots in the natural sciences, it is often considered to be A) one of the seven hub sciences. B) a branch of physics. C) a pseudoscience. D) a physical science. Answer: A Rationale: Although psychology has its roots in the natural sciences, it is often considered one of the seven hub sciences due to its interdisciplinary nature and its connections with other fields such as biology, sociology, anthropology, and neuroscience. 31) ________ uses unscientific methods, theories, assumptions, and conclusions that pretend to be scientific. A) Humanism B) Pseudoscience C) Deuteronomy D) Pragmatism Answer: B Rationale: Pseudoscience refers to practices or beliefs that claim to be scientific but lack empirical evidence, use faulty reasoning, or fail to adhere to scientific principles. These practices often masquerade as legitimate scientific endeavors but lack the rigor and validity of genuine scientific inquiry. 32) Recovered memory therapy is an example of A) breaking down barriers to effective therapeutic change. B) a treatment that was based on pseudoscientific principles. C) a technique that is now widely accepted by psychologists. D) a program that helped millions of psychologically disordered individuals. Answer: B Rationale: Recovered memory therapy, which involves attempting to recover repressed memories of trauma, has been heavily criticized for lacking empirical support and for potentially implanting false memories. It is considered pseudoscientific due to its reliance on unproven assumptions and its potential for causing harm to individuals by creating false memories. 33) In facilitated communication, A) teachers help young children to learn the basics of English grammar. B) individuals called facilitators help deaf individuals to speak more clearly. C) specialists working with autistic individuals try to help those individuals to express feelings and ideas. D) psychologists interpret the underlying meaning of statements made by people with schizophrenia. Answer: C Rationale: Facilitated communication involves a facilitator providing physical support to an individual with communication impairments, such as autism, to help them type or point to letters on a keyboard or other communication device. It aims to assist individuals in expressing their thoughts and feelings but has been heavily criticized for lacking scientific validity and for potentially leading to the facilitator's influence over the messages conveyed. 34) Why were so many professionals fooled into believing that facilitated communication with people who had autism was possible? A) Most were simply following the principles of communication established by early psychologists. B) They failed to be skeptical and entertain other interpretations of the findings. C) They were fooled by people who was masters at deception. D) There was extensive evidence that children with autism had higher level thoughts, and therefore, they naturally believed that those thoughts could be expressed if one was clever enough. Answer: B Rationale: Professionals were misled into believing in facilitated communication with individuals with autism because they neglected to critically evaluate the claims and consider alternative explanations. This failure to apply skepticism allowed them to be misled by the flawed methodology and lack of empirical evidence supporting facilitated communication. 35) The most common practitioners of pseudoscience are A) drug companies. B) research assistants. C) television advertisers. D) All of the above Answer: C Rationale: Television advertisers are the most common practitioners of pseudoscience as they often promote products or ideas using deceptive or unscientific methods to persuade consumers, without substantial empirical evidence to support their claims. Drug companies and research assistants are not typically involved in promoting pseudoscientific claims to the same extent. 36) The primary evidence for pseudoscience is usually A) experimental research. B) high constraint. C) presented in scientific journals. D) anecdotal. Answer: D Rationale: The primary evidence for pseudoscience is typically anecdotal, relying on personal testimonies or individual experiences rather than rigorous scientific experimentation or empirical data. This lack of empirical support undermines the credibility of pseudoscientific claims. 1.6 Ethical Principles 1) The ethics of science and scientific research A) are not mentioned in this text. B) are immensely important. C) are not understood by most scientists. D) are relatively unimportant in psychology. Answer: B Rationale: The ethics of science and scientific research are immensely important as they guide researchers in conducting studies that prioritize the well-being and rights of participants, maintain scientific integrity, and uphold public trust in the scientific community. 2) The authors of your textbook maintain that ethical guidelines for research A) must be learned by every student of science. B) are only a matter of common sense. C) need not be studied. D) do not apply to psychology. Answer: A Rationale: Ethical guidelines for research must be learned by every student of science to ensure that research is conducted responsibly and ethically, protecting the rights and well-being of participants and maintaining the integrity of scientific inquiry. 3) Whose responsibility is it to make sure that research is carried out in an ethical manner. A) the research methods instructors B) the researcher C) the university D) the federal government Answer: B Rationale: It is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure that research is carried out in an ethical manner, adhering to established ethical guidelines, obtaining informed consent from participants, minimizing risks, and ensuring confidentiality and privacy. 4) Ethical principles for research were developed to help guide A) research participants. B) government oversight committees. C) instructors of research methods courses. D) researchers. Answer: D Rationale: Ethical principles for research were developed to help guide researchers in conducting studies that prioritize ethical considerations, protect the rights and well-being of participants, and maintain the integrity and credibility of scientific inquiry. These principles serve as a framework for researchers to navigate ethical dilemmas and make informed decisions throughout the research process. 1.7 Using the Resources of this Text 1) The best way to learn anything is A) through the process of active learning. B) by reading the material carefully. C) by listening carefully to your instructor's lectures. D) through the process of passive learning. Answer: A Rationale: The process of active learning, which involves engaging with the material through activities such as problem-solving, discussion, and application, is widely regarded as the most effective way to learn and retain information. 2) The Student Resource Website A) is thoroughly integrated with the content of the textbook. B) is available to students who purchase a separate subscription. C) can replace the text for those students who want to avoid the cost of the text. D) includes access to several advanced level textbooks. Answer: A Rationale: The Student Resource Website is thoroughly integrated with the content of the textbook, providing additional resources, study aids, and supplementary materials to enhance students' learning experience and comprehension of the material covered in the textbook. 3) Which of the following are included on the Student Resource Website? A) Tutorials on writing research reports in APA style B) Numerous resources for each chapter C) An interactive study guide/lab manual D) All of the above Answer: D Rationale: The Student Resource Website includes a variety of resources for each chapter, such as tutorials on writing research reports in APA style, additional readings, practice quizzes, interactive study guides, and lab manuals, providing students with comprehensive support and reinforcement of key concepts covered in the textbook. Test Bank for Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin 9780205900923, 9780205907694, 9780135705056

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