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Chapter 1 An Overview of Communication 1.1 Multiple Choice Questions 1) Communication is a) the sequential process of inventing, receiving, and understanding messages. b) the interdependent process of sending, receiving, and understanding messages. c) the diverse process of creating, transporting, and accepting verbal symbols. d) the deliberate process of sending, receiving, and comprehending messages. Answer: b Rationale: Communication is an interdependent process because it involves multiple components working together, such as sending, receiving, and understanding messages. It's not just about sending or receiving messages sequentially or deliberately. 2) The Nakamura home is a bustle of activity in the morning. The radio is tuned in so Melanie can hear the traffic report, three of her children are talking together at the breakfast table, and Paul reads aloud the family’s car pool schedule. This is all possible because communication is a a) ongoing, dynamic process. b) linear process. c) chaotic process. d) rigid process. Answer: a Rationale: The situation described indicates ongoing and dynamic interactions among family members, which is characteristic of communication as an ongoing, dynamic process. It involves continuous exchanges and adjustments. 3) Jeannette gets nervous when she has to meet Carrie, her supervisor in her office. However, she feels quite comfortable eating lunch with Carrie in the company’s cafeteria. What condition in the communication model is affecting Jeannette? a) Frame of reference b) Physical setting c) Psychological climate d) Internal noise Answer: b Rationale: The physical setting, in this case, Jeannette's office versus the company cafeteria, affects Jeannette's comfort level and perception, demonstrating how the physical environment can influence communication dynamics. 4) Our diverse backgrounds, families, religion, race, education, experience, ethics, and morals make us all unique from one another. What do these components make up? a) Our personality b) Our real-life experiences c) Our frame of reference d) Our communication qualifications Answer: c Rationale: These components collectively make up our frame of reference, which influences how we perceive and interpret messages, shaping our unique perspectives and communication styles. 5) Julie and Ed are watching a political debate on television. Julie, a Democrat, is appalled at the lack of civility the challenger is showing his opponent. She perceives him as rude and arrogant. Ed, who normally votes Republican, is elated that his choice is self-assured and communicating confidence. Why would Julie and Ed interpret the same behavior so differently? a) Ed and Julie are having difficulty with the psychological climate b) Julie and Ed are using different channels of communication c) Ed is bothered by external noise d) Julie and Ed share different frames of reference Answer: d Rationale: Julie and Ed's different political affiliations and perspectives (frames of reference) lead them to interpret the same behavior differently, illustrating how individual differences influence perception. 6) Communication helps us create communities a) Communication helps us create communities b) Communication conveys and creates information c) Communication forms and strengthens relationships d) Communication creates and maintains our sense of self Answer: a Rationale: Communication is essential for creating communities as it enables people to connect, share ideas, and collaborate, forming the foundation of social groups and societies. 7) Kelly is a son, brother, musician, friend, votes Democratic, is Japanese American, and loves dogs. Andrea is a single mother, has no siblings, is biracial, attends church regularly, has one parent, is a project manager, and loves cats. They view the world very differently because of their a) message. b) context. c) frames of reference. d) physical setting. Answer: c Rationale: Kelly and Andrea view the world differently due to their unique frames of reference, which are influenced by their diverse backgrounds, experiences, and identities. 8) The act of putting thoughts, feelings, or ideas into meaningful symbols is called a) processing. b) decoding. c) symbolizing. d) encoding. Answer: d Rationale: Encoding involves translating thoughts, feelings, or ideas into symbols (e.g., words, gestures) that can be understood by others, enabling communication. 9) Familiar types of mass media such as television, radio, movies, newspapers, magazines, Internet chat rooms, and social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter are examples of a) channels. b) external noise. c) message distractions. d) encoders. Answer: a Rationale: These forms of mass media serve as channels through which information is transmitted to a large audience, demonstrating the role of channels in communication. 10) Attaching meaning to or interpreting another person’s message is called a) encoding. b) decoding. c) symbolizing. d) channeling. Answer: b Rationale: Decoding involves interpreting or attaching meaning to a message sent by another person, completing the communication process by understanding the intended message. 11) Mike and LeeAnn were having an argument, LeeAnn told Mike that he needed to start helping out more with the household chores. Mike rolled his eyes at her and walked out of the room. What is the term used to describe the acts of eye rolling and walking out of the room? a) Discourteous behavior b) Noise c) Feedback d) Message interpretation Answer: c Rationale: Feedback refers to the recipient's response to a message, which can be verbal or nonverbal. Mike's eye rolling and walking out of the room are forms of nonverbal feedback that indicate his reaction to LeeAnn's message. 12) Four years ago, Ilene had a bad experience at a job interview. As a result, each time she is interviewed, Ilene is wracked with anxiety. Bringing her negative feelings about being interviewed with her to each encounter makes the _____ tense. a) physical context b) psychological climate c) philosophical anxiety d) interview process Answer: b Rationale: The psychological climate refers to the emotional atmosphere surrounding a communication encounter. Ilene's anxiety from past experiences affects the psychological climate of her interviews. 13) An example of external noise is a) a fire truck’s siren. b) the ache of a broken arm. c) a hangnail. d) an impending deadline. Answer: a Rationale: External noise refers to physical distractions that interfere with the communication process. A fire truck’s siren is an example of external noise that can disrupt communication. 14) An example of internal noise is a) a crying baby. b) a blaring radio. c) a broken heart. d) a rattling radiator. Answer: c Rationale: Internal noise refers to distractions within a person's mind that can interfere with communication. A broken heart, representing emotional turmoil, is an example of internal noise. 15) In the baby section of a clothing store, Patty notices that clothing made for baby girls are pink with patterns of cute animals and sleeping babies. On the other hand, she notices that clothing made for boys are blue, and patterned with activities such as racing cars and sports equipment. What function of communication is exemplified in these gender stereotypes? a) Communication helps us create communities. b) Communication creates and maintains our sense of self or our identity. c) Communication forms and strengthens relationships. d) Communication provides an opportunity to influence the other person in our relationships. Answer: b Rationale: Gender stereotypes in clothing represent how communication can create and maintain our sense of self or identity by reinforcing societal norms and expectations related to gender. 16) When Samantha makes a mental list of all she must accomplish before lunch, she is taking part in what type of communication? a) Interpersonal communication b) Public communication c) Small group communication d) Intrapersonal communication Answer: d Rationale: Intrapersonal communication refers to communication within oneself, such as self-talk or mental organization of thoughts and tasks. 17) An interaction between only two people is called a) dyadic communication. b) small group communication. c) interpersonal communication. d) public communication. Answer: a Rationale: Dyadic communication refers to communication between two people, emphasizing the direct, one-on-one nature of the interaction. 18) Angela, Casey, Greg, Cassie, Sam, Bridget, Matt, and Ian are participating in a heated debate about which movie they should see this evening. Which type of communication are they illustrating? a) Public communication b) Small group communication c) Intrapersonal communication d) Dyadic communication Answer: b Rationale: Small group communication involves communication among a small number of people, typically in a setting where all can participate actively. 19) Bob is asked to give a planned and organized speech to 50 local police officers about effectively and safely interacting with citizens with autism. This is an example of a) small group communication. b) dyadic communication. c) large group communication. d) public communication Answer: d Rationale: Public communication involves one person speaking to a large audience, such as a speaker addressing a group of listeners. 20) Tracy, a special education teacher, and her friend Aaron, a computer programmer, watch as a child throws a tantrum in a store. Aaron is annoyed at the disruption whereas Tracy is more empathetic. Tracy and Aaron’s reaction to the child’s outburst may be due to their different a) genders. b) interpersonal needs. c) occupations. d) frames of reference. Answer: d Rationale: Tracy and Aaron's different reactions can be attributed to their different frames of reference, which encompass their unique backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives. 1.2 Short Answer Questions 1) This model describes communication as an interdependent process where the speaker and the receiver simultaneously send and receive messages. Answer: Transactional 2) Describe the difference between internal noise and external noise. Answer: Internal noise includes our own thoughts or feelings that prevent us from processing a sender’s message. External noise includes sounds or visual stimuli that draw our attention away from the intended message. Both types of noise distract from clearly processing the message, but in different ways. 3) An informal communication encounter or exchange that occurs between two or more people is Answer: interpersonal communication. 4) Define Small Group Communication. Answer: Small group communication includes interactions with three to eight people. Communication typically occurs as an informal discussion or as a vehicle for problem solving. It is less intimate than dyadic communication but less formal than public communication. 5) Name all nine parts of The Communication Process. Answer: 1. Source 2. Receiver 3. Message 4. Channel 5. Encoding (frame of reference) 6. Decoding (frame of reference) 7. Noise (interference) 8. Feedback 10. Context 6) List questions that you as a communicator can reflect upon as components of your frame of reference. Answer: There are many more aspects to Frame of Reference to discover. Here are a few: Do I have sisters and/or brothers? Am I married? What is my family’s original home in another country? What is my religious background? What is my political party affiliation? What is my ethnic background? How does my gender affect my communication? How old am I? What special interests do I have? 7) _____ is the receiver’s response to the sender’s message and provides information about the way the message is being interpreted. Answer: Feedback 8) The conditions surrounding communication with others are referred to as the _____ of the interaction. Answer: Context 9) Talking to oneself is known as _____ communication. Answer: intrapersonal 10) Why do we communicate? Name three of the five ways communication functions specifically. Answer: Communication creates our sense of self and our identity. It also helps us maintain that sense of self and identity. Communication helps us create communities outside of geographic boundaries because we share meaning. Communication forms and strengthens relationships with friends, family, and coworkers. Communication helps us with our ability to influence other people. Communication conveys and creates information. 1.3 True/False Questions 1) Estella and Sandy are studying for their Communication exam in the student lounge next to a couch of noisy students. Estella’s inability to concentrate on her studies is due to external noise. Answer: True Rationale: External noise refers to distractions from the environment that interfere with the communication process. In this scenario, the noisy students near Estella and Sandy are creating external noise that is affecting Estella's ability to concentrate. 2) Our frame of reference allows us to create and interpret messages. Answer: True Rationale: Our frame of reference includes our beliefs, values, experiences, and cultural background, which influence how we create and interpret messages. It shapes our understanding and perception of communication. 3) Decoding is the process of putting thoughts, ideas, or feelings into meaningful symbols that another person can understand. Answer: False Rationale: Decoding is the process of interpreting or understanding the meaning of symbols or messages received from others. Encoding is the process of putting thoughts, ideas, or feelings into meaningful symbols for communication. 4) People who text cannot communicate if they don’t know what the symbols mean. For example, LOL or TMI means nothing to a person who does not understand the shared meanings of those special symbols within the text messaging community. Answer: True Rationale: Communication requires shared understanding of symbols and meanings. Text messaging uses abbreviations and symbols that are meaningful within the text messaging community, but may not be understood by others who are not familiar with them. 5) Dyadic communication is usually informal in nature. Interviews are the exception to that rule. Answer: True Rationale: Dyadic communication refers to communication between two people and can be informal in many contexts. However, interviews are a formal type of dyadic communication where one person typically has a more structured role (interviewer) and the other person responds (interviewee). 6) If we intentionally do not communicate when we know we should, we may be acting unethically. Answer: True Rationale: Effective communication is often considered a moral obligation, especially in situations where not communicating may cause harm or lead to misunderstandings. Intentionally withholding communication when necessary can be seen as unethical. 7) Alex asks her family several questions about the weather, nearby restaurants, and kinds of shopping available for their upcoming trip to Michigan; they are engaging in intrapersonal communication. Answer: False Rationale: Intrapersonal communication refers to communication within oneself. In this scenario, Alex is engaging in interpersonal communication by asking her family members questions and receiving responses from them. 8) Communication is an ongoing, dynamic process in which we are constantly engaged. Answer: True Rationale: Communication is a continuous process that occurs in various forms and settings. It involves sending, receiving, and interpreting messages, and it is a fundamental part of human interaction. 9) The only time we do not communicate is when we are sleeping. Answer: False Rationale: Communication can occur through nonverbal cues, even when we are not actively speaking. Additionally, communication can be internal (intrapersonal) and occur within our own minds, such as when we think or reflect. 10) Tracey has not spoken to Pete in three days because he forgot their wedding anniversary. Her actions do not count as communication. Answer: False Rationale: Communication can occur through actions or inactions, as well as through verbal and nonverbal means. Tracey's decision not to speak to Pete is a form of communication that conveys her feelings or message to him. 11) Leah, a pharmacy technician, is speaking to a class of 20 about prescription forgeries. This interaction is considered small group communication. Answer: False Rationale: Small group communication typically involves interactions among a small number of people who are actively participating in the communication process. In this scenario, Leah is engaging in public communication by addressing a larger group (the class). 12) With the advent of new technological advances, communication has become easier, but it has also created new communication problems like “bad manners” in email communication. Answer: True Rationale: Technological advances have made communication more convenient and accessible, but they have also introduced new challenges, such as issues related to etiquette and manners in digital communication. 13) If a verbal message is delivered in an articulate and precise manner, then the physical setting is not important to how the message is received. Answer: False Rationale: While delivering a message articulately and precisely is important, the physical setting can still impact how the message is received. Factors such as noise, distractions, and comfort can influence communication effectiveness. 14) Communication helps us create communities. Answer: True Rationale: Communication is essential for creating and maintaining social connections and communities. It allows individuals to share ideas, beliefs, and values, fostering a sense of belonging and collective identity. 15) Communication hinders the ability to bridge gaps between people and is an obstacle to forming common ground. Answer: False Rationale: Communication is a fundamental tool for bridging gaps between people and forming common ground. It allows individuals to understand each other's perspectives, negotiate differences, and build relationships based on mutual understanding. 1.4 Matching Questions For the questions that follow, match the word or phrase with its definition. a) Receiver’s response to the sender’s message b) Vehicle by which the message is communicated from the source to the receiver c) Allows us to create and interpret messages d) Conditions surrounding communication e) Our unique view of the world f) Process of interpreting or attaching meaning to another’s message g) The person who creates and sends a message h) The person to whom the message is sent i) Thought, feeling, or action sent from the source to the receiver j) Process of putting thoughts, ideas, or feelings into symbols that another person can understand k) Unintended stimulus that draws attention away from message 1) Channel 2) Context 3) Decoding 4) Encoding 5) Feedback 6) Message 7) Noise 8) Source 9) Receiver 10) Frame of reference Answers: 1) b 2) d 3) f 4) j 5) a 6) i 7) k 8) g 9) h 10) e 1.5 Essay Questions 1) Discuss one positive and one negative aspect of technology’s influence on how we communicate with each other. Answer: Technology is affordable for most people, and makes communication easy and immediate. Technology makes it easy to create and maintain communities because we have such easy access to our friends, family, and acquaintances through devices like cellular or smart phones. A downfall to having this technology at our fingertips is our messages can be misinterpreted if we are not careful. Too much dependency on our cell phones can lead to Nomophobia, a fear of being out of mobile phone contact. 2) Describe two ways nonverbal communication affects the communication model. Use examples. Answer: Nonverbal communication plays two roles in the communication model. First, the receiver of a message gives the sender feedback using nonverbal communication. For example, in a conversation, an enthusiastic nod of the head or a yawn can communicate to the sender whether the receiver is interested or bored. Next, nonverbal communication may act as noise, interfering with a person’s ability to listen to another’s message. For example, a bystander with loud clothing, an unusual hairstyle, or the movement of drumming fingers can distract the receiver from listening and being completely engaged in an interaction. 3) List the components of the communication process and explain how these parts play a role in making communication dynamic, changing from one setting to the next. Answer: The different components of the communication process include source, receiver, message, channel, feedback, context, encoding, decoding, noise, and frame of reference. Communication is dynamic primarily because each participant in the communication experience encodes and decodes the message based on their unique view of the world, their frame of reference. The situation changes with the context of each interaction, which is also affected by the frame of reference. Each source and receiver will have his or her own frame of reference, and will encode, decode, and provide feedback based on that frame. Context will affect the ability to accurately listen to and interpret the source message and/or receive feedback. All these variables make the communication process dynamic. 4) Describe how communication forms and strengthens relationships. Answer: Through communication we form human bonds that, in turn, form our friendships, families, and work relationships. We fall in love using communication. We solve problems at work by communicating with co-workers, and we create lasting friendships by sharing stories, new experiences, and being supportive of one another. It is through communication that we share our emotions and feelings. 5) Compare and contrast the different types of communication. Answer: Intrapersonal communication is communication with ourselves. There are two levels to interpersonal communication, which is the informal exchange between two or more people. First, dyadic communication occurs between two people only, whereas small group communication occurs between three to eight people. Public communication is more formal and involves an individual sharing of information with a large group or audience. The type of communication used depends on the situation. For example, a man who is talking to himself about how to end a relationship is engaged in intrapersonal communication. However, if the person he is breaking up with enters the room and begins speaking with him, then the type of communication changes to interpersonal/dyadic communication. Test Bank for Communication: Embracing Difference Daniel M. Dunn, Lisa J. Goodnight 9780205943661, 9780205865635, 9781269602877

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