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This Document Contains Chapters 9 to 10 Chapter 9: Project Human Resource Management True/False 1. Extrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment. Answer: False Rationale: Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty. 2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. Answer: True Rationale: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. 3. Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy of needs is not necessarily a prerequisite for the levels above. Answer: False Rationale: Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy is a prerequisite for the levels above. For example, a person cannot consider self-actualization without first addressing basic needs of security and safety. 4. According to Herzberg, hygiene factors such as larger salaries, more supervision, or a more attractive work environment would motivate workers to do more if present. Answer: False Rationale: According to Herzberg, motivators such as larger salaries, more supervision, or a more attractive work environment would motivate workers to do more if present. He referred to factors that cause job satisfaction as motivators and factors that could cause dissatisfaction as hygiene factors. 5. People who need institutional power or social power want to organize others to further the goals of the organization. Answer: True Rationale: People who need institutional power or social power want to organize others to further the goals of the organization. 6. Managers who believe in Theory Y assume that workers dislike and avoid work if possible, so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to get workers to make adequate efforts to meet objectives. Answer: False Rationale: People who believe in Theory X assume that workers dislike and avoid work if possible, so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to have workers make adequate efforts to meet objectives. They assume that the average worker wants to be directed and prefers to avoid responsibility, has little ambition, and wants security above all else. 7. Assignment, budget, promotion, money, and penalty influence bases are automatically available to project managers as part of their position. Answer: False Rationale: Top management grants authority to the project manager. However, assignment, budget, promotion, money, and penalty influence bases are not automatically available to project managers as part of their position. 8. Thamhain and Wilemon found that when project managers used work challenge and expertise to influence people, projects were more likely to succeed. Answer: True Rationale: Thamhain and Wilemon found that projects were more likely to fail when project managers relied too heavily on using authority, money, or penalty to influence people. When project managers used work challenge and expertise to influence people, projects were more likely to succeed. 9. Legitimate power involves using personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their behavior. Answer: False Rationale: Legitimate power is getting people to do things based on a position of authority. This type of power is similar to the authority basis of influence. 10. According to Covey, project managers must use a win/lose approach in making decisions. Answer: False Rationale: Project managers should strive to use a win/win approach in making decisions, but in competitive situations they sometimes must use a win/lose paradigm. 11. A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of the project as described in the OBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the WBS. Answer: False Rationale: A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) maps the work of the project, as described in the WBS, to the people responsible for performing the work, as described in the OBS. 12. A RAM is used only to assign detailed work activities. Answer: False Rationale: In addition to using a RAM to assign detailed work activities, you can use it to define general roles and responsibilities on projects. This type of RAM can include the stakeholders in the project. 13. A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to and taken off the project team. Answer: True Rationale: A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to the project team and taken off it. The level of detail may vary based on the type of project. 14. Resource leveling results in fewer problems for project personnel and accounting departments. Answer: True Rationale: Resource leveling results in fewer problems for project personnel and accounting departments. Increasing and decreasing labor levels and human resources often produce additional work and confusion. 15. In the Tuckman model, storming occurs when team members have different opinions for how the team should operate. Answer: True Rationale: In the Tuckman model, storming occurs when team members have different opinions for how the team should operate. People test each other, and there is often conflict within the team. 16. The first dimension of psychological type in the MBTI signifies whether people draw their energy from other people (extroverts) or from inside themselves (introverts). Answer: True Rationale: The first dimension of psychological type in the MBTI signifies whether people draw their energy from other people (extroverts) or from inside themselves (introverts). 17. In the Social Styles Profile team building activity, drivers are reactive and people-oriented. Answer: False Rationale: Drivers are proactive and task-oriented. They are firmly rooted in the present, and they strive for action. 18. The forcing mode is one in which the project manager deemphasizes or avoids areas of differences and emphasizes areas of agreement. Answer: False Rationale: The smoothing mode is one in which the project manager deemphasizes or avoids areas of differences and emphasizes areas of agreement. This approach is also called accommodating, and it is best used when the relationship is of high importance and the task is of low importance. 19. Project managers must try to avoid conflict at all costs as all conflict within groups is bad. Answer: False Rationale: Project managers must also realize that not all conflict is bad. Conflict often produces important results, such as new ideas, better alternatives, and motivation to work harder and more collaboratively. 20. Microsoft Project 2010 does not lend itself to project human resource management. Answer: False Rationale: Many people do not realize that Project 2010 provides a variety of human resource management tools, some of which include assigning and tracking resources, resource leveling, resource usage reports, overallocated resource reports, and to-do lists. Multiple Choice 1. _____ involves assigning the needed personnel to work on the project. A. Planning human resource management B. Developing the project team C. Acquiring the project team D. Managing the project team Answer: C Rationale: Acquiring the project team involves assigning the needed personnel to work on the project. Key outputs of this process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project management plan updates. 2. Key outputs of _____ process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project management plan updates. A. managing the project team B. acquiring the project team C. developing the project team D. planning the human resource plan Answer: B Rationale: Acquiring the project team involves assigning the needed personnel to work on the project. Key outputs of this process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project management plan updates. 3. _____ involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance. A. Developing the human resource plan B. Developing the project team C. Acquiring the project team D. Managing the project team Answer: B Rationale: Developing the project team involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance. 4. The main outputs of the _____ process are team performance assessments and enterprise environmental factors updates. A. managing the project team B. acquiring the project team C. developing the project team D. human resource planning Answer: C Rationale: Developing the project team involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance. The main outputs of this process are team performance assessments and enterprise environmental factors updates. 5. _____ involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing timely feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance. A. Developing the human resource plan B. Developing the project team C. Acquiring the project team D. Managing the project team Answer: D Rationale: Managing the project team involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing timely feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance. 6. The acquiring of the project team is a subprocess associated with the _____ process of project human resource management. A. executing B. controlling and monitoring C. planning D. initiating Answer: A Rationale: The acquiring of the project team is a subprocess associated with the executing process of project human resource management. 7. _____ a highly respected psychologist, rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology and proposed the hierarchy of needs theory. A. Sigmund Freud B. Abraham Maslow C. Carl Jung D. Philip Zimbardo Answer: B Rationale: Abraham Maslow, a highly respected psychologist who rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology in the 1950s, is best known for developing a hierarchy of needs. 8. At the bottom of Maslow’s structure are _____ needs. A. esteem B. self-actualization C. physiological D. social Answer: C Rationale: At the bottom of the pyramid structure of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are physiological needs. Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs guide behavior. 9. _____ is at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. A. Esteem B. Self-actualization C. Physiological D. Social Answer: B Rationale: Self actualization is at the top of Maslow’s structure. Self-actualized people are problem-focused, have an appreciation for life, are concerned about personal growth, and are able to have peak experiences. 10. Recognizing an employee as the “Star Performer of the Month” would be satisfying the _____ need of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. A. esteem B. self-actualization C. physiological D. safety Answer: A Rationale: Esteem needs include recognition, prestige, and status. 11. The bottom four needs in Maslow’s structure are referred to as _____ needs. A. self-actualization B. deficiency C. safety D. growth Answer: B Rationale: The bottom four needs in Maslow’s hierarchy, physiological, safety, social, and esteem needs, are referred to as deficiency needs, and the highest level, self-actualization, is considered a growth need. 12. The highest level of needs in Maslow’s structure is referred to as a _____ need. A. deficiency B. growth C. safety D. physiological Answer: B Rationale: The bottom four needs in Maslow’s hierarchy, physiological, safety, social, and esteem needs, are referred to as deficiency needs, and the highest level, self-actualization, is considered a growth need. 13. _____ is best known for distinguishing between motivational factors and hygiene factors when considering motivation in work settings. A. Frederick Herzberg B. David McClelland C. Abraham Maslow D. Douglas McGregor Answer: A Rationale: Frederick Herzberg is best known for distinguishing between motivational factors and hygiene factors when considering motivation in work settings. He referred to factors that cause job satisfaction as motivators and factors that could cause dissatisfaction as hygiene factors. 14. According to Herzberg, which of the following is a motivational factor? A. Recognition B. Salary C. Training D. Health benefits Answer: A Rationale: Frederick Herzberg is best known for distinguishing between motivational factors and hygiene factors when considering motivation in work settings. He referred to factors that cause job satisfaction as motivators and factors that could cause dissatisfaction as hygiene factors. 15. People with a high need for _____ seek to excel and tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations to improve their chances for achieving something worthwhile. A. affiliation B. security C. power D. achievement Answer: D Rationale: People who have a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel, and tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations to improve their chances for achieving something worthwhile. Achievers need regular feedback and often prefer to work alone or with other high achievers. 16. According to McClelland’s acquired-needs theory, people with a high need for _____ desire harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others. A. affiliation B. self-actualization C. power D. achievement Answer: A Rationale: People with a high need for affiliation (nAff) desire harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group and prefer work that involves significant personal interaction. 17. According to McClelland’s acquired-needs theory, people who need personal _____ want to direct others and can be seen as bossy. A. affiliation B. advancement C. power D. achievement Answer: C Rationale: People with a need for power (nPow) desire either personal power or institutional power. People who need personal power want to direct others and can be seen as bossy. 18. The _____ presents subjects with a series of ambiguous pictures and asks them to develop a spontaneous story for each picture, assuming they will project their own needs into the story. A. RAM B. MBTI C. TAT D. RACI Answer: C Rationale: The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a tool to measure the individual needs of different people using McClelland’s categories. The TAT presents subjects with a series of ambiguous pictures and asks them to develop a spontaneous story for each picture, assuming they will project their own needs into the story. 19. _____ is best known for developing Theory X and Theory Y. A. Frederick Herzberg B. David McClelland C. Abraham Maslow D. Douglas McGregor Answer: D Rationale: Douglas McGregor was one of the great popularisers of a human relations approach to management, and he is best known for developing Theory X and Theory Y. 20. Managers who follow _____ assume that the average worker wants to be directed and prefers to avoid responsibility. A. Theory Z B. Theory X C. Theory Y D. Theory K Answer: B Rationale: People who believe in Theory X assume that workers dislike and avoid work if possible, so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to have workers make adequate efforts to meet objectives. They assume that the average worker wants to be directed and prefers to avoid responsibility, has little ambition, and wants security above all else. 21. _____ emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization, and the need for continuous training of workers. A. Theory W B. Theory X C. Theory Y D. Theory Z Answer: D Rationale: Theory Z workers, it is assumed, can be trusted to do their jobs to their utmost ability, as long as management can be trusted to support them and look out for their wellbeing. Theory Z emphasizes job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization, and the need for continuous training of workers. 22. According to Thamhain and Wilemon, _____ is the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders. A. authority B. achievement C. expertise D. self-actualization Answer: A Rationale: According to Thamhain and Wilemon, authority is the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders. 23. According to Thamhain and Wilemon, _____ is the ability to improve a worker’s position. A. penalty B. assignment C. expertise D. promotion Answer: D Rationale: According to Thamhain and Wilemon, promotion is the ability to improve a worker’s position. 24. _____ involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they do not want to do. A. Legitimate power B. Coercive power C. Reward power D. Referent power Answer: B Rationale: Coercive power involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they do not want to do. For example, a project manager can threaten to fire workers or subcontractors to try to get them to change their behavior. 25. _____ involves using incentives to induce people to do things. A. Legitimate power B. Coercive power C. Reward power D. Referent power Answer: C Rationale: Reward power involves using incentives to induce people to do things. Rewards can include money, status, recognition, promotions, and special work assignments. 26. _____ is based on an individual’s personal charisma. A. Legitimate power B. Coercive power C. Reward power D. Referent power Answer: D Rationale: Referent power is based on a person’s own charisma. People who have referent power are held in very high regard; others will do what they say based on that regard. 27. _____ refers to matching certain behaviors of the other person. A. Empathic listening B. Rapport C. Synergy D. Mirroring Answer: D Rationale: Mirroring is matching certain behaviors of the other person. People tend to like others who are like themselves, and mirroring helps you take on some of the other person’s characteristics. 28. The first step in the framework for defining and assigning work is _____. A. defining how the work will be accomplished B. breaking down the work into manageable elements C. finalizing the project requirements D. assigning work responsibilities Answer: C Rationale: The first step in the framework for defining and assigning work is finalizing the project requirements. 29. A(n) _____ is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time. A. responsibility assignment matrix B. resource histogram C. RACI charts D. organizational breakdown structure Answer: B Rationale: The staffing management plan often includes a resource histogram, which is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time. 30. _____ refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific time periods. A. Resource loading B. Resource levelling C. Resource histogram D. Resource logs Answer: A Rationale: Resource loading refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific time periods. It helps project managers understand the demands of a project on the organization’s resources and on individual people’s schedules. 31. _____ is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks. A. Resource loading B. Resource levelling C. Resource allocation D. Resource histogram Answer: B Rationale: Resource levelling is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks. It is a form of network analysis in which resource management concerns drive scheduling decisions (start and finish dates). The main purpose of resource levelling is to create a smoother distribution of resource usage. 32. In the Tuckman model, _____ occurs as team members have different opinions as to how the team should operate. A. performing B. norming C. forming D. storming Answer: D Rationale: Storming occurs when team members have different opinions for how the team should operate. People test each other, and there is often conflict within the team. 33. In the Tuckman model, _____ occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team goals, rather than working on team process. A. performing B. norming C. forming D. storming Answer: A Rationale: Performing occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team’s goals rather than working on team process. Relationships are settled, and team members are likely to build loyalty towards each other. 34. In the MBTI, the _____ dimension relates to the manner in which you gather information. A. Extrovert/Introvert B. Thinking/Feeling C. Judgment/Perception D. Sensation/Intuition Answer: D Rationale: In the MBTI, the Sensation/Intuition dimension relates to the manner in which you gather information. Sensation (or Sensing) type people take in facts, details, and reality and describe themselves as practical. Intuitive type people are imaginative, ingenious, and attentive to hunches or intuition. They describe themselves as innovative and conceptual. 35. Psychologist David Merril describes _____ as reactive and task-oriented. A. “Expressives” B. “Drivers” C. “Analyticals” D. “Amiables” Answer: C Rationale: Analyticals are reactive and task-oriented. They are past-oriented and strong thinkers. Adjectives to describe analyticals include critical, indecisive, stuffy, picky, moralistic, industrious, persistent, serious, expecting, and orderly. 36. According to Blake and Mouton, project managers who use the _____ method use a give-and take-approach to resolving conflicts. A. smoothing B. forcing C. confrontation D. compromise Answer: D Rationale: With the compromise mode, project managers use a give-and-take approach to resolving conflicts. They bargain and search for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all the parties in a dispute. 37. According to Lencioni, which of the following qualities is present in organizations that succeed? A. Commitment B. Autonomy C. Accountability D. Teamwork Answer: D Rationale: According to Patrick Leniconi, “Teamwork remains the one sustainable competitive advantage that has been largely untapped.. teamwork is almost always lacking within organizations that fail, and often present within those that succeed.” Completion 1. _____ issues that affect how people work and how well they work include motivation, influence and power, and effectiveness. Answer: Psychosocial 2. _____ causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty. Answer: Extrinsic motivation 3. According to Maslow, only after meeting _____ needs can individuals act upon growth needs. Answer: deficiency 4. Herzberg called factors that cause job satisfaction _____. Answer: motivators 5. _____ should receive frequent performance feedback, and although money is not an important motivator to them, it is an effective form of feedback. Answer: Achievers 6. The _____ is a tool to measure the individual needs of different people using McClelland’s categories. Answer: TAT Thematic Apperception Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test 7. Managers who believe in McGregor’s _____ assume that individuals do not inherently dislike work, but consider it as natural as play or rest. Answer: Theory Y 8. _____ is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do. Answer: Power 9. _____ power is getting people to do things based on a position of authority. Answer: Legitimate 10. _____ is the concept that the whole is equal to more than the sum of its parts. Answer: Synergy 11. Covey, like Maslow, believes that people have the ability to be _____ and choose their responses to different situations. Answer: proactive 12. _____ is listening with the intent to understand. Answer: Empathic listening 13. _____ is a relation of harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity and is important for communication. Answer: Rapport 14. _____ fill in for project managers in their absence and assist them as needed. Answer: Deputy project managers 15. A(n) _____ or draft contract often provides the basis for defining and finalizing work requirements. Answer: RFP Request for Proposal Request for Proposal (RFP) RFP (Request for Proposal) 16. The _____ allocates work to responsible and performing organizations, teams, or individuals, depending on the desired level of detail. Answer: RAM responsibility assignment matrix responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) RAM (responsibility assignment matrix) 17. A(n) _____ is a specific type of organizational chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for which work items. Answer: OBS organizational breakdown structure organizational breakdown structure (OBS) OBS (organizational breakdown structure) 18. _____ means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time. Answer: Overallocation 19. Resource _____ aims to minimize period-by-period variations in resource loading by shifting tasks within their slack allowances. Answer: leveling 20. In the Tuckman model, _____ involves the break-up of the team after it successfully reaches its goals and completes the work. Answer: adjourning 21. In the DISC profile, the letter “S” represents _____. Answer: steadiness 22. According to Blake and Mouton, project managers who use the _____ mode retreat from an actual or potential disagreement. Answer: withdrawal Essay 1. Briefly describe the four processes involved in human resource management. Answer: Planning human resource management involves identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. The main output of this process is a human resource plan. Acquiring the project team involves assigning the needed personnel to work on the project. Key outputs of this process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project management plan updates. Developing the project team involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance. Team-building skills are often a challenge for many project managers. The main outputs of this process are team performance assessments and enterprise environmental factors updates. Managing the project team involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing timely feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance. Outputs of this process include change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, enterprise environmental factors updates, and organizational process assets updates. 2. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. How does it relate to information technology projects? Answer: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs guide behavior. Once safety needs are satisfied, social needs come to the forefront, and so on up the hierarchy. The order of these needs and their relative sizes in the pyramid are significant. Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy is a prerequisite for the levels above. For example, it is not possible for a person to consider self-actualization if he or she has not addressed basic needs concerning security and safety. Once a particular need is satisfied, however, it no longer serves as a potent motivator of behavior. The bottom four needs in Maslow’s hierarchy—physiological, safety, social, and esteem needs—are referred to as deficiency needs, and the highest level, self-actualization, is considered a growth need. Only after meeting deficiency needs can individuals act upon growth needs. Self-actualized people are problem-focused, have an appreciation for life, are concerned about personal growth, and have the ability to have peak experience. Most people working on an information technology project will probably have their basic physiological and safety needs met. If someone has a sudden medical emergency or is laid off from work, however, physiological and safety needs will move to the forefront. To motivate project team members, the project manager needs to understand each person’s motivation, especially with regard to social, esteem, and self-actualization or growth needs. Team members new to a company and city might be motivated by social needs. To address social needs, some companies organize gatherings and social events for new workers. Other project members may find these events to be an invasion of personal time they would rather spend with their friends and family or working on an advanced degree. 3. What are the five main types of power? Briefly describe each type. Answer: Coercive power involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they do not want to do. This type of power is similar to Thamhain’s and Wilemon’s influence category called penalty. For example, a project manager can threaten to fire workers or subcontractors to try to get them to change their behavior. If the project manager really has the power to fire people, he or she could follow through on the threat. Recall, however, that influencing using penalties is correlated with unsuccessful projects. Still, coercive power can be very effective in stopping negative behavior. Legitimate power is getting people to do things based on a position of authority. This type of power is similar to the authority basis of influence. If top management gives project managers organizational authority, project managers can use legitimate power in several situations. They can make key decisions without involving the project team, for example. Overemphasis of legitimate power or authority also correlates with project failure. Expert power involves using personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their behavior. If people perceive that project managers are experts in certain situations, they will follow their suggestions. For example, if a project manager has expertise in working with a particular information technology supplier and their products, the project team will be more likely to follow the project manager’s suggestions on how to work with that vendor and its products. Reward power involves using incentives to induce people to do things. Rewards can include money, status, recognition, promotions, special work assignments, or other means of rewarding someone for desired behavior. Many motivation theorists suggest that only certain types of rewards, such as work challenge, achievement, and recognition, truly induce people to change their behavior or work hard. Referent power is based on an individual’s personal charisma. People hold someone with referent power in very high regard and will do what they say based on their regard for the person. People such as Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, and Bill Clinton had referent power. Very few people possess the natural charisma that underlies referent power. 4. What is a staffing management plan? Answer: A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to the project team and taken off it. The level of detail may vary based on the type of project. For example, if an IT project is expected to need 100 people on average over a year, the staffing management plan would describe the types of people needed to work on the project, such as Java programmers, business analysts, and technical writers, and the number of each type of person needed each month. The plan would also describe how these resources would be acquired, trained, rewarded, and reassigned after the project. All of these issues are important to meeting the needs of the project, the employees, and the organization. 5. What are the five stages of team development according to the Tuckman model? Briefly describe each stage. Answer: 1. Forming involves the introduction of team members, either at the initiation of the team, or as new members are introduced. This stage is necessary, but little work is actually achieved. 2. Storming occurs as team members have different opinions as to how the team should operate. People test each other, and there is often conflict within the team. 3. Norming is achieved when team members have developed a common working method, and cooperation and collaboration replace the conflict and mistrust of the previous phase. 4. Performing occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team goals, rather than working on team process. Relationships are settled, and team members are likely to build loyalty towards each other. At this stage, the team is able to manage tasks that are more complex and cope with greater change. 5. Adjourning involves the break-up of the team after they successfully reach their goals and complete the work. Chapter 10: Project Communications Management True/False 1. Project members should either have strong technical skills or soft skills. Answer: False Rationale: For projects to succeed, every project team member needs both types of skills, and needs to develop them continuously through formal education and on-the-job training. 2. Adding more people to a project that is falling behind schedule often causes more setbacks because of the increased complexity of communications. Answer: True Rationale: Many top managers think they can just add more people to a project that is falling behind schedule. Unfortunately, this approach often causes more setbacks because of the increased complexity of communications. 3. People have different personality traits that often affect their communication preferences. Answer: True Rationale: It is important to understand individual and group preferences for communications. People have different personality traits that often affect their communication preferences. 4. Rarely does the receiver interpret a message exactly as the sender intended. Answer: True Rationale: The receiver of information rarely interprets it exactly as the sender intended. Therefore, it is important to provide several methods of communication, such as written words, visuals, videos, and meetings, and an environment that promotes open dialogue. 5. Geographic location and cultural background have no impact on communications. Answer: False Rationale: Geographic location and cultural background affect the complexity of project communications. If project stakeholders are in different countries, it is often difficult or impossible to schedule times for two-way communication during normal working hours. 6. It is extremely important to document any changes in technical specifications that might affect product performance. Answer: True Rationale: Project communication management involves the inclusion of detailed technical information that affects critical performance features of products or services developed in a project. It is even more important to document any changes in technical specifications that might affect product performance. 7. Communication becomes simpler when you increase the number of team members. Answer: False Rationale: An important aspect of communications is the number of people involved in a project. As the number increases, the complexity of communication increases because there are more channels or pathways through which people can communicate. Communication becomes more complex as you increase team size. 8. In a project, communicating badly exponentially increases the possibility of making mistakes. Answer: True Rationale: Communicating badly exponentially increases the possibility of making fatal mistakes. A large-scale project has a lot of moving parts, which makes it that much easier to break down. Communication is the oil that keeps everything working properly. 9. The communications management plan varies with the needs of the project. Answer: True Rationale: Because communication is so important on projects, every project should include a communications management plan—a document that guides project communications. The communications management plan varies with the needs of the project. 10. Most WBSs include a section for project communications to ensure that reporting key information is a project deliverable. Answer: True Rationale: Information about the content of essential project communications comes from the work breakdown structure (WBS). In fact, many WBSs include a section for project communications to ensure that reporting key information is a project deliverable. 11. Project managers must assess the needs of the organization, the project, and individuals in determining which communication medium to use, and when. Answer: True Rationale: Project managers must assess the needs of the organization, the project, and individuals in determining which communication medium to use, and when. They must also be aware of new technologies that can enhance communications and collaboration. 12. Status reports can take various formats depending on the stakeholders’ needs. Answer: True Rationale: Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time. Status reports can take various formats depending on the stakeholders’ needs. 13. A facilitator can help the team solve any communication problems. Answer: True Rationale: It is often beneficial to have a facilitator from outside the project team assess how well communications are working. A facilitator can also help the team solve any communication problems. 14. Good information technology project managers must have strong technical and communication skills. Answer: True Rationale: Most IT professionals enter the field because of their technical skills. Most find, however, that communication skills are the key to advancing in their careers, especially if they want to become good project managers. 15. Do not have a meeting if there is a better way of achieving the objective at hand. Answer: True Rationale: One of the guidelines for conducting meetings is to determine if a meeting can be avoided. Do not have a meeting if there is a better way of achieving the objective at hand. 16. Minutes must be a comprehensive report of the meeting that was scheduled. Answer: False Rationale: Minutes should be short and focus on the crucial decisions and action items from the meeting. 17. The email is the most appropriate medium for all types of communications. Answer: False Rationale: The e-mail is not an appropriate medium for all types of communications. It not appropriate for assessing commitment, building consensus, mediating a conflict, resolving a misunderstanding, making an ironic statement, conveying a reference document, reinforcing one’s authority, or maintaining confidentiality. 18. The project summary report is a summary of all the lessons-learned reports. Answer: False Rationale: The project manager and project team members should all prepare a lessons-learned report —a reflective statement that documents important information they have learned from working on the project. The project manager often combines information from all of the lessons-learned reports into a project summary report. 19. Improving an organization’s ability to communication is an easy process. Answer: False Rationale: Improving an organization’s ability to communicate requires a cultural change in an organization that takes a lot of time, hard work, and patience. Multiple Choice 1. _____ involves determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders. A. Strategic planning B. Systems management C. Identifying stakeholders D. Planning communications Answer: D Rationale: Planning communications management involves determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders. Who needs what information? When will they need it? How will the information be given to them? 2. The output of the _____ process is a communications management plan. A. managing communications B. reporting performance C. controlling communications D. planning communications Answer: D Rationale: Planning communications management involves determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders. The outputs of this process include a communications management plan and project documents updates. 3. Managing communications is part of the _____ process of the project communication management. A. closing B. executing C. planning D. monitoring and controlling Answer: B Rationale: Managing communications is part of the executing process of the project communication management. 4. As a manager, you want to praise a team member, Phil, for doing a good job on a particular project. However, you know that Phil tends to be an introvert. Which of the following communication methods would Phil be most comfortable with? A. Call Phil in for a private meeting to appreciate his work. B. Call a team meeting to praise Phil for his work on the project. C. Announce Phil’s accomplishment on the company Web site. D. Have top management and the other teams in the company award Phil. Answer: A Rationale: People have different personality traits that often affect their communication preferences. For example, if you want to praise a project team member for doing a good job, most introverts would be more comfortable receiving that praise in private, while most extroverts would like everyone to hear about their good work. 5. Research has indicated that in a face-to-face interaction, _____ percent of information is through body language. A. 58 B. 35 C. 7 D. 75 Answer: A Rationale: Research has indicated that in a face-to-face interaction, 58 percent of communication is through body language, 35 percent is through how the words are said, and a mere 7 percent is through the actual spoken content. 6. Which of the following methods of communication is likely to be most effective for conveying sensitive or important information? A. Short face-to-face meetings B. E-mails C. Telephone conversations D. Reading reports from other team members Answer: A Rationale: Short face-to-face meetings are often more effective than electronic communications, particularly for sensitive information. 7. As the number of people involved in a project _____, the complexity of communications _____. A. increases, decreases B. decreases, increases C. increases, stays constant D. increases, increases Answer: D Rationale: An important aspect of communications is the number of people involved in a project. As the number increases, the complexity of communication increases because there are more channels or pathways through which people can communicate. 8. The formula to determine the number of communication channels is _____, where n is the number of people involved. A. n (n - 1)/2 B. n(n + 1)/2 C. n (n + 1)/n(n - 1) D. n(n - 1)/n(n + 1) Answer: A Rationale: The formula to determine the number of communication channels as the number of people involved in a project increases: number of communication channels = n (n - 1)/2. 9. Using the formula for calculating the number of communication channels, how many channels would two people require? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Answer: A Rationale: The formula to determine the number of communication channels as the number of people involved in a project increases: number of communication channels = n (n - 1)/2. Two people will have one communication channel. 10. Using the formula for calculating the number of communication channels, how many channels would five people require? A. 9 B. 10 C. 11 D. 14 Answer: B Rationale: The formula to determine the number of communication channels as the number of people involved in a project increases: number of communication channels = n (n - 1)/2. Two people will have one communication channel. 11. A team has 10 communication channels between its various members. Using the formula number of communication channels = n (n - 1)/2, where n is the number of people in the team, the team has _____ members. A. 5 B. 3 C. 2 D. 10 Answer: A Rationale: The formula to determine the number of communication channels as the number of people involved in a project increases: number of communication channels = n (n - 1)/2. Two people will have one communication channel. 12. Which of the following is true of a project communications plan? A. The communications plan within an organization does not vary from project to project. B. The communications plan should be part of the overall project management plan. C. The communications plan should never be part of the team contract, but should always be a separate document. D. The communications plan should include project forecasts and other technical information. Answer: B Rationale: Because communication is so important on projects, every project should include a communications management plan—a document that guides project communications. This plan should be part of the overall project management plan. 13. An example of push communication is _____. A. meetings B. video conferencing C. voice mails D. blogs Answer: C Rationale: In push communication, information is sent or pushed to recipients without their request via reports, e-mails, faxes, voice mails, and other means. 14. An example of pull communication is _____. A. meetings B. video conferencing C. voice mails D. blogs Answer: D Rationale: In pull communication, Information is sent to recipients at their request via Web sites, bulletin boards, e-learning, knowledge repositories like blogs, and other means. 15. Which of the following is true of push communication? A. Information is sent only to recipients who request the information. B. This method ensures that the information is understood by recipients. C. Information is sent to recipients without their request. D. This method ensures that the information is received by the recipients. Answer: C Rationale: In push communication, information is sent or pushed to recipients without their request via reports, e-mails, faxes, voice mails, and other means. This method ensures that the information is distributed, but does not ensure that it was received or understood. 16. Which of the following communication methods would be most appropriate for assessing the commitment of project stakeholders? A. Wikis B. E-mail C. Web sites D. Meetings Answer: D Rationale: If you were trying to assess commitment of project stakeholders, a meeting would be the most appropriate medium to use. (A face-to-face meeting would be preferable, but a Web conference, in which participants could see and hear each other, would also qualify as a meeting.) A phone call would be adequate, but the other media would not be appropriate. 17. According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc., a(n) _____ is a medium that is “excellent” for encouraging creative thinking. A. phone call B. e-mail C. meeting D. Web Site Answer: B Rationale: According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc., an e-mail is a medium that is “excellent” for encouraging creative thinking. 18. According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc., a(n) _____ is the most appropriate medium for giving complex instructions. A. phone call B. e-mail C. meeting D. Web Site Answer: C Rationale: According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc., a meeting is the most appropriate medium for giving complex instructions. 19. According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc., a(n) _____ is the most inappropriate medium for addressing negative behavior. A. voice mail B. e-mail C. meeting D. Web Site Answer: C Rationale: According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc., a meeting is the most inappropriate medium for addressing negative behavior. 20. _____ address where the project stands in terms of meeting scope, time, and cost goals. A. Technical reports B. Status reports C. Progress reports D. Lessons-learned reports Answer: B Rationale: Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time. Status reports address where the project stands in terms of meeting scope, time, and cost goals. 21. ____ describe where the project stands at a specific point in time. A. Progress reports B. Status reports C. Forecasts D. Lessons-learned reports Answer: B Rationale: Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time. Status reports address where the project stands in terms of meeting scope, time, and cost goals. 22. ____ describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period. A. Progress reports B. Status reports C. Forecasts D. Lessons-learned reports Answer: A Rationale: Progress reports describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period. 23. ____ predict future project status and progress based on past information and trends. A. Progress reports B. Status reports C. Forecasts D. Project updates Answer: C Rationale: Forecasts predict future project status and progress based on past information and trends. How long will it take to finish the project based on how things are going? How much more money will be needed to complete the project? 24. Which of the following questions is typically addressed by a project forecast? A. How much more money will be needed to complete the project? B. Does the quality of output match our goals? C. Are our clients satisfied with the speed and quality of work on this project? D. How comfortable are employees with the software and technology being used on the project? Answer: A Rationale: Forecasts predict future project status and progress based on past information and trends. How long will it take to finish the project based on how things are going? How much more money will be needed to complete the project? 25. E-mail communication is most suited for: A. assessing commitment to a project. B. building consensus among disputing parties. C. mediating a conflict between multiple parties. D. communicating routine information. Answer: D Rationale: E-mail is not appropriate for assessing commitment, building consensus, mediating a conflict, resolving a misunderstanding, making an ironic statement, conveying a reference document, reinforcing one’s authority, or maintaining confidentiality. The same is true for instant messaging and other electronic communication tools. 26. A(n) _____ is a Web site that enables anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify Web page content. A. intranet B. blog C. forum D. wiki Answer: D Rationale: A wiki is a Web site that enables anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify Web page content. 27. The _____ line for any e-mail messages you write should clearly state the intention of the e-mail. A. to B. from C. subject D. cc Answer: C Rationale: The subject line for any e-mail message you write should clearly state the intention of the e-mail. 28. Which of the following is a guideline that project managers should follow when communicating with their teams through e-mail? A. Always reply to all the people to whom the initial message was sent. B. If the entire message can fit in the subject line, put it there. C. Minimize the total number of e-mails by including as many subjects as possible in a single e-mail. D. Continue replying to e-mail messages without changing the subject line to maintain continuity. Answer: B Rationale: One guideline for e-mail communication is not to continue replying to e-mail messages without changing the subject line. The subject should always relate to the latest correspondence. 29. The items discussed in a(n) _____ include reflections on whether project goals were met, whether the project was successful or not, the causes of variances on the project, the reasoning behind corrective actions chosen, the use of different project management tools and techniques, and personal words of wisdom based on team members’ experiences. A. final project report B. design document C. audit report D. lessons-learned report Answer: D Rationale: Some items discussed in lessons-learned reports include reflections on whether project goals were met, whether the project was successful or not, the causes of variances on the project, the reasoning behind corrective actions chosen, the use of different project management tools and techniques, and personal words of wisdom based on team members’ experiences. 30. _____ are a complete set of organized project records that provide an accurate history of the project. A. Project archives B. Forecasts C. Project plans D. Project notes Answer: A Rationale: Project archives are a complete set of organized project records that provide an accurate history of the project. These archives can provide valuable information for future projects as well. Completion 1. Many experts agree that the greatest threat to the success of any project, especially information technology projects, is a failure to _____. Answer: communicate 2. The outputs of the _____ process are communications management plan and project documents updates. Answer: planning communications management 3. _____ monitoring and controlling project communications to ensure that stakeholder communication needs are met. Answer: Controlling communications 4. _____ can create communication problems; words may have different meanings in different languages. Answer: Language barriers 5. Project managers should try to _____ the size of teams or sub teams to avoid making communications too complex. Answer: limit decrease 6. Many information technology professionals work on _____ projects where they never meet their project sponsors, other team members, or other project stakeholders. Answer: virtual 7. A(n) _____ is a document that guides project communications. Answer: communications management plan 8. A(n) _____ must include suggested methods or technologies for conveying the information. Answer: communications management plan 9. The _____ analysis includes information such as the contact person for the information, when the information is due, and the preferred format for the information. Answer: stakeholder communications 10. _____ communication happens when two or more people to exchange information via meetings, phone calls, or video conferencing. Answer: Interactive 11. While trying to assess commitment of project stakeholders, a(n) _____ meeting or a Web conference might be the most appropriate medium to use. Answer: face-to-face 12. _____ are normally provided as status reports or progress reports. Answer: Performance reports 13. _____ often create consolidated progress reports based on the information received from team members. Answer: Team leaders 14. An important technique for _____ is the status review meeting. Answer: performance reporting 15. The main goal of controlling communications is to ensure the optimal flow of information throughout the entire _____. Answer: project life cycle 16. The main goal of controlling communications is to ensure the optimal flow of information throughout the entire _____. Answer: project life cycle 17. A(n) _____ can be a vehicle for fostering team building and reinforcing expectations, roles, relationships, and commitment to the project. Answer: well-run meeting 18. All meetings must have a(n) _____ and intended outcome. Answer: purpose 19. A(n) _____ forces meeting organizers to plan the meeting and gives potential participants the chance to decide whether they need to attend. Answer: agenda 20. A(n) _____ allows users to create custom Web sites to access documents and applications stored on shared devices. Answer: SharePoint portal 21. Microsoft Office Enterprise Project Management Solution has a(n) _____ tool that provides a centralized and consolidated view of programs and projects. Answer: portfolio management Essay 1. What are the three main processes in project communications management? Briefly describe each process. Answer: Planning communications management involves determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders. Who needs what information? When will they need it? How will the information be given to them? The outputs of this process include a communications management plan and project documents updates. Managing communications involves creating, distributing, storing, retrieving, and disposing of project communications based on the communications management plan. The main outputs of this process are project communications, project documents updates, project management plan updates, and organizational process assets updates. Organizational process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, guidelines, information systems, financial systems, management systems, lessons learned, and historical information. These assets help people understand, follow, and improve business processes in an organization. Controlling communications involves monitoring and controlling project communications to ensure that stakeholder communication needs are met. 2. Describe the concepts of informal methods for distributing information. How do they compare to formal methods for distributing information? Answer: It is not enough for project team members to submit status reports to their project managers and other stakeholders and assume that everyone who needs to know that information will read the reports. Some technical professionals might assume that submitting the appropriate status reports is sufficient because they are introverts and prefer communicating that way. Occasionally, that approach might work, but many people prefer informal communications. 75 percent of the general population are extroverts, so they enjoy talking to other people. Often, many nontechnical professionals—from colleagues to managers—prefer to have a two-way conversation about project information, rather than reading detailed reports, e-mails, or Web pages to try to find pertinent information. Many colleagues and managers want to know the people working on their projects and develop a trusting relationship with them. They use informal discussions about the project to develop these relationships. Therefore, project managers must be good at nurturing relationships through good communication. Many experts believe that the difference between good project managers and excellent project managers is their ability to nurture relationships and use empathic listening skills. Effective creation and distribution of information depends on project managers and project team members having good communication skills. Communicating includes many different dimensions such as writing, speaking, and listening, and project personnel need to use all of these dimensions in their daily routines. In addition, different people respond positively to different levels or types of communication. For example, a project sponsor may prefer to stay informed through informal discussions held once a week over coffee. The project manager needs to be aware of this preference and take advantage of it. The project sponsor will give better feedback about the project during these informal talks than through some other form of communication. Informal conversations allow the project sponsor to exercise a leadership role and provide insights and information that are critical to the success of the project and the organization as a whole. Short face-to-face meetings are often more effective than electronic communications, particularly for sensitive information. 3. How do you determine the number of communications channels? How does the number of people involved in a project affect this value? How can project managers control this value? Answer: An important aspect of information distribution is the number of people involved in a project. As the number of people involved increases, the complexity of communications increases because there are more communications channels or pathways through which people can communicate. There is a simple formula for determining the number of communications channels as the number of people involved in a project increases. You can calculate the number of communications channels as follows: number of communications channels = n(n - 1)/2 where n is the number of people involved. For example, two people have one communications channel: (2(2 – 1))/2 = 1. Three people have three channels: (3(3 – 1))/2 = 3. Four people have six channels, five people have ten, and so on. As the number of people communicating increases above three, the number of communications channels increases rapidly. Project managers should try to limit the size of teams or sub teams to avoid making communications too complex. 4. What is performance reporting? What are some methods used for performance reporting? Answer: Performance reporting keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives. It also motivates workers to have some progress to report. Progress reports can be considered as a super tool —a tool that is extensively used and has been found to improve project performance. Performance reports are normally provided as status reports or progress reports. Many people use the two terms interchangeably, but some people distinguish between them as follows: Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time. Status reports address where the project stands in terms of meeting scope, time, and cost goals. How much money has been spent to date? How long did it take to do certain tasks? Is work being accomplished as planned? Status reports can take various formats depending on the stakeholders’ needs. Progress reports describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period. Many projects have each team member prepare a monthly or sometimes weekly progress report. Team leaders often create consolidated progress reports based on the information received from team members. Forecasts predict future project status and progress based on past information and trends. How long will it take to finish the project based on how things are going? How much more money will be needed to complete the project? Project managers can also use earned value management to answer these questions by estimating the budget at completion and projected completion date based on how the project is progressing. Another important technique for performance reporting is the status review meeting. Status review meetings are a good way to highlight information provided in important project documents, empower people to be accountable for their work, and have face-to-face discussions about important project issues. Many program and project managers hold periodic status review meetings to exchange important project information and motivate people to make progress on their parts of the project. Likewise, many top managers hold monthly or quarterly status review meetings where program and project managers must report overall status information. 5. What are the guidelines for conducting effective meetings? Answer: • Define the purpose and intended outcome of the meeting. Be specific about what should happen as a result of the meeting. Is the purpose to brainstorm ideas, provide status information, or solve a problem? Make the purpose of a meeting very clear to all meeting planners and participants. • Determine who should attend the meeting. Many meetings are most effective with the minimum number of participants possible, especially if decisions must be made. • Provide an agenda to participants before the meeting. Meetings are most effective when the participants come prepared. • Prepare handouts and visual aids, and make logistical arrangements ahead of time. By creating handouts and visual aids, you must organize thoughts and ideas. This usually helps the entire meeting run more effectively. • Run the meeting professionally. Introduce people, restate the purpose of the meeting, and state any ground rules that attendees should follow. • Set the ground rules for the meeting. State up front how the meeting will be run. • Build relationships. Depending on the culture of the organization and project, it may help to build relationships by making meetings fun experiences. Test Bank for Information Technology Project Management Kathy Schwalbe 9781133526858, 9781133627227, 9780324786927, 9781337101356, 9780324665215

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